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									                             OUTLINE OF KOREAN HISTORY
Paleolithic: Hunters and gatherers living in caves or in the open. See Note 1.
Neolithic (3000-2000): Pottery decorated with incised lines or scratches ("comb mark" like) = combware. People are
          mostly fishermen (Early Neolithic). Later Neolithic; ploughshares and sickles used. Millstones and saddle
          querns along with fishhooks and nets. Stone knives and arrowheads also used. Toward end of Neolithic: Use of
          bone needles and spinning wheels begins. Ornaments are made from shells and gems.
       Society: People divided into clans, communal: Owning property and laboring in common. Clan's territories
          jealously guarded; so encroachment means conflict. Head of clan by patriarch by right of age and descent,
          though in important matters unanimous consent of mature males required.
      Religion:m is all pervasive with the head man playing different roles in different clans. Animism with the most
          powerful spirit being the sun. Totemism considered as a symbol of man's place among the rest of the world's
          creatures. Eventually shamans (people with intimate contact with the spirits) appear, at first men but usually
     Marriage: is exogamous, prohibiting marriage within the clan.
2332 Tan-gun, legendary father of Korean civilization, son of Whan-ung, son of the divine being Whan-in, establishes
          Kingdom of Korea over the "Nine tribes" (Kyun, Pang, Whang, Pak, Chuk, Hyun, P'ung, Yang and U). He
          teaches these people the relations between king and subject, the rite of marriage, the art of cooking, science of
          house building, to bind up their hair by dying a cloth about the head and to cut down trees and till the fields. He
          makes the capital at P'yung-yang - actually, Tan-gun is probably a line of native kings - at this time the kingdom
          extends from Mun-gyung (south) to Heuk-yong river (north), from Japan Sea (east) to Yo-ha (west)(= Sung-
2300 By this time the Sishun Shu, or Soo-shun, people have become thoroughly established in Manchuria and Liaotung
          (northern Korea in the area of the Liao river). The Chinese people are entering the Yellow River basin from the
2265 The Tan-gun offer first sacrifice at Hyul-gu on the island of Kang-wha; construction of the altar on Mari San.
2200 Chinese emperor Yu divides China into nine Chow or departments: Those nearest Korea are (1) Ki, southwest
          Chihli and northern center of Shansi (2) Tsing = northwest Shantung and southeast and east of Chi-hli
          extending into Liaosi: Later, northern part of Ki becomes independent department of Yowchow (modern
          Peking) and northern Tsing Yingchow: Yowchow is known as Liao-si, or province of West Liao; Yingchow as
          Liaotung Kun, or province of East Liao.
2187 Chinese king Yu calls all the vassal kings to his court at To-san. The Tan-gun sends his son Pu-ru as envoy.
18th century: The name of the Si-shun people is changed to Sooshun.
1500-1000 Through exogamy, fierce rivalries between clans soften and exchange of ideas, specifically farming and
          fishing, begin coalescing clans into regional groups.
1122 At this time Korea becomes known as Chaosien, located in the south of Liao-tung proper: It occupies the fine lands
          east of the kingdom of Kingchow to Datonggang, including the rivers Liao and Yalu, extending from the sea
          north to the border of modern Mukden. The people, the Sooshun, comprise over 100 "kingdoms" or
          independent clans, east and southeast of the Beishwi, or Datonggang. The people are nomadic, do not till the
          ground and have no knowledge of fire.
 Ki-ja (or Kitsu), 53yo, exiling himself from China (fleeing the court of his brother Wu Wang of Chow), is elected king
          of Chaosien (Cho-son). Being a great sage, he settles at P'yung-yang and establishes a new reigning dynasty - he
          refuses to acknowledge supremacy of Wu Wang. He brings two great works; the Si-jun (on History) and So-jun
          (on Poetry) as well as the science of manners, music, medicine, sorcery and incantation. he teaches propriety
          and etiquette, uprightness (or integrity), agriculture, rearing of silkworms, the spinning and weaving of silk.
Penal Code: Murder punished by death in the same manner as the crime; brawling paid in grain; theft by enslavement or
          payment of a heavy fine. Other laws deal with relations between king and subject, parent and child, husband and
          wife, friend and friend, old and young. To be a capable ruler, Ki-ja estabs a corps of natives, trained in
          government. He also learns the Korean language and reduces it to writing. For government revenue the land is
          divided into squares which are divided into nine (the ninth being in the center) each of the eight also jointly till
          the ninth which belongs to the government. It is said his rule does away with the necessity to bar houses and
          lock stores; women are no longer unfaithful.
1083 Ki-song builds am ancestral temple.
1057 Ki-sun goes mad upon death of his father.
1030 Ki-bak adopts for his officials the court garments of the Sang kingdom in China.
1000 Bronze enters from Siberia through Manchuria (Scytho-Siberian technology) creating a ruling class and the ability
          of a few clans to dominate others creating a tribal society. With bronze, the first major tribes are Koguryo and
          Puyo (or Paek-che). Pottery is undecorated earthenware.
997 Ki-ch'un raises a 7,300 man army; the army's flag is blue.
943 Ki-jo establishes a cavalry.
890 Ki-sa hangs a drum by the palace gate - anyone with a grievance strikes the drum to obtain an audience.
843 Law is passed by which the government undertakes to support the destitute
773 Ki-u forbids practice of sorcery and incantation.
748 Ki-p'yung launches a navy.
722 First day of the fifth moon (May?) is a solar eclipse.
710 Great famine. King Ki-gwul sends a fleet across the Yellow Sea with fish to purchase rice from the Chinese. All
          official salaries are reduced one half.
707 King Ki-gwul orders making of 15 kinds of musical instruments. He also executes the sorceress of An-ju who claims
          to be the daughter of the Sea king and deceived many people.
670 King Ki-jon sends an envoy to make friends with the king of Che in China. He also revises the penal code and makes
          large thefts a capital crime. He also orders the building of an asylum for widows, orphans and childless aged
664 One of the wild northern tribes sends chief Kil-i-do-du to swear allegience to Cho-sun.
659 Pak Il-jung comes to Korea from the Chu kingdom in China, bringing a medicine called myun-dan-bang which he
          claims to be the elixir of youth. He gains the ear of the king and gains virtual rule over the country.
634 Ki-yang comes to the throne and has Pak Il-jung executed. The country rejoices; banished men are recalled and
          prisoners freed.
600-500 Cave dwellings extended with constructed extensions. Rice culture introduced from China. Dolmens raised;
          stone tombs.
593 King Ki-ch'am is only five years old. His uncle is regent. The courtier Kang Son-gang has the regent assassinated
          and assumes the rule, imprisoning Ki-ch'am. Soon Kong Son-gang is assassinated.
560 The Ha tribe of the Japanese island of I-so sends chief Wha-ma-gyun-hu-ri to swear allegience to Cho-sun.
505 King Yu (Ki-yo?) with 3,000 battles the restive wild tribes to the north, adding a wide strip of territory to his realm.
          He gives teachers to teach the tribes agriculture and sericulture.
426 U Yi-ch'ung or T'a-an (=Cha-san) raises a rebellion and besieges the capital. King Ki-jeung is forced to flee to Hyul-
          gu. Soon afterwards loyal troops drive the rebel across the northern border.
403 The king of Yun (capital at Chik-ye-sung (Peking) and Yun's teritory is contiguous with Cho-sun on the west) sends
          greetings to Korea.
400-200 Iron use spreads from China, into the northern areas and into Korea. Modified dolmens are being used. Weak
          tribal communities are being formed, though by using Bronze and iron, chieftans are able to enable tribal
          powers to grow. See Note 2.
400 About this time (China's Contending States) the Yow and Ying Chows organize into the kingdom of Yen.
380 The king of Yun sends an army and siezes a district in western Cho-sun. Soon they are driven out.
365 Yun general Chin-ga with 20,000 delimits the western border (O-do river) but Cho-sun general Wi Mun-un with
          30,000 defeats them, driving them off.
346 A wild chieftan of the north asks Korean aid against Yun. 10,000 are granted. These and 1,000 tribal cavalry sieze
          Sang-gok. Soon Yun sues for peace.
305 With the Chou dynasty so weak, the governor of Liaotung assumes the title Wang or "King"; Cho-sun remains
          faithful to Chou and prepares to attack Liaotung. But the councellor Ye opposes this and Cho-sun follows his
          advice; the alliance with Chau is abandoned and peace is made with the new Yun kingdom of Liaotung. But
          Cho-sun, stretching beyond the Lido river, is tempting to the Yun king; picking a quarrel with the Cho-sun king
          he moves his boundary to the Yalu river. Later he overcomes the wild tribes of the north and builds a wall from
          Cho-yang to Yang-p'yung.
239 Tsin dynasty of China. Yowchow is renamed Liosi Kun and yingchow is renamed Liaotung Kun.
221 Ki-bu hauls down his colors and sends an envoy to Shih to do abesience for him. Later dies.
206 How Dsun (Ki-jun) is king at founding of Han dynasty (China) under title of Tsin. With defeat of Tsin emperor,
         anarchy appears in China, including kingdom of Yen which is soon absorbed by Jonfan and Choson. Wei Man,
         chief of Yen, fights How Dsun, defeating him and conquering Choson. Builds capital of Wanghien.
200 By this time people live in wooden houses with the ondol, an under-floor heating system. Dolmens have died out,
         with burials either of earth mounds over the corpse or ceramic pot shaped coffins. Meanwhile, many refugees
         have poured into Korea from Ch'in and Han repression. See Note 3.
    About this time Wimon (Chinese Wei Man) in service of Yen with 1,000 followers enters Choson where king Ki-jun
         appoints him military defender.
    By this time three tribal leagues, the Sam Han ("Three Hans") formed: Ma-han, Chin-han and Pyon-han. Ma-han
         territory is south of the Han river and along the west coast. Chin-han along eastern Naktong river. Pyon-han
         along western Naktong, though still a loose federation at this time. Ki-jun allows fugitives from the Chinese
         states of Yun, Che and Cho to settle along the valley of the Yalu and its southern tributaries. Wi-mun, a Yun
         and lieutenant of No-gwan, governor of Yun, flees from his defeated leader to Ki-jun who gives him land in the
         north. Here he begins making friends with the Chin-bun tribe.
193 Wi-man tells Ki-jun that a Chinese army is advancing on Korea and he's going to march to P'yung-yang to be Ki-
         jun's bodyguard. When this trick is discovered, it is too late; Ki-jun flees to the south. Wi-man now sets about
         setting himself firmly on the throne. Soon he wins over most of the adjacent tribes. Eventually his kingdom
         extends far into Liao-tung, northern and eastern Korea and even Ch'ung-ju in China. southern boundary is the
         Han river.
    Ki-jun escaped down the Ta-dong river, down the coast to Keum-ma-gol (Iksn). The land is peopled by the Ma-han,
         Chin-han and Pyon-han peoples:
    Ma-han on southwest part of peninsula, extends to Han river? North of them are the Nang-nang. South of them are
         part of the Pyon-han - or the Wa-in (Japanese). There is agriculture, sericulture and use of flax and hemp. No
         walled towns. The Ma-han are virtual governors of all southern Korea. Gold and silver are not held in high
         repute. Tatooing is popular.
    Chin-han - Many Chinese fleeing the Tsin dynasty settled here - located approximately in Kyung-sang province.
         Horses and cattle used as beasts of burden and under saddle. Rich in iron ore. Music and dance popular;
         instruments are a rude harp and one made by stretching wire back and forth inside a metal cylinder. Tatooing is
         popular in those areas near the Japanese.
    Pyon-han: Much tatooing. Severe punishments.
    Ki-jun gains control of Ma-han government then dies this same year. (190) Wiman usurps the throne (with help from
         several rebellious Korean clans) and finds favor with Chin in allying with her against the Huns. Laws passed
         include; murder punished by execution; victim's family paid in grain by murderer's family; thieves serve victims
         as slaves. Concept of private property established. Social classes arise.
150 (?) Death of Wi-man; he is succeeded by his (grand-?) son U-gu. He sets about acquiring greater independence from
         China: He stops all in tercourse with China and prevents surrounding tribes the same. Meanwhile, Nam-nyu,
         king of the Ye-guls, revolts from Wi-man's rule and moves to Liao-tung. Two or three years later the new
         settlement is gone; either joins kingdom of Pu-yu or revolts and is destroyed by the Chinese.
140-88 Frequent envoys from Ma-han to the Chinese court.
    Era (+/-) of rise of the Koguryo. Live in valleys of Tongga river basin to north of middle course of the Yalu, on route
         of the entrance of bronze and iron into Korea, thus first tribe to be proficient. Country difficult for agriculture.
         Proficient horsemen (hunting and banditry) founded (legendary) by one Chumong, a Puyu leader. The Koguryo
         league formed from the Ye, Maek and other tribes - five core tribes: Kyeru, Sono, Cholno, Sunno and Kwanno.
         Early days ruler of league was of Sono tribe but later the Kyeru (by this time of the T'aejo). Contacts with Han
         China usually hostile.
128 Chinese colony Ch'anghae abandoned because of Koguryo invasions. See Note 4.
126 The kingdom of Whi (northeast of Wei, north of Chin-han and south of Okcho) becomes allegient to the Han
         dynasty. Thus the frontier of the Han dynasty is at the Bei (Datonggang) river; Han dominion extends over
         Liaotung and Pingyang (modern) provinces as well.
110? Yow Ju (Ugo), grandson of Wei Man and ruler of Wei, refuses to submit to Han.
109 Ugo tries to monopolize trade with Han and the emperor uses this as an excuse to invade to secure his flank from the
         Huns. Attack on the capital beaten off.
    The Han emperor sends ambassador Ho to Wanghien to induce Yow to acknowledge Han overlordship. Yow
         politely refuses and sends a Choson chief to escort Ho back to China. After crossing the Bei, Ho has the chief
         killed and announces to the emperor that he has cut off the head of a Choson general; he is appointed governor
          of eastern Liaotung.
108 Han attacks again: Conquest of Choson. Ugo is assassinated. Han divides northwestern Korea into four prefectures:
          Nangnang (Lo-lang), Chinbon, Imdun and Hyont'o. See Note 5.
     Chinese in Nangnang: Facilitated by number of Chinese (former refugees) already living there. Best communications
          with China by land and sea thus center of Chinese culture and influence, attracting Chinses administrators,
          scholars and intellectuals.
     County and prefecture system impressed with many clan patriarchs acting as Chinese petty officials. Southern area is
          weakened as Korean Han tribes offered bribes. But casualties outside the Chinese "sphere" leads to strict laws
          to guard Chinese lives and proper ty. China exports from Korea fish, salt, iron, timber and farm products, often
          extracted by forced labor. Chinese officials live comfortably (even luxuriously?). While Chinese culture has
          little impact on the general population, technology does: Metal working especially, giving strength to the
          development of tribal communities into integrated potical units.
107 Finally the emperor has had it He demands all Chinese refugees in Korea to return at once and prepares for war
          against U-gu. (Autumn) A sea and land force (under generals Yang-bok and Sun-ch'i) is sent. The naval
          expedition lands on the Choson shore and the army, having passed through Shanhaigwah, Liaotung, by
          Funghwangshan, over the Yalu and joining the naval force: Yow repulses both forces. To the emperor, Yow
          professes willingness to submit; he sends his heir with 10,000 men and plunder and horse along with Chinese
          commander Dso. Each is suspicious: Dso's messenger returns to the Han capital without either and is executed.
          Dso attacks and defeats the northern Choson army while naval commander Low attacks from the south: They
          besiege Wanghien. By discrediting Low to the emperor, Dso manages to become sole commander and press the
          siege. Yow is assassinated, the plotters flee to Dso and Wanghien open her gates: Choson is divided into four
          provinces (or circuits): (1) Lo-lang (=Norang; modern Pingyang) which includes Wanghien; (2) Lintwun
          (kingdom of Whi; = modern Gangwan Do) (3) Huentoo (original Koguryu and eastern part of modern Li-
          aotung) (4) Junfan (= western half of Li-aotung on the Liao river). Outside of Han control lies Mahan with 54
          "kingdoms" or independent clans. East of these lie Chin-han comprising 12 independent "kingdoms". South and
          bordering Wo (=Japan) is Bien, also of 12 "kingdoms". North of Chin-han is kingdom of Whi, extending to the
          sea and north of Whi is Okcho, also stretching to the sea. One of Mahan's kingdoms is called Baiji, or Paekche,
          whichis gradually gaining supreme power in Mahan; it lies east and southeast of Lolang. Chinhan is also called
          Chin (=Tsin) from Chinese immigrants that fled the fall of the Tsin dynasty. Whi - south of Koguryu and Okcho
          - received Chinese civilization through Kitsu when under rule of Choson. Established as an independent km by
          Nan Lu, a prince of Whi, when Choson broke up. Wo - (Japan) - over 30 kings and kingdoms, the most
          powerful is Yem-atai. Tribute is sent to the Han dynasty: In begining of Han dynasty, the Japanese began a
          period of raiding and plundering Choson.
1st century: People on plains of Sungari river, Manchuria, growing in power. See Note 6
82/81 BCE Chinese prefectures of Chinbon and Nimdun abandoned: United into province of P'yung-ju.
   Emperor So-je (Chao-ti) establishes province of Tong-by. See Note 7
75 BCE Collapse and abandonment of Chin colony Hyont'o from Koguryo pressure.
57 BCE The chiefs of the six Chin-han states (Yun-jun-yang-san, Tol-san-go-ho, Cha-sa-jin-ji, Mu-san-da-su, Keum-san-
          ga-ri and Myung-whal-san-go-ya) hold a council at Yun-chun-yang and agree to merge into a kingdom. The
          capital is at Su-ya-bul (=Seoul) or Sil-la. They place 13 year old Hyuk-ku-se on the throne. The kingdom begins
          to grow in power. The island of Tslushima be comes a dependency. Hyuk-ku-se (Hyokkose) has the title
          kosogan, his successor will be called ch’anch’aung. The third to 18th rulers will be called marinkan, and after
          them the Chinese title of wang (king) will be used.
