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					Development
              “Third World”
• Post 1950 (cold war) term
• “First World” = capitalist part of the world
• “Second World” = communist part
• “Third World”
  – Originally a political or ideological concept
  – Positive alternative to identify a new approach
    to deal with poverty or underdevelopment
    which was neither capitalistic or communistic
              “Development”
• Enlightenment era
  – 18th and 19th century
  – European’s bringing civilization, rationality
    and intellectual advancement to rest of world
• Development
  – Post 1950 euphemism
  – Help Third world escape underdevelopment –
    help fulfill their potential
  – Humanitarian: improve health, education,
    food supply, nutrition, life expectancy, poverty
  – Large scale changes at societal level
           Development 2
• Three ideas:
• 1. Vision or measure of desirable change
• 2. Process of social, political and
  economic change
• 3. Deliberate effort of development
  agencies
US Pres. Harry Truman, 1949
“We must embark on a bold new program
  for making the benefits of our scientific
     advances and industrial progress
available for the improvement and growth
     of underdeveloped areas. The old
imperialism – exploitation for foreign profit
   – has no place in our plans. What we
  envisage is a program of development
 based on the concepts of democratic fair
                  dealing.”
    Post-development school
• Critique of development school
  – Underdevelopment = undignified
    condition
  – Salvation can only come from outside
    the Third world country’s culture
  – Development = US/European
    hegemony, ideals, values and programs
  – Development rarely worked
  – No economic and political independence
              Critique 2
• “hoax” to allow continued domination by
  industrial countries
• Euphemism for plunder and violence
• Divided damaged populations
• Motivated by fear of communism/socialism
                   Poverty
• First world definition
  – People lack resources to obtain nutritious
    diets
  – Lack conditions and amenities which are
    widely accepted
  – Lack resources to participate in ordinary living
    patterns, customs and activities
  – Implies personal inadequacy
                  Poverty 2
• Alternative understanding of poverty
  – Falling from one’s station in life/status
  – Deprived of instruments of own sustenance
  – Lack of true choice
  – Inability to fully participate in your community
    or society
     • Loss of cultural infrastructure/resources
     • Lack of financial/emotional resources
     • Decisions made beyond your sphere of influence
      Capitalism/Neoliberalism
• In theory preferred “immanent” development
   – Indirect or spontaneous process to replace the old
     with the new
• Privatize the marketplace and let the invisible
  hand self regulate, raise all boats
• Raise the productive capacity of society
   – More efficient tools, technology, labour
   – Usually converts society to industrialism
• Capitalism itself an aspect of modernizing
   Capitalism/Neoliberalism 2
• Market measurement of poverty
  – GNP – Gross National Product = measures
    national income – total domestic and foreign
    output claimed by residents of the nation
    • Foreign = repatriated $(profits, migrant workers)
  – GNP per capita used as an indication of
    average material living standard ($1/day)
  – GDP – Gross Domestic Product = economy’s
    total output of goods and services produced
   Capitalism/Neoliberalism 3
• GNP and GDP are inaccurate tools
  – Economic output often increases without
    increasing net benefits to society (e.g. car
    accident, legal costs, private schools)
  – Doesn’t account for distribution between rich
    and poor
  – Doesn’t factor loss of purchasing power (e.g.
