Glosssary Paints Coatings

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                                         Glossary of Terms - Paints and Coatings

                                                PAINT AND COATINGS                                      Varnish Comparator” or by the APHA color
TOPICS                                                                                                  index.
                                   Acid Value (A.V.):                                                   Determined at various Resin/Modifier non-
• Paint and                                                                                             volatile ratios as listed in the charts.
                                   The measure of the unreacted acid group
  Coatings                         as determined by titration with potassium                            Samples are mixed, poured on clear glass,
  Terminology                      hydroxide solution and reported as                                   dried and observed for both solution and film
                                   milligrams of KOH to neutralize one gram                             clarity. A stronger solvent may be used in
• Coating Types                                                                                         some instances to obtain uniform solutions.
                                   non-volatile of resin sample.
• Resin Types                                                                                           Dope:
                                   Architectural Coatings:
                                   Coatings intended for on-site application                            A composition, usually a cellulosic lacquer,
• Solvent Types
                                   to interior or exterior surfaces of                                  for application on textiles and leathers.
• Classes of                       residential, commercial, institutional or
                                   industrial buildings.                                                Drier:
  Solvents                                                                                              A composition that accelerates the drying of
                                   Baking Finish:                                                       oil paint, printing ink or varnish. Driers are
• Solvent Strength
                                   A paint or varnish that requires baking at                           usually metallic compositions and are
• Solvent                          temperatures above 150°F (65°C) for the                              available in both solid and liquid forms.
  Evaporation                      development of desired properties.
                                                                                                        Drier Recommendations:
                                   Caulking Compound:                                                   Specific drier blends are noted and are
• Solvent Grades
                                   A soft, plastic material, consisting of a                            based as drier metal on resin non-volatile.
• Regulatory                       pigment and vehicle, used for sealing
                                   joints in building and other structures                              Drying Oil:
  Terms                                                                                                 An oil that possesses, to a marked degree,
                                   where normal structural movement may
                                   occur. Caulking compound retains it’s                                the property of readily taking up oxygen from
• BSI’s
                                   plasticity for an extended period after                              the air and changing to a relatively hard,
  Assortment of
                                   application. It is available in forms                                tough, elastic substance when exposed in a
  Products:                                                                                             thin film to the air.
                                   suitable for application by gun and knife or
                                   in extruded preformed shapes.                                        Dry Performance:
    Chemicals                      Coating:                                                             Speed of dry values determined with films
                                   A liquid, liqufiable or mastic composition                           applied on glass with a 2 mil Bird film
                                   that is converted to a solid protective,                             applicator unless noted otherwise. Dry time
• Local Offices                    decorative or functional adherent film after                         values obtained using Gardner Circular Dry
                                   application as a thin layer.                                         Time Records or the “Straight-Line” type of
                                                                                                        instrument. See “States of Drying”.
                                   Determined with the “Gardner 1933

Information presented herein is believed to be accurate and reliable but is not intended to meet any specification and does not imply any guarantee
      or warranty by Brenntag Specialties, Inc. (BSI). For more information and assistance, contact Technical Services at 1-800-732-0562.

        • Brenntag Specialties, Inc. • 1000 Coolidge St. • South Plainfield, NJ 07080 •


Enamel:                                                           Japan:
A paint that is characterized by an ability to form an            A varnish yielding a hard, glossy, dark colored film.
especially smooth film.                                           Japans are usually dried by baking at relatively high
Ester Gum:
A resin made from rosin or rosin acids and a polyhydric           Lacquer:
alcohol, such as glycerine or pentaerythritol.                    A coating composition that is based on synthetic
                                                                  thermoplastic film-forming material dissolved in organic
Filler:                                                           solvent that dries primarily by solvent evaporation.
A pigmented composition for filing the pores or                   Typical lacquers include those based on nitrocellulose,
irregularities in a surface preparatory to application of         other cellulose derivatives, vinyl resins, acrylic resins,
other finishes.                                                   etc.
Fire Retardant Coating:                                           Lake:
A coating that will do one or more of the following.              A special type of pigment consisting essentially of an
  *Reduce the flame spread on the substrate                       organic soluble coloring matter combined more or less
    over which the coating is applied, some-                      definitely with an organic base or carrier. It is
    times at the sacrifice of the coating (see in                 characterized generally by a bright color and a more or
    tumescent coating).                                           less pronounced translucency when made into an oil
  *Resist ignition of the substrate when ex-                      paint.
    posed to high temperature.
  *Insulate the substrate to which the coating                    Mildewstat:
     is applied and thereby prolong the time                      A chemical agent that inhibits the growth of mildew.
     required to reach it’s ignition, melting or
     structural-weakening temperature.                            Naval Stores:
                                                                  Chemically reactive oils, resins, tars and pitches
Flash Point:                                                      derived from the oleoresin contained in, exuded by, or
Tested on either a “Setaflash Tester” or the “Tag                 extracted from trees chiefly of the pine species or from
Closed Cup Flash Tester” (TCC). If not indicated, the             the wood of such trees.
values are determined with the Setaflash unit.
                                                                  Nondrying Oil:
Glaze:                                                            An oil that does not of itself possess to a perceptible
A very thin coating of a paint product usually a semi-            degree, the power to take up oxygen from the air and
transparent coating tinted with Van Dyke brown, burnt             lose it’s liquid characteristics.
sienna or a similar pigment, applied on a previously
painted surface to produce a decorative effect.                   Nonvolatile Vehicle:
                                                                  The liquid portion of a paint excepting it’s volatile
Glazing Compound:                                                 thinner and water
A dough like material consisting of pigment and
vehicle, used for sealing window glass in frames. It              Oil of Turpentine:
differs from putty in that it retains its plasticity for an       The pharmaceutical name for spirits of turpentine
extended period.                                                  which conforms to the requirements of the National
Hydroxy Equivalent Weight (HEW):
The amount of resin (by weight non-volatile) that will            Paint:
crosslink or react with one equivalent weight of                  A classification sometimes employed to distinguish
crosslinker such as isocyanate or melamine                        pigmented drying oil coatings (“paints”) from synthetic
formaldehyde resin.                                               enamels and lacquers.

