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RESURGENCE OF EMPIRE IN EAST ASIA

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									RESURGENCE OF
EMPIRE IN EAST
     ASIA
 CHINA UNDER THE SUI,
   TANG, AND SONG
                  ANARCHY IN CHINA
•   Three Kingdoms 220-280
     –   Shu Han 221 – 263
     –   Wei 220 - 265
           •   Most powerful, eventually conquered Shu
           •   Built an army of Chinese infantry and nomadic cavalry as mounted bowmen
           •   These assimilated nomads later overthrew Wei and founded own dynasties
     –   Wu 222 – 280
•   Jin Dynasty 265-420
     –   Western Jin 265 – 316 and Eastern Jin 317 – 420
           •   Only time during interregnum when China was united
           •   Intermixture of nomads and Chinese accelerated
     –   Sixteen Kingdoms 304 – 420
•   Southern and Northern Dynasties 420-589
     –   Southern Dynasties
           •   Liu Song 420 – 479
           •   Southern Qi 479 – 502
           •   Liang 502 - 557
           •   Chen 557 ~589
     –   Northern Dynasties
           •   Later [Northern] Wei 386 – 534
           •   Eastern Wei 534 -550
           •   Western Wei 535 – 556
           •   Northern Qi 550 – 577
           •   Northern Zhou 557 ~581
•   Period Resembled Western European history after the collapse of the Romans
     –   Disunity and civil war between nomads and Chinese warlords
           •   Rival states, dynasties, each controlling a part of the old Han state
           •   Aristocrats, provincial nobles held land and real influence
           •   Many of the northern dynasties were nomadic, both Turkish and Mongol
           •   Confucianism in decline, Buddhism in ascendancy due to its relationship with the nomads
           •   Confucian trained bureaucrats still held much influence
     –   Common Chinese subject to taxes, warfare, drafting into army, frequent invasions, bandits
        BUDDHISM ARRIVES IN CHINA
•       Foreign religions in China: Nestorian, Muslim, Buddhist merchant communities
    –          Oases on the Silk Road were very mixed
    –          Became location for foreign settlements, transmission of foreign faiths to China
•       Buddhism in China
    –          Attraction: moral standards, intellectual sophistication, salvation, appeal to women, poor
    –          Monasteries became large landowners, helped the poor and needy
    –          Posed a challenge to Chinese cultural traditions
•       Buddhism and Daoism
    –          Chinese monks explained Buddhist concepts in Daoist vocabulary
    –          Dharma as dao, and nirvana as wuwei
    –          Teaching: one son in monastery would benefit whole family for 10 generations
•       Mahayana Buddhism
    –          Buddhism blended with Chinese characteristics
    –          Buddha as a man became Buddha as a god, saint
    –          Stupa became a pagoda; Buddha became fat or feminine
•       Chan Buddhism
    –          A further evolution of Buddhism
    –          Chan (or Zen in Japanese) was a popular Buddhist sect
           •        Emphasized intuition and sudden flashes of insight
           •        Mediation techniques resembled Daoist practice
    –          Monasteries appeared in all major cities
•       Hostility to Buddhism
    –          Resistance from Daoists and Confucians
    –          Popular criticism focused on celibacy, alien origin,
    –          Governmental criticism: unproductive land, could not tax
•       Persecution
    –          Critics of Buddhism found allies in the imperial court
    –          Tang emperor ordered closure of monasteries in 840s
    –          Buddhism survived because of popular support
                      SUI DYNASTY
•       After fall of the Han, turmoil lasted for more than 350 years
    –      Three major states contended for rule; further fragmentation
    –      Nomads constantly invaded, created their own states, dynasties
•       The rule of the Sui
    –      Reunification by Yang Jian in 589
    –      Constructions of palaces and granaries, repairing the Great Wall
    –      Military expeditions in central Asia and Korea
    –      High taxes and compulsory labor services
•       The Grand Canal
    –      One of the world's largest waterworks before modern times
    –      Purpose: bring abundant food supplies of the south to the north
    –      Linked the Yangtze and the Huang-Hi
    –      The canal integrated the economies of the south and north
•       The fall of the Sui
    –      High taxes and forced labor generated hostility among the people
    –      Military reverses in Korea
    –      Rebellions broke out in north China beginning in 610
    –      Sui Yangdi was assassinated in 618, the end of the dynasty
IMAGES OF SUI CHINA
             THE TANG DYNASTY
•   Founding of the Tang Dynasty (618 – 907 CE)
     – A rebel leader seized Chang'an, proclaimed a new dynasty, the Tang
     – Tang Taizong
          • 2nd Tang emperor, a ruthless but extremely competent ruler
          • China enjoyed an era of unusual stability and prosperity
•   Extensive networks of transportation and communications
•   Adopted the equal-field system
•   Bureaucracy of merit
     – Recruited government officials through civil service examinations
     – Career bureaucrats relied on central government, loyal to the dynasty
     – Restored Confucianism as state ideology, training for bureaucrats
•   Foreign relations
     – Political theory: China was the Middle Kingdom, or the center of civilization
     – Tributary system became diplomatic policy
•   Tang decline
     –   Casual and careless leadership led to dynastic crisis
     –   Rebellion of An Lushan in 755, weakened the dynasty
     –   The Uighurs became de facto rulers
     –   The equal-field system deteriorated
     –   A large scale peasant rebellion led by Huang Chao lasted from 875 to 884
     –   Regional commanders gained power, beyond control of the emperor
     –   The last Tang emperor abdicated his throne in 907
TANG CHINA
TANG ART
SONG DYNASTY (960-1279 C.E.)