48 BCE Japanese pirates stop their incursions into Korea for awhile.
37 BCE Chu-mong, son of keum-wa, son of Ha-bu-ru of Puyu (along the Sungari(?) or other tributary of the Amur)
          founds a kingdom at Chul-bon (=Song-ch'un) which he calls Ko-gu-ryu. This establishment of an independent
          kingdom bothers the Chinese somewhat. Chu-mong begins a policy of slow absorption of surrounding territory.
          He encloses the capital with a heavy stockade and builds storehouses and a prison.
   Silla absorbs the towns of Pyon-han. The capital of Silla - called also Keum-sung - is surrounded by a 12 mile long
          wall. Silla's growing power is bothering Mahan.
   General: By this time of having kings, an official hierarchy has developed. There is a prime minister and etc. The
          social structure is influenced by preoccupation with war: League leader, tribal leaders and patriarchs function
          like military chain of command. All men undergo military training. Menial tasks handled by slaves. On the
          battlefield, the aristocracy is luxurious (imported silks, gold and silver ornaments). Culture and customs similar
        to Puyu. See Note 8.
35 BCE Chu-mong campaigns against the Puryu on the Yalu, taking over their territory.
29 BCE Chu-mong siezes Hang-in district (near modern Myo-hyang San).
27 BCE Chu-mong takes Ok-ju, extending Koguryu to the eastern shore.
23 BCE Chu-mong learns of his mother's death in Puyu and sends an embassy to do her honor.
19 BCE The king of Silla sends the envoy Ho-yong to Mahan to allay that monarch's fears.
18 BCE Pi-ryu and On-jo, sons of Chu mong, leave Koguryu and move south. On-jo establishes a kingdom at Eui-rye-
        sung where he is given a tract of land by the Mahan king. He calls his kingdom Southern Puyu (or Pak-je).
        Eventually his brother Pi-ryu, his settlement at Mi-ch'u-hol (=In-ch'un) having failed, joins On-jo and soon dies.
16 BCE Death of the Mahan king. The Silla embassy, sent to attend the obsequities, looks for an opportunity to have Silla
        absorb Mahan but they are forbidden to do so.
10 BCE The Mal-gal besiege On-jo's capital and it is a battle to drive them back. Meanwhile, Koguryu is threatened by
        the Sun-bi but they are driven back by general Pu Bun-no. On-jo erects the fortresses of Ma-su-sung and Ch'il-
9 BCE The wild men pull down On-jo's fortresses - he decides to move the capital; to Nam-han.
8 BCE Nam-han is enclosed with a wall Agriculture is begun to be taught in the Han river valley.


1st century CE: Puyo, now of considerable power by this time, seeks friendly relations with China as help against the
          Hsien-pei tribes to the north and Koguryo to the south. See Note 9.
1 CE Koguryu in north is warlike and feared. Pak-je, awaits the chance to take over Mahan. Silla in the south is peaceful
          and powerful with mild rule.
2 CE Capital of Koguryu is moved to near Wi-na Cliff (north of mod Ch'o-san).
4 CE Death of Hyuk-ku-se of Silla; the Nang-nang tribe invades Silla but are driven back.
7 CE Nam-ha of Silla places management of the government into the hands of the famous Suk-t'al-ha.
8 CE Wang Mang asks Koguryu's help against the Hsiung-nu. It is refused
9 CE Koguryu is placed under the supervision of Huentoo, one of Chao-sien's four divisions.
12 CE Wang Mang sends an envoy to Yu-ri of Koguryu demanding aid in subduing the Ni tribes. Yu-ri refu-ses but he is
          compelled to send troops who desecrate and plunder Liao tung territory. Chinese under general Om-u reduce
          Yu-ri to title of marquis. Now Koguryu undertakes chronic reprisals against China.
14 CE Koguryu conquers the Yang-mals tribe of the north and siezes a strip of land beyond the Liao river. Meanwhile,
          Silla is being harassed by Japanese pirates and the Nang-nang in the north.
16 CE Captain Chu-geum attempts to reestablish Mahan but he and his followers are defeated and killed.
17 CE Koguryu conquers Puyu.
25 CE Koguryu conquers Ka-ma and Ku-da.
27 CE The emperor sends a force to bring Koguryu to terms. Battle of Eui-ju, the Koguryu are defeated. The Chinese
          besiege the capital but a trick fools them into withdrawing.
32 CE The king of Silla changes the names of the six families to Yi, Ch'oe, Son, Chong, Pa and Sul; the name of the
          country as "Silla" is now formally used. Silla is growing by immigration.
      King Mu-hyul of Koguryu sends "tribute" to the Imperial Court of Han.
41 CE The nine districts of A-do-gan, Yo-do-gan, P'i-do-gan, O-do-gan, Yu-su-gan, Yu-ch'un-gan, Sin-ch'un-gan, Sin-
          gwi-gan and O-ch'un-gan form a confederacy - the "Kingdom of Karak" - capital at Karak (=Kim-ha) and king
          is Keum Su-ro (T'aejo). The new kingdom is bordered on the east by Wang-san river, northeast by Ka-ya San
          (=Ko-ryung), south and southwest by the coast and west by Chi-ri San.
49 CE Puyu king sends an envoy to the Chinese court.
    Ha-u, a member of a collateral branch of the ruling family becomes king of Koguryu. He professes loyal ty to China
          but begins siezing as much Chinese territory as he can.
51 CE A minister of the Han emperor urges to have the forces of Hienbi and Koguryu attack the eastern flank of the
          Huns; the Chiang Hoo (Tibetans) attack the Hun's west while the Chinese army attacks them in Chihli. This
          because this year the Hun are afflicted with famine and pestilence. The emperor does not act.
53/4 CE Assassination of king Ha-u by one Tu-no. Kung, seven years old grandson of Yu-ri is placed on the throne.
          Construction of forts along the Chinese border begins. King Kung of Koguryu begins hostile actions against
55 CE Koguryu takes general possession of the territory of Ok-ju on the eastern coast.
57 CE Silla adds the districts of U-si and Ku-ch'il to its domain.
58 CE Death of the Silla king without issue. The aged Suk-t'al-ha assumes the rule; he is 62.
63 Mang-so, last remaining Mahan chief, goes over to Silla; the Pok-am fortress becomes Sillan. This annoys Pak-je and
          it begins a hostile attitude toward Silla.
68 Pak-je siezes the Silla fortress of Wa-san.
Note on the OKCHO and TONG-YE: The Okcho (around plain of Hamhung) and Tong-ye (vicinity of modern Wonsan
          and Anbyon) tribes are cose relatives of the Koguryu and possibly Koguryu off-shoots. There is tribal law,
          though rudimentary. Occasionally patriarchs will assume Chinese rank titles. Mixed economy - fishing and
          farming. Horse domesticated but not for warfare as with Koguryu. Trade: Hemp cloth, fish, salt and seaweed
          from Okcho; sealskins and birchbows from Tong-ye. Tribes remain fairly primitive until their absorption by
70 Koguryu begins expanding westward. Liaotung is plundered and governor Gung drives them back.
75+/-10? Okcho submits to Koguryu. Tong-ye afterward? Probably.
77 Silla retakes Wa-san fort and kills the Pak-je garrison. Meanwhile Koguryu absorbs Kal-sa then conquers Chu-ra.
80 Death of Suk-t'al-ha. He has added the districts of Eum-jip-pul, Ap-to, Pi-ji, Ta-bul, Ch'o-p'al and Sil-jik to Silla. Now
          Ka-rak opens hostilities against Silla.
88 Two Silla forts are built; Ka-so (to guard against Pak-je) and ma-dy (to guard against Ka-rak).
91 Ka-rak attacks Silla but is unsuccessful.
109 The Hienbi (Hsiung-nu) fall upon Liaosi but are defeated (Liaosi is assisted by a Woohung contingent).
110 (Autumn) Hsiung-nu plunders around Yuyang but is driven off by Jang the Taishow (=magistrate). Now Hsiung-nu
          tricks Jang, soundly defeating his forces.
    Koguryu harries the kingdom of Whi while the Hsiung-nu ravage Liaosi.
110-111 Hs'-nu reach Shanggoo (Hu-enhwa), defeat an army there and continue on a pillaging rampage to Yoo-nggwan
          and reaching Machung. (Aug) Under commander Dung who defeats them Hsiung-nu power, along with that of
          Koguryu, is growing yearly.
NOTE: Gaogowli=Koguryu.
121 Combined Hs'-nu and Koguryu force breaks into Liaotung, driving her army to Sinchung (=Kaichow) where it is
          defeated. Koguryu is satisfied (king Kung feigns submission and sends his son to court to guarantee sincerity)
          but Hs'-nu pushes on, plundering Yoonggwan and defeating the commandant of Yunjoong (=Tatung o Shansi).
          Chinese forces from Yowchow (Peking) drive the Hsiung-nu eastward. (Dec) Hien-bi ravage Huentoo.
122 Hs'-nu forces penetrate to Tai yuen; they are joined by the Chinese commandant of Hanyang city. Soon, however,
          they are worsted by the Hi-wngnoo (Huns) and decide it is better to operate with yearly incursions rather than
          sieze property.
130? About this time king Kung of Koguryu attacks Puyo and is defeated, Kung dies. Gwang, governor of Huentoo, asks
          permission of the emperor to breakup Koguryu but it is refused.
135 King Il-sung of Silla begins a road building program.
139 King Il-sung constructs a road from the Silla capital to Chuk-yun (=Pung-geui).
147 Koguryu has befriended the Ye-mak peoples and are raiding with them into Chinese territory. Kung turns over rule
          to his brother Su-sung who continues this policy.
    Period of anarchy in the kingdom of Wo begins about this time.
150 About this time the Chinese emperor nominates Goong Swundoo as commandant of Huentoo, but with Han
          influence now so weak in Korea; he assumes title of Liaotung How (Marquis) and later Liao-tung Wang
          (Feudal King): He gains possession of all Liaotung and Liaosi and divides his kingdom into western Liao and
          central Liao provinces: Neighboring small kingdoms acknowledge his sway.
165 Death of Su-sung. The hedonist Ch'a-da comes to the throne of Kogu-ryu. His endless orgies don't suit the state well
          and (166) he is assassinated. Pak-ko, a relative of Ch'a-da is called to be king.
168 Pak-je carries out a successful demonstration against Silla; Silla is unable to retaliate but points out the advantages of
169 King Pak-ko of Koguryu ravages Liaotung; the governor of Huentoo addreses Pak-ko's supremacy. Now Koguryu
          includes ancient Choson and Huentoo Pak-ko annexes almost all of Liao-tung. Later (170+?) Yen tries to drive
          Koguryu east from Sinchung but are defeated.
170 An old and unmarried woman, Bei-mi-hoo, gains supreme power in Wei, ending the anarchy.
    About this time Silla King A-dal-la begins the Whan-song; making government loans in spring to be paid back with
         interest in the autumn.
177 China decides to crush Hs'-nu power; already the Huentoo commander acknowledges Koguryu supremacy. Chinese
         commander of Liaosi, Jao Bao, defeats Hsiung-nu near Liwchung, but his family has been killed by the Hs'-nu.
         Soon, Jao Bao dies. Despite this defeat, Hsiung-nu power continues growing.
185 Pul-hyu (Silla), grandson of Suk-t'al-ha, begins strengthening Silla; first he establishes two military stations at the
         capital. He orders more attention be paid to agriculture than the building of fine government buildings.
187 (June-Oct) With Han declining, Jang Wun raises a 3,000 man army at Yowchow and Woohwun and marches against
         Liang Chow. Jang Twun is rejected and the Duke of Liaosi is made commander. At Kichow most Woohwun
         men desert; Jang Twun joins Jang Ju (Taishow of Tai-shan in Shantung) along with the chief of Woohwun.
         They raise a force, take Kichow and sieze the remaining Woohwun men. Another camp of 10,000 is located at
         Feiyoo (modern Looloonghien of Yoongping) under the Taishows of Yowbeiping (modern Tsunhwa) and
         Liaotung: Jang Ju is proclaimed emperor and Jang Twun CIC. The Han emperor appoints Goong Swun,
         Taishow of Liaotung, dictatorial powers over the northeast; he embarks on a campaign of plunder. (Nov) Goong
         Swun defeats a large rebel force in Bohai at Doonggwan hien (modern Tsangchow).
197 Death of Nam-mu of Koguryu. His queen approaches his brother Pal-gi to be king but he refuses. Younger brother
         Yun-nu accepts. Pal-gi, angry, storms the palace but is unsuccessful, he retreats to Liaotung.
199 Nan Low, chief of Shanggoo (modern Huenhwa), Soo Pooyeni, chief of Liaotung and Woo Yen of Yowbeiping
         unite with Woohwun against Goong Swun. One Yuen Shao is proclaimed emperor of all north of the Whang
         river. Goong Swun is defeated and slain. Tadun, regent (and illigimate brother of) for Low-ban, son of Chin
         Liju, late king of Woohwun, rewards the victorious leaders with titles.
200±? About this time the Han and later the Wei have purchased Hs'-nu protection to end their maurading into
         Yowchow and Biugchow (=Taiyuen) prefectures. They become a protector of China's northeastern borders,
         keeping more distant raiders out. See Note 10.
200-225 Surrounding savages repeatedly demonstrate against Silla, Koguryu and Pak-je as the three states absorb more
         and more of their territory. Silla is beset with Japanese pirate raids. Pak-je builds a wall at Sa-do to keep the wild
         tribes back. 1,000 Chinese refugees find asylum in Ko-guryu.
204 Liaotung officials throw off all imperial restraint and anarchy prevails:
204-207 Roving armed bands prevail; Puyo and Whimai are also in similar conditions. Over 100,000 Chinese flee to
         Woohung to escape the anarchy. Woohung marches south and plunders regions of Chuenchow (southeast of
         modern Wooching hien of Peking). Han general Tsao Tsao marches north against them but is stopped by the
207 (Autumn) Tsao Tsao marches from Huwo shan, past Looloong, to Bailan, then (Sept) passes Bailangshan (White
         Wolf mountain) and defeats the Woo-hung (Tsao Tsao's forces are led by Jang Liao). 200,000 submit but Woo-
         hung king Aisiaishang and others flee to Liaotung where most are hunted down and killed by Swunkang,
         Taishow of Liaotung. (Oct) Tsao returns amid much winter hardship to China.
220 Breakup of Han - emergence of Wei dynasty in north and Woo (Wu) in south (includes Shanghai). Wei overthrows
         Goong's grandson and annexes Liaotung. Meanwhile, Puyo has difficulty maintaining relations with the
         fluctuating Chinese factions.
231 Founder of Woo (Wu) dynasty sends General Gow Ho by sea to Liaotung to purchase horses from Swun-yen,
         brother and successor of Swun-kang, Taishow of Liaotung. Fan, ex-minister to "emperor" of Woo and in exile
         at Kiaochow, memorializes his emperor that this is a waste of Ho's talent, but Fan is sent farther away to
         Munglin hien (Woochow). Meanwhile the "emperor" of Wei sends an army under the governor of Tsingchow
         and Commandant of Yowchow against Liaotung and against one of his ministers' advice: The army is defeated.
         Now Hiang (governor of Tsingchow) awaits Ho to be blown ashore at Chungshan which occurs; Ho and all his
         forces are slain. Fan, now dead, is recalled to court and buried with respect.
232 Swunyuen of Liaotung proffers his allegience to Woo. Woo's ruler sends Jang Ur, the Taichang, to Swun yuen to
         confer the title Yen Wang (Vassal King) upon him, against the advice of Woo's ministers including Goong
         Yoong and old Jang Jao, who claim Swunyuen cannot be trusted. Now, Woo's mother is dying and she tells her
         son to listen to Jang Jao for advice in internal affairs and Jang Ur for external affairs. But the alliance is to be
         carried out.
233 Woo's messengers start out (Spring) but Swunyuen is very independent minded with Woo so far away.
    Abinung, a Hs'-nu chief and husband of daughter of Boodoogun-Hsiung-nu guardian of the border - and who had
         defeated two Wei attempts against him, is defeated by a Wei general; Abi-nung submits.
234 (Jan) Swunyuen has the chief members of the Woo embassy beheaded and the heads sent to Wei as a peace offering:
           Wei convers the title Duke (Goong) of Liaotung upon him. Woo is enraged and disuaded from attack but is
           unable to confer with dying Jang Jao. Meanwhile, Swunyuen exiles the rest of the Woo party to Huentoo but
           they escape and reach Wei (Sept) where king Weigoong and his ministers Jooba recieve them and help them.
      The commander of Yowchow engages the warrior Han Loong to be sent against Abinung. The general's fame
           preceeds him and the Hs'-nu scatter before him.
      King Koi of Paekche; during his reign the country emerges as fulley developed kingdom on par with Koguryu.
237   Wei sends an army of 40,000 from Changan under SuMa against Liao tung and against his ministers wishes.
           Swunyuen seeks an alliance with Woo, who, still smarting from Swunyuen's treachery, refuses. (July) The Wei
           army reaches the Liao river and finds Swunyuen prepared with an earthen rampart. The Wei army tricks the
           Liao-tung army under Hs'-nu gen Bi and bypasses them; rushing to meet the foe the Liaotung army is besieged
           at Hi-angping (modern Liaoyang). (Sept-Oct) After a two-month siege in which the Liaotungs are reduced to
           cannibalism, Swunyuen and his son and a few hundred men escape, are caught and killed at the Daliang river.
           Su Ma enters Hi-angping and recieves the allegiance of all Liaotung, Huentoo and Lolang. See Note 11.
240   King U-wi-ku breaks an eight year old peace with China and invades Chinese territory taking An-p'yung-hyun.
241   U-wi-ku sends an expedition against Silla. Silla general Suk U-ro is slowly driven back to the "Palisades of Ma-du".
