MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY FOOD ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT FDE by mikesanye

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									 MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY



 FOOD ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT



            FDE 300
SUMMER PRACTISE REPORT

    KENT GIDA SAN. A.Ş.
TABLE OF CONTENTS:


1. Description of the company                                          page 3
              Company Name
              Location
              History of the Company
              Number and Duties of the Engineers Emloyed
              Departments of the Company
2. Products of the Company
              Candies                                                 page 5
                     Hard Candies                                     page 7
                     Soft Candies                                     page 10
              Other Products                                          page 10
                     Gums
                     Chocolate
3. Quality Control Tests                                               page 12
4. Conclusion and Opinions                                             page 13
5. Appendixes
              Flow Chart and Material and Energy Balance of Hard Candy page 14
              Flow Chart of Soft Candy                                page 17
              Processes Quality Control Tests                         page 17




COMPANY NAME: KENT GIDA A.Ş.




COMPANY LOCATION: Kent Gıda Maddeleri Sanayi ve Ticaret A.Ş. Çayırova,İstanbul
Cad. no:111 P.K:41400 GEBZE / KOCAELİ


                                          2
HISTORY OF THE COMPANY:
       The history of Kent Gıda A.Ş. dates back to 1927, when the Tahincioğlu Family first
entered the confectionery business by producing a traditional Turkish sweet, tahin, from
sesame seed oil. By 1946, the Family had improved the business to open up a small workshop
in Diyarbakır manufacturing halvah and hard candy. In the early 50's, The Tahincioğlu
Family moved to İstanbul, and in 1956, Kent Gıda was established with only 11 employees
which would later become the largest Turkish confectionery company.
       As the first modern candy manufacturing facility in Turkey, Kent also pioneered the
chewing gum industry in Turkey by expanding its product range to include chewing gum in
1960, and entered the chocolate industry in the early 80's with a limited chocolate line. By
then, Kent had two factories in Istanbul and one in Gebze, Kocaeli, manufacturing a wide
range of products in candy, gum and chocolate. In 1983 Birlik was established to handle the
marketing and distribution of Kent products throughout Turkey. Kent went public in 1990,
offering 15% of its shares on the Istanbul Stock Exchange.
       By 2000, Kent consolidated the three factories into one state of the art facility in
Gebze, Kocaeli. The high quality innovative products manufactured in this factory have been
exported to over 100 countries around the world. The potential in these markets have led Kent
to search for growth opportunities in the international markets. In 2001, this search resulted in
the establishment of a 50%-50% joint venture with the Spanish lollypop manufacturer Chupa-
Chups in St. Petersburg, Russia.
       Today, as the leader of the domestic confectionery market in Turkey, Kent is
continuing to grow in the international arena to become a world player.



NUMBER AND DUTIES OF ENGINEERS EMPLOYED:
       There are four Food Engineers in the factory.One of them is the manager of Qualitiy
Control department,another one is the manager of Research and Development department.
       There are two chemical and three mechanical engineers in the company.One of the
chemical engineers is the chief of the Quality Control Laboratory.
       There are also graduates of food technology or chemistry departments working in the
Quality Control Laboratory.




                                               3
DEPARTMENTS OF THE COMPANY:
         The factory mainly has production department which produce various types of
candies,gums and chocolates.Although being three main unit of the production department,
candy is the largest one and it has a wide range of products.Candy production unit produces
drops and chews,gummy candies and hard candies.The other units are gum and chocolate
units.They have also various types of products.
         There are also management unit,purchasing and marketing department,raw material
storage rooms,product storage rooms,quality control and chemical and microbial analysis
laboratory,research and devolopment department,waste treatment plant and sewage treatment
plant.