    if food prices increase)
  – Doesn’t factor lack of infrastructure such as
    education, health care, clean water
 Human Development Index - HDI
• creation of UNDP (United Nations
  Development Programme)
• Average of 3 indices
  – Health of the national population usually
    measured by life expectancy
  – Educational attainment
  – Material standard of living (GDP per
    capita)
       Human Poverty Index - HPI
• More recent creation of UNDP
• Average of 3 (4 for industrial countries)
  – Vulnerability to death at early age (infant
    mortality rate)
  – Deprivation of knowledge
  – Lack of decent living standards - examples
     • % of population living beyond age 60 in
       industrial countries (40 in non-industrial)
     • Lack of health service, clean drinking water
  – Social exclusion in industrial countries
    (unemployment
     Development to mid 1990s
• Increased life expectancy   • HIV/Aids -31 million
  (46-62)                     • 1 billion malnourished
• Literacy improved from      • 1.3 billion < $1/day
  48% - 70%                   • Wealthiest 20% of
• Female education – 38%        countries now 60 times
  to 68%                        richer than poorest 20%
• Avg GDP per capita –          (from 30X)
  $330 to $867                • 3 richest people > 48
                                LDC
                              • 1.5 billion affected by
                                drought
    Development scorecard 2
• Much of the improvement occurred in
  Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and
  Taiwan
  – China economy has grown at ~ 10%/year
    since 1970s
• Latin America, Central Asia and Sub-
  Saharan Africa had low or negative growth
  or improvement from mid 70s - mid 1990s
  People centred Development
• People centred vs. growth centred
  – Poverty reduction + restoring basic human
    capabilities
• David Korten –
  – Justice – decent existence for all
  – Sustainability – utilize Earth’s resources
    without compromising ability of future
    generations to meet their needs
  – Inclusiveness – every person has the
    opportunity to be a recognized and respected
    contributor to family/community/society
           People centred 2
• 1. low levels of material poverty
• 2. low levels of unemployment
• 3. relative equality including status for
  women and participation by women
• 4. democratization/meaningful
  participation in politics
• 5. good literacy and educational levels
• 6. human security
           People centred 3
• 7. Sustainable ability to meet future needs
• 8. human security
  – Human rights
  – Freedom from social dislocation, violence/war
• 9. Empowerment
  – People are agents of their own development
  – Direct control over own lives
  – Requires redistribution of power and
    transforming institutions (local and global)
       Development Summary

1. Development by capitalism
   - neoliberalism
   -change occurs as a dynamic of
   capitalism
   -development is immanent (process
   within capitalism
   -entrepreneurs are the agents of
   development
                Summary 2

• 2. Development alongside capitalism
  – Interventionist – change is deliberately
    directed, intentional
  – need for programs, remove barriers to
    modernization, create “good” changes
  – Helps ameliorated faults of capitalistic
    progress
  – Agents of change = gov’t, NGOs, international
    organizations
                Summary 3
• 3. Development against neoliberalism
  – People are the agents of change not
    growth/foreign investment
  – Process to empower people/increase
    capabilities of people
  – Collective action to transform local society
    and global stressors
• 4. Rejection of development
  – development is a hoax but how do we help
   ameliorate faults, assist fellow humans
 Millennium Development Goal
• General Goals for improvement by 2015
• 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
  – Reduce by 50% people on < $1/day
  – Reduce by 50% people suffering hunger
• 2. Universal primary education
• 3. Gender equality
  – Eliminate primary education disparity by 2005
  – All education disparity by 2015
                  MDG 2
• 4. Reduce child mortality rate
  – by 2/3 < 5 by 2015
• 5. Improve maternal health
  – Reduce by ¾ maternal mortality rate
• 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, etc
  – Halt spread or reverse both
• 7. Environmental Sustainability
  – Reduce by 50% those without clean water
  – Reduce loss of resources
                   MDG 3
• 8. Develop a Global Partnership for
  Development
  – Open trading and financial system
  – Address needs of LDC – tariff free exports
  – Make debt sustainable
  – Decent work for youth
  – Access to affordable drugs
  – Make new technology available
         MDG 2006 Report
• http://unstats.un.org/unsd/mdg/Resources/
  Static/Products/Progress2006/MDGReport
  2006.pdf
             MDG critique
• Is word “development” too contaminated
• Are these people centred changes
• Is it open to self critique
• Will it prefer economic or non-economic or
  trade (WTO) over trade reform
• Balancing longer term environmental with
  short term needs
• Balancing political (socialist tendencies)
  with the fear of socialism/communism