           Meanwhile, Chinese general Mo Gu-geum with 10,000 penetrates Koguryu to Sung-ch'un where U-wi-ku
           himself defeats them. Soon Mo Gu-geum turns the tables and soundly defeats U-wi-ku who flees, persued by
           general Wang-geui, accross the Yalu to Ok-ju terr.
242   U-wi-ku moves his capital to P'yung-yang.
244   U-wi-ku concludes a treaty with Silla.
      Wei attacks Koguryu but Puyo makes an alliance when offered supplies for her troops.
246   Wei sends 20,000 infantry and cavalry against Koguryu, defeating them, capturing the capital. U-wi-ku flees to
           Okcho area.
247   U-wi-ku retakes his capital.
249   Silla receives an envoy (met by general Suk U-ro) from Japan; the general insults him and he returns to Japan and an
           invasion is readied. Gen Suk U-ro repents, goes to the Japanese camp, confesses and is killed; the invasion is
250   The Japanese envoy again comes to the Silla and is well received. But general Suk U-ro's widow poisons his food
           and he is killed.
265   Accession of the Tsin (or Jin) dynasty in the south of Shansi. There are a great number of Hs'-nu peoples settled in
           Chinese lands, peoples whose actual loyalties lie with Hs'-nu which is aggravating to the Chinese.
275   About this time Pak-je attempts reforms of her official system and sets a heavy penalty for bribery. She also patches
           up a shallow peace with Silla. The Suk-sin try to overthrow Silla but are driven out, Silla gains their territory.
280   The advisors to the Tsin emperor advise him to drive the Hs'-nu out of Tsin lands but he refuses to meddle with
           them. The Hs'-nu chief Mo-hoo establishes a separate kingdom with capital in area of Changli. After adding
           Loongchunghien he dies. Son and successor is Mooyen.
281   Mooyen ravages Chinese neighborhood of Changli.
283   Death of Mooyen. His brother Mo-yoong Shan attempts to kill Hwi, or Kwei, son and successor of Mooyen but he
           soon flees to Liaotung.
285   The Hienbi (Hsiung-nu) attack Puyo but are beaten off with Chinese help from Tsin.
286   The people rise and put Moyoong Shan to death and recall Kwei. Hs'-nu reforms into several kingdoms: Kwei rules
           over Moyoong; Dwan is located north and west of Moyoong; Yuwun, the origin al Hs'-nu, lies west of Kaiyuen.
           Northeast of the Hsiung-nu kingdoms is Puyo. Now Kwei petitions the Chinese emperor for permission to
           march against and annex Yuwun but the emperor refuses, liking a divided Hs'-nu better than a united one. Kwei
           therefore rampages through Liaosi until defeated by the commandant of Yowchow at Feiyoo (= Looloong hien).
287   Kwei begins yearly incursions into Chinese territory east, west and south of him. He also repeatedly attacks the
           kingdom of Puyo from the south (its west is protected by other Hsiung-nu kingdoms).
295   About this time Kwei tenders his allegience to the Chinese court, accepted. Kwei is nominated Doodoo (Lieutenant
           General) of Hsiung-nu (ie; Military Lieutenant-Governor). Kwei (who has maried a daughter of King Dwan)
           makes his capital at Jichung (Tsichung).
300   Keui-rim, King of Silla, tours his kingdom. Meanwhile, Sang-bu of Kogu-ryu orders everyone to help in building a
           palace. The courtier Ch'ang Cho-ri tries to dissuade this as the people are in no mood and Sang-bu is
           assassinated. Meanwhile, Japan asks Silla to send a noble maiden to be their queen; Keui-rim sends A-son-
           geup-ri. See Note 12.
     About this time the tribes of Pyon-han organize into a league; the Kaya league.
304 The Doodoo of Yowchow, struggling to stem the tide of anarchy within the Chinese empire in his sector, enters
         treaties of alliance on his own account; his daughter to the chief of the Dwan Hs'-nu, another to the chief of the
         Yuwun. He also nominates the Dwan chief Duke (Goong) of Liaosi. Meanwhile, Hun chief Li-wyuen - whose
         surname is Hooyen - assumes the title Shanyu (=Turkish Khan, or Mongol Kokan: "King of Kings") and the
         Chinese title Han Wang (King or Prince) since through many marriages of Huns with Chinese princesses much
         Chinese blood flows through Hun veins. Advised not to attack Hs'-nu, Liwuen begins ravaging the northwest
         part of Chinese territory.
308 Liwyuen declares himself Whang di (=Emperor). Chinese government employes a Hs'-nu contingent against the
         Huns and (Dec) it soundly defeats Li-wyuen and drives him from Chinese territory. Kwei is acknowledged as
         Great Shanyu or Hsiung-nu by the governors of the three northern Chinese provinces.
309-10 Li, feudal King of Bohai (northwest of Shantung and southwest of Chihli) is joined by Ting, feudal king of
         Chan-gli against Chinyo, first minister to the Tsin emperor. Li's son marches against Chinyo. Bun, governor of
         Liao-tung, marches against Bohai in behalf of Chinyo; Li's son is defeated and killed. Another part of Bun's
         army penetrates to Wooluhien of Liaotung defeating the Bohai army there: Prince Ting flees to Kwei. Soon Bun
         and his family is killed in an ambush while seeking to gain possession of Li's successor.
311-312 Imperial commander Li Jwun is defeated and beheaded by Hun chief Shulua. Chinyo applies to the Dwan Hs'-
         nu to avenge this and the Dwan, being in no hurry, angers Chinyo who commands Kwei to punish the Dwan
         Hi-enbi: Kwei's son Han defeats the Dwan, pursuing them from Hosinchung to Yanglo (near Kingchau). Han
         then retires leaving a garrison at Ching-shan. This victory enhances the growing fame of Kwei.
313 Death of the governor of Huentoo. His son and successor praises Kwei for his fame and lack of anarchy such as that
         plaguing China: Chinyo is becomming increasingly jealous of Kwei.
     King Mich'on conquers Chinese colony of Nangnang and extension of Tae-bang, ending Chinese rule in Korea.
         Now, however, Koguryu is beset by Chin invaders from the north and new kingdom in south: Earlier Yen state
         of Hsien-pei barbarians and new Paekche kingdom in the south.
318 Death of Dwan Duke of Liaosi. Son and successor is murdered in a revolt and revolt's leader becomes chief of
         Dwan. See Note 12A.
320 (Jan) The governor of Pingchow (=Yo-ongping) finds out about Chinese people seeking security in Kwei and fearing
         Kwei's potential power seeks to have Koguryu, Dwan (Tan) and Yuwun (U-mum) combine and overthrow
         Kwei. Using strategy, Kwei tricks Koguryu and Tan into distrusting Yuwun; Koguryu and Tan retreat; Yuwun
         is indignant at their suspicions and sets out alone against Kwei, under the command of Si Doogwan. Kwei calls
         on Han to attack the Yuwun rear; Kwei forces defeat Yuwun; Doogwan manages to escape. The governor of
         Pingchow now sends his nephew to seek peace; Kwei in-forms him of two choices; surrender or flight. The
         governor flees to Koguryu and Kwei takes Pingchow. Kwei appoints his son Yin governor of Liaotung. The
         army of Koguryu readies to oppose this Kwei encroachment but Yin routs them. After Kwei leaves, Koguryu
         again seeks to drive out Kwei but Han and Yin prevent this; Koguryu sues for peace.
     Meanwhile, Pung, commandant of Laichow, to avoid further conflicts with the commandant of Tsingchow, leads
         over 1,000 families into unoccupied areas of Liaotung.
321 Nomination (Jan) of Kwei as Doodoo of Yowchow and Pingchow; Goong of Liaotung and Shanyu. Kwei appoints
         his son Han governor of Liaotung and Yin governor of Pinggwo (=Jienan).
331 Soe of Koguryu begins strengthening Koguryu's defences; the walls of P'yung-yang are raised and fortress of Sin-
         sung built. Relations with China are strengthened. The Yin ruler does not miss these preparations.
332 Yun king Mo Yong-whang (successor of Mo Wong-we) attacks and conquers Sin-sung fort. King Soe is forced to
         swear fealty to Yun.
333 Death of Kwei. His kingdom includes the northeast corner of Chihli, all Liaosi and most of Liaotung up to the Gaoli
         borders. Son and successor is Whang, third son, who enacts severe laws causing general uneasienss. His
         brothers Han and Yin go to Dwan Hs'-nu and raise forces to march against Whang.
334 The Yun order Koguryu's capital moved northward to Wan-do (near modern Eui-ju).
     Yin marches westward; he siezes and kills Whang's spies. Whang sends generals against Yin and they're defeated.
         Commandant of Liaotung city declares for Yin. Soon all of Liaotung declares for Yin, much to the delight of
         Dwan and Yuwun. Liao, Shanyu of Dwan, sends an army against Tooho but it is forced to retire. Then his
         younger brother Lan attacks Liwchung but is repulsed, again besieges the city but unable to take it. Whang
         sends brother Kan to raise the siege but he is overwhelmed in "Ox-tail Valley". Yin now styles himself Prefect
         of Ping-chow and Duke of Liaotung, also siezing some Chinese officials (including one Wang Chi) on their
        way to Whang. Whang, however, sets out against Yin but the latter withdraws into Pinggwo province and
        Whang does not persue.
335 Yin dismisses the Chinese off icials he had siezed to go home but they head for Whang.
    Ye (=Linchang hien) becomes capital of Jao (=Chao).
    Yun desires to invade China; king Mo Yong-whang's relative Mo Yong-han advises that Koguryu and U-mum be
        disarmed first: Mo Yong-han and Mo Yong-p'a march by the sea road while general Wang-u leads a decoy
        force by the northern route. Soe's brother Mu with 50,000 marches against Mu; the Koguryu capital falls to
        Yun; Soe escapes. The Yun forces burn the palace, loot the treasury, exhume Soe's father and take the body,
        with the queen and her mother to the capital of Yun.
336 The Chinese messengers reach Whang (Jan) and he now knows the emperor's desire to have him overrule all
        Liaotung; Dwan and Yuwun are angered and seek to support Yin. Whang kills some of the Yuwun messengers
        and prepares to carry out his aims now sanctioned by the emperor.
    King Sow apologizes and surrenders to Yun; his father's body and the queen are returned but his mother-in-law
        remains with Yun. Capital of Kogu-ryu is moved back to P'yung-yang.
337 Whang is ready to crush his brothers (Feb) and sets out. His younger brother with the aid of desertions by Moy-oong
        men from the army of Whang, is defeated; he commits suicide. Gao, the successful general, is made a duke by
        Whang. Meanwhile, Whang has the city of Haochung built to keep Dwan in check; Bo is made commandant.
        He manages to beat off an attack by Dwan king Liao, who advances again but Whang's show of force forces
        him to withdraw, as does also an army of Yuwun. Now Whang ambushe the Dwan army while plundering and
        slays the commander. Again Liao sends an army against Whang; at Hinggwo chung Whang's son Tswun
        defeats them. The chief of Beiping (=Tsunhwa) begs Liao to make peace but he refuses. Whang's victory is
        complete; he revives the ancient title Yen Wang, as the Tsin court only controls 1/4 of China; Whang therefore
        creates a fifth independent kingdom that constitutes China: To his south is Shu Hoo ("Stone Tiger"), Prince
        Wang of Jao who assists Whang in subduing the marauding king Liao of Dwan.
338 (May) Han urges king Liao of Dwan to attack the Jao army before it joins Whang's forces; Liao refuses to take this
        advice but falls into an ambush set by Whang in that perishes many of his men and their families. Wang of Jao
        camps at Jin-tai; Yuyang and 40 other fortified cities of Dwan open their gates to him. Yang, chief of Beiping,
        re-tires to strong fortification at Yen shan. Wang of Jao heads again for Liao of Dwan; he takes his family to
        Miyun shan which now becomes Miyun hien; Han flees north to Yuwun. Other Dwan off icers submit. Jao and
        Yen Wang send 20,000 against Miyun, siezing Liao's wife and mother and slaying many. One of Liao's sons
        submits and is received by Whang. Whang allies with Mooling (="Sha per and Guide") of Yowchow and
        prefect of Pingchow. Jao Wang, jealous, now prepares to set against Yen Wang in order to attack Whang.
    Jao Wang's kingdom = Suchow, Yichow, Tsingchow, Kuchow, Bingchow and Yoong-chow: Extends from west of
        Shantung inclusive, includes south half of Chihli and central portions of Shensi and Shansi.
    Fearing his power, 36 of Yen Wang's cities open their gates to Jao. A Koguryu force marches into Lo lang to battle
        Whang after Jao defeats Yen. Jao besieges Jichung but old Pung's defense forces a retreat which is turned into a
        rout by Whang's cavalry. Whang successfully marches against the cities that had declared for Jao. But Jao ships
        his forces to Koguryu for an attack on the rear of Liaotung.
339 King Liao at Miyun hien asks Jao to help him but Jao is careful in accepting his submission: Liao in forms Whang
        how Jao's army under Ma Chiw can be defeated. Battle of Sandsangkow; Ma Chiw is defeated losing 6/10ths of
        his men; Chiw escapes but his general Yang Goo is Whang's prisoner but is made one of Whang's generals.
340 Jao Wang is again defeated; Moyoong Ping slays his two commanders. Jao now besieges Fanchung, defended by a
        small garrison under Gwan; Jao is forced to raise the siege; he moves men of Liaosi south of Yichow to prevent
        their takeover by Yen Wang (Whang). Whang marches east against Sinchung but the Koguryu conclude a
        treaty submit ted to Whang; he now sends the army under his 13 year old son against Yuwun. Meanwhile, Jao
        raises a 500,000 man army and marches to Bailang river. Whang's army enters Gaoyang, burning many of Jao's
        stores there. Chagrined, Jao sends a fleet to Anping in Liaotung. Anping is taken and a force under Mo Yoong
        Go siezes Pinggwo and holds off attacking koguryu armies.
    About this time king Soe sends his son to Yun and has the queen mother returned.
341-2 Whang recalls his brother Han and makes him a general who counsels first attacking Koguryu. By dividing their
        forces, Whang and Han defeat the Kogu-ryu; King Jao is homeless but refuses to see Whang. The dead king is
        disentombed; the body and his widow are taken away, the Koguryu palace is razed, the treasury siezed and
        50,000 citizens taken to China.
342 King Jao (Soe) of Koguryu sends (Spring) his younger brother to Whang to conclude a treaty. Whang ok's this but
        retains the widow as hostage. Now Yuwun marches south; Whang forbids battle which makes Yuwun careless
        and they are defeated near Loong chung, west of the Liao river.
    Meanwhile, Jao Wang's army has sailed back across the Gulf of Liao tung, having lost 2/3 of his force, most at sea.
        After landing, his men fall prey to wild carnivores. His son and heir defeats the northern Heinbe under
343-48 Pakje, the kingdom east of Koguryu raids Fooyu (Puyo) kingdom (that has Huen-too on its southeast, Yilow on
        the east and Hsiung-nu on the west) breaking it up. Most of the people flee westwards settling near lands of
        Yen; Whang attacks them, capturing their king Huen whom he makes a chief commander and giving a daughter
        in marriage. The Tsin emperor seeks the aid of Whang in the east and Jang Jwun in the west to put down Jao
        Wang, who has assumed the imperial title and taken Chungtu. The proposal comes to naught.
344 The Japanese ask for a royal princess of Silla to wed their king. Refused. They attack the Silla coast guard, are
        repulsed. They attack P'ung-do island then besiege the capital but are soon compelled to retire; forced to flee by
345 By this time Pakje has become prominent after having swallowed up its 53 neighboring clans of Mahan (See Note
        13). Its capital is near Sheool (See Note 14). Paekche's rise compells the uniting of Bien han and Cha han into
        one kingdom to be able to cope with both Koguryu and Pakje. The two-han kingdom is called Silla. This year,
        however, Silla suffers at the hands of Pakje. See Note 15.
346 Hsien-pei attack Puyo, severely defeating her: She now becomes dependent on Koguryu.
    Meanwhile (to ?) king Kunch'ogo of Paekche establishes control over all Ma-han area then attacks Koguryu
349 (Feb) Jao Wang falls ill while preparing for an attack by Jwun, Whang's son and heir (Yen Wang; Whang has died).
        The Tsin emperor has nominated him governor of Yowchow and Pingchow (May) Death of Jao Wang. Jwun is
        urged to march upon Jao's land; he prepares with generals Ba, Ping and Go. He concludes an alliance with Jang
        Joon ghwa of Liangchow in Shensi who joins him. Readying for combat Jao (son and successor?) has all
        Hiwngnoo people in his domain killed, putting over 200,000 families to the sword, to prevent their possible
350 (March) Jwun sends Ba with 20,000 via Tooho (through mod Shannaigwan); Moyu is sent to the Yiwung border
        and Jwun himself goes through Looloong. Go and Yuliang command the army's van. Loongchung remains in
        charge of the Heir-apparent. Ba causes the flight of Dung, commandant of Anlo (=Long-an) to Wang Woo,
        commandant of Yow-chow, after setting fire to his stores which however, are saved by Swun, Dooyu of south
        Tooho who joins Jwun at linju city (=Sanho, 30 miles east of Pe-king). (April) The Yen army arrives
        Woodsoong. Kichow is taken and Wang Two (commander of its garrison) is beheaded (Wang Woo and Dung
        have gone to Lookow (=Tingchow). A new city is built, called Loongchung as a capital, for Jwun is moving
        northward as if to command the Yuwun and to occupy a centre in order to unite all Hs'-nu into one kingdom.