Intumescent Coating:                                              Percent Non-Volatile (%NV):
A fire-retardant coating, that when heated, forms a               Non-volatile or solids based as percentage of total
foam produced by nonflammable gases, such as                      solution weight. Several different methods of
carbon dioxide and ammonia. This results in a thick,              determination are employed depending upon resin type
highly insulating layer of carbon (about fifty times as           and relative reactivity. Process solids are generally
thick as the original coating) that serves to protect the         determined on a hotplate at 198° C and 10 to 20
coated substrate from the fire.                                   minutes dwell time.


Pigment:                                                          flammable, nonconductive of electricity; breaks with a
The fine solid particles used in the preparation of paint         conchoidal fracture (when hard) and dissolves in
or printing ink and substantially insoluble in the vehicle.       certain specific organic solvents, but not water.
Asphaltic materials are not pigments except when they
contain substances substantially insoluble in the                 Resin, Synthetic:
vehicle in which they are used.                                   A synthetic substance physically similar to natural
                                                                  resin. Includes acrylic, alkyd, ester gum, maleic,
Pine Oil:                                                         melamine, penta, phenolic, styrene, urea and vinyl
A colorless to amber colored volatile oil with                    resin types to name a few.
characteristics pinaceous odor, consisting principally of
isomeric tertiary and secondary cyclic terpene alcohols,          Rosin:
with variable quantities of terpene hydrocarbons,                 A specific kind of natural resin obtained as a vitreous
ethers, keytones, phenols and phenolic ethers, the                water-insoluble material from pine oleoresin by removal
amount and character of which depend on the source                of the volatile oils, or from tall oil by the removal of the
and method of manufacture. The four commercial                    fatty acid components thereof. It consists primarily of
kinds of pine oil are:                                            tricyclic monocarboxylic acids. The three commercial
  *Steam distilled pine oil - obtained from crude oleo-           classifications of rosins are.
   resinous extract of pinewood during the process of                *Gum Rosin - obtained from oleoresin collected from
   related steam-distilled wood naval stores.                         living trees.
  *Destructively distilled pine oil - obtained from the              *Wood Rosin - obtained from the oleoresin
   lighter distillate from the destructive distillation               contained in dead wood such as stumps and knots.
   (carbonization) of pine wood oil.                                 *Tall Oil Rosin - obtained from tall oil.
  *Synthetic pine oil - obtained by chemical hydration
   of terpene hydrocarbons to form the terpene alco-
                                                                  A liquid composition to prevent excessive absorption of
   hols,or by dehydration of terpene hydrate.
                                                                  finish coats into porous surfaces: also a composition to
  *Sulfate pine oil - A high boiling fraction obtained in
                                                                  prevent bleeding (see also “Size”).
   the refining and fractional distillation of the con-
   densed vapors released during the digestion of                 Semidrying Oil:
    wood by the sulfate process.                                  An oil that possesses the characteristics of a drying oil
                                                                  but to a lesser degree. There is no definite line of
Pine Tar Oil:
                                                                  demarcation between drying and semidrying oils.
The oil obtained by condensing the vapors from the
retorts in which resinous pine wood is destructively              Size:
distilled (carbonized).                                           Usually a liquid composition to prevent excessive
                                                                  absorption of all paints into plaster, old wall paint and
                                                                  similar porous surfaces. Also a liquid composition used
A very low volatility substance added to paint, varnish
                                                                  as a first coat on metal to improve adhesion of
or lacquer to impart flexibility.
                                                                  succeeding coats (latter usage is limited to the metal
Primer:                                                           decorating industry). The term “sealer and size” are
The first of two or more coats of paint, varnish or               almost synonymous, but usage has established certain
lacquer system.                                                   differences. A sealer is ordinarily a thin varnish or
                                                                  clear lacquer and is usually applied to wood or metal
Printing Ink:                                                     surfaces. Ordinary painter’s size is a thin solution of
A colored or pigmented liquid or paste composition that           glue, starch or other water-soluble substances and is
dries to a solid film after application as a thin layer by        usually applied on plater surfaces, but size used in
printing machinery.                                               metal decorating is a thin varnish.

Putty:                                                            Solvent Tolerance:
A dough-like material consisting of pigment and                   Milliliters of test solvent necessary to cause turbidity
vehicle, used for sealing glass in frames and for filling         when added to 10 grams of resin solution. See “Test
imperfections in wood or metal surfaces.                          Solvent MST”.

Resin, Natural:                                                   Stain:
A solid organic substance, originated in the secretion of         A penetrating composition that changes the color of a
certain plants or insects, which is thermoplastic,                surface, usually transparent and leaving practically no
                                                                  surface film.


