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Early History _ Early Civilizations

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Early History _ Early Civilizations Powered By Docstoc
					Early History & Early
    Civilizations
                Time Periods
• 500 thousand BC Paleolithic “old stone age”

• 60 thousand BC Mesolithic “middle stone age”

• 10-3 thousand BC Neolithic “new stone age”

• 2800-2500 BC Bronze Age
                   Hominids
• Hominids were small monkey like humans that could walk
  on two legs (bi-pedal) but still preferred “knuckle
  walking”
• They made stone tools, rocks for crushing fruits.
• Their diet was mainly fruits, some vegetables and small
  animals
• They lived about 2 million years ago.
                 Australopithecus
• Small monkey like creatures,
  that walked more upright.

• They hunted larger animals
  which means that
  communication was developed.

• These people were highly
  nomadic and followed the herds
  of animals.

• These people lived about 1
  million years ago.
       Neanderthal
• Neanderthal lived in the
  last ice age which ( 30 to
  100 k )years ago.

• Had thick eyebrow ridges
  and large nose & jaw.

• Made stone tools, lived in
  caves, wore clothes, and
  cooked food
            Neanderthal cont’d

• Evidence suggests
  that Neanderthal
  man cared for the
  sick and buried
  their dead with
  prized possessions.
    Cro-Magnon man

•   This is modern man.

•   Cro-Magnon made better
    tools.
    1. Spear
    2. fishing hook
• He also made dugout
  canoes, domesticated
  dogs, & crops
• Cro-Magnon was the first to draw on cave
  walls, this is the evidence that showed that
  they successfully hunted larger animals like
  mammoths.
    60 thousand BC Mesolithic
        “middle stone age”
•   During the Mesolithic age, people began to
    domesticate plants and animals, they also
    made bow and arrows which make them
    better hunters.
10-3 thousand BC Neolithic “new
           stone age”
• Better polished tools were made, axe, saws,
  and wedge. The people were less nomadic
  and villages developed due to
   – Domestication of animals
   – Development of agriculture
   – Division of labor started
   – development of the calendar
      Man spreads to the Americas



• Towards the end of the last of the four great ice ages,
  a land bridge connected Asia with North America,
  people crossed in search of food.

• When the ice retreated, they were trapped and
  descended into what are now Native Americans
            Egyptians 6000 BC
• In North Africa the Egyptians settled along the
  Nile river for its waters and its annual flooding,
  vital to farmers along with the fertile silt deposits.



• Egypt's geographical location was good because
  natural barriers like the Mediterranean Sea, and
  the Sahara Desert discouraged potential invaders.
• Hieroglyphics (Greek for “sacred carvings” 600
  symbols made up the Hieroglyphics and this
  eventually gave way to an alphabet.

• They made their own paper called “papyrus”

• They were “polytheistic” which meant that they
  believed in many gods
 Did you know….??

Each stone block was
  exactly cut and
   weighed 2 tons




One of Egypt's most recognized features are the pyramids like these
at Giza. Some were burial chambers for dead kings.
Other architectural
accomplishments are the
sphinx which were half man
and half lion.
          Belief in many gods
• Anibus was the god
  who oversaw the
  mummification
  process.
• It was half man and
  half jackal.
•Osirus Egyptian god of
the dead.


•You told him your life
story then he balanced
your account with the
feather of truth.


•You either joined the
sun god Ra or you went
to a place where “the
eater of the dead
devoured your soul.
           Egypt still continued
• Egyptian doctors
  perfected preserving
  bodies (mummies) and
  were known to have
  preformed minor
  surgeries and set fractured
  bones.

• Many Egyptian
  procedures were copied by
  the Romans as they
  eventually conquered the
  Egyptians.
      Decline and fall of Egypt
1. Series of invasions from the
   Mediterranean
2. Civil War
3. Alexander the Great
4. Roman invasion

These are the main reasons that Egypt fell,
   many think that the fall began with the
   rule of Rameses II
Sumerian Civilization
               Bronze Age
                2800 BC
• The technology that developed in the area of
  Sumer had mixed tin and copper to create
  bronze.

• Bronze is much harder than copper,
  therefore it was used for spearheads and
  other tools.
                  Sumerians
• The Sumerians built the first civilization in the
  middle east in the fertile crescent. Mesopotamia
  as it is called means land between rivers.

• The Sumerians established what became known
  as the “city state”. Each city had its own
  government, rulers, gods etc.
                Accomplishments
                of the Sumerians
• Ziggurats were temples, of
  the Sumerian gods and
  goddesses.
• The Sumerians were
  polytheistic, ( believed in
  many gods)
• Cuneiform was the
  Sumerian writing which
  was done on clay tablets
  which dried in the sun
Cuneiform writing
 of the Sumerians
              The Babylonians
                 1792 BC
• Hammurabi came to
  power in Babylon

• Came up with a strict set
  of laws and punishments
  known as the “Code of
  Hammurabi”

• This code contained 282
  laws and punishments
  which controlled
  Babylonian life
Nebuchadnezzar one of
Babylonia’s Kings after
Hammurabi
Hanging gardens of Babylon, these were
constructed by Nebuchadnezzar for his wife
        More on Babylonians
• Babylonian women had few privileges but
  laws did protect their rights and property

• The chief god of the city was Marduk and
  citizens would make sacrifices to him for
  good crops and lots of business.

• Priests had a lot of power and claimed they
  could use spells against evil and also
  claimed to be able to predict the future.
Marduk is depicted
as having four eyes.
Marduk was the
Babylonian sun god,
creator of Earth and
humans.

				
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