        Next Fanyang (=Shwunyi hien) is taken, the Taishow's son flees to Wang Woo but is sent back and is made an
        officer. With a garrison at Kichow, under Moyu, Jwun sets out to attack Lookow but is almost killed by Dung's
        general Dwao who is pursued and all his men killed; Dsao joins Dung; Jwun returns to Kichow. (July) Death of
        Lan (made commandant of Lingju by Jao Wang with a garrison of Hs'-nu men under him) of Dwan. Sucessor is
        Ho who marches to Gwanggoo assument the rank of Chi Wang (ie; the ancient Shantung kingdom). Jwun
        siezes some Chinafied Hs'-nu districts and prevents defeats by sending his Kwangning and Shanggoo
        companies to the Hu and Woo districts while the Dai company goes to Wanchung. Meanwhile, Sinhing Wang
        is created emperor of Jao at Hianggwo (=Shwunte foo) but is soon surprised by Min, king of Wei, who (Dec)
        attacks and takes Hianggwo and 100,000 men
    About this time the Japanese again attempt to attack Silla but are repulsed.
351 (April) Jao attacks Min at Hiang gwo, defeats him and slays over 100,000, breaking up his army. Jao enacts severe
        laws, many Chiang and Hoo (Tibetan and Hunnish) families begin leaving the country. Bohai makes an alliance
        with Wei which desires to restore its power.
352 General Hoong assumes title of Chin (Shensi) Wang, further weakening Jao. Yen general Ping marches south, takes
        Yichow then Changan. Jwun goes to Loongchung. Ping defeats a Lookow force at Nunan and heads for
        Lookow. Kooyoo submits. General Yijoong makes peace with Jwun - becoming Great Doodoo of the Six Yi
        (barbarians of the west); his son is made commander. Meanwhile, Joongshan (=Tingchow) falls before general
        Go. Now Wei rushes in, attacks and siezes Hianggwo, exterminating the family of the "Stone Tiger": The
        kingdom of Jao is divided between Wei and Yen. Wei, however, desires to annex all of former Jao to his
        kingdom: He sets out for Yowchow but is pursued by general Go Ansi of Jingchow then Changshan (Go at
        Weichang hien (=Woochi hien)), both battling all the way. Finally, Go defeats Wei and Wei is sent to Ki-chow,
        where, being insolent to Yen, he is put to death at Loongchung. A draught strikes this summer and Jwun raises a
        sacrificial temple to Wei. All Wei acknowledges Yen except the capital Ye (=Linchang hien) in which Wei's
        successor is besieged. Finally (Aug) the city submits and the royal family of Wei is captured. Meanwhile, Wang
        Woo has assumed the title Angwo. Wang is attacked in Changshan by Go but is murdered by one of his
        commanders who is murdered by one of Woo's guards who assumes power. Go defeats Ji Lin of Joongshan,
        another aspirant to imperial power. Meanwhile, the sons of dead Yijoong, faithful aid of the Stone Tiger, move
        to aid the Tsin emperor; they take Yangping, yuenchung and Faping but are attacked by the forces of Chin
        (Shensi) near Tsiyangkun on the Yellow River. A surviving brother Hiang, marches to Soonyang, where he is
        nearly defeated at Matien; Hiang sends his fifth brother to the Tsin emperor to profess his goodwill and leaves
        hostages as proof. With the absorption of the kingdom of Wei, Jwun assumesthe title of Emperor
353 With Jwun having assumed the rank of Emperor, his queen is proclaimed Empress and removed to the capital at
        Kichow, known as Ki. After a three month siege, general Go opens Lookow.
354 Hoo Wang submits (Spring) and is made governor of Hopei (east of Yellow River along Shensi). The Yen empire
        includes all Chihli and Honan, some of Shensi; [besieges?] Liaosi, Liaotung and part of southeast Mongolia.
        Soon, Gow, son of Han and governor of Loling claims to be emperor but (Autumn) is murdered; the assassins
        flee to Kan of Dwan. Meanwhile the Chin kingdom of Shensi is still at war with the imperial house of Tsin; a
        great battle is fought; Tsin general Wun defeats Chin's forces. Chin has lost one of his best generals and dislikes
        another general, Yonur whose obstinacy causes Chin to have him, his nine sons and 27 grandsons killed. Yonur
        was a Chiang (Tibet) Man and therefore the Tibetans within Chin territory become uneasy.
(355) Kan, king of Dwan, has refused to style Jwun Emperor; Jwun sends Go to bring him to reason. Kan's brother puts
        forth a plan to stop Go from crossing the river Kan refuses to accept, his brother persists and Kan slays him.
356 The prince of Chin has one of his ministers put to death for recommending peace and have regard for the good of
        the people. Soon Wun defeats Chin's forces, but Chin general Jang Ping defeats Hiang: The conquerer and
        defeated foe become sworn brothers and conclude an oath never to fight each other any more. (Feb) Go crosses
        the Yellow River and forces Kan to retire. Go besieges Kan at Gwanggoo while all other of Kan's cities submit
        to Go. Kan appeals to Tsin whose forces meddle in Yen's southern lands but do little. (Nov) Go sets in motion a
        plan to take Gwang goo without losing too many of his men; meanwhile, the city's garrison is reduced to eating
        human flesh. Kan attempts to sally but is repulsed. (Dec) Kan is forced to open the gates. He and his people are
        sent to Ki where he is given a commander's job elsewhere. Meanwhile; Jwun sends an army against the Huns to
        the north, defeating them and siezing over 1,000,000 horses, over 10,000,000 sheep and oxen; over 100,000
        men are killed and 35,000 Hunnist families give their allegience; being sent to Bohai in Shantung. See Note 16.
     About this time the tribe of Saro around modern Kyongju establishes Silla kingdom; king Naemul being the first to
        be called king. Kingship is hereditary Kim family. Unable to compete with Kaya league or Paekche,
        accomodation with Koguryu (ie; alliance) is made by sending hostages. See Note 16A.
357 (Spring) Again acting dissatisfactorily, Kan and 3,000 of his immediate followers are put to death; the Dwan
        division of the Hs'-nu become finally incorporated in the Yen kingdom: The city of Ye becomes caital of the
        Yen "empire".
358 Chin is carrying on an unequal contest between both Tsin and Yen: Yen manages to sieze much Chin land. (Spring)
        Tsin commander of Taishan attacks east flank of Yen: General Go compells him to retreat. Gen Ping, while
        between the rivers Jang (Chang) and Woo, summons old chief Jien and his Bo hai men to submit (Jien has no
        master, having cut loose at defeat of Jao (of Wei). Compelling Ping to fight, Jien is overpowered and made a
        frontier commandant near Taishan. Tsin commander Tsu attacks Jien and eventually captures him; Jien refuses
        to revolt and Tsu chains him up; Jien dies of indignation. Yen, demanding vengeance, pours upon Tsu, takes his
        city driving him off: Jien's son is ennobled.
359 The ruler of Chin nominates his general Wang Mung as "kingdom-Separating Commander".
     The Tsin emperor, alarmed at the rapidity and success of Yen's conquest issues a proclamation calling on his
        people to rise en-masse and hurl back the northern barbarians. But Jwun's conquests continue, driving back the
        governor of Taishan and taking city after city.
360 Jwun falls ill (Feb) and dies. Son and successor is Wei, seven years old: Go is now prime minister. Gun advises Go
        to assume imperial rank, Go refuses and advises Gun's death; Wei urges peace between the two. Gun advises
        the court move to Loongchung, thereby leaving Go in the south with the army to watch Chin and Tsin. Go again
        memorializes Wei to have Gun executed.
    About this time Koguryu builds a fort at Ch'i-yang near Nam-han (Pak-je capital). As the base for 20,000, a
        systematic plundering of Pak-je begins. See Note 16B
361 Many Yen people, dissatisfied with their court dissension, begin retiring; Go restores order by posting men at Lin
        and Whi to keep watch on Tsin. Chin is growing in strength mainly from immigration (most from Hsiung-nu)
        and general influx of Huns. Jang Ping attacks the Yen garrison at Pingyang in the interest of Chin (he is a
        turncoat). Since he behaves so badly, Chin sends an army against him; Jang Ping requests yen’s aid, it is
        refused, and Jang Ping is killed.
362 (March) Lu Hoo (who had rebelled, was defeated then restored to other offices) attacks Loyang, a capital of
        Tsin. (Aug) Lu Hoo is forced to fall back to Sianopingjin fort.
362-70 The Pak-je forces attack the Koguryu at Ch’i-yang, defeating them severely. Pak-je throws up a line of
        breastworks along the southern bank of the Han. Later, Pak-je equips 30,000 and invades Koguryu
        assaulting P’yung-yang. the king is mortally wounded, the assault fails and Pak-je withdraws. The Pak-je
        capital is moved into Koguryu territory.
363 (July) Go marches against Lo-yang and besieges the city. Meanwhile Yoongyang city submits and Yen forces
        take Michung and other Honan cities.
364 (April) Go finds out that Lo-yang’s commandant has left with most of his troops, leaving the city defended by
        one Ying, a literary man: Go attacks and takes the city.
367-68 On all sides of Yen, countries await a slip: Northwest is Dai Wang, a Hoo (Hun) married to a daughter of
        Jwun Dai, angered at some of Yen’s men’s destruction of his corn crop, attacks the general of Yowchow at
        Yunjoong (= Tatung foo), defeats him and annihilates the division of Yen general Mo Yujia. But Go,
        feeling death approaching, recommends Woo Wang as nest prime minister. After advising Wei on the
        future policies for his kingdom, Go dies. Ping assumes control of affairs; he ignores Woo Wang. Tsang,
        Longan prince, warns of danger unless Wei carries out Go’s counsel and gets rid of Ping. Ping manages to
        have Wei’s younger brother Joong nominated prime minister. Meanwhile anarchy reigns in Chin and Tsin
        (emperor of Tsin under spell (opium?) of the literary man Fang); one Tiensi gains control in the Chin
        capital. Tiensi finds out about conditions in Yen on the pretext of deploring the loss of Go; he orders a
        levy of troops. Wei Wang of Shenchung in Shensi revolts from Chin and asks Yen for aid, frightening
        Chin whose throne is now occupied by Jien who has reinforced the army at Hwayin. Jien sends an army
        under general Goong against Ping but defeated by Yen generals Duke Woo and Hing, who pursue Goong’s
        army. Gwang takes command from Goong and attacks and defeats both Woo and Hing. Woo is killed and
        the cities of Anding (= Pingliang foo) and Sharggwei are taken. Meanwhile, Wang Mung (of Chin) is
        defeated by Duke Liw of Tsin but soon turns the tables and defeats Liw, taking Liw and the city of Pooban;
        Liw is put to death. Wang Mung sends Dung to Shenchung which he captures along with Wei Wang who
        is sent to Jien who orders his suicide and promises to give his sons offices.
369 Meanwhile, Won, prime minister of Tsin, readies to destroy Yen. He sends his Tsingho (ie; Kiangsoo river)
        fleet onto the Yellow River and his troops take Hooloo city (commanded by Moyoong Joong). At
        Whangchung Wun defeats Li who flees to Gaoping which goes over to Tsin. Meanwhile, Dung Dwan
        with a Tsin vanguard defeats another Yen army. Tsang sends to Chin for aid. (July) Wun takes Wooyang
        (= Chaochang) and nears Fangtow; Wei and prime minister Ping propose to flee to Loongching but Woo
        Wang advocates stopping them. Fearing the downfall of their weakened government, 200,000 Yen
        families retire to their northern homes, a defection that kills minister Gwan. Yen appeals to Chin for aid
        against Wun but king Jien decides to let Yen fend for itself. But Mung advises that Yen’s weakness is only
        Ping and if Wun sways Yen, Chin would be endangered: So he advocates supporting Yen against Wun
        then taking over Yen when Wun has been defeated. Jien accepts: Dung sent to Loyang against Wun
        whose army is being led by Yen deserters. (Oct) A body of 5,000 Yen men from Yuchow ambush part of
        Wun’s army, as does a force of 1,000 sent by Dua, Yen prince of Fanyang. Wun is now finding rough
        going and hearing of the Chin-Yen alliance, he begins to retreat. Yen pursues, harassing his army. Battle
        at Hiangyi hien, ambushed by Dua and chased again by Chin forces, Wun reaches (Nov) Shanyang. Wun
        blames Jun, commandant of Shumun ( = Sanshwi hien) for his defeat for failing to adequately supply him,
        Jun flees to Yen whose court is now actually run by the royal women.
370-71 Conquest of Yen (below). King Ku-bu of Koguryu, seeking friendlier ties with Chin, supports the spread
        of Buddhism. He establishes a T’aehak (“Highest School of Learning”) to train future government
        officials. He promulgates laws and decrees to secure and centralize royal authority.
                  Woo finds out about a plot on his life (for the empress loves Ping); he flees to Loongchung then to
        Chin and a royal welcome; he and his son being ennobled. Mung, jealous, advises Jien that this is
        dangerous and they should be put to death, but Jien will see none of that. Meanwhile, Ping fails to read the
          meaning of Chin’s building of forces along their border. Mung is sent to Loyang with 30,000 but is
          defeated. Mung tries to trick Jien into having Woo killed, but instead Jien banishes Woo to Shachung in
          Liaotung. Later Mung defeats a Yen force and he is given command of 60,000 men, after turning down
          other titles. Moyoong Ling of Yen marches off to Shachung but he is defeated and dies. Wei is now
          alarmed, he orders Ping to 300,000 men and to crush Mung: Minister Li Fung states this much power isn’t
          necessary. Minister Gao claims strategy will defeat Mung and not might. Meanwhile, Mung takes
          Hoogwuni and every city in the district submits. The Yen court is now alarmed. Yang An is besieging
          Kinyang and Mung, leaving a garrison at Pooban, goes to assist him and through treachery the city is
          taken. Meanwhile, Wun has defeated a Yen army at Showchwun which is besieged. Gao, on his way to
          raise the siege is recalled due to Mung’s advance. Also, local rebellions are rising in Yen lands. Ping
          begins a retreat from Loochuen with his 300,000, but is driven by Wei to face Mung. At Taiyuen hien,
          Dung and Mung route Ping’s forces and Ping flees to Ye which is besieged by Mung who calls for Chin
          reinforcements: Jien leaves his capitals of Changan and Loyang under garrisons and marches with 100,000
          men, reaching Anyang in seven days. Dung attacks Sindoo and 5,000 Hs’-nu flee for Loongchung. The
          hostages from Korea, from Shangdang (= Loongan foo) and some Puyo men open Ye’s gates to Mung.
          Yei and his officials and 3,000(?) flee to Loongchung; at Fooloo Wei has only 10 men with him and he is
          attacked by robbers; loyal Gao dies and Wei excapes to Gaoyang where he is captured. King Jien has Wei
          restored to the palace of his father, for all Yen has acknowledged Chin as ruler: King Jien rules over Yen,
          the Chow cities and the “Six Barbarians”. Wei is sent to Changan. Fleeing Gao Ching to Koguryu, Ping is
          captured and handed over to Chin. Gao Ching captures and slays the murderer of Bohai Wang at Liaotung.
371   Paekche attacks P’yongyang with 30,000 troops, defeating Koguryu. The area north of Han becomes part of
          (modern) Hwanghae province. King Kogugwon is killed. Trade relations are established with Japan and
          Eastern Chin. Sosurim now king of Koguryu; he manages to retain the kingdom’s strength and hold off
372   The Chinese gain a victory over the Yun whose king Mo Yung P’ung flees to Koguryu but the king there
          captures him and sends him to China. This year too, a monk named Sun-do brings images of Buddha and
          the Buddhist book called Pul-gyung to Koguryu formally bringing the religion to Korea. The king sends
          his son to learn the new doctrine but also gives an impetus to the study of the Confucian code.
               Woo Wang is at court of Chin as a great commander. Ping is Taishow of Fanyang to the disgust of
          Yen men.
373   The Koguryu king overhauls the laws of his country.
                    The Hs’-nu west of Kaiyuen prevent a Chin invasion by proffering their allegiance. Woo’s
          enemies still want him slain but Jien refuses for he wants to use him against Tsin.
375   Death of Wang Mung.
                    Disliking their king’s policies, over 1,000 people from Pak-je flee to Silla where they are given
          six villages. Pak-je demands them back but Silla refuses, saying they came on their own. Meanwhile, two
          monasteries, Cho-mun and I-bul-lan, are built in the Koguryu capital.
376   The Shuyi-jien Dai Wang attacks Liw Weichun who appeals for and receives Chin aid. Dai Wang is defeated;
          his kingdom falls into disorder. A son of Dai Wang by his Moyoong wife kills his brother, has Dai Wang
          killed and is prevented from killing Dai Wang’s infant grandson Jubagwei by the infant’s mother who
          hides him. The ministers of Dai appean to Chin for aid; the parricide is easily seized and killed: The
          kingdom of Dai is divided into two provinces; east of the Yellow River under Liw Kooyin and west under
          Weichun. Kooyin protects the infant child Gwei.
377   Silla and Koguryu acknowledge the supremacy of Chin: the Chin domain (capital at Changan) includes all
          territory north of the Yellow River, including Liaotung and the three Korean kingdoms – but excluding
          Shantung. The Chin ruler now wishes to swap Tsin, but his advisors are against it claiming Chin soldiers
          to be exhausted.
380   The Yowchow commandant starts a kingship but is frightened by a unanimous reply that Chin is emperor but
          too late; Gwang attacks, defeats him and the commandant is banished.
383   Chin collects 600,000 at Chagan with 270,000 horse to strike a blow for universal empire. Despite his
          minister’s protestations, the king of Chin places Woo Wang in charge of the van of 250,000 along with
          Yangping Duke. Woo Wang seizes several cities (Dec). Overwhelmed by a flood of fugitives, Woo Wang
          is defeated at the Whi river and the Tsin army at Ching-gang. The Tsin shatter the Chin forces: The king
        of Chin gallops off. Woo Wang, however, has managed to maintain a force, refusing advice to claim
        independence, he joins the king of Chin at Loyang, but the king soon dies.
384 A Yen man murders Kooyin and runs away with his horses, Kooyin’s younger brother succeeds him.
                  Ch’im-yu to the throne of Pak-je. He sends an army to China asking for the monk Mararanta to
        introduce Buddhist ritual.