States of Drying:                                                     oils and oleoresinous plants. Structurally, the important
  *Dust Free - Film is considered dust free when the                  terpenes and their derivatives are classified as
   finger, without pressure, may be lightly run over the              monocyclic (dipentene), bicyclic (pinene) and acyclic
   surface without sticking. The surface may be                       (mycrene).
   slightly sticky, but no pronounced marks will be left
   by the finger.                                                     Test Solvent, MST:
 *Tack-Free - Film is considered tack-free when the                   Special standardized solvent blend for used in Mineral
   finger, with slight pressure will not leave a mark.                Spirits Tolerance Determination. Consists of
   The surface shall not be sticky.                                   approximately, by weight.
 *Dry-through - Film cannot be distorted or removed                    *80 - 85% Exempt mineral spirits.
   when the thumb is placed on the horizontal film and                 *15 - 20% Solvesso 100.
   rotated 90° with maximum body weight. No distor-
                                                                      Turpentine, Spirits of:
   tion, loosening, wrinkling or detachment of the film
                                                                      The volatile oil consisting primarily of a number of
   should be evident.
                                                                      terpene hydrocarbons of the general formula C10H16.
 *Dry-hard or To full hardness - The film is difficult
                                                                      Four kinds of turpentine are now recognized.
   to remove with a fingernail and has good resistance
                                                                        *Gum turpentine or gum spirits - obtained by distill-
   to the edge of a knife.
                                                                          ing the crude exuded gum or oleoresin collected
Surfacer:                                                                 from living pine trees.
A pigmented composition for filling minor irregularities                *Steam distilled wood turpentine - obtained from
to obtain a smooth uniform surface preparatory to                         the oleoresin within the wood of pine stumps or
applying finish coats: usually applied over a primer and                  cuttings, either by direct steaming of the
sanded for smoothness.                                                    mechanically disintegrated wood or after solvent
                                                                          extraction of the oleoresin from the wood.
Tall Oil:                                                               *Sulfate wood turpentine - recovered during the
A generic name for a number of products obtained                          conversion of wood to paper pulp by the sulfate
from the manufacture of wood pulp by the alkali                           process. Refined turpentine is the name for a
(sulfate) process or more popularly known as the Kraft                    commercially available grade that is produced by
Process. To provide some distinctions between the                         removing primarily sulfur compounds from sulfate
various products, designations are often applied in                       wood turpentine.
accordance with the process or composition, some of                      *Destructively distilled wood turpentine - obtained
which are crude tall oil, acid refined tall oil, distilled tall           by fractionation of certain oils recovered by
oil, tall oil fatty acids or tall oil rosin.                              condensing the vapors formed during the destruc-
                                                                          tive distillation of pine wood.
Tall Oil Fatty Acids:
The class of products generally containing 90 percent                 Turpentines, Various:
or more fatty acids obtained by fractionation of crude                 *Canada Turpentine - Same as Canada balsam, the
tall oil. The fatty acids are a mixture of C18 fatty acids,              oleoresin obtained from Canadian silver fir trees.
especially oleic and linoleic acids, with lesser amounts               *Sulfite Turpentine - This term is not in good usage,
of saturated and other unsaturated fatty acids.                          because the volatile oil recovered in the conversion
                                                                         of wood to pulp by the sulfite process consists
Tall Oil Rosin:                                                          chiefly of cymene (C10H14) rather than pinene and
Separated from the tall oil heads, fatty acids, and tall oil             other terpenes.
pitch by fractional distillation of tall oil. Such rosin shall          *Venice Turpentine - Same as larch turpentine, the
have the characteristic form, appearance and other                       oleoresin of the European larch tree. The term is
physical and chemical properties normal for other kinds                  also now used widely to describe the clear yellow
of rosin.                                                                liquid portion of pine oleoresin, or a synthetic
                                                                         product of similar composition made by dissolving
Temporary Coating:
                                                                         rosin in a terpene solvent.
A coating designed to protect or decorate a substrate
for a limited time that can be readily removed either by              Thinner:
mechanical or chemical means.                                         The portion of a paint, varnish, lacquer or printing ink or
                                                                      related product that volatizes during the drying process.
A class of unsaturated organic compounds having the                   Tint:
empirical formula C10H16 occurring in most essential                  A color produced by the mixture of white pigment or


paint in predominating amount with a colored pigment                                  COATING TYPES
or paint, not white. The tint of a color is, therefore,
much lighter and less saturated than the color itself.             Air Dry Coating:
                                                                   A coating formulation which dries solely by solvent
                                                                   evaporation without the application of heat.
An organic pigment that does not contain inorganic
pigment or inorganic carrying base.
                                                                   Architectural Coating:
Varnish:                                                           Coatings intended for on-site application to interior or
A liquid composition that is converted to a transparent            exterior surfaces of residential, commercial, institutional
or translucent solid film after application as a thin layer.       or industrial buildings. These finishes are applied at
Some of the most common types are:                                 ambient temperatures and dry without being heated.
  *Bituminous Varnish - A dark-colored varnish                     Also called trade sale coatings.
    containing bituminous ingredients. The varnish may
                                                                   Baking Finish:
    be either of the oil or spirit type.
                                                                   A coating which requires heating at temperatures
  *Oil Varnish - A varnish that contains resin and
                                                                   above 150° F for curing and the development of
    drying oil as the basic film-forming ingredients and
                                                                   desired properties.
    is converted to a solid film primarily by chemical
    reaction.                                                      Coating:
  *Spar Varnish - A varnish for exterior surfaces. The             A generic term for paints, lacquers, enamels, etc. Also
    name originated from it’s use on spars of ships.               a liquid composition which is converted to a solid
  *Spirit Varnish - A varnish that is converted to a               protective, decorative or functional adherent film after
    solid film primarily by solvent evaporation.                   application as a thin layer.
Vehicle:                                                           Enamel:
The liquid portion of a paint or printing ink. Anything            A topcoat which is characterized by it’s ability to form a
that is dissolved in the liquid portion of a paint or              smooth surface. May also be called a thermosetting or
printing ink is a part of the vehicle.                             baking finish.
Viscosity, Virgin:                                                 House Paint:
As supplied measured at 77° F via Gardner Holdt                    A coating designed for use on large exterior surfaces of
viscosity standards unless otherwise noted.                        a building. Generally of lower gloss than the coating
                                                                   used on trim areas. May be either water based or oil
Viscosity, cPa.s:
Viscosity as measured in centiPascal / seconds with
the Rotary Viscometer”, Brookfield or equivalent.                  Lacquer:
                                                                   A coating based on thermoplastic polymer dissolved in
Viscosity, Reduced:
                                                                   organic solvent and which dries primarily by solvent
Resin reduced to specified % n.v. as noted and thinned
                                                                   evaporation. The coating can be redissolved in it’s
with the solvent specified. Measured at 77° F with the
                                                                   original solvent blend. The most common polymers
Gardner Holdt viscosity standards unless otherwise
                                                                   used in lacquers are nitrocellulose, vinyl resins and
                                                                   acrylic resins.
Weight Per Gallon, (WPG):
The weight by volume of virgin resin solution
                                                                   A stable dispersion of a polymer in a continuous liquid
determined with a weight-per-US gallon measuring cup
                                                                   medium, usually water. Prepared by emulsion
at 77° F.
Zinc-Rich Primer:
                                                                   Latex Paint:
A primer for ferrous metals, incorporating zinc dust at a
                                                                   A coating which uses a latex as the principal binder.
concentration sufficient to make the dried film
                                                                   Widely used for interior and exterior house paints.
electrically conductive thus providing cathodic
                                                                   Contains only small amounts of solvents, usually
protection to the ferrous substrate.
                                                                   glycols, glycol ethers and glycol ether esters.