CANDIES


         In Kent,candies are divided into two main groups which are hard and soft candies.The
hard is composed of sourballs,clear fruit lozenges,red and white peppermint shape,etc.Soft



                                              4
candy includes sugar,syrup,milk,butter,eggs,oils,fruits,nuts,chocolate and many other kinds of
food.
        Types and names of candies produced by Kent are;


           Chocolate filled fruit and chocolate chews:Elegan is a this type of product.It is a
            smooth toffee outer with tenderness of a chocolate or frehness of fruit inside.It has
            orange,strawberry,cherry and chocolate flavours.
           Center filled hard candy:Missbon belongs to this group.It has crunchy
            sweetness.Coffee,cherry and butter flavors are present.
           Cocoa and milk chews:Çikolin,which has double color taste pleasure,belongs to
            this type of candy.Only milk-cocoa flavour is present.
           Cream milk chews:Krem Milk belongs to this group and it is a smooth milky
            toffee candy.It has only milk flavour.
           Drops:Poptip,which has a great taste in small drops, is the only product belonging
            to this group.Orange,cinnamon,peppermint and spearmint types of flavors are
            present.
           Fruit and vanilla flavoured chews:Toffelin belongs to this group and it has a taste
            of icecream.Strawberry & vanilla,peach & vanilla,milk & caramel,lemon & vanilla
            kinds of flavors are present.
           Fruit chews:Three products belong to this group which are Tofita,Tofy and
            Yumiyum.Tofita can be defined as the real fruit juice soft candy and has
            orange,strawberry,cherry,blackberry and mint types of flavours.Tofy is a classic
            fruit chew candy and has lemon orange,strawberry and apricot types of
            flavours.Yumiyum is a fruity stick chew candy and has flavors of
            orange,strawberry and cherry.
           Gummy candies:There are twelve products in this group.These are:Jelibon-
            Blackberry,Cola,Frutty,Gummy Bears,Gummy Dummy,Mermaid,Rapsberry
            & Blackberry,Sour,Star,TamtamAnimals,Topik Gummy Button,Worms.Most
            of these products has the mixed fruit flavour.
           Hard candies:There are four types of products in this group.Fullmilk is a milky
            candy with      butter.Meybon-Mini       Meybon is       a   mixed   fruit   flavoured
            candy.Missbonbon is a milk,fruit and coffee flavoured candy.Olips is flavoured
            with menthol eucalyptus,C vitamin,herbal with C vitamin,tangerine multivitamin.



                                                5
          Hard Candy and Honey Crunch:Sporbon belongs to this group and is honey
           crunch, mixed fruit, cola falvoured.
          Honey Crunch:Sesame belongs to this group and is honey crunch flavoured.
          Lollipop:There four products belong to this group.Loly and Topitop are lemon,
           strawberry,cherry,cola      and      apple    flavoured.Topitop-Milk      is    cocoa    &
           milk,strawberry & milk and banana & milk falvoured.Topitop-Sour is lemon
           apple,blacberry falvoured.
          Lollipop with bubblegum:Topitop-Topigum is flavoured with strawberry,apricot
           and cherry.
          Lollipop with soft chew centre:Topitop-Big is flavoured with strawberry.
          Lollipop with tattoo:Topitop-with tattoo belongs to this group and flavoured with
           strawberry,cola and apple.
          Sugar free candy:Olite is flavoured with cherry,menthol,lemon with vitamin C
           and tropical with vitamin C.
          Sugar free tablet candy:Rolly-Sugarfree is falvoured with cinnamon and
           peppermint.
          Tablet candy:Rolly belongs to this group and is falvoured like Rolly-Sugarfree
           candy.
          Whistle Lollipop:Topitop-Music is the candy belongs to this group.It is flavoured
           with orange,strawberry and apple.


       Main raw materials and additives used in candy industry are sugar,invert sugar,glucose
syrup,dextrose,lactose,milk   powder(fat         and     without   fat),butter,vegetable   oils,cocoa
powder,cocoa     butter,cocoa,fruits     with     hard     shell   (nut,peanut...),dried   fruits,fruit
concentrates,flavors,food        acids           (citric,lactic,malic       acids,etc...),gelatinazing
materials,sweeteners,antioxidants,emulgators.