386 Woo Wang (= Chooi) is ordered to the north to look after the borders. With Jien dead, he is not grateful to the
        remaining court so he sets up an independent kingdom, capital at Joongshan (= Tingchow). Other Yen
        men throughout Chin declare their independence as “Western Yen”, and name Joong Wang their king,
        under the title Yoong, dropping Mo (was Moyoong). Wint 40,000 Hienbi and Moyoong men, Jong Wang
        moves eastward, but Lu Gwang of Chin pursued from Changan and defeats him. But Joong Wang sees he
        can still win; the Western Yen men move eastwards and ask Changan for permission to pass; Chin marches
        out against them, is defeated and his heir taken. Yoong takes Changan. Yoong proclaims his eldest son
        emperor, taking the empress Yang of Chin for his chief wife, but she is killed intryiong to have Yoong
        killed. Meanwhile, two Chin houses are established, one is called the After Chin at Anting, and the other
        under Dung, supported by the Nanan barbarians and 30,000 Chinese families. They battle and After Chin
        is wounded. Also Gwang sets himself up as “Emperor”. Yoong’s men march on Tsingho to attempt to
        drive out Chooi’s troops, but to no avail. A bitter rivalry begins to develop.
                  Pak-je, on the defensive in the chronic warfare with Koguryu, builds a line of breastworks along
        the border from Ch’ung-mok-yung to P’al-gon-sung and then to the sea. Pak-je defeats Koguryu and a
        cessation of hostilities is concluded; a boundary stone is erected at Su-gok-sung.
387 Juba Gwei is enthroned as Dai Wang; observing the disorder of Moyoong Liw Hien’s army in the north, Gwei
        attacks and defeats it, driving Hien to the Western Yen. Gwei assumes the imperial title Wei. But Lin, the
        Jao Wang and one of Chooi’s commanders, drive Gwei back into his northern territories.
388-9 Continuing warfare among the states.
390 Yoong puts to death a number of chief Yen men who advocated Yen unity under Chooi. As there were sons
        and grandsons of Chooi among them, Chooi vows vengeance.
391 Chooi marches to Lookow, but is unable to do anything. He prepares.
                  Tam-duk of Koguryu allies with Silla and begins expanding his territory: Begins “Golden Age of
        Koguryu”. He adopts Chinese custom of naming his reign period: He expands into Liaotung and defeats
        the Hsiao Sin in the northeast. He sends troops to Silla and soundly defeats the Japanese on the Naktong.
        See Note 16C.
392 Tam-duk, son and successor of [Ch’im-yu?] of Koguryu sweeps away the terms of the treaty and attacks Pak-je
        taking ten towns. He then chastises the Ku-van tribe. Then he seizes Kwang-wu fortress; Pak-je bars the
        gates of the capital. Tam-duk decrees that all the people should adopt the Buddhist faith.
393 King A-sin of Pak-je sends his son Chon-ji as envoy to Japan – possibly to secure aid against Kkoguryu. But
        nothing comes of it.
394 Chooi’s ministers advise against attacking Yoong (of Western Yen), claiming the fatigued state of his men.
        But joined by Nung, the Liaosi Wang, Chooi feels he can now attack Yoong at Taibi. Yoong’s Western
        Yen is defeated in two battles and Taibi besieged. Yoong marches with 50,000 to raise the siege but many
        of his men desert to Chooi. To prevent further desertions Yoong has the wives and families of the deserters
        killed. Chooi tricks Yoong into an ambush and Yoong is defeated with great slaughter, too soon for the aid
        of Wei’s 50,000 army; Chooi has Yoong slain. Chooi now faces Wei, which has spread its domain over
        north of Shansi and west of Chihli.
395 About this time nine more Buddhistic monasteries ae built in P’yung-yang.
395-6 Chooi slowly battles his way to the walls of Ye, is defeated and retires to Joongshan where he dies. Wei
        forces next defeat Liaosi Wang at Yangchu of Taiyuen, scattering several thousand men and capturing the
        Yen commander and his family.
396 See Note 17.
397 Wei intensifies the siege of Ye with appeals to Chin for help. But a fire breaks out in Wei's capital and Wei
        retires pursued by the Yen army which is then defeated. Wei's army begins conquering Southern Yen.
399 Koguryu sends an envoy to Yun to pay respects but Yun charges her with ambitious designs.
400 Shung, grandson of Chooi and reigning at Loongchung, sends an army of 30,000 against Koguryu which has
        declared independence. Shung's army takes Sinchung and Nansoo. Shung, however, disliked because of his
        manner towards his officials, is murdered while sleeping. Koguryu retakes Sinchung, Nansoo and all
        Liaotung; crossing the Liao, they scour the countryside up to Hukun (northeast of Loon chung) and
        frighten Moyoong Gwei, commandant of Pingchow, into flight.
    King Tam-duk of Koguryu sends an army to Saro to drive out the Japanese.
401 By this time all of Southern Yen has fallen to Wei.
402 Sil-sung king of Silla. He sends envoys to Koguryu (the king's brother Pok-ho) and Japan (his brother Mi-sa-
        heun), the latter because Silla is suffering from Japanese pirates.
403 Sin-sung, fearing for his brother's safety in Japan and Koguryu seeks their return without arousing suspicions;
        the official Pak Che-san volunteers; he succeeds in Koguryu. Through a ruse, he manages to obtain the
        return of Mi-sa-heun but loses his life.
404 See Note 18.
405 Yen Wang assembles an army to chastise Koguryu and besieges Liaotung city. The city holds and Yen Wang
        is forced to retreat.
    A-sin of Paekche dies. His son Chon-ji with a Japanese escort returns and the people run Chung-nye off:
        Chonji assumes the throne.
406 Yen Wang again marches to Liaotung but the march is tortuous and they only reach Moodi city w/is attacked
        in vain. They retreat.
408 Yun, king of Yen, nominates Gwei as Duke of Liaotung, but it is an empty title.
413 Ko-yun becomes king of Koguryu and is envested by the Chinese emperor; ie; he accepts vassalage.
415 The Chinese emperor confers the honor of vassalage upon Chon-ji of Paekche.
    Yinti is made Taishow of Liaotung. He collects an army but decides its easier to set up his own independent
        kingdom. However, he is slain.
417 Nil-ji, often treated harshly by the king, kills the king and ascends the throne of Silla. He abandons the
        centuries old royal title of I-sa-geum and adopts a new one of Ma-rip -kan. He introduces the wheeled cart
        drawn by oxen.
427 Ko-yun of Koguryu moves his capital from Kungnae-song to P'yongyang. He establishes diplomatic relations
        with both (Northern and Southern) ruling Chinese dynasties.
433 Alarmed at Koguryu's aims to avenge the death of king Soe (371), Paekche allies with Silla.
434 About this time Buddhism enters Silla.
435 Wei marches into Liaosi and is met by Yen Wang who feasts and fetes his army: Yen cannot match Wei on the
        battlefield but Wei cannot take Holoongchung (or Loongchung). Meanwhile, the Yen king sends Yi to
        Koguryu's court to secure a safe retreat and obtain a future refuge. Ko-yun sends tribute to Wei and is
        confirmed (vassal) King of Koguryu and Duke (Goong) of Liaotung. Meanwhile Paekche transfers her
        allegience to Sung.
436 P'ung-hung, ruler of Yun, unable to withstand Chinese pressure, seeks asylum in Koguryu. Not being treated as
        he wishes, he seeks refuge in Sung but is killed by Kogu-ryu's generals Son-su and Ko-gu who are killed in
        turn by Sung troops.
    Wei again marches (May) against Holoong and on his return takes Bailangchung, an imperial city of Bing-
        chow. Koguryu king sends Goloo Mu-nggwang to relieve Yen; camp at Lin-chuen, east of Holoogn. Yen
        Pres of Yo loong, Shung, turns traitor and opens the gates to Wei who doesn't enter fearing a trap. So
        Shung attacks Yen Wang in the city, Yen calls in the Koguryu troops. Shung is killed. Yen Wang, his
        family and people with the Ko-guryuns leave; the palace is left in flames. A drunk commander prevents
        Wei forces from pursuing and the Prince of Wei is angry; he demands the surrender of Yen Wang but
        Koguryu refuses.
437 Wei garrisons Holoong. Meanwhile, Yen Wang - whose name is Hoong - is not being treated nicely by the
        Koguryun court; he sends to Sung for asylum. This offends king Ko-yun and he has Hoong and family
        moved farther south; they are killed on the move, ending the house of Yen. The Sung army, under Baiju,
        attacks the Koguryun murderers of Yen, Gao and Swun, killing Gao and capturing Swun. Koguryun forces
        sieze Baiju and imprison him. Soon, however, Baiju is allowed to return to Sung.
449 The prefect of Kang-neung (of Silla) kills a Koguryu general caught while hunting. War is avoided only by
        profuse apologies by Silla.
455 Koguryu attacks Pak-je who is aided by Silla (king Ka-ro also sends an envoy to Wei for help). But Pak-je is
        not grateful: Thus the Triangular War begins.
466 In a diplomatic error, Koguryu falls from the good graces of Wei.
467 Silla takes the lead in the construction of war vessels, mainly for use against Japanese pirates. Meanwhile, Silla
        forces manage to repulse a Koguryu (aided by the Mal-gal tribes) attack; a fortress is constructed at Poeun.
475-6 Koguryu and Pak-je are attempting to best each other through their Chinese alliances. By a ruse using the
        monk To-rim, Koguryu manages to have Pak-je defenseless; she invades, razes the capital Hansan and kills
        king Ka-ro. Prince Mun-ju succeeds with help from Silla; he moves the capital to Ungjin (modern Kongju)
        and takes all Pak-je people away from Han-yang (Seoul), the Han river and abandons much territory to
        Koguryu. Now Koguryu has increased in strength and prestige; it now rules the northern half of the Korean
        peninsula, Liaotung peninsula and a considerable portion of Manchuria.
477 Mun-ju of Pak-je sends a messenger to Sung but he is stopped in Koguryu. Meanwhile, the little kingdom of
        T'am-na sends an envoy to the court of Silla with gifts. T'am-na = the island of Che-ju (Quelpart).
479 Koguryun forces are in area of Yoongping, breaking up the tribe of Mohofo; the Moogan of Kitan. He flees
        southward to Wei. Ko-yun, king of Koguryu, gains recognition from emperor Kao-ti of the Chinese Ch'i
481 Pak-je gains recognition from emperor Kao-ti.
484 King Ko-yun sends tribute to both Ch'i and Wei, unable to figure out which will be supreme. Wei creates Ko-
        yun king of Koguryu, Duke of Liaotung and governor of military affairs of the Liao Sea (without a fleet!).
        Instead of sending his son to Wei's court, Ko-yun sends his uncle Shun Chien.
490 ±10 Era in which in Silla is introduced the yong-ma, or horse relay, providing rapid dissemination of official
        information. Also, a general market is organized where merchants from the various districts can meet and
        exchange commodities. Meanwhile, a flood in Pak-je sweeps away 1,000 people; later a famine kills 3,000;
        later 10,000 emigrate to Silla to escape starvation.
499 The oxen drawn cart is introduced into Koguryu.
500 Peace more-or-less descends over Korea. Meanwhile, Japan takes charge of the island of Tsushima, placing a
        magistrate there. And, meanwhile, with the accession of king Chi-da-ro of Silla, he begins expansion
        northwest of the Naktong to Usan guk (modern Ullung-do). It is about this time the chief begins to be
        called by the Chinese title of wang (king).
501 King Mo-da of Pak-je is murdered for his expensive high living.
502 A setback for Buddhism in Sil-la; king Chi-da-ro discovers a tryst between the monk Muk Ho-ja and the
503 Chi-da-ro decrees that the practice of buring live people with the dead king shall end.
504 Silla adopts the Chinese word Wang as title of her kings instead of the Korean I-sa-geum and Ma-rip-kan The
        kingdom formally becomes "Silla"
505 The Chinese custom of assuming mourning garb upon death of parent is adopted in Silla. This is indicative of
        growing Chinese influence in southern Korea's culture; the Confucian code is making headway; Chinese
        religion, literature, government and art are remolding the thought and life of the Korean people.
        Meanwhile, Koguryu continues courting the favor of Wei and secretly that of Liang; Pak-je follows suit.
512 Silla acquires the kingdom of U-san peacefully without bloodshed.
514 Accession of Wun-jong in Silla which now emerges as a full-fledged kingdom. The Chinese custom of
        conferring a posthumous title upon a deceased king is adopted.
520 King Wun-jong, instituting major legal reforms, reorganizes the official list and indicates the different grades
        of rank by different color. Meanwhile, Wei, displeased at the growing amity between Koguryu and Liang
        stops a Liang envoy on his way to confer investiture upon Heung-an.
523 Accession of Myung-nong; he moves the Pak-je capital to Sabi. Ungjin was too remote and difficult to access
        but was a strong military point. He also tries to change the name to Nam-Puyo ("S Puyo") but is
        unsuccessful. Sabi has easy access to farm land and located on navigable Kum river. He reorganizes
        central and local administrations, establishes ties with China, Japan and encourages spread of Buddhism.
        Chinese Liang dynasty influential in disseminating Chinese culture in Pak-je through which it is exported
        to Japan.
524 Pak-je adopts the Chinese custom of conferring posthumous titles upon dead kings.
    The king of Silla has the high priest Yi Cha-don executed to prevent his control of the government. But this
        only serves to increase the acceptance of the religion.
525 The king of Silla makes a law against the killing of animals.
527 King Yang Wang of Ka-rak gives up his soverign power and merges Ka-rak with Silla. This year too,
         Buddhism is legally recognized in Silla where it becomes the state religion, and many temples and
         Buddhist statues are created.
535 Silla, finding it useless and fruitless to cultivate the friendship of the Chinese powers, rejects the Chinese
         calendar and sets up her own.
536 Wun-jong of Silla changes the name of his reign period to Konwon. During his reign, the territory of Pon-kaya
         is annexed. The rest of the Kaya tribes are threatened.
540 Pak-je moves her capital to Sa-ja (site of Pu-yu province).
541 Pak-je sends to the Liang court for books on poetry, teachers of literature, Buddhist books, artisans and
         painters. The request is granted.
543 The king of Silla orders the scholar Kim-gu Ch'il-bu to be head of a congress of scholars to compile a proper
547 The Mal-gal and Ye-mak join Koguryu in attacking Pak-je. Silla, aided by Ka-ya, help Pak-je in driving them
549 Myung-nong of Pak-je sends an envoy to Liang but finds the capital razed and the reins of government in the
         hands of the usurper Hu-gyung (Heu-king).
550 Koguryu sends an envoy to the new [Northern] Ch'i dynasty to do obesiance.
551 It is decreed in Silla that the eight laws of Buddhism shall be taught; they are against 1) the slaughter of
         animals, 2) theft, 3) licentiousness, 4) lying, 5) drunkenness, 6) ambition, 7) the eating of garlic and 8)
    Silla and Pak-je attack Koguryu; Pak-je regains some lost territory on the Han river while Silla occupies the
         upper Han area. Koguryu is plagued by civil war. See Note 19.
552 The celebrated music of master UReuk of Ka-ya comes to Silla, bringing a greater sophistication to music. He
         brings an instrument, the Ka-ya-geum called the ka-go (Japanese Koto?).
    About this time; see Note 20.
553-5 Silla takes lower Han region from Pak-je. Battle of Kwansan-song (modern Okch'on); Pak-je defeated. Sil-la
         conquers Tae-kaya tribe on the middle Naktong and soon takes all the Kaya territory. See Note 21.
555 Silla's new territory taken from the east side of Pak-je is now called Wan-san-ju (=Chun-ju) prefecture.
560 About this time the emperor of Northern Ch'i sends a great store of Buddhistic books to Silla.
562 Silla armies move up the east coast and take old Tong-Ye territory ruled by Koguryu. To the north, Silla
         occupies what is now Kangwon Province and the southern part of Hamgyong Province, and in the west the
         basin of the Han River; besides, Silla gained an outlet on the west coast of Korea, a valuable location for
         communication with China and the importation of Chinese culture. Silla also annexes Mimana about this
         time, and Japan loses her base in Korea.
568 Silla extends into Seoul area, into Hwang-ch'oryong and Maullyong in Hamgyong province. Silla now in
         direct contact with China. Pak-je is separated from Koguryu.
576 Keum-yun to throne of Silla; he becomes a Buddhist monk and his queen a nun; revenues begin to be
         squandered on sending embassies to China.
577 Minister Hu-jik pleads with Keum-yun to stop hunting animals and squandering revenues. It is only after Hu-
         jik's death that Keum-yun reforms.
586 Koguryu moves its capital to near Eui-ju. Since the collapse of Tsin (whom Koguryu was friends with), she
         finds herself now in a delicate position in relationship with Sui, the now dominant Chinese power. Sui
         makes friendly advances to Koguryu but the latter is suspicious and prepares for an invasion.
587 The Sui dynasty manages to defeat the last of its competitors and again unify China. Yang-sung, king of
         Koguryu, now alarmed at this great power, begins to prepare for the inevitable attempt to wrest his empire
         away. At the confirmation of Sui [in-tents?], Yang-sung dies. His son and successor is Wun, whom the Sui
         emperor confirms as Duke of Liaotung.
588 Wun sends a Koguryu force to ravage Liaosi. The Goo of Ying Chow manages to drive them back. But the Sui
         emperor is enraged and sends an army and navy against Koguryu. The hot July epidemic rain muddies
         roads and short provisions destroy most of the army and storms ruin the fleet. Wun sends for forgiveness
         but the Sui emperor calls him the "Manure and Mud minister of Liaotung". Meanwhile, Paekche lends her
         allegience to Sui who gives Pakje all the war material she needs. On hearing this, Wun ravages the western
         coast of Paekche.
590 A Sui envoy confers investiture upon Wun as king of Koguryu.
    Koguryu sends general Ondal against Silla and he is defeated: Silla now stands unchallenged.