                                                                   Nonaqueous Dispersion (NAD):
                                                                   The solvent analogue of a latex: a dispersion of a
                                                                   polymer in a volatile organic liquid which is not a


solvent for the polymer. Low-solvency aliphatic                    Alkyds:
hydrocarbons are the most commonly used solvents.                  Synthetic resins formed by the condensation of
                                                                   polyhydric alcohols and polybasic acids. They may be
Oil Paint:                                                         regarded as complex esters. The most common
Paint that contains a drying oil as the sole film forming          ingredients are glycerine and phthalic anhydride.
ingredient. Linseed oil is most commonly used for this             Many alkyds also are made with monocarboxylic acids
purpose. Aliphatic hydrocarbons are used in small                  derived from vegetable oils such as soybean oil and
amounts as the solvent.                                            linseed oil. Solvent requirements vary, ranging from
                                                                   strong aromatic hydrocarbons for alkyds which contain
Paint:                                                             small amounts of oil modifiers to low solvency aliphatic
Any pigmented liquid designed for application to a                 hydrocarbons, suitable for alkyd resins which have
substrate in a thin layer which is converted to an                 high concentrations of oil modifiers.
opaque solid film after application. Used for protection,
decoration or identification, or to serve some functional          Chain Stopped Alkyd:
purpose such as the filling or concealing of surface               A very fast drying alkyd that has been modified (chain
irregularities, the modification of light and heat radiation       terminated) with a mono-functional material that
characteristics, etc.                                              imparts lacquer type dry speed with fast hardness
First complete coat of paint applied to a surface.                 Copolymer Alkyd:
Designed to provide adequate adhesion to new                       A drying oil alkyd modified with styrene, vinyl toluene,
surfaces. The type of primer varies with the surface,              reactive silicone or acrylic monomer.
it’s condition, and the total painting system to be used.
                                                                   Epoxy Resins:
Shellac:                                                           Resins which contain epoxy groups (also known as
Orange colored resin which is the secretion of the lac             oxirane rings). Most commonly made from
beetle found in great quantities in India and Indochina.           epichlorohydrin and bisphenol A. Epoxy resins may be
Shellac is ordinarily dissolved in denatured ethyl                 liquid or solid, depending on their molecular weight.
alcohol.                                                           They use mixtures of alcohol, keytones and
                                                                   hydrocarbon solvents.
Thermoplastic Resin:
Resin which remains fluid on heating and hardens                   Nitrocellulose:
when cooled. Remains soluble in the original solvent               A synthetic cellulosic resin prepared by treating
and does not become insoluble upon heating.                        cellulose with a mixture of nitric sulfuric acids. Widely
                                                                   used as a resin for lacquers and as a film-forming
Thermosetting Resin:                                               material for flexographic and gravure inks. Primary
Resin which polymerizes to a permanently solid                     resinous material used in fine furniture finishes.
infusible state upon the application of heat. Once                 Nitrocellulose requires strong solvents. Mixtures of
heated, it will not dissolve in the original solvent blend.        keytones, esters and hydrocarbons are used as
                                                                   solvents, and alcohols are included as latent solvents.
                                                                   Nitrocellulose is also known by the names cellulose
A liquid composition which is converted to a
                                                                   nitrate and pyroxylin.
transparent solid film after application as a thin layer.
Once the film has completely dried, it will no longer              Oil Length:
dissolve in the solvent blend from which it was applied.           Generally refers to the oil content or phthalic anhydride
                                                                   content of an alkyd polymer.
                                                                     *Short Oil - generally contains from 40 to 50 percent
                     RESIN TYPES                                      phthalic anhydride.
                                                                     *Medium Oil - contains from 30 to 40 percent
Acrylics:                                                             phthalic anhydride.
Resins made from the polymerization of esters of                     *Long Oil - contains from 20 to 30 percent phthalic
acrylic and methacrylic acids. Most acrylics require                  anhydride.
strong solvents, although some may be formulated
using aromatic hydrocarbons without oxygenated                     Polyester Resins:
solvents.                                                          A special type of alkyd resin, prepared from
                                                                   dicarboxylic acids and dihydroxy alcohols. Commonly


copolymerized with styrene resin employing peroxide              More aromatic hydrocarbon will be tolerated than
initiators. Widely used in fiberglass reinforced plastics        aliphatic hydrocarbon before resin precipitation occurs.
in boats, chemically resistant structures and
transportation applications.                                     Dissolution:
                                                                 The process of forming a solution, in which the resin
Urethane Resins:                                                 dissolves in the solvent.
Materials based on isocyanate monomer reacted with
other materials to yield polymers containing any ratio of        EGMBE:
urethane linkages, active isocyanate groups or                   Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether. (butyl Cellosolve®).
polyisocyanate monomer. The resin may contain
excess isocyanate groups available for further reaction          Exempt Blend:
at the time of application or may contain essentially no         A solvent blend that complies with Rule 66 or Rule
free isocyanate as supplied.                                     2.62 air pollution regulations.

Vinyl Resins:                                                    iso-BuOAc:
Resins based on vinyl chloride monomer. Most                     iso-butyl acetate.
frequently copolymerized with other monomers such as
vinyl acetate. Most vinyl resins require very strong             iso-BuOH:
solvents, such as keytones, to form useful solutions.            is-butyl alcohol.

                                                                 Latent Solvent:
                                                                 A solvent which is not a true solvent for the material
                   SOLVENT TYPES                                 being dissolved, but which will act as a solvent in the
                                                                 presence of an active solvent. Alcohols are the most
Active Solvent:                                                  common latent solvents.
A solvent which by itself, will dissolve a resin.
Base Solvent:                                                    methyl n-amyl ketone.
The solvent blend which is used in the preparation of a
coating for dissolving the resin and dispersing the              MPK:
pigments.                                                        methyl propyl ketone.
Building Block:                                                  n-BuOAc:
A relatively narrow boiling range hydrocarbon which              normal butyl acetate.
may be combined with other narrow range
hydrocarbons to form a multitude of blends precisely             n-BuOH:
formulated to meet specific requirements. The building           normal butyl alcohol.
block approach employs cuts which are predominately
aromatic or predominately aliphatic in nature. The
                                                                 A liquid, usually volatile, which is used in the
boiling range varies from very low boiling petroleum
                                                                 manufacture of coatings to dissolve or disperse the
ether type solvents to kerosene type materials.
                                                                 film-forming constituents, and which evaporates during
Cosolvent:                                                       drying and does not become a part of the dried film.
A blend of two or more solvents, neither of which will           Solvents are used to control the viscosity and character
dissolve the resin by itself, but which will act as a true       of the finish and to regulate application properties.
solvent for the material when used together. Each
cosolvent must evaporate at about the same rate,
                                                                 A blend of solvents used to lower the viscosity of the
otherwise resin precipitation will occur as drying
                                                                 coating prior to application. The amount of thinner
                                                                 used will depend upon the coating and the method of
Diluent:                                                         application. Thinners usually contain more
A solvent which will not dissolve the resin of interest.         hydrocarbon and less active solvent than base
Normally used to dilute active solvent mixes to lower            solvents do.
the cost of the solvent blend without sacrificing
performance. Hydrocarbons are the most common
diluents. Active solvent mixtures differ in their
tolerance for diluents before the resin precipitates.