       HARD CANDIES
       Hard candies are held by cooking sucrose with glucose syrup and/or invert sugar at
high temperatures.They also involve flavour and colorizing materials.Since sucrose has



                                                   6
limited solubility at normal temperature it has a risk of crystallization.Therefore,it is not used
alone in candy production.In order to avoid crystallization,it cooked with invert sugar or
preferably glucose syrup.One of the important disadventages of invert sugar is its being
higroscopic.Thus,especially in moist medium it forms a sticky layer over the candy.Since the
viscosity of this layer decreases,sucrose molecules are easily crystallizes.
       Candy cooking is carried out in three major ways which are batch,semi-continuous
and continuous.
       In batch cooking,cooking may be either at atmospheric pressure,under steam pressure
or under vacuum.There are different types of cookers and kettles used in batch
cooking.Direct-fire cookers are traditional ones but improvements have been made such as
usage of stainless steel pans instead of copper.It is usally used in production of high sugar
containing candies.Vacuum cookers cooking pressures of which are up to 150 psi,are another
type of kettles used in production of high sucrose hard candies,caramels,taffies.Another type
of equipment used in batch cooking is steam-jacketed kettles which are generally used for
open air cooking of chewy type of confections.They also used for maintaining candy
centers.These kettles have pressure ranging from 40 to 125 psi.There are also pressure kettles
which is equipped with a tight fitting,pressure gauge,pressure release,safety valves and
clamped-down cover with openings for steam used in batch cooking.
       Semi-continuous cookers operate under vacuum and are employed in the conventional
method of making hard candies.Before the candy syrup is fed semi continuously to the
vacuum cooker’s heated coils,the water content of it is reduced in order to minimize heat
transfer surface for removing moisture under vacuum.The cooked candy is drawn off in
batches that are suitably sized to the mixers.
       In continuous cooking continuous vacuum cookers are used which are Muller
Cooker,Turba-Film processor and Roto-Vak Cooker.The Muller Cooker comprises a vertical
evaporator tube surrounded by a steam jacket.A seperator is mounted above the tube.A rotor
positioned on a vertical axis passes through the seperator and evaporator tube.In order to form
a thin layer of high turbulance product blades extend from the rotor shaft.The seperator tosses
out droplets that are carried over with the vapor.The final concentrated product discharges
through a conical outlet at the bottom.The votator Turba-Film processor employs as does The
Muller Cooker.However,with a Roto-Vak Cooker a thin film of product is redistributed and
agitated by a rotor running through the evaporator tube.Liquid and vapors travel downward in
the tube.They are seperated in an external vat that is connected with the evaporation section of
the cooker.A pump discharges the concentrate below.


                                                 7
        Hard candies are at low moisture levels, generally in the range of 0.5-
2%;however,sometimes 3-5%.They are flavoured and colored.Fifteen products of Kent are
belong to this group.These products are:Assortment,Fullmilk,Loly,Meybon-Mini Meybon,
Missbon, Missbonbon, Olips, Olite, Sesame, Sporbon, Topitop-Milk, Topitop-Music,
Topitop-Topigum and Topigum.
        The essential ingredients used in hard candy production are sugar,corn syrup,acids,
colors,flavors...Sugar generally contains less than 0.1% impurities which consists of
ash,proteins, sometimes invert sugar and other materials.There are three types of corn syrup
that are 36-38 DE,regular conversion 42 DE and (acid-enzyme) dual conversion 42 DE.The
regular conversion type contains 19% dextose and 14% maltose.The acid-enzyme conversion
syrup contains 6% dextrose and 49% maltose.They also have different percentages of high
molecular weight polysaccharides.Why hard candies tend to pick up moisture is dextrose’s
being hygroscopic.Citric,tartaric,malice,fumaric and sometimes lactic acid are the generally
used acids in hard candy production.Citric acid is the most widely used one especially in the
products that have a sour taste like apple or cherry.In order to get the appropriate appearance
of the product colors are used.The colors used in the factory are as followings:
           E 120 - cochineal (red)
           E 131 - patent blue
           E 140 - chlorophyll
           E 141 - copper chlorophyll
           E 150d- caramel (brown)
           E 160a- beta carotene
           E 160e- beta apo carotenal
           E 161g- canthaxanthin
           E 162 – beet red
           E 171 - titanium
        A wide variety of flavours and essential oils are used in hard candy production.They
are less than 1% of a batch weight.Additions are made at high temperatures.
        Some of the products have fillings which varies widely.Liquid filling are made of corn
syrup,color,flavour and sometimes acids.some other fillings are in the form of fruit jam,
peanut butter,jellies,icings,etc...