592 Wun does obesience to the Sui ruler and is taken into the latter's good graces.
597 Wun now, however, has earned the enmity of his neighbors. Silla and Pak-je urge the emperor to join them in
       putting an end to the troublesome state. The emperor assents. Koguryu with allies of the Mal-gal (with
       10,000) crosses the western Liao and captures Yung ju: A declaration of war.
598 The emperor withdraws the royal title from Wun and sends 300,000; a naval expedition is fit out. Storms
       wreck the fleet but Koguryu sees Chinese determination and hastens to submit to the emperor. This is
       accepted (only to give China time to build up arms). Pakje offers to guide Chinese forces against Koguryu
       which angers the latter who begins reprisals against Pakje. Meanwhile, China is suppressing the Tol-gwul
       tribe in the north and finds a Koguryu emissary there, further fueling suspicion.
599 Compilation of the 100 volume Yu-geni or "Record of Remembrance" - a history of Koguryu.
610 Yang Ti, Emperor of Sui, visits Chimin Kokhan (=Khan) of the Tookue (=Turks) and an official informs him
       of his predecessor's plans against Koguryu. Yang Ti immediately begins preparations for an assault on
       Koguryu. Meanwhile, floods devastate Shantung and the people are hard pressed to meet the demands of
       Yang Ti to supply food and men for his army A rebel faction appears headquartered at Changbaishan
       (=Changshan hien) while other robber bands roam about
611 Chinese army marches against Choolo (or Molo), son and successor of Chimin who abstained from the new
       year's salutations and tribute. Yang Ti's army defeats him and he comes to reason. Now Yang Ti is ready to
       march against Koguryu.
612 Yang chooses Choolo and 500 of his Tookue (=Turks) for his guard. The army consists of 1,333,800 men, is in
       two wings, right and left, each of 12 divisions. (May) The army reaches Linso (=Chochow). At the Liao
       river they are met by the Koguryuans, but the bridges built by the Chinese to cross are short by (6 or 10)
       feet and many begin to perish as the press of numbers push others off the ends. Two days later the bridges
       are finally lengthened; general Mak Chul-jang makes it across and Kogulryu generals Chon Sa-ung and
       Mang keum-ch'a are killed. The Koguryuans are forced to retreat. 1,200 men besiege Liaotung city and
       several months later, it still resists (June) The rainy season starts and most operations halt. The Chinese
       camp at Yuk-hap fortress west of Liao-tung city. Meanwhile, another division goes from Laichow in a
       naval attack on P'yung-yang under general No Ho-a. He defeats a Korean army south of Pingyang and
       gives (against the advice of his Second in Command) pursuit. Ho-a again defeats the Koguryuans and gives
       pursuit, but is ambushed; only a few 1,000 are able to return to the ships. Meanwhile, another division
       under Yu Wun marches far to the north from Kingchow to Mukden to the Yalu where he joins and takes
       command of eight other divisions = 305,000. (Autumn) The Chinese army is just east of the Yalu river,
       after having separated into several parts to forage for supplies. Now Koguryu general Eul-ji Mun-duk (or
       minister Wundu) pretends to desert to the Chinese, not trusted by Chinese general Joonggwan, Wundu
       nevertheless finds out the Chinese army's state and returns to his army. Now Wun attacks Wundu who uses
       a retreat, attack, retreat tactic. The Chinese cross the Sa river. Wundu asks Wun to surrender (the Chinese
       are out of food and Pingyang is well fortified). Wun orders a retreat. (Aug): The Koreans fall on the
       retreating Chinese in a swarm; of Wun's 305,000 only 2,700 reach Liao tung city. Hearing of this defeat,
       Yang Ti is infuriated. Joonggwan is degraded.
    Meanwhile, Pak-je, seeing the course of the war (she was going to join China) does nothing.
    Drought and famine hit parts of Chi na, especially Shantung, yet Yang Ti prepares for another assault on Liao
613 Yang Ti sends a force to rebuild Hiangping of Han as a storehouse for the Korean campaign. Tong-wang
       fortress is besieged. While robber bands abound and Shantung province is in dire straits, Yang crosses the
       Liao (May), Yuwun and Yang Yi attack Pingyang and Yingeong Sinchung but in vain. Just as the Chinese
       are about to take Liaotung city, Yang is informed of the rebellion of Yang Huengan, president of the Board
       of Rites who is besieging the Sui capital. The Chinese army abandons the sieges and heads home. Yang
       Huengan is defeated (commits suicide) but universal rebellion wracks China.
614 Yang Ti again orders to prepare for an assault on Koguryu. Li Hoohgju rebells and declares war on the
       emperor, calling himself Tang Wang. Other rebel armies arise and Yang Ti puts off the Koguryu
       expedition, needing the troops at home. Meanwhile, Hoor's fleet goes to Bishachung; he defeats the
       Koguryu there and marches on Pingyang. Asked to come home, he refuses and invests Pingyang. King
       Wun offers submission to China but he refuses to go in person. Yang, however, accepts. At the end of the
       year, Pingyang still stands and Yang sets to attack Koguryu next year.
615 The Turks (Tookue) push up to (having already captured 39 cities in Yenmun region) Yenmun city and besiege
        it; emperor Yang Ti is there. Shubi, son and successor of Chimin and Kokhan, proposes a peace whereby
        he marries Yang's daughter. But the princess raises an army in Loyang and drives the Turks out of the
        country. Yang, however, still desires to take Ko-guryu. But Li, the Tang Wang, is marching east with
        Turkish aid; YuWun kills Yang Ti and proclaims his son, but it is too late.
618 Kon-mu becomes Koguryuan king An envoy is sent to the new T'ang dynasty offering allegience.
619 Silla and Pakje pay respects to T'ang. T'ang, testing Koguryu's sincerity, demands the return of Chinese
        captives taken in the last war. 10,000 are sent.
620 T'ang emperor Kao Tsu confers royalty upon the rulers of all three kingdoms, reopening the Triangular War.
        To Koguryu the emperor sends books on the Shinto faith. Koguryu begins building a wall across the
        peninsula from Eui-ji to the Japan Sea to keep out the Ni tribes.
622 T'ang sends a messenger to Ko-guryu, Pakje and Silla to bury Chinese dead left from the battles of Yang. The
        three Korean kindoms acknowledge the Tang dynasty.
624 Korean prisoners in China are sent home under an ambassador who is commissioned to confer the title
        Liaotung Wang on Jien Woo, king of Korea.
630 Silla sends two beautiful girls to the Chinese court as tribute.
632 Death of Silla king Pak-chung. The people elect his daughter, Tong-man, as their ruler.
637 After a few years of peace, the Triangular War heats up again.
640 The T'ang emperor sends senior secretary Chun Dadua to the Korean kingdoms to observe the land and people.
        Spotting many Chinese, the emperor notes that much of Korea is originally Chinese land, but Shantung has
        not yet fully recovered to help finance a war against Korea.
642 Pakje siezes 40 Silla frontier forts; she now sets out to cut off Silla's communication with China by not
        allowing her envoys passage. The emperor, however, condemns Pakje for this. Meanwhile, Chinese envoy
        Chin Ta-t'ok tours Koguryu, reporting to China that the country wouldn't be hard to take. A Koguryu
        official Hap So-mun asassinates king Kon-mu: Hap becomes court favorite, proclaims the king's nephew
        Chang king, himself as Moliju (more or less prime minister) securing all power to himself. He begins
        expanding Koguryu. Angered, Tang nevertheless confirms Chang as Liaotung Wang. Hap So-mun
        imprisons a Silla envoy statinghe will be released when Silla returns the two districts of Ma-Han that were
        once Ko-guryu's. Three months later, Silla asks China for help, as Koguryu and Pakje are ganging up on
        her. An ambassador is sent to demand leaving Silla alone but Hap states that during the Sui dynasty Silla
        had taken a great amount of land from Koguryu. Hap sends tribute to Tang but being a regicide, it is sent
643 Hap So-mun sends to China for a Shinto teacher stating the three religions - Buddhism, Taoism and Shinto -
        are all necessary like the three legs of a kettle. The teacher Suk-da with eight others and books are sent.
        Meanwhile, there is much plotting in the T'ang court of how to get rid of untrustworthy Koguryu and
        unstable Pakje: China has tacitly thrown her support to Silla but does not want to meet Koguryu troops in
        the field.
644 The emperor orders Pakje and Koguryu to stop their depredations on Silla. Pakje complies but Koguryu in sists
        Silla still holds much of her territory. Sensing his error, Hap So-mun tries to make amends but it is too late:
        Provisions are stored at Ta-in fortress. Old general Chung Wun-do is called as the emperor's advisor. Al-
        lied with contingents from the northern wild tribes, the Liao is crossed. Kon-an fortress is captured, then
        Ham-mo fort. Liao-tung fortress is besieged and only taken with the help of Pak-je armor. An-si fortress is
        besieged; commanded by generals Ko Yun-su and Ko Hye-jin with 100,000 Mal-gal warriors; a sortie is
        made, it is defeated; Ko-guryu fortresses Ho-whang and Eui capitulate. As winter approaches, the siege of
        An-si is lifted.
645 Pi-un and Yum-jong lead a rebellion against Silla being ruled by a woman, but through a ruse, general Yu-sin
        turns the tables on the rebels.
    A Chinese army of 40,000 under Jang Liang sets out, a 500 vessel navy leaves Laichow for Pingyang. An other
        army of 60,000 marches toward Yowchow. Tang makes clear that it is a fight against a regicide and not a
        people. He sends messengers to Silla Pakje and Si (=West) Kitan urging them to join. (March) The main
        army under Li Shuji reaches Yowchow. (April) Emperor T'ai arrives Tingchow. (May) Li Shuji marches
        for Huentoo while Jang Hien defeats a Koguryu army at Jienanchung. Shuji takes Gaimow which is now
        changed to Gaichow (=Kaichow). General Jang Liang takes Bishachung. Now Shuji has attacked Liaotung
        city and is having a hard time of it, but the emperor nears and aids him; the siege is on. For 12 days it holds
        out. Bai yen (=Yenchow) is attacked; Chimi Holi leads a Koguryu army against the attackers but are forced
        to retreat. Baiyen is besieged, Shuji at the southwest corner and the emperor at the northwest but the city
        submits. The Chinese now invest Anshu; Yenshow the Owsa of Bei Boo and Whijun marches with a
        150,000 man army of Koguryu and Mo-ho to raise the siege. (July) Battle of Anshu; the Chinese defeat the
        force of Yenshow; Koguryu is in terror; country people begin fleeing. With Autumn dawning, the emperor,
        deploring the campaign being unfinished, returns to Yangchow. His kindness is recognized by the Koreans
        who praise him.
646 Hap So-mun, who is still fighting Silla, again asks mercy from the emperor, but none is given: 30,000 men are
        sent and they besiege Pak-chak fortress but to no avail. Stores are placed on O-hu island and a 100' warship
        begins a'building. Meanwhile, Silla siezes 21 Pakje forts and appeals to China for aid - 200,000 are sent.
        Silla now adopts the Chinese costume. Meanwhile, the emperor takes ill.
647 (March) Recovered, the emperor desires to continue his campaign against Hap So-mun, and is opposed by his
        ministers. (April) A Chinese army of 10,000 sails to Korea under Niw Jinda, Taotai of Chingchin(?) and
        3,000 under Li Shuji (now Taidsu and Liaotung Taotai) head there. Niw Jinda fights 100 battles and at
        Jaili-chung he defeats a 10,000 man Koguryu army. General Wan Chua sails to Ko-guryu with 30,000
        from Laichow.
648 (May) Battle of Yishan, 5,000 Koguryu cavalry are defeated. 10,000 Koguryu are repulsed from attacking the
        Chinese navy under construction. General Wan Chua, defeated, returns from Koguryu. Meanwhile,
        harassed by the Turks on the west and northwest and the Koguryu in the east, Koogo, a Kitan general,
        submits to T'ang and is made Doodoo of Soongmo (north of Liwchung; originally seat of Kitan).
649 Death of emperor T'ai; son and successor Kao assumes rule; Koguryu breathes easier. Kao reverses his father's
        policy against Koguryu, disbands the Liaotung army and stops the expense of building a huge war
        machine. Pak-je invades Silla siezing seven forts. Silla turns and siezes 10,000 houses of Pakje subjects
        and gains the favor of the new emperor by adopting the Chinese calendar and other customs Pakje is told to
        give back the land it took and cease hostilities.
651 Pakje sends ambassadors with tribute; the emperor instructs them to stop fighting with Koguryu and Silla or
        else he threatens to march against her.
652 All three Korean kms; Silla, Pakje and Koguryu, send tribute to T'ang.
654 Koguryu general Angoo with Koguryu and Moho troops attack Kitan. The Soong-mo Doodoo of Kitan defeats
        them at Sinchung. The army now siezes 33 cities of Silla. The Silla king, aided by the Doodoo of
        Yingchow, is forced to retreat.
655 Koguryu and Paekche join against Silla, along with the malgal tribes Silla calls on China for help: Troop under
        generals Chung Myung-jin and So Chong-bang are sent; they sieze many Koguryu fortresses beyond the
        Yalu river. This forces Koguryu to forget Silla and battle China, Paekche battles Silla alone.
658 A force under the Doodoo of Yingchow and Hue Yingwei the Langkiang are sent against Koguryu. They take
        Chufung and at Battle of Gweidwanchung, defeat Koguryu.
659 Another Silla envoy to the emperor; he sends general So Chong-bang with 130,000 by sea to the shores of
        Paekche where, joined by Silla, an assault will be made on Paekche.
660 The Silla stream through "Charcoal Pass" and led by general Kim Yu-sin, defeat Paekche forces. Silla
        approaches the Paekche capital at modern Sa-ch'un. King Chang flees, the capital is entered and eventually
        the royal family is captured. China agrees to divide Paekche equally between them but Silla does not desire
        any Paek-che territory. The dethroned king Chang and family are taken to China. China divides Paekche
        into five provinces; Ung-jin, Tong-myung, Keum-ryun and Tuk-an; the capital remains at Sa-ja. Now the
        area is called Later Paek-che. Some rebel remnants of the Paekche army are subdued by Silla forces. Now
        Koguryu attacks Silla, siezing Ch'il-jong fortress. Chi-nese generals Kye-p'il, So Chong-bang and Ha Ryuk
        are ordered against Koguryu
661 King Chang of Paekche dies in China. The three generals rendezvous at Ha-nan. Soldiers of Honan and Wei,
        heading against Koguryu are diverted to Paekche where the Buddhist priest Pok Sin leads a movement to
        reestablish the kingdom. He besieges Jowliw chung along with general Foosin. He recalls the late king's
        son Pu-yu P'ung (P' ungjang) from Japan and appoints him king. Pok Sin makes rapid progress in
        reconquest and soon besieges the capital of Foochung (=Swishun) under Liangkiang Liw Yinuen. The
        emperor orders Silla to put this down. To Yinuen's rescue marches Yu Ingwe. General Foosin defeats him.
        Then general Yu In-gwe defeats the Paekche, taking Ung-jin; Pok Sin raises the siege and retires to Yint-
        swun Chung. Yu In-gwe joins Yinuen and Foosin in plotting to kill Pok Sin and gain control of the entire
          Paekche army. General Kim Yu-sin is busy routing rebellious groups throughout the countryside.
          Meanwhile, the Chinese defeat Koguryu at the Yalu river, then seize Ma-eup San fortress. General Soo
          besieges P'yong-yang and defeats a Koguryu force at the Bei river. Gai-soowun (?) sends his son to prevent
          the Chinese from crossing the Yalu. But (Nov) the river is frozen over and the Chinese under Holi cross
          over and put Koguryu to flight. Snows force the abandonment of the siege of P'yongyang; fearing a winter
          in Korea, the emperor orders his forces to withdraw. Meanwhile, the kingdom of T'am-na on the island of
          Quelpart transfers her allegience from Paekche to Silla Also, Ch'un-ch'u of Silla has died, his son Pup-min
662 (Spring) The Koguryu defeat Pang Siaotai, Taotai of Okcho at Shua river. (Summer) Yinuen and Yingwei rout
          the Paekche east of Hiwngjin; sieze Junhienchung; Yingwei now readies his men for an attack on Paekche
          Meanwhile Pok Sin retakes Ung-jin. Chinese general Son In-sa forces Pok Sin to Chin-hyun where he is
          put to death. Foosin and king Fung taunt Yin-yuen. Yinyuen and Yingwei quickly sieze Julo, Yin, Dashan
          and Shajing, leaving garrisons in each. Yingwei sends to Silla for aid in taking Junhien chung. They take it
          and now Yinyuen asks the use of 7,000 idle at Laichow. Meanwhile, king Fung, suspicious of Foosin,
          outsmarts the latter's trick to kill him and has Foosin killed. Fung now appeals to Koguryu and Japan for
          aid in expelling the Tang armies. Japan sends a force.
663 The king of Silla is given the title Ta-do-dok of Kye-rim. A large Japanese army arrives and the siege of Jialin
          is raised. At the Bai Kiang river mouth, Chinese general Son In-sa joins the Silla forces before P'yong yang
          but it is decided first to do in the Paekche rebels. Yinyuen and Ying-wei (having been joined by the forces
          of Swun Yinshu) defeat the Japanese in four successive battles and burn 400 Japanese ships (the last the
          battle of the Kum River). Chu-ryu fortress is besieged, taken and the pretender captured. All the rebels
          surrender along with their Japanese allies. Finally Im-jon (=Ta-heung) falls. All Paekche is under the Tang
          except Yintswun chung under one Chu Showsin After the battle at the Bai, the warriors Heichu Changju
          and Shaja Siangyo who had been battling the Tang, submit. Yingwei sends them to take Yint swun but they
          send the besieged city food; Yingwei denounces them for this treachery; they take the city; Showsin flees
          into Koguryu. Paekche is now in ruins; Yingwei - now honored by the emperor - organizes a rebuilding -
          soon Paekche is again flourishing.
