Early History & Early Civilizations Time Periods • 500 thousand BC Paleolithic “old stone age” • 60 thousand BC Mesolithic “middle stone age” • 10-3 thousand BC Neolithic “new stone age” • 2800-2500 BC Bronze Age Hominids • Hominids were small monkey like humans that could walk on two legs (bi-pedal) but still preferred “knuckle walking” • They made stone tools, rocks for crushing fruits. • Their diet was mainly fruits, some vegetables and small animals • They lived about 2 million years ago. Australopithecus • Small monkey like creatures, that walked more upright. • They hunted larger animals which means that communication was developed. • These people were highly nomadic and followed the herds of animals. • These people lived about 1 million years ago. Neanderthal • Neanderthal lived in the last ice age which ( 30 to 100 k )years ago. • Had thick eyebrow ridges and large nose & jaw. • Made stone tools, lived in caves, wore clothes, and cooked food Neanderthal cont’d • Evidence suggests that Neanderthal man cared for the sick and buried their dead with prized possessions. Cro-Magnon man • This is modern man. • Cro-Magnon made better tools. 1. Spear 2. fishing hook • He also made dugout canoes, domesticated dogs, & crops • Cro-Magnon was the first to draw on cave walls, this is the evidence that showed that they successfully hunted larger animals like mammoths. 60 thousand BC Mesolithic “middle stone age” • During the Mesolithic age, people began to domesticate plants and animals, they also made bow and arrows which make them better hunters. 10-3 thousand BC Neolithic “new stone age” • Better polished tools were made, axe, saws, and wedge. The people were less nomadic and villages developed due to – Domestication of animals – Development of agriculture – Division of labor started – development of the calendar Man spreads to the Americas • Towards the end of the last of the four great ice ages, a land bridge connected Asia with North America, people crossed in search of food. • When the ice retreated, they were trapped and descended into what are now Native Americans Egyptians 6000 BC • In North Africa the Egyptians settled along the Nile river for its waters and its annual flooding, vital to farmers along with the fertile silt deposits. • Egypt's geographical location was good because natural barriers like the Mediterranean Sea, and the Sahara Desert discouraged potential invaders. • Hieroglyphics (Greek for “sacred carvings” 600 symbols made up the Hieroglyphics and this eventually gave way to an alphabet. • They made their own paper called “papyrus” • They were “polytheistic” which meant that they believed in many gods Did you know….?? Each stone block was exactly cut and weighed 2 tons One of Egypt's most recognized features are the pyramids like these at Giza. Some were burial chambers for dead kings. Other architectural accomplishments are the sphinx which were half man and half lion. Belief in many gods • Anibus was the god who oversaw the mummification process. • It was half man and half jackal. •Osirus Egyptian god of the dead. •You told him your life story then he balanced your account with the feather of truth. •You either joined the sun god Ra or you went to a place where “the eater of the dead devoured your soul. Egypt still continued • Egyptian doctors perfected preserving bodies (mummies) and were known to have preformed minor surgeries and set fractured bones. • Many Egyptian procedures were copied by the Romans as they eventually conquered the Egyptians. Decline and fall of Egypt 1. Series of invasions from the Mediterranean 2. Civil War 3. Alexander the Great 4. Roman invasion These are the main reasons that Egypt fell, many think that the fall began with the rule of Rameses II Sumerian Civilization Bronze Age 2800 BC • The technology that developed in the area of Sumer had mixed tin and copper to create bronze. • Bronze is much harder than copper, therefore it was used for spearheads and other tools. Sumerians • The Sumerians built the first civilization in the middle east in the fertile crescent. Mesopotamia as it is called means land between rivers. • The Sumerians established what became known as the “city state”. Each city had its own government, rulers, gods etc. Accomplishments of the Sumerians • Ziggurats were temples, of the Sumerian gods and goddesses. • The Sumerians were polytheistic, ( believed in many gods) • Cuneiform was the Sumerian writing which was done on clay tablets which dried in the sun Cuneiform writing of the Sumerians The Babylonians 1792 BC • Hammurabi came to power in Babylon • Came up with a strict set of laws and punishments known as the “Code of Hammurabi” • This code contained 282 laws and punishments which controlled Babylonian life Nebuchadnezzar one of Babylonia’s Kings after Hammurabi Hanging gardens of Babylon, these were constructed by Nebuchadnezzar for his wife More on Babylonians • Babylonian women had few privileges but laws did protect their rights and property • The chief god of the city was Marduk and citizens would make sacrifices to him for good crops and lots of business. • Priests had a lot of power and claimed they could use spells against evil and also claimed to be able to predict the future. Marduk is depicted as having four eyes. Marduk was the Babylonian sun god, creator of Earth and humans.