                                               8
       Manufacturing of hard candies consists of some steps such as cooking,
cooling-working,forming,final cooling and packaging.
       Cookers : Three basic types of cookers are used.These are fire cookers, vacuum
       Cookers and scraped-surface cookers.
       Cooling and working : Candy is transferred to slabs or pass through heat-exchangers
       for cooling from the cookers.Then,colors,flavours and acids are added.After cooling it
       is sized to a suitable diameter in sizers.That is just before it is fed into a forming
       machine.
       Forming : Depending on the product various types of forming mashines are used such
       as pillow shapes,making pillow- or chip-shaped hard candies; tablets,which operates in
       a way that takes a candy rope and cuts it into small pieces; waffle shapes,that operates
       similar to pillow-shape making machines with only a small difference that the cutters
       have dies of waffle design between the cutting knives; drop roll machines, used in
       making clear centers,balls for sugaring,tablets,etc;and cut-wrap units,which cut the
       candy and then wrap the pieces into oval,cylindrical or rectangular shapes.
       Cooling : After forming candies are rapidly cooled in order to protect their shape.Belt
       conveyors are used in cooling.High-velocity air that is going through the belt is blown
       onto the candies.Some other types of and multiple belts are also used in some cases.
       Packaging : Packages vary depending on the product.It can be jar,bag,can,pouch or
       wrapper or it can consist of more than one of these.


       If 100 kg sugar and 35 lt water are mixed and melting process is applied at 110°C.
Then, 50 kg glucose syrup is added and mixture is send to cookers to be cooked at 140-
150ºC.At    760    mmHg       and    120ºC    vacuum     cooking     is   applied.And     finally
colors,flavours,acids,fruit juices,nuts,sesame,etc. are added to the mixture.Forming process
which can be done in two ways at 90ºC.One of these ways is pouring hot mixture into special
shapers with depositor and the other way is mourning hot mixture into the mourning system
until having a plastic shape at 95ºC first of all,and then forming,cooling at 25-35ºC and finally
packaging are applied.
       Flow chart of hard candy making process and material and energy balances according
to the assumed quantity of the materials are available in Appendix I.
       SOFT CANDIES
       Soft candies can be grouped into two mainly:Toffee and caramel candies and jelly
candies.Since they have high moisture content and contain butterfat they have soft structure.