664 Death of Gaisoowun. Son and successor is Nanshung but his brothers Nan-shan and Nanjien are wary of his
          aims. Nanshung therefore does not enter the capital (Pingyang) so the position of king (Moliju) is assumed
          by Nanjien: He marches against Nanshung who flees to Baobie (?) and seeks Chinese help. Holi marches
          east and receives Nanshung into his army. (Autumn) Ho-li defeats the Koguryu and nanshung is made
          Doodoo of Liaotung, Pingyang Dao and Duke of Huentoo.
    Peace is concluded. Pu-yu Yung, the brother of the last king of Paekche is appointed gov of the territory that
          was formerly Paekche, being called Ta-do-dok of Ung-jin. Silla acquires lessons in music for her
          musicians and copies of dishes, clothes and customs from the Chinese camp. Meanwhile, a blow to
          Buddhism is given as the Silla ruler forbids anyone giving monks money or rice.
665 Silla and the Ta-do-doc of Ung-jin are forced to promise and swear not to fight.
    Liji is sent to command the Chinese army; the generals confer and decide that Sinchung is a strong and
          therefore dangerous city; they attack but Shufoochaw, lord of the city, opens its gates; 16 others follow
          suit. Sinchung is garrisoned and the Chinese defeat [wdmarchry] Nanjien who is pursued to Ginshan where
          he is again defeated but the war comes to a draw at the Yalu; the Chinese are short of provisions.
666 Death of Hap So-mun. His eldest son Nam-sang becomes prime minister; while in the country on business, his
          brother Nam-gun siezes the palace. Nam-samg goes to the Mal-gal and Ku-ran tribes and goes over to the
          emperor who makes Nam-sang governor of Liaotung. Later, Ko-guryu general Yun Chun-t'o surrenders to
          Silla, turning over 12 border forts.
667 Chinese forces cross the Liao; Sin-sung fort surrenders as do 16 others. Battle at Keum-san, general Ko-gan
          defeats the Koguryu. General Sul-Ingwi takes Nam-so, Mok-ju and Ch'ang-am and is then joined by the
          Mal-gal under Nam-sang. But Koguryu manages to prevent the allies from crossing the Amnok river. Silla
          is ordered to meet generals Yu In-wun and Kim In-t'a at P'yung-yang.
668 (Spring) Battle at Ginshan; the Koguryu are defeated and Fooyu is taken by the Chinese led by Hue. The 40
          cities in Chuenjoong (between the rivers) submit. (Summer) Nanjien sends 50,000 to retake Fooyu but they
          are annhilated at Huho river. Liji presses after them, taking Da-hing, breaks the Koguryu army at the Yalu
          and takes Chwunyi chung. P'yung-yang is attacked. After a month's siege, the Koguryu king sends Nan-
          shan and 98 principal men to surrender. Soon Nanjien gives in and opens the gates - the Chinese fire the
          city and Nanjien is sacrificed at the Tang capital: Koguryu comes to an end. Silla forces retire to their own
          country. China divides Koguryu into nine provinces. At P'yong yang general Sul Ingwi, made governor,
          heads up a garrison of 20,000. Dsang is pardoned and made President of the Board of Works. Nanshan is
          made Lord of Sudsai; Sinchung the priest is made Magistrate of Yinching and Gwang-loo; Nanshung is
          made a Great General; Nanjien is banished to Chinjoong See Note 22.
669   The three kingdoms are formally united into one, but dissension remains. Estrangement between China and
          Silla begins as Silla desires to control more territory; she begins acquiring territory to the North.
670   Kom Mo-jaun, a Silla gentleman attempts to reestablish Korean independence; he sets up a grandson of ex-
          king Chang as king An Seung. General Gao is sent to put this down but An Seung has killed Kom and fled
          to Silla. Gao defeats the rebels. Six months later; Battle of Baishwi Shan, the Chinese defeat a Silla army
          going to the aid of the rebels.
672   A large Chinese army is sent into Paekche to oppose Silla; Battle of fortress of Suk-sung; Silla defeats the
          Chinese then apologizes, fearing Chinese might. Later, China sends boatloads of rice to the garrison at
          P'yung-yang but Silla takes this.
673   Silla attacks the Paekche fortress of Ko-sung; 30,000 Chinese advance and are defeated. The emperor calls in
          the Mal-gal and Silla is driven back; king Pup-min humbles himself.
674   Empress Woo sends Liw Yingwei to attack Silla for its independent aid of Koguryu (many Koguryuan
          refugees are living there). The Silla king is pronounced deposed and a brother, in the Chinese capital, is
          proclaimed king and sent to Silla: Chinese forces, allied with Mal-gal and Ku-ran tribes invade Silla, are
          defeated and driven out: Silla is being supported by those who wish to keep Korea for Koreans and out of
          the Chinese grasp. The emperor makes Silla envoy Kim In-mun king of Silla though the envoy refuses to
          honor. Meanwhile, Silla appoints An-seung as king of Paekche and continues acquiring territory. Battle of
          Chijoongchung, Yingwei defeats the Silla army and orders Mo-ho to go by sea and destroy the south of
          Silla. But after hearing of Mo-ho's cruel methods, Yingwei recalls his army. Jinhing is sent to
          Maishungchung in Silla to harass the kingdom from there.
675   In three successive battles, Chinese general Yi Gon-hang defeats the Silla armies; king Pup-min "confesses
          Silla's crimes and prays forgiveness". The old king is reestablished. Meanwhile, Silla appoints An-seung
          as king of Paekche and continues acquiring more Korean territory. The emperor sends Chang, the old Ko-
          guryuan king, back to his country as "Chaosien" King. The capital is removed from Liaotung to Sinchung.
          After arriving, however, Chang is accused of meditating revolt; he is recalled, banished and soon dies. His
          followers are banished to various Honan cities. Silla is left to set up her own king as Chinese armies are
          required in the west. But Silla continues acquiring territory; Chineses forces, with Mal-gal and Kuran
          forces, attack Chon-sung fortress but are driven back. See Note 23.
676   A Silla envoy is recieved at the Chinese court.
677   The emperor sends the son of the captive king of Koguryu to found a little kingdom on the Yalu river, called
          Later Koguryu. Also a son of the last Paekche king is sent to found a little kingdom at Ta-bang in the north
          but fearing the northern tribes, he retires into Later Koguryu.
678   Silla makes Puk-wun-ju a northern capital.
681   Death of king Pup-min; his dying instructions are not to build an expensive mausoleum but to be cremated in
          the manner of the West.
682   Revolt of Later Koguryu; Chinese forces are sent, they put it down and the king is banished, thus ending Later
          Koguryu. Silla now holds all territory south of the Ta-dong river.
685   Silla redistributes her lands. Her territory including that taken from Paekche and Koguryu is divided into nine
          provinces: The Silla ones; 1) Su-bul ju (=Seoul), 2) Sam-yang-ju (=Yang-san) and 3) Ch'ung-ju (=Chin-
          ju); the Paekche ones; 4) Ung-ch'un-ju in north, 5) Wan-san-ju in southwest, 6) Mu-jin-ju in south
          (=Kwang-ju); the Koguryu ones; 7) Han-san-ju (=Seoul), 8) Mok-yak-ju (=Ch'un-ch'un) and 9) Ha-sa-ju
          (=Kang-neung). Meanwhile the sage Sul-ch'ong streamlines the primitiveness of Chinese idiography.
702   Heung gwang to the throne. Relations with China are pleasant and envoys from Japan are received.
714   To deter growing Kitan independent activities, the Tang emperor sends the governor of Yingchow against
          them. But the army is surprised at Yingchow, forcing him to flee to Yuyang (=Pinku). The Kitan take
          Yingchow and Liwchung. The Mo-ho are now at the mercy of the Turks.
      Founding of kingdom of Pal-ha (Parhae) in the north by the Song-mal family of the Mal-gal tribes under the
          leadership of Kul-gul Chung-sung near Ta-bak mountain (=Myo-hyang San). They call the kingdom Chin
         and is joined by remnants of the Pu-yu and Ok-ju tribes. Kul-gul Chung-sung sends his son to China and
         receives imperial recognition and title King of Parhae.
715-6 (June) Chinese army of 60,000 under Hue Na sets out to take Ying-chow from the Kitan; reaches Tanchow
         (=Kaichow) at the Lan river, Hue Na is surprised by the Kitan who soundly defeats him but Hue Na
         manages to escape. The Kitan are now established, their territories include most of Liaosi: Li Shuho, chief
         of Soongmo Kitan is invested with the kingship.
717-8 Death of Shuho (his wife was great-granddaughter of second Tang emperor); his younger brother Sogoo
         becomes Kitan king. Meanwhile, Wang Jwun, commander of China's northern districts, vows to crush the
         Tookue and Kitan. The Basimi (=Mon-gols?) aiding the Chinese in this venture march south but there's no
         Chinese army yet (dissention between W Jwun and general Jang Jaijun has delayed them) and not wishing
         to face the Turks alone, the Basimi withdraw but are soundly defeated by attacking Turks. Meanwhile,
         Kitan chief Kot-oogan rises against king Sogoo who is jealous of Kotoogan's popularity Sogoo flees to
         Yingchow where he is aided by 500 Chinese; they are defeated; Katoogan takes the city and places Sogoo's
         nephew Toogan on the throne.
719 Toogan is nominated Soongmo Doodoo and Loosoo, brother of Dafoo, is made Yolo Doodoo.
725 Toogan and Kotoogan are quarrelling; Toogan and his princess (?the widow of his predecessor?) go to China.
         He is nominated Liaoyang Wang
     (±10) Silla's level of civilization is rising; the cult of Confucianism is growing, the water clock is introduced,
         the title Hu is given the queen and the custom of approaching the throne by means of the Sang-so, or
         "memorial", is introduced. Meanwhile, the new Chin kingdom of Parhae is rapidly growing in size,
         grasping everything in sight, even taking ter ritory on Shantung promontory.
726 (Jan) Kotoogan enthrones Shao-goo. (Feb) The emperor invests Shao-goo with the vassal kingship of Gwang-
         hwa Wang and gives him the princess, his own granddaughter in marriage. Another princess is given also
         to Loosoo of the Western Kitan.
730 Shaogoo sends Kotoogan to China with their tribute but Kotoogan refuses to go. The king persists and Ko-
         toogan kills him and flees to the Turks, neighbors of Western Kitan. This terrorizes Loosoo of East Kitan
         and he flees to the Chinese court. Soon Ko-toogan leads a Kitan horde into China and defeats a Chinese
         army at Kinloo shan. The commandant of Yowchow is ordered against Kotoogan. He begins raising an
731 Large armies from east and north of the Whang river march against Kotoogan but they are insufficient.
733 Silla, now the most powerful of the Korean states, is asked by China to send an army against the Mo-ho
         kingdom of Bohai that is against Chinese rule in Liaotung. at the mouth of the Tooman river, Bohai defeats
         the Silla.
     Another Chinese army marches against Kotoogan and his Kitans. Battle at Baishan; at first defeated, the
         Chinese manage to force a Kitan retreat. Soon the Kitans are soundly defeated; Kotoogan manages to flee.
734 Silla general Kim Yun-jung joins a Chinese expedition against Parhae but it fails.
     The Taotai of Yowchow marches against the Kitan and is defeated. The Kitan march up to Yugwan and
         Kotoogan becomes the scourage of the border.
735 The emperor formally invests the king of Silla with the rights to rule as far north as the banks of the Ta-dong
         river (which Silla had long exercised anyway). The custom of cremating the royal remains is continued.
738 (?) Jang Showgwei, commandant of Yowchow, marches against Kotoo-gan, defeating him; the Kitan feign
         retreat but really seeking aid from the Turks. Utilizing the antagonism of LiGwoja with Kotoogan, the
         Chinese have Li Gwoja engineer the murder of Kotoogan and his king. The Kitan submit. Meanwhile, the
         Turkish Khan Pijia is poisoned by one of his ministers. Gwoja is invested King and Doodoo of Soongmo.
         He is soon murdered by one Niefung who states his reason as Gwoja's past crimes; Nie-gung is made
         Soongmo Doodoo. He later drives back a Turkish army intent of plunder.
739-40 Looshan, a native of Ying-chow and sent by general Showgwei against the Kitan, is defeated. Quick
         thinking, Looshan escapes decapitation and goes to Yowchow. He achieves a dashing victory over a few
         Kitan and is given the command in Pingloo, where he gains several more promotions.
742 Looshan, now a Jidooshu, commands a large force - guarding the borders against the Shiwei in the north and
         the Ho-ho in the east - chiefly stationed at Yingchow and Pingchow. In Chihli are stationed 128,000
         guarding against the Kitan and Turks.
      About this time (±?); see Note 24.
743 Looshan pays his respects to the emperor and is raised to a higher rank.
745 Looshan rampages the Western Kitan; they retaliate by murdering their queen, a Chinese princess, as a signal
        for revolt. Looshan defeats them and pursues them to Beiping Dist (=Tsunhwa).
749 With peace having gone on awhile, Looshan invites the Kitan principals to a feast, they become inebriated and
        he has them beheaded. Looshan is titled "Most Faithful of the Empire".
751 Looshan again marches against the Kitan with a contingent of Western Kitans. Near Toohojun river (=Daliang
        river) the battle is joined; Loos-han's Western Kitans abandon him and he is soundly defeated. He flees to
        Shi-chow, blaming his Turkish general Gosie for the defeat along with the commander of the Hodoong
        contingent; he has them beheaded. Brilliant-Thought (?) magistrate of Pingloo and Looshan's lifelong
        friend, sends 3,000 to his aid. But Brilliant-Thought knows that if he had been at the battle, Looshan would
        have had him beheaded too; he is ordered to raise the Kitan siege of Shichow, which he does.
752 With 260,000, Looshan marches against the Kitan and asks the emperor to have Turk chief Aboosu join. But
        Aboosu does not wish to be subordinated to Looshan and flees to the Gobi desert. Looshan is thus unable
        to attack and Aboosu scours the country around Tatung of Shansi.
754 First known casting of a bell in Korea: Bell of the nine-storied stupa of Hwang-nyong Temple. It weighs about
        132,000 pounds.
755 Casting of the bronze image of Yaksa (the Buddhist king of medicine) of Punhwang Temple, weighing
        396,000 pounds.
757 The names of the nine provinces are changed: Su-bul becomes Sang-ju; Sam-yang to Yang-ju; Ch'ung-ju to
        Kang-ju; Han-san to Han-ju; Ha-sa to Myung-ju; Ung-chun to Ung-ju; Wan-san to Chun-ju; Mu-jin to Mu-
        ju and Su-yak (or Mok-yak) to Sak-ju.
761 Looshan is murdered by his son who assumes his father's claim on being emperor. Now Brilliant-Thought
        assumes Looshan's former high place and is given the title "Equal of Heaven"; he marches against
        Looshan's son, defeats and slays him, assuming Looshan's family titles. Brilliant-Thought forces the
        emperor to flee Loyang, which becomes Brilliant-Thought's capital. Soon Brilliant-Thought and his son are
        put to death. Meanwhile the Kit-an sweep southward, causing the commander of Pingloo and his 20,000 to
765 Accession of king Hyegong. During his reign several revolts of the nobility break out.
780 Assassination of Hyegong. The assassin ascends the throne as King Sondok. A long period of succession
        quarrels begins.
785 Yang Sang kills the courtier Kim Chi-jong who was aiming to sieze the throne. Now Yang Sang kills the king
        and queen and sets himself on the throne. In his reign he repeoples P'yung-yang with citizens of Han-yang
        (Seoul) and institutes the written exam after the Chinese plan.
788 Adoption of the examination system for officials. The objective is to strengthen the kolp’umje, but it may also
        signify arecognition of the increasing local strength and an attempt to absorb it into the official class.
800 Reign of Chung-heui; receives a Japanese envoy bearing gifts and tries to repress Buddhism by interdicting the
        construction of monasteries and manufacture of gold and silver Buddhas.
806 To curb the rising trend of Buddhist temples being built by the local faithful everywhere in Korea, an edict is
        issued that forbids the building of new local temples.
822 The governor of Ungch’on district, Kim Honch’ang, resentful that his father Kim Chuwon had not become
        king, starts a rebellion in the hinterlands of Ungch’on (modern Kongju) in South Ch’ungch’ong Province.
        There he establishes a new state, which he names Changan; for a short time it includes Cholla and
        Kyongsang provinces.
825 Kim Pommun, son of Honch’ang, gtries to set up a capital at Yangju (modern Seoul) in Kyonggi province.
828 Kungbok (Chang Pogo), once a bandit and now a soldier, regretting the fate of the Koreans who had been
        carried away as T’ang slaves, returns to Korea and is put in charge of coastal operations and is appointed
        deputy at Ch’onghae-jin (modern Wan Island) in South Cholla Province. From here he controls seafarers
        and trade with Japan and China, soon becoming quite powerful.
835 Death of So-jong. His cousin Kyun-jang succeeds him.
839 The powerful official Kim Myung puts Kyun-jang to death and raises Che-yung to the throne. The son of the
        murdered king, U-jing, flees to Ch'ung-ha fortress and prepares to fight, aided by Kungbok. Kim Myung
        kills Che-yung and makes himself king. With larger reinforcements, U-jing defeats the usurper at Mu-ju,
        kills Kim Myung and ascends the throne.
846 Kungbok, who had been placed in high positions by king Sinmu and his son king Munsong, was planning to
        enter the nobility by marrying the daughter of king Munsong. When refused, he revolts and is quickly
850 About this time the priest To Son (827-898) introduces to Korea a doctrine based on yin-yang that deals with
        the magical influences of geography.
875 – 85 (Reign of Hon’gang) By this time the life of the subject people has become more difficult. Great
        demands are made upon them – demands no longer held in check by the deteriorating state system. While
        the king, accompanied by courtiers paid visits to the Wolsang pavilion, offers prayers for the prosperity of
        the capital and on the other hand, reveled in drinking, poetry and music parties, outside the capital the land
        is in turmoil. Long smouldering rebellion is now spreading and beginning to endanger the foundation of
        the government.
