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?The integration, storage, editing, analysis, sharing, and displaying of geographical information by merging cartography and database technology is known as GIS Mapping. In other words, GIS Mapping uses GIS application to develop cartography maps. Electronic maps are created using the GIS technology. Here, data related to positions on the earth's surface are captured, stored, integrated, manipulated, analyzed and displayed for easy access, and utilization. GIS generated maps find a range of advantages like Quick access to Information and statistics linkage to alpha-numeric databases access to data retrieval and analysis Easy comparison of data for different pipelines and topography Science, technology and aesthetics are combined to generate an efficient GIS map. Many companies undertake the GIS Mapping service for providing various mapping services based on aerial photographs, satellite imagery, the paper maps, or surveyed data and drawings of varying scales and quality provided by the client. Some of the commonly developed maps are Contour maps, Utility Maps, Spatial Maps, Cadastral Maps, Atlas Maps, Thematic & Zonal Maps The major GIS services are rendered to sectors like Utilities (Telecom, Water Supply and Waste Water, Electricity Power Distribution) Municipality planning and development Oil and Gas Agriculture Government entities (county, municipality) for Land Property tax Forestry Transportation Environment GIS Mapping services are rendered by a skill set of geospatial experts, domain experts, software developers and project managers. They skilfully and carefully attend to features like land cover information, hydrology, roads, variables like points, lines and polygons, and their attributes. The scale of the map are taken into prime consideration as they carry the information content in a map. The cumbersome task of placing the data on to paper for digitization, the risks involved in acquiring or capturing precise information, time consumed for digitizing and preparation of GIS maps, and the expense involved in hiring professionals and other equipments have compelled the companies to outsource their GIS mapping projects to companies that specialize in GIS mapping services in quick span of time as well for relatively less expensive amount. These companies work on implementing various GIS mapping services, some of the popular mapping services being Contour Mapping services - control floods and forest fires, real estate planning and development, Fleet and logistics management, market analysis, navigation and positioning, etc Parcel Mapping Services - details of the ownership of properties and related information, land administration, property registration by urban & rural governing organizations, municipality planning and Urban development, etc Utility Mapping Services - recording and maintenance of public utility transmission lines such as water mains, sewage systems, telephone lines, power lines, gas mains, etc Cadastral Mapping Service - detailed property of an area including its precise location, dimensions, geographical classifications of property, survey district names, each road, plot, railway lines, water bodies, vegetation, etc Thematic & Zonal Map - physical, social, political, cultural, economic, sociological, agricultural, or any other aspects of a city, state, region, nation, or continent. The GIS industry uses two methods to store data in a GIS for abstraction - raster and vector. In Raster Data Type, the digital information is stored in grids. Raster data can be raster images with each pixel carrying a color value. They may also contain discrete value (land use), continuous value (temperature) and null value if no data is made available. Raster data is stored in various formats like TIFF, JPEG or BLOB. Vector images employ geometric shapes to store the geographic information. Vector images contain variables like lines/polylines, polygon, and points to represent the geographic information in the map. These geometric variables are linked in a row in a database to describe their attributes. Vector data in the form of contour lines and trianguled irregular networks can be used to represent continuously varying phenomena like elevation and other constantly changing values. Aerial photography or satellite images containing the topographic data are checked for their theoretical dimensions. The data is then printed on a paper or PET film map. This is then scanned into a raster data in formats like TIFF, and JPEG, which then can be used to create vector database. The spatially located variables of the vector image are superimposed onto the raster maps.
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