                                               9
       Among Kent products, Assortment, Elegan, Krem Milk, Tofita, Tofy, Topitop-Big and
Yumiyum belong to toffee group.Çikolin, Missbon and Toffelin belong to caramel group.
Kent does not produce jelly candy.
       Caramel candies contain milk,milk fat and vegetable oils.When milk is cooked with
sugar and glucose, between milk proteins and reducing sugars it occurs a reaction, namely
Maillard, which gives the product caramel taste.
       The difference between caramal and toffee candy is the addition of gelatin or albumin
to toffee in order to give a chewable structure.
       Caramel candies usually contain; 12 lt of water,50 kg of glucose syrup,35 kg of fatty
concentrated milk,30 kg of sugar,6 kg of hydrogene vegetable oil,250 g of salt,50 g of
lecithin,50 g of aroma.
       Caramel production is carried out in heat exchangers.Water,oil,milk and sugar are
mixed homogeneously and in the mean time it is heated up to 80-100ºC.After that,glucose
syrup is added at 120-130ºC.Depending on the cooking temperature and the moisture content,
caramel candies are divided into three as soft, middle and hard.Soft candies are cooked at
118-120ºC and contain 9-10% moisture.Middle candies are cooked at 121-124ºC and has a
moisture content of 7-8%.Hard candies are cooked at 128-130ºC and contain 5-6% moisture.
       After cooking mixture is fistly cooled,then aerated and finally cut after formed as a
rope and then packaged.
       Toffee production is carried out in a similar way to caramel production.As a difference
of caramel candies,fruit aromated toffee candies contain 10 lt of water,40 kg of sugar,50 kg of
glucose sugar,6 kg of hydrogene vegetable oil,250 g of gelatin, 50 g of lecithin and 100 g of
aroma and acid.
       Flow chart of soft candies (caramel and toffee) is available in Appendix II.




       OTHER PRODUCTS OF KENT
       Other than candy there are also chewing gum and chocolate production in Kent.
However,during my summer practice because of its being summer chocolate production was
stopped for a while.Altough gum production units are running,I have spent my time mainly in
candy production unit.Because of these reasons I am only giving the names of the other
products of Kent.


       Gums:


                                                   10
   Bubble gums:There are five products belong to this group,which are Minti with
    peppermint flavour,Misty with fruit or peppermint flavour,Tipitip with tutti-frutti
    flavour, Turbo-Sport and Turbo-Super both with fruit flavour.
   Buuble gum with surprise:One product belongs to this group that is Toybox with
    fruit falvour.
   Bubble soft gum:There is one product in this group that is namely Olips Bubble
    with mixed flavour(blackberry,tropical fruit,sour apple,red berries,junior tutti-
    frutti) .
   Center filled chewing gum:Olips Fresh with peppermint,cinnamon,strawberry
    and peach flavour,is the product of this group.
   Chewing gum:Two products bolong to this group which are Olips Dragees with
    strawberry,peppermint and blackberry flavours and Party Time with fruit flavour.
   Sugar coated gum:The product belong to this group is Mino which has tutti-frutti
    flavour.
   Sugarfree chewing gum:Relax which has spearmint with xylitol and strawberry
    with xylitol flavours and Relax White that has peppermint with bicarbonate &
    xylitol flavour are the products belong to this group.
   Traditonal Turkish bubble gum:Nazar with strawberry, peppermint and mastic
    flavours and Nazar White with mint with bicarbonate flavour are belong to this
    group.
   Bubble gum with tattoo:The only product belong to this group is Pola that have
    fuit flavour.


Chocolate:
   Center filled chocolates:Sütlü Çikolata belong to this type of chocolate.It is a
    milk chocolate filled with hazelnut cocoa cream filling.
   Chocolate falvoured compound:Misafir that has two kind as bitter and milk,and
    Samba that has milk and cocoa kinds are the products of this group.


   Milk and bitter chocolate:Madlen is the product of this type of chocolate.It has
    milk and bitter kinds.
   Milk and bitter chocolate with hazelnuts & pistachios:The product belongs to this
    group is Villa.



                                        11
          Cocoa dragees bean:Bonibon,Mini Bonibon,Mini Bonibon with Toys and Mini
           Bonibon Beads are the products of this group.
          Cocoa:Kent also produces cocoa powder.