             CLASSES OF SOLVENTS                              Nitroparaffins:
                                                              Characterized by the presence of a nitro group.
Oxygenated Solvents:
General designation of those solvents which contain
oxygen in addition to carbon and hydrogen in the                               SOLVENT STRENGTH
molecular. Oxygenated Solvents or “Oxys” may be
divided into several chemical types.                          Aniline Cloud Point:
  *Ketones - A class of active, strong solvents               A measure of solvent strength, used for aliphatic
   characterized by a carbonyl group. Trade names             hydrocarbon solvents only. The Aniline Cloud Point is
   include acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl               defined as the minimum temperature at which a 1/1 by
   isobutyl ketone and                                        volume mixture of hydrocarbon and pure aniline are
   diacetone alcohol ketones.                                 miscible with each other. The Aniline Cloud Point is
  *Esters - A class of active solvents formed from            also known as Aniline Point and Aniline Number. The
   organic acids and alcohols by the elimination of           standard test method is ASTM D-611.
  *Alcohols - Latent solvents for many materials.             Fractional Polarity:
   Characterized by the presence of a Hydroxyl (-OH)          A measure of the polar character of a solvent. Values
   group. Capable of strong hydrogen bonding. Trade           range between zero and one, the higher the value, the
   names include isopropyl alcohol, n-butyl alcohol,          more polar the solvent. Hydrocarbons have very low
   isobutyl alcohol, secondary butyl alcohol, methyl          polarity, while oxygenated solvents have higher
   isobutyl carbinol and 2-ethyl hexanol.                     polarity.
  *Glycol Ethers - Prepared from alcohols and
   ethylene or propylene oxide. Glycol ethers contain         Hydrogen Bonding Index:
   both ether groups and hydroxyl groups, thereby             Measure the strength of the hydrogen bonding that
   possessing the characteristics of both. Trade              occurs in a solvent. Hydrogen bonding values range
   names include butyl ether of ethylene glycol and           from -18 to +15. Hydrocarbons display little hydrogen
   the butyl ether of diethylene glycol.                      bonding ability, alcohols are strong hydrogen binders,
                                                              and other solvents are intermediate between these two
Hydrocarbon Solvent Types:                                    extremes. While there are different systems for
Compounds composed exclusively of hydrogen and                measuring hydrogen bonding capability, the Shell
carbon atoms. There are several types of hydrocarbon          system is based on infrared analysis of the solvent.
  *Olefins - Characterized by unsaturation. Relatively        Kauri-Butanol Value:
   reactive, used as a raw material for manufacturing         A measure of solvent strength, used for hydrocarbon
   many solvents. Not used in hydrocarbon solvent             solvents only. A solution of Kauri gum in n-butyl
   directly, although traces of olefins may be found in       alcohol is titrated to a specified degree of turbidity with
   some hydrocarbon solvents.                                 the hydrocarbon solvent being tested. Values range
  *Paraffins - Completely saturated hydrocarbons              from 20+ to 105. The higher values denote stronger
   characterized by a chain structure. Poorest                hydrocarbon solvency. Typical aliphatic hydrocarbons
   solvency of the hydrocarbon solvents. Lowest odor.         have KB Values between 28 and 40, while aromatic
  *Naphthenes - Completely saturated hydrocarbons             hydrocarbons have KB Values above 70. The
   characterized by ring structures. Intermediate             standard test method is ASTM Method D-1133
   solvency between paraffin and aromatic
   hydrocarbons. Intermediate odor. Also known as             Mixed Aniline Cloud Point:
   cycloparaffins.                                            A measure for solvent strength, used for aromatic
  *Aromatics - Characterized by unsaturated, six              hydrocarbon solvents only. The same equipment is
   carbon benzene ring structures. Hydrocarbon                used as for the Aniline Cloud Point employed for
   solvents which contain more that 50% aromatic              aliphatic hydrocarbon solvents, except that the
   compounds are designatd as aromatic hydrocarbon            aromatic hydrocarbon solvent is diluted with an equal
   solvents. Strongest of                                     volume of pure n-heptane before mixing with aniline.
   the hydrocarbon solvents. Strongest odor.                  The standard test method is ASTM D-611.

Chlorinated Hydrocarbons:                                     Solubility Parameter:
Characterized by the presence of chlorine.                    A measure of solvency whose major usefulness lies in
                                                              predicting whether a particular solvent will dissolve a
                                                              particular resin. Based on heat of vaporization of the


solvent. Stronger solvents generally have higher               pressure of the liquid in the gas phase is equal to the
solubility parameter values.                                   pressure of the liquid at that temperature. The vapor
                                                               pressure of a solvent is a fundamental thermodynamic
Solvent Power:                                                 property controlling volatility, evaporation and
A general term denoting the ability of a solvent to            distillation. A solvent with a higher vapor pressure at a
dissolve resin or binder and hold it in solution. Also         given temperature will evaporate faster and distill at a
known as solvency.                                             lower temperature.

              SOLVENT EVAPORATION                              The tendency of a substance to evaporate.