• Song Taizu
   – Reigned 960-976 C.E.
   – Founder of the Song dynasty
• Song weaknesses
   – Song never had military, diplomatic strength of Sui, Tang
   – Financial problems
       • Enormous bureaucracy with high salary devoured surplus
       • Forced to pay large tribute to nomads to avoid war
   – Military problems
       • Civil bureaucrats in charge of military forces
       • Military was largely foot soldiers at war with cavalry nomads
   – External pressures
       • Semi-nomadic Khitan, nomadic Jurchen attacked in north
       • Constant drain on treasury to pay tribute to nomads
   – The Song moved to the south, ruled south China until 1279
      • Nomads invaded, overran northern Song lands
      • Song retreated to the South along Yangtze, moved capital
      • After defeat, constantly forced to pay tribute
   THE SONG WORLD
NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN
      DYNASTIES
THE SONG ARTISTIC WORLD
      DEMOGRAPHIC AND
ENVIRONMENTAL DEVELOPMENTS
• An agricultural revolution
   – Twice flowering, fast-ripening rice increased food supplies
   – New agricultural techniques increased production
   – Population growth
      • 45 to 115 million inhabitants
      • Between 600 and 1200 C.E.
• Urbanization: China most urbanized country in period
   – Chang'an had about 2 million residents
   – Hangzhou had about 1 million residents
   – Many cities boasted population of 100,000 or more
• Commercialized agriculture
   – Some regions depended on other regions for food
   – Extreme surplus of southern rice allowed cities to flourish
   – Necessitate vast grain shipments to cities
CH’ANG-AN & HANGZHOU
             NEO-CONFUCIANISM
•   Taoist, Buddhist Synthesis with Confucianism
     – Early Confucianism focused on practical issues
         • Politics, Public Morality, Social Relationships
     – Confucians drew inspiration
         • From Buddhism Spirituality
              – Logical thought
              – Argumentation of Buddhism
         • From Taoism Cosmology
              – Metaphysical issues: nature of soul
              – Man's relation with cosmos
•   Xenophobia Contributes, too
     – Invasions by nomads, Turks and Mongols threatened state
     – Foreign ideas began to circulate
     – Too many threats to society, traditions
•   Zhu Xi (1130-1200 C.E.), most prominent Neo-Confucian scholar
•   Neo-Confucian influence
     – Adapted Buddhist, Taoist themes, reasoning to Confucian interests
     – Made Buddhism Chinese but stressed Chinese roots, values
     – Influenced East Asian thought
         • In China, it was an officially recognized creed
         • Influenced Korea, Vietnam, and Japan for half a millennium
         PATRIARCHAL SOCIETY
•       Developments reinforced patriarchal society
    –         Chinese reaction to foreign ideas
          •       Reaction to Buddhist’s gender equality
          •       Neo-Confucianism emphasized patriarchy
          •       Ancestor worship revived
    –         Preserving of family
    –         Family wealth became paramount
•       Results
    –         Tightening of patriarchal structure
    –         Reinforcing of male domination
•       Foot binding gained popularity during the Song
    –         Emphasized dependence of women on men, home
          •       Wealthy, aristocrats could afford practice, hire servants to do work
          •       Feet of women broken, reformed around stilts
          •       Women could not walk without pain but had to shuffle
          •       Forced women to remain at home, dependent on others
    –         Male sense of beauty at women’s expense
•       Poor, peasant women not subject to footbinding
    –         Women had to work with men to support family
    –         Men could not afford to have women at home, idle
        TECHNOLOGY & INDUSTRY
•       Porcelain
    –      High quality porcelain since the Tang, known as chinaware
    –      Technology diffused to other societies, especially to Abbasid Arabia
    –      Exported vast quantities to southeast Asia, India, Persia, and Africa
•       Metallurgy
    –      Improvement: used coke instead of coal in furnaces to make iron, steel
    –      Iron production increased tenfold between the early 9th and 12th century
•       Gunpowder
    –      Discovered by Daoist alchemists during the Tang
    –      Bamboo "fire lances," a kind of flame thrower, and primitive bombs
    –      Gunpowder chemistry diffused throughout Eurasia
•       Printing
    –      Became common during the Tang
    –      From block-printing to movable type
    –      Books became widespread
•       Naval technology
    –      "South-pointing needle" - the magnetic compass
    –      Double hulled junks with rudder, water-tight compartments
SONG LIFE
           A MARKET ECONOMY
•       Merchants in Charge
    –      Only period in China where merchants socially superior to aristocrats
    –      Merchants attempted to intermarry with aristocrats, become landowners
    –      Merchants attempted to have sons admitted as Confucian bureaucrats
    –      Merchants tended to espouse Confucianism as way into traditional elites
    –      Most large cities had large merchant communities
•       Financial instruments
    –      Banking and credit institution
    –      “Flying money " were letters of credit
    –      Paper money backed by state, treasury
•       A cosmopolitan society
    –      Foreign merchants in large cities of China
    –      Mostly Arab (Muslim), Indian, S.E. Asian
    –      Chinese merchants journeyed throughout region
•       Economic surge in China
    –      An economic revolution in China
    –      Made China the wealthiest nation in the world at time
    –      Promoted economic growth in the eastern hemisphere

								
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