       QUALITY CONTROL TESTS
In laboratory,various analysis methods are applied to all products.These are;
    Saccharose (invert sugar)
    Vitamin C
    Total acidity
    % filling material
    Glucose
    Determination of pH and SO2 in glucose
    Moisture amount
    Water
    Sugar
    Gum analysis
    % Fat
    Gelatine
There are also microbial analysis carried out in the laboratory.Processes of the analysis that I
have carried out in the laboratory are explained in the Appendix III.
Raw materials are also controlled in the laboratory.Raw materials that are controlled are:


    Water
    Sugar
    Gelatine
    Pectine
    Cocoa powder
    Gum base
    Skimmed milk powder
    Whole milk powder
    Lecitine
    Butter
    Vaniline


                                               12
    Lycasin




CONCLUSION AND OPINIONS
       In conclusion,KENT is the largest company in Turkey in candy production.Besides, it
has also a good place in gum and chocolate production.24 hour production is an important
aspect of the company.Production is non-stop and depending on the demand it changes.
During my summer practice factory was producing mainly a hard candy ,called Toflerki, for
export.Since 51% of the company belongs to the British Cadbury Schweppes Company
export products have a high ratio in production. The countries that KENT is exporting to are
Russia,Finland,USA and some other European countries.
       Another important and positive aspect that I observed is the cleanliness of the
factory.All the workers have aprons and caps.Although none of the production steps are
applied by hand in Bonibon and gummy candy production zones workers have glovers.There
are washbasins and some chemical liquids to clean hands in every passage between the
different production zones.
       The company also has the HACCP and GMP(Good Manufacturing Practices)
system.The machines are the latest models and the computer technology is being used in all
parts of the production.
       The company have also some negative aspects one of which is related with the
Research and Development department.The Research and Developement department has only
a laboratory.Since it has not got any production unit,during their work on a new product they
cannot have any small amount of it,instead they use the existing production units.
       Another negative aspect of the company is not having enough number of food
engineers.Instead,there are chemical engineers and graduates of food technology departments.
       To sum up,despite the few negative aspects,KENT is one of the leading companies in
confectionary industry in Turkey and in Europe.




APPENDIX I
Flow Chart of Hard Candy:


                                               Sugar


                                              13
                             Water          MELTING     at 110ºC



                   Glucose syrup


                                            COOKING     at 140-150ºC




                                            VACUUM      at 120ºC
                                            COOLING


 Colors,aroma,acids,
 fruit juice,other materials
 (nut,sesame,almond,etc)                     MIXING



                                            MOULDING
                                at 95ºC       AND
                                            COOLING




                                             FORMING
                                at 90ºC



                               at 25-30ºC   COOLING




                                            PACKAGING         Product




Material Balance of Hard Candy:


System: mixer+overall+packaging
Basis: 1 hour of operation


                                              14
If we consider Topitop;
M(glucose)=Mg=650 g (80% total solids)
M(sugar)=Ms=500 g (100% total solids)
M(water)=Mw=200 g
650+500+200=1350 g dough in the cooker.


The stream that enters the overall process and this dough has 75.6% total solid content as
mentioned before.The stream that exits from the overall process (P) has the total solid content
of 98%.So;
1350*(75.6/100)=P*(98/100)
P=1040 kg/h


The last stream that exits from the overall process box is the water removal (B)

B=1350-1040=310 kg/h

Energy Balance of Hard Candy:
If we consider one of the cookers that produces the Topitop product;
Datum: 0.01˚C
System: Cooker
Basis: 1-hour operation.

Ws: the total amount of syrup in the cooker per hour (kg/h) =550 kg/h
Xi: the fraction of the total solid content (%) of syrup that taken into the cooker=0.764
Xf: the fraction of the total solid content (%) of cooked dough exits from the cooker=0.97
W: the amount of water that removed from the cooker per hour (kg/h)
D: the amount of cooked dough


550*(76.4/100)=D*(97/100)
D=433.2 kg/h
W=550-433.2=116.8 kg/h


Ti: the temperature of the water that comes to the cooler (15C)
Tf: the temperature of the water that removed from the cooler (35C)
A: the amount of water that is used for cooling that enters the cooler kg/h


                                               15
Cooked dough enters the cooler at 150C and leaves the cooler at 120C. So;


Q(water)=Q(dough)
Cp(dough)=33.49(3)+837.36=937.87 j/kgK
D*Cp(dough)*T=A*Cp(water)* T
433.2*0.938*30=A*4.2*20
A=145 kg/h




1040/1350*100=77g       that is; from 100g, 77g is obtained.
650/1350*100 = 48g glucose
500/1350*100=37g sugar
200/1350*100=15g water


The weight of one box = 7.920 kg Topitop
Glucose= 7.92*0.48*1.23=4.67
Sugar= 7.92*0.37*1.23=3.6
Water= 7.92*0.15*1.23= 1.46
So totally the amount of raw material that needed is 9.73 kg




APPENDIX II
Flow Chart of Soft Candy (Toffee and Caramel candy):


Sugar,glucose syrup,oil,
gelatin,milk powder,               MELTING                     COOKING


                                              16
emulgator,cocoa powder,
salt
                                                             at 120-130ºC




     COOLING                  EXTRUSION                 MOULDING                 COOLING


       at 10ºC                                                                    at 90-100ºC




                                                                  Product
              FORMING                   PACKAGING




APPENDIX III

PROCESSES OF QUALITY CONTROL TESTS:


INVERT SUGAR ANALYSIS:
Preparing candy sample:5 g of candy is put into 250 ml flask and weighed.Then it is
dissolved in water.1 ml of both Carres I and Carres II are added in order to understand
whether the candy contains lipid,protein or gelatin.Lastly,it is completed to 250 ml with
distilled water,shaked and filtrated.
Reference experiment:25 ml of formerly prepared Luff solution is put into a 250ml
erlenmeyer and completed to 50 ml with distilled water.After boiling stone is put into
it,consumption is observed by applying the ‘invert sugar analysis before inversion’
procedure.The consumption value is indicated as ‘Sr’ and it is the reference experiment value.


The invert sugar analysis before inversion:
25 ml Luff solution is added to 5 ml of filtrated sample and it is completed to 50 ml with
distilled water.It is attachded to the cooler and heated maximum 2 minutes until it boils.When



                                              17
it starts boiling it is heated for 8 minutes.At the end of 8 minutes period it is cooled
down.After addition of 9 ml KI and 25%,20 ml HCl,it is shaked.Finally it is titrated with 0.1N
sodiumthiosulfate and the consumption is read.Starch indicator is used as an indicator.


The invert sugar analysis after inversion:
50 ml of the filtrated sample is put into the 100 ml flask.6 ml and 25% HCl is added and a
thermometer is placed in the flask.In a short time(2,5-5 min) temperature is raised to 67-70ºC
and it is kept at this temperature for 5 minutes.1-2 drops of bromtymol blue is added and then
it is cooled down with icy or very cold water.It is titrated with 4N NaOH and cooled down
again.After that it is completed to 100 ml with distilled water.25 ml of Luff solution is added
to 5 ml of the sample solution and comleted to 50 ml with distilled water.Then erlenmeyer is
attached to the cooler and it is let to boil for maximum 2 minutes.After boiling it is went on
heating for 8 minutes.At the end of the 8 minutes period,it is cooled down.9 ml KI and 20 ml
25% HCl are added and titrated with 0.1N sodiumthiosulfate.Lastly,consumption is read.


Calculations:
t : amount of candy (mg)


The invert sugar analysis before inverison:
S : consumption (ml)
Sr : reference consumption (ml)
F : (5/250)
S1=Sr-S
Amount of invert sugar of S1 is read from the table,say that X;
∆S=X
A1=X*F
%invert sugar=(A1*100)/t      (mg)


The invert sugar analysis after inverison:
S : consumption (ml)
F : (5/250)*(5/100)
S2=Sr-S
Amount of invert sugar of S2 is read from the table,say that Y;
∆S=Y


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A2=Y*F
Total invert sugar=(A2*100)/t
Saccharose=(A2-A1)*0.95
% Saccharose=(saccharose*100)/t




VITAMIN C ANALYSIS:
Extraction solution:3% metaphosphoric acid is takeninto 1000 ml flask.80 ml glacial acid
and 200 ml distilled water are added.Then it is completed to 1000 ml.This solution can be
preserved in the refrigerator approximately 7-10 days.
Reactive solution:0.1N iodine solution (titrisol).
Indicator solution:1% starch solution.


       25 g of the sample is put into 250 ml erlenmeyer.10 ml metaphosphoric acid solution
is added and shaked for 2-3 minutes.2-3 drops of starch solution is added as an
indicator.Erlenmeyer is put on the magnetic mixer and during mixing it is titrated w,th 0.1N
I2 solution.


Calculation:
% Ascorbic acid = (s*8.806*F*100)/(sample,g)         (mg/100g)




TOTAL ACIDITY:
10 gsample is put into the 100 ml erlenmeyer and 90 ml distilled water is added.It is mixed on
a magnetic mixer.then,0.5 ml (1-2 drops) phenolphthalein is added and it is titrated until the
dark oink color is observed.
Calculations:
% Anhydrous citric acid = (640*volume)/sample (mg)
% Citiric acid monohydrate = (700*volume)/sample (mg)
% Tartaric acid = (750*volume)/sample (mg)
% Malice acid = (670*volume)/sample (mg)
% Lactic acid = (901*volume)/sample (mg)




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%FILLING OF THE PRODUCT:
Candy,with its filling in it is weighed.Then the filling is seperated and the remaining part is
weighed.This procedure is applied to five candies and the averag of the five is taken as the
solution calculation.
Calculation:% filling = [(initial weight – final weight)/initial weight]*100
Solution is controlled according to the values that are unique to each product.If the filling
percentage of the product is not appropirate,production units are warned.




GLUCOSE ANALYSIS:
D.E.(Dextrose Equivalent) Analysis: Standard DE=38-42), Maltose (DE=42), Vanitat
(DE=58-60) samples.
Broken angle of sample at 45ºC is observed and with the help of the table,the value of DS% is
founded.With the help of the below formula,consumption is taken approximately 12 ml and
the amount of glucose is calculated.
Formula: Weight of the samples initially=factor*100/(DS%)*12*(DE%)
factor : mixed factor that was calculated for Fehling A and Fehling B solutions.
The amount of glucose is weighed into the 500 ml flask,dissolved with water and completed
to 500 ml with distilled water.12.5 ml Fehling A and 12.5 ml Fehling B solutions are mixed in
the erlenmeyer and waited until they boil.Formerly prepared glucose solution is filled into the
burette and 9.5 ml is mixed with the boiling Fehlin A+B mixture.After being waited them for
2 minutes,3-4 drops of methyl blue is dropped andthe titration is continued. As soon as the
blue color dissappeared,titration is ended and the consumption is read.
Calculation: DE%=factor*100/(DS%)*(initial weight of glucose)*consumption




pH DETERMINATION:
Candies’ pH determination:10 g of sample is mixed with 90 ml distilled water and
dissolvedin it.By the help of pH meter,pH value is read.


DETERMINATION OF pH and SO2 IN GLUCOSE:
The aim is to provide glucose to include SO2 at the standard values for quality.
50 g of glucose is mixed with 50 g distilled water and then the mixture is let to cool down at
room temperature.Then its pH value is read.After 25 ml 1.0N KOH is added and mixed,10 ml


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9N H2SO4 is added and mixed.1-2 drops starch indicator is added.Finally,it is titrated with
0.02N KI/I2 solutions until the color turns into blue.The consumption is read.
Calculation: SO2(ppm)=consumption*12.8*factor


MOISTURE ANALYSIS
The analysis is done by refractometer from the amount of dry substances that is volalite in
water.1 ± 0.001 g from the dry substances is taken and 1 ml water is added.Heat at 40 °C for
solving substances and then cool to 28 °C (by using refractometer ).By using refractometer ,
amount % (A) is found out.Multiply the amount with the dilution factor.
Calculation: The amount of solved substances % = A * dilution factor.




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