The length of time required for 90% of the weight of the                        SOLVENT GRADES:
solvent to evaporate at standard conditions. Another
convenient way to compare the evaporation rates of             Electronic Grade:
solvents. The standard test method is ASTM Method              Electronic industry solvent specifications are concerned
D-3539, the Shell Thin Film EvaporOmeter. In that test         mostly with metals content, especially heavy metals
method, a measured volume of solvent is dispensed              and particulate matter content. Most solvents will meet
onto a piece of filter paper. The weight is recorded           those specifications as produced. However,
automatically, then the evaporation rate is calculated         contamination during shipping and handling can occur
using a computer program.                                      very easily, rendering the solvent unsuitable. Since
                                                               dust is everywhere, careful filtration is needed at the
Distillation Range:                                            point of use in the electronics plant.
The temperature range over which a mixture of liquids
will distill. The range is narrow for most oxygenated          National Formulary (NF) Grade:
solvents, because they are essentially pure chemical           Standards for certain pharmaceuticals and reagents
compounds. Hydrocarbon materials have wider                    published by the American Pharmaceutical
distillation ranges, some quite wide. ASTM Method D-           Association. Recognized as official standards by the
86 is used for hydrocarbon solvents, D-828 for                 Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906. Since 1974, the
oxygenated solvents.                                           National Formulary has been combined with the United
                                                               States Pharmacopeia (USP).
Flash Point:
The lowest temperature at which a liquid gives off             United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Grade:
sufficient vapor to form an ignitable mixture with air.        A legally recognized compendium of standards for
This concentration is also known as the Lower                  drugs, published by The United States Pharmacopeial
Flammability Limit. The two most widely used test              Convention, Inc., and revised periodically. It also
methods are Tagliabue Closed Cup (TCC), ASTM Test              includes assays and tests for the determination of
Method D-56, and the Setaflash tester, ASTM Test               strength, quality and purity. The USP lists
Method D-3828. Any solvent which has a flash point             specifications for a number of solvents used in the
below 141° F is designated “Red Label” and must have           pharmaceutical industry. Specifications covering
a specific warning sticker attached.                           specific gravity, distillation range, residue on
                                                               evaporation and acidity are the most common. For
Relative Evaporation Rate:                                     materials for which a USP standard has not been
The evaporation rate of a solvent compared to a                established, the ACS Reagent grade is frequently
standard, usually n-butyl acetate, with the rate of n-         specified. The American Chemical Society standards
butyl acetate set equal to 1.00. Solvents which                are published in ACS Reagent Chemicals.
evaporate faster than n-butyl acetate have a relative
evaporation rate greater than one. Those which                 Urethane Grade:
evaporate more slowly have a relative evaporation rate         Urethane grade solvents are needed for use with
of less than one.                                              urethane formulations. Any substance which contains
                                                               active hydrocarbons capable of reacting with
Vapor Pressure:                                                isocyanates will be restricted to very low levels.
The pressure exerted when a liquid is in equilibrium           Specifications for urethane grade solvents typically
with its own vapor. A liquid, enclosed in a given space        center on very low water and alcohol contents, typically
at a given temperature, will evaporate until the               0.1% or less. Glycol ethers also contain active
                                                               hydrocarbons and are not suitable for use in urethanes.


Historically, esters have contained significant amounts           reviews of data on carcinogenicity for agents to which
of alcohol. More recently, alcohol free grades of esters          human beings are known to be exposed.
have been produced with the designation “Urethane
Grade”. The usual quality grades of hydrocarbons and              CAS Number:
ketones ordinarily are suitable for urethanes, even               Chemical Abstracts Service identification number
though they may not be designated specifically as                 assigned to a chemical or mixture by the American
urethane grade.                                                   Chemical Society. The CAS number is recognized and
                                                                  used throughout the world by scientific and regulatory
                REGULATORY TERMS                                  CERCLA:
                                                                  Comprehensive Environmental Response,
33/50 Initiative (Air Toxics Initiative):                         Compensation and Liability Act of 1980. Also known
A voluntary EPA program, in which over 500                        as Superfund, this act has been extended and
companies were asked to reduce emissions of                       amended by SARA. Administered by EPA, the act
seventeen compounds at a faster rate than would                   regulates clean-up and liability for hazardous waste
occur under the Air Toxics provisions of the Clean Air            sites, and also establishes reporting requirements for
Act Amendments. The objective is 33% reduction by                 releases into the environment of EPCRA listed
the end of 1992 compared to 1988 emission levels,                 chemicals.
and 50% by the end of 1995.
                                                                  Chemical Drug Trafficing Act (CDTA):
Alternative Control Techniques (ACT’s):                           As part of attempts to control illicit drug manufacture
Refers to guidance to be developed by the EPA for                 and distribution, the sale and shipment of some
VOC and NOx sources of 25 tons per year or more.                  designated chemicals are monitored. This Federal law
                                                                  tracks the sale and shipping of two classes of
American Conference of Government and
                                                                  substances employed in the production of illicit drugs:
  Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH):
                                                                  Precursor substances, and essential substances.
The body empowered to develop the Threshold Limit
                                                                  Precursors become part of the drug molecule itself,
Values (TLV’s) which govern permissible worker
                                                                  while essential substances are needed for drug
exposure. Located in Cincinnati, OH, they publish a
                                                                  processing. Acetone, methyl ethyl ketone and toluene
summary booklet of TLV’s in addition to a summary of
                                                                  are designated as essential substances and could be
the information used to decide the TLV for a specific
                                                                  used as recrystallization solvents in cocaine
                                                                  manufacture. Sellers must validate the identity of
Area Source:                                                      purchasers of those solvents and file specific
Any stationary source of hazardous air pollutants that            paperwork for each export shipment.
is not a major source, to be regulated under a different
provision of the Clean Air Act Amendments.                        Clean Air Act:
                                                                  The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 require EPA to
Best Available Control Technology (BACT):                         issue approximately 400 new regulations and an untold
Technology required on new major sources and major                number of guidelines and policy statements ranging
modifications subject to PSD requirements, which                  from acid rain, protection of the stratospheric ozone
reflect the best controls in use taking into account costs        layer, and permits. Under Section 112, National
and other non-air quality factors.                                Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants
                                                                  (NESHAP’s), the EPA must establish a list of
California Air Resources Board (CARB):                            hazardous air pollutants (HAP’s), a list of HAP
The air pollution control agency for the state of                 emission source categories and establish standards
California.                                                       based on maximum achievable control technology
                                                                  (MACT) for each major source category.
The Registry of Toxics Effects of Chemical Substances             Control Technique Guidelines (CTG’s):
(RTECS), published by NIOSH, indicates whether a                  Guidance documents developed by EPA to advise
chemical has been fund by the United Nations                      status of controls that must be required as RACT in
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)                ozone nonattainment areas. The CTG’s will be
or the National Toxicology Program (NTP) to be a                  expanded and revised under provisions of the Clean
carcinogen or a potential carcinogen. IARC has                    Air Act Amendments.
published approximately 47 monographs or critical


Federal Implementation Plans (FIP’s):                           (secondary standards). The six pollutants are carbon
Plans that the Federal EPA must promulgate and                  monoxide, oxides
enforce, if states fail to develop approvable SIP’s.            of nitrogen, ozone, sulfur dioxide, lead and particulate
Flash Point:
The temperature at which a liquid will give off enough          National Emission Standards for Hazardous
flammable vapor to ignite when a tease flame is                   Air Pollutants (NESHAP’s):
passed through the vapor space. Many safety                     A program established to regulate hazardous air
regulations contain provisions which are based on the           pollutants. Sets MACT standards and requires a
flash point temperature.                                        second round of residual risk standards.

Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP’s):                               National Fire Protection Association (NFPA):
A list of 188 compounds and classes of compounds in             The NFPA develops, publishes and disseminates
the Clean Air Act Amendments which are singled out              standards, prepared by approximately 250 technical
for special emission reduction measures.                        committees, intended to minimize the possibility and
                                                                effects of fire and explosion. NFPA publish the
HM-181:                                                         National Fire Codes annually, a compilation of over
A federal regulation governing the labeling and                 270 fire codes, standards, recommended practices,
shipping of flammable and combustible substances.               manuals and guides on fire protection. NFPA section
For shipping purposes, the division between a                   30 governs the handling and use of flammable and
flammable substance and a combustible substance is              combustible liquids.
now 141° F, rather than 100° F. This conforms United
States regulations to international regulations.                New Source Performance Standards (NSPS’s):
                                                                Source specific emissions standards set for new and
HM-183:                                                         modified sources.
A federal regulation governing the selection of the
proper shipping container for materials shipped in              New Source Review (NSR):
barges, tank cars and tank trucks. The vapor pressure           A program for pre-construction review of new major
and weight per gallon at 115° F, which must be                  sources and major modifications under PSD
provided for each substance, governs the validation of          nonattainment requirements.
a particular container for the intended use.
Lowest Achievable Emission Rate (LAER):                         A program established requiring controls necessary to
The degree of emissions control required on new                 attain the National Air Quality Standards in areas
major sources and major modifications in                        currently not meeting them.
nonattainment areas. The technology must be the
best in use or most stringent in any SIP and cost is not        Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
taken into account.                                             The PEL is established by the Department of Labor
                                                                through the Occupational Health and Safety
Major Source:                                                   Administration. Each represents the maximum worker
Any stationary source which has emissions exceeding             exposure allowed for a substance over and eight hour
the threshold level for a particular pollutant. The             day. While both TLV and PEL values have been
specific emissions level that defines a major source            established for many substances, they are not
depends upon the pollutant and the degree of pollution          necessarily the same. The TLV’s are examined and
in the nonattainment area.                                      modified more frequently than the PEL values.
                                                                Consequently, in many cases, the TLV represents a
Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT):                   more recent evaluation of the hazards associated with
Technology to be established for major sources of 188           worker exposure to a substance.
listed hazardous air pollutants. MACT must reflect the
maximum degree of reduction available, taking into              Photochemically Reactive:
account costs and other factors.                                Any solvent which exceeds the levels permitted in any
                                                                of three restricted categories, or in sum, is designated
National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS’s):               “Photochemically Reactive”. Olefins are in category
Standards for maximum allowable concentration of six            one, and may not exceed 5% by volume. Category ll
air pollutants in ambient air set by the EPA to protect         contains C8 + aromatics, excluding ethylbenzene, and
public health with an adequate margin of safety                 may not exceed 8%. Category lll contains toluene,
(primary standards) and to protect the environment              ethylbenzene, branched ketones and trichlorethylene,


and the limit is 20%. In addition, the sum of all three         SARA Title lll:
categories may not exceed 20% by volume. The rule,              The main requirements for Title lll (the Emergency
known originally as Rule 66 was promulgated in 1967             Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act) of the
in Los Angeles, CA, and is roughly based on smog                Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act
chamber testing. Aromatics and branched ketones                 (SARA) involve sections governing Extremely
have been strongly affected by the Rule 66 approach.            Hazardous Substances, CERCLA hazardous
This definition is now contained in Rule 102 of the             substances, the Toxic Release Inventory and MSDS
South Coast Air Quality Management District. The                categories.
photochemically reactivity concept has been largely               *SARA Section 302 - Threshold planning quantity of
supplanted by the VOC concept in regulations.                      Extremely Hazardous Substance for emergence
                                                                   and notification.
Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD):                    *SARA Section 304 - This section lists the CERCLA
A program established to preserve air quality in areas             hazardous substance subject to emergency release
already meeting the NAAQS.                                         notification.
                                                                  *SARA Section 311/312 - Delineates health and
Proposition 65:
                                                                   physical hazard categories for MSDS Reporting.
Formerly known as the California Safe drinking Water
                                                                  *SARA Section 313 - The Toxics Release Inventory
and Toxic Enforcement Act, the act was voted in by
                                                                   (TRI). Facilities that handle chemicals designated in
California voters through the initiative process. The
                                                                   the TRI must complete a toxic chemical release
state establishes two lists, one of which contains
                                                                   form annually detailing releases during the
compounds known to the state to cause cancer, while
                                                                   preceding calendar year. These releases may be
the other list contains compounds known to be
                                                                   allowed under air or water permits, may be spills of
fetotoxic. Labeling requirements were established to
                                                                   waste or product
assure that anyone potentially exposed to compounds
                                                                   materials or may be fugitive emissions. The
on the list is notified. Since an advisory committee
                                                                   reporting threshold for 1989 and thereafter is 25,000
periodically reviews the lists and adds compounds, the
                                                                   pounds. A de minimis limit applies to toxic
list is always changing.
                                                                   chemicals present in concentrations below 1%, or
The Resource Conservation Recovery                                 0.1% if the chemical is a
  Act of 1976 (RCRA):                                              carcinogen. The TRI is placed in a database open
Administered by the EPA, the act regulates the                     to the public. Environmental groups use TRI
activities of generators, transporters and those who               information to put pressure on industrial firms to
treat, store or dispose of hazardous wastes, and                   reduce their emissions.
provides “cradle to grave” authority to control
                                                                South Coast Air Quality Management
hazardous wastes from their generation to their
                                                                  District (SCAQMD):
ultimate disposal. RCRA regulations establish criteria
                                                                The air pollution control body established in Southern
to identify which wastes are hazardous and in what
                                                                California. SCAQMD governs air pollution control
quantities, concentrations, forms of disposal,
                                                                efforts in Los Angeles County, Orange County,
monitoring hazardous waste sites and regulating
                                                                Riverside County and San Bernardino County.
underground storage tanks.
                                                                State Implementation Plans (SIP’s):
Reasonability Available Control
                                                                Plans that each state must develop to provide for
  Technology (RACT):
                                                                attainment and maintenance of the NAAQS’s.
Technology required to be installed on existing major
sources in attainment areas. RACT reflects controls             Theshold Limit Value (TLV):
EPA has identified in CTG’s or other guidance.                  The American Conference of Governmental and
                                                                Industrial Hygienists reviewed several hundred existing
                                                                chemicals in order to provide industrial hygienists with
OSHA enacted the Hazard Communication Standard
                                                                an evaluation of health hazards in the workplace. The
in 1985 to mandate occupational hazard
                                                                TLV is the limit believed by the ACGIH to which nearly
communications to employees. Both state and local
                                                                all workers may be repeatedly exposed day after day
laws pertaining to this subject are preempted by federal
                                                                without adverse affects. The airborne concentration is
standard, unless a federally approved state plan is in
                                                                expressed as TLV/TWA or TLV/STEL (Short Term
                                                                Exposure Limit).


Volatile Organic Compounds. (VOC’s):                          • Iron Oxide Pigments
Pollutants the react photochemically in sunlight with                -Primers
NOx to produce ozone. While VOC’s are not                            -Machine Coatings
necessarily pollutants themselves, reducing VOC                      -Specialized Epoxy Finishes
emission is the principle technique for attaining the                -Aqueous and Inorganic Inks
ozone NAAQS.
                                                              • Manganese Violet Pigments
                                                                    -Artists’ Colors
        BSI’S ASSORTMENT OF PRODUCTS                                -Crayons and Inks
                                                                • Organic Pigments - (Red, Yellow,
                                                                  Blue, Green)
MINERALS:                                                            -OEM General Industrial
                                                                     -Light Fast
 • Barytes - (Barium Sulfate)                                        -Bleed Resistant
       -Corrosion Resistance
                                                              • Titanium Dioxides
 • Bentonites / attapulgite Clays                                    -White Pigment
       -Thickening Agents
       -Suspending Agents                                     • Ultramarine Pigments - (Blue,
                                                                Violet, Pink)
 • Blanc Fixe - (Precipitated Barium Sulfate)                        -Artists’ Colors
       -Smudge Resistance                                            -Crayons and Inks
       -Gloss Emulsion

 • Calcium Carbonates
        -Rust Inhibitors
        -Masonry Waterproofing
                                                              • Barium Sulfate - (Precipitated)
                                                                     -Weather / Chemical Resistance
 • Calcium Sulfates
                                                                     -Surface Hardness
        -Pigment Extenders
                                                                     -Color Stability
 • Micas
                                                                     -High Gloss
        -Film Formation Enhancers
                                                                     -Powder Coatings
        -Waterproofing Agents
        -Improved Permeability
                                                              •Hydrated Aluminas
                                                                    -Titanium Dioxide Extenders
 • Diatomaceous Earth
                                                                    -Hi-Solids Coating
        -Flatting Agents
                                                                    -Color Enhancers
 • Talcs - (Magnesium Silicates)
        -Viscosity Control
                                                             •Magnesium Oxides / Hydroxides
        -Suspension Agents
                                                                   -pH Adjustment
        -Chalking Control
                                                                   -Color Development
        -Flatting Agents
                                                                   -Bodying Agents
COLORS:                                                       •Stearates
 • Cadmium Pigments - (Yellow, Orange                               -Suspension Agents
   Red, Maroon)                                                     -Flatting Agents
       -Artists’ Colors
       -Crayons and Inks                                     •Specialty Additives
                                                                     -Pigment Dispersion
 • Chromium Oxide Greens                                             -Flow Agents
       -UV and Heat Stable                                           -Anti-Mar and Slip
       -Acid and Alkali Resistant                                    -Surface Tension Modifiers


       -Defoamers                                                            LOCAL OFFICES
       -Anti-Flood / Anti-Float
       -Stain Vehicles                                       NORTHEAST:
       -Misc. Additives                                      1000 Coolidge St.
                                                             South Plainfield, NJ 07080
 • Waxes                                                     800-732-0562 (Phone)
       -Printing Ink Tackifiers                              800-543-1481 (Fax - Orders)
       -Food Grade Inks                                      800-833-8139 (Fax - General)
       -Paint Removers                                       908-757-3488 (Fax - Overseas)
       -Varnishes and Lacquers
       -Anti-Fouling Agents                                  5700 TACONY STREET
                                                             PHILADELPHIA, PA 19135
 • Zinc Sulfide                                              800-423-7423 (Phone)
        -Highly Pigmented Coatings                           800-864-9824 (Fax)
        -Undercoats, Primers
        -Marking Paints
        -Powder Coatings
                                                             6525 The Corners Parkway
                                                             Suite 208
                                                             Norcross, GA 30092
RESINS:                                                      800-833-8142 (Phone)
                                                             800-833-8143 (Fax)
 • Polymers
       -Acrylics                                             MIDWEST / CANADA:
       -Polyesters                                           24119 W. Riverwalk Court
       -Other Specialty Polymers                             Suite 115
                                                             Plainfield, IL 60544
 • Technologies                                              800-833-8140 (Phone)
       -Conventional                                         800-833-8141 (Fax)
       -High Solids
       -Water-Borne                                          WEST:
                                                             25301 Cabot Rd.
 • End Uses                                                  Suite 105
       -Aerospace Coatings                                   Laguna Hills, CA 92653
       -Car Refinish                                         800-843-1935 (Phone)
       -Coil Coatings                                        800-325-1794 (Fax)
       -Container Coatings
       -General Industrial (Metal, Plastic, Wood)            SOUTHWEST / MEXICO:
       -Architectural Coating                                15710 J.F.K. Blvd.
       -OEM Coatings                                         Suite 260
                                                             Houston, TX 77032
                                                             800-627-2436 (Phone)
                                                             281-590-6868 (Fax)

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