885-8 Chinda, the Khan of Hunda-jin, ravages the Si and Shiwei, then leads his people to Abaoji who is elected
886 King Whang tours the southern part of the country.
888 Man's rule; court morals fall to the lowest point possible.
889 Signs of the decline of the dynasty are clear: The queen dispatches officials to collect taxes in the countryside
        that have not as yet been collected, and bandits attack the officials.
892 The bandit Kung-ye, given a command by the bandit Yang-gil at Puk-wun (Wun-ju), has taken over the
        districts of Ch'un-ch'un, Na-sung, Ul-o and O-jin. He marches into western Silla, takes 10 districts and
        establishes a permanent camp.
893 The bandit Kyun-whum siezes the district of Mu-ju and proclaims himself King of Silla.
896 Dissatisfied with the jealous atmosphere of the court and the depravity to which life there has fallen, the
        scholar Ch'oe Ch'i-wun retires to a mountain retreat. Meanwhile Kung-ye begins operating in the north on
        a larger scale, siezing 10 districts near Ch'ul-wun and placing them in charge of his lieutenant Wang-gon,
        18 years old. Kung-ye ravages from Puk-wun to A-sil-la, assuming the title "Great General" and soon
        "Prince". He elevates Wang-gon to governor of Song-do.
897 Queen Man retires, handing the government over to adopted son Yo. Kung-ye siezes 30 more districts north of
        the Han river. Kyun-whun establishes his HQ at Wan-san (=Chun-ju) calling his kingdom New (Later)
        Paekche. Wang-gon, in the name of Kung-ye, siezes territory equalling modern Kyung-geui and Ch'ung
        ch'ung provinces.
901 Kung-ye proclaims himself king of the new state of T’aebong.
903 Wang-gon moves into (modern) Chul la province, clashing with and defeating Kyun whun.
905 Kung-ye establishes his capital at Ch'ul-wun, naming his kingdom Ma-jin: All northern and eastern Korea to
        within 120 miles of the Silla capital are under Kung-ye and Wang-gon.
907 Abaoji assumes the title of Emperor.
909 Kung-ye calls Silla the "Kingdom to be Destroyed" and sets Wang-gon as military governor of the southwest:
        He fits out a navy and subjects nearby islands. Battles Kyun-whun severely defeating him. Meanwhile,
        Kung-ye is becoming more curel and capricious; Wang-gon is keeping his distance. Silla is making very
        little effort, if any, to oppose the bandit encroachments.
911 Kung-ye changes the name of his kingdom to Ta-bong, having become a Buddhist; military matters are
        devolving more and more upon Wang-gon.
918 After repeated urging, Wang-gon finally agrees to the assassination of Kung-ye. After obtaining almost all of
        other bandit chiefs allegiences (Kyun-whun refuses) he sets out to establish his kingdom on a firm basis:
        Changes official system, alters revenue laws (ie; lowers taxes), manumits over 1,000 slaves and establishes
        one of his highest officials as governor at P'yung-yang. He finishes the year with a Buddhist festival
919 Wang-gon moves his capital to Song-do. A second capital is at Ch'ul-wun (=Ch'un-ch'un) called Tong-ju. But
        his people are apprehensive about his too-Buddhist tendencies. Unlike his predecessor, Wang-gon openly
        joins hands with Silla,welcomes the Silla king and nobles to his court and includes them in the formation
        of the new state.
920 Silla reconquers Wang-gon's kingdom of Koryu; an envoy with presents is sent to Song-do. Wang-gon begins
        construction of a wall across the northern border of Ham-gyung province to keep the wild tribes out. Kyun-
        whun attacks Silla and Wang-gon comes to the latters support.
921 The Heuk-su Mal-gal make a treaty with Wang-gon.
922 The Ku-ran, or Kitan, send an envoy with presents to Koryu.
923 Wang-gon sends an envoy to China to offer his compliments.
924 Kyun-whun attacks Silla but without success.
925 Wang-gon defeats Kyun-whun; the latter sends his son to Song-do as hostage. Now Kyun-whun sends to
        China for aid against Koryu and the emperor grants him the title King of Paekche.
926 An envoy from T'am-na on the island of Quelpart arrives at the capital of Koryu.
    Eastern Mongolia has been consolidated into a compact kingdom - the site of Moy-oong - the Kitan begin
        building toward an empire. They march east and take all Bohai west of the Hoorh river. Aba-oji appoints
        his eldest son Tooyu governor of East Dan (the new name of conquered Bohai). His second son Duagwang
        is appointed general of Silow, the Kitan capital.
927 News reaches Abaoji that the Chinese emperor has died, the messenger's name is Kwun; Abaoji states he
        cannot aid China due to the continuing battles with Bohai. Soon Kwun is imprisoned to force him to have
        China cede Yowchow to the Kitan. Later, Abaoji dies: Shoolu, the widow, places Duagwang as successor;
        Tooyu is sent to East Dan. Shoolu, actual ruler, releases Kwun and sends him along with Asumoo back to
        the Tang court. Meanwhile, Lu Loongwun, commandant of Loloong murders his younger brother angering
        the emperor. Lu flees to Kitan and is given command over a Chinese contingent in Ying-chow. Hearing
        that the new emperor may be lenient with him, Lu and his Chinese rise, slay the Kitan commander and his
        men and drive 100,000 people from Yingchow as a peace offering.
    Koryu forces defeat Kyun-whun but he attacks the capital of Silla; an envoy goes to Koryu for aid. Meanwhile
        Kyun-whun enters the capital, kills the king, ravages the queen and raises a relative of their deceased king,
        one Kyung-sun (Pu), as king of Silla.
928 Battle of O-dong forest; the forces of Wang-gon and Kyun-whun battle indecisively.
    The Kitan attack and sieze Pingchow and its commandant Jang Sijoong, along with his Chinese contingent.
929 Kyun-whun captures two Koryu fortresses. Battle of Ch'ung-ju; Kyun-whun is mildly defeated; next he
        captures Ok-ch'un district. Later he captures Eui fortress.
930 Battle of An-dong; Koryu forces defeat Kyun-whun. All the countryside severs allegience to Koryu; 110
        districts come over to Wanggon. Dagelet island - or Ul-leung - sends presents to Koryu.
    Heeding his men's desire to cure their homesickness, Jang Sijoong tricks the Kitan commander of Ping-chow,
        killing him; he marches on the Kitan barracks completely confusing the Kitan; with his men 220,000
        people Jang Sijoong returns to China. Meanwhile, the Kitan have taken Tingchow and are plundering
        Yunchow (=Kihien).
931 Wang-hon visits Silla: It is a friendly visit.
931-2 The kitan sieze Sinlo(?) forcing the Choo (one of the claimants to the Chinese throne) general to flee. The
        general returns and soundly defeats the Kitan; a few more months later they are again defeated and driven
        northward. Kitan captives are held at the Chinese court as a check against further incursions.
932 Wang-gon readies to move his capital to P'yung-yang but bad omens cause him to abandon this idea.
        Meanwhile, Kyun-whun siezes three districts in the eastern country and fires a large number of towns.
933 Wang-gon sends general Yu Gon-p'il against Kyun-whun; the latter is defeated in two battles.
    An intense effort to regain the Kitan prisoners is made; only a few are sent back for the Chinese court fears
        resumption of Kitan depredations if all are returned. Angered, the Kitan ravage Yunchow and Junwoo
        districts. Forts are built at Loo-chung and Sanho. The Sanho commandant manages to hold off the Kitan.
        The commandant of Tatung prepares for an offensive and the Kitan withdraw. The Kitan later establish the
        Liao or "Iron" dynasty.
934 Battle of Un-ju; Wang-gon severely defeats Kyun-whun, taking 32 fortresses.
935 Kyun-whun's throne is usurped by his son Sin-geum; escaping from prison, Kyun-whun finds asylum in Koryu
        to await the downfall of his son. Meanwhile, the king of Silla steps down, with all of his officials, handing
        his kingdom over to Wang-gon who appoints the ex-king prime minister. Wang-gon gives him his eldest
        daughter in marriage. The regional revolts and peasant violence finally comes to an end.
936 Wang-gon marches against Kyun-whun's sons, killing them all except Sin-geum. Now the Korean peninsula is
        united withoout antagonisms. Kyun-whun dies.
936-7 Koryo under Wang Jien annexes Paekche and Silla, uniting Korea under one throne. The capital is
        established at Soongyao; Pingyang is made the western capital.
938 The monk Hong-bum comes to Koryo.
939 The emperor formally recognizes Wang-gon as king of Koryo.
942 Wang-gon refuses to accept the friendship of the Kitan, not trusting them. After giving his son and successor
        10 rules[1; Buddhism is state religion, 2; Build no more monaster-ies, 3; Do not let a first bad son become
        ruler, 4; Do not make friends with the Kitan, 5; Do honor to the ancient capital P'yung-yang, 6; Establish
        an annual Buddhist festival, 7; Listen to good men and banish bad ones, 8; As the south is disaffected
        toward the ruling family, do not marry from among them, 9; Look after the army's interests, 10; Always be
        ready for emergencies] he dies. His successor has his brother and sister marry.
946 The Sung conclude an alliance with Korea against the Kitan but the Korean king sees opposing the Kitan as
    Death of Wang-mu. He managed to suppress the powerful Wang-gyu, father of his 16th wife, though with
        much difficulty: The Korean king is falling more and more under the influence of his officials. Wang-yo
        decides to make P'yung-yang a secondary capital: He is thoroughly in the hands of the Buddhists. Many
        people of Song-do are required to move there.
950 Wang-so marries his sister.
953 Scholar Sang Geui comes to Koryo with a party from the emperor to approve the coronation of Wang-so. He
        has the king abolish slavery; disappointment occurs; the now free slaves want more and the exowners are
        angry over the loss of property. National competetive exams are instituted.
958 The Confucian examination system is adopted, but to the kings, princes and nobles, the more magnificent and
        sumptuous Buddhism has greater attraction than the seemingly severe Confucianism.
961 The styles and colors of official garments are changed. By this time the king of Koryo has become the
        instrument of anyone who gains his ear: Innocents are executed due to feuding factions or to ease grudges
969 Having a twinge of conscious, Wang-so gives himself over to Buddhism and becomes the tool for two monks
976 Kyong-jong liberates those that are not condemned felons. Other reforms; Buddhist monks are sent back to
        their monasteries.
982 Ch'i (Wang-chi) maintains his brother’s good work; he does away with Wang-gon's sensless festivals. He
        changes the names of the official grades to correspond to those of Tang.
983 The custom of the king plowing a piece of land in person each year is instituted. During Ch'i's reign,
        Confucianism receives a great impetus.
984-8 Legal rate on money is set at 10% per mensem(?). Fortress begun to be built on the Yalu. Mourning customs
        are changed. Agricultural advancement encouraged. Storehouses are built. Restrictions are placed on the
        property rights of the Buddhist church. Kyong-ju, ancient capital of Silla, is made eastern capital.
985 The Sung send messengers to stir up Koryo against the Liao. Kor-yo agrees. Sung sends to Nujun also.
        Meanwhile, Koryo and Kitan (=Liao) are struggling, and Koryo, forseeing no help from Sung,
        acknowledges Liao supremacy, but their king refuses to go to Liao in person; Liao thereupon demands all
        the country still belonging to Korea west of the Yalu together with Hing, Tie, Dong, Long, Gwei and Go.
        Koryo refuses to give all of this up and sends to Nujun for aid; the Koryo-Nujun force severely defeats
989-93 The northeast border is garrisoned against the Kitan. The Bureau of History is revitalized. The king steers a
        delicate course between Buddhism and Confucianism.
993 The Kitan invade, stating the country used to belong to them and so demanding vassalage. It is agreed to only
        relinquish the territory north of the Ta-dong river. Soon, Kitan general So Son-ryung is defeated; so he
        request only that Koryo recognize Kitan suzerainty. Refused. So Son-ryung marches back; Wang-chi
        adopts the Kitan calendar. But now he seeks aid from China, China refuses: Koryo breaks relations with
995 Koryo is divided into 10 provinces: Kwan-na (=Kyung-geui); Chung-wun (=Chung-ju); Ha-nam (=Kong-ju);
        Yong-nam (=Sang-ju); Kang-nam (=Chun -ju); San-nam (=Chin-ju); Ha-yang (= Na-ju); Sak-pang
        (=Ch'un-ch'un, Kang -neung and An-byun); P'a-su (=P'yung-yang) and Ka-sung (=Song-do).
996 The "Emperor" of Kitan invests the Koryo king with the royal insignia. First coining of money in Korea.
998 Wang-song revises the system of taxation.
1000 Wang-song receives investiture from Kitan.
1003 Eruption of volcano on island of Quelpart.
1010 The queen and her lover plot to kill Wang-song; they involve Son and general Kang Cho. The general kills
        the queen, her lover and Wang-song then places Wang-sun on the throne. His first act is to raze the palace
        of the queen dowager. (Dec) Due to high handed tactics of generals Ha Kong-jin and Yu Chung, the Kitan
        invade Koryo with 400,000 to avenge the assassination of Wang-song. Koryo generals Kang Cho and Yi
         Hyun-un, at first successful, are defeated. The Kitan march on P'yung-yang via Kwak-ju (=Kwak-son) and
         Suk-ju (=Suk-ch'un). The king offers surrender and the Kitan general orders to stop ravaging surrounding
         territory. P'yung-yang is besieged. The Kitan garrison at Kwak-ju is wiped out by 1,000 under general
         Yang Kyu. Soon, the Kitan quit the siege and move east. The king and queen move south to To-bong
         monastery in Yang-ju. Letters of understanding each sides position are sent and the Kitan begin retreating
         to a wintering position.
1011   The Kitan army marches to P'yung-yang, burns the palaces and most of the common houses. The king is in
         Kwang-ju and flees farther south to Ch'un-an where the governor tries to kill him; moves south to Na-ju.
         Meanwhile, Koryo generals Kim Suk-heung and Yang-kyu defeat the Kitan forces. The Kitan begin to
         retreat; the king returns to Chun-ju. Battle of A-jin; generals Yang-kyu and Kim Suk-heung are defeated
         and killed. Their successor general Chon Song continues pursuing the retreating Kitans, cutting down
         many of them at the Yalu. The king returns to P'yung-yang.
1012   With the Kitan gone, reconstruction begins. The 12 provinces are reformed into five. The Kitan (angry at the
         king's refusal - because of sickness - to personally do obesience) seize six northern districts on the Korean
         side of the Yalu: The Yu-jin tribe, having just befriended Koryo, ravage the northeastern boundary.
1013   The Kitan and Yu-jin cross the Yalu but are driven back by general Kim Sang-wi.
1014   An attempt is made to resume friendship with China but the emperor will have nothing to do with it.
         (Autumn) Forces of Koryo again drive the Kitan out of Korea. This year too sees growing trouble over the
         size of the army and its pay vs the pay of civil officials; friction between military and civilian officials
1015   The Kitan bridge the Yalu building a wall at each end. But when they enter Korean territory they are driven
         back. The military faction is now in complete control at the Koryo capital. The king holds a feast and has
         all the military leaders cut down (-?--?-) establish civil control in the government. Koryo appeals to Sung
         for aid but Sung refuses.
1016   Battle of Kwak-je; Kitan defeats a Koryo army. (Winter) Kitan retreat.
1017   Kitan invasion of Koryo.
1018   Kitan under general So Son-ryung invade Korea and are defeated by general Kang Kam-ch'an (the dam and
         flood trick) who obtains two more victories.
1019   So Son-ryung again invades Korea; defeated at Kwi-ju, the Kitan are put to flight; So and a few followers
         cross over the Yalu. With this great defeat, envoys from Ch'ul-ri, Ta-sik, Pul-la, the Mal-gal, T'am-na and
         the Kol-bu arrive at Koryo.
1020   Koryo sends an envoy establishing peace with the Kitan who are beginning to absorb Buddhism.
1024   The king decrees candidates for the national exams should be according to population. At this time also
         begins a great antagonism between the Buddhist and Confucian "parties" in the government of Koryo.
       Noting that Nujun has now become quite civilized while powerful, Korea establishes friendly relations with
         them to ward off future troubles. Mutual barter markets are set up.
1026   Against the advice of officials, the king spends a great amount of money to repair monasteries.
1029    Kitan general Ta Yun-im revolts forming a kingdom called Heung-yo; he asks aid of Koryo. Koryo hesitates
         and the Kitan soon destroy the new state.
1032   Death of Wang-sun. Son and successor Wang-heum marries his sister. He breaks all all friendly relations with
         Kitan because the bridge accross the Yalu is not destroyed. He orders a wall built from Ko-gung-na
         fortress near Eui-ju on the Yalu to Yong-heung near the Japan Sea.
1035   Wang-hyung continues making the northern defenses impregnible: Builds a wall from Song-ryung Pass in the
         west to the borders of the Yu-jin tribe in the northeast; builds fortress Cha-jun (=Ch'ang-sung)
1036   Buddhism becomes dominant as the king decrees that any man with four sons must have one become a monk.
         He issues laws curbing trends toward luxury and setting down primogeniture. The Yu-jin tribe promises to
         refrain from raiding the frontier.
1047   Wang-whi marries his sister. He shows tendencies toward a blending of Buddhism and Confucianism.
1048   Wang-whi swings over to Buddhism. The Yu-jin attack but are driven back, indeed, Koryo forces pursue
         them into their territory and burn their villages.
1053   System of taxation overhauled. A new schedule of weights made. Complaints are sent to Kitan that the bridge
         still stands across the Yalu and that it is a terminus for a horse relay.
1056   Japanese envoy arrives reques ting Buddhist teachers and instruction be sent.
1060 By this time Buddhism has gained quite a hold on Koryo; the arms industry is begining to suffer from the use
         of material and finances for building monasteries.
1065 The king's son Ku becomes a monk.
1070 Kitan changes her name to Yo. The Yu-jin, Chang-man and Tu-hul tribes swear allegience to Koryo.
1075,±2? The Japanese ruler Sal-ma sends gifts to the Koryo court. The Kitan people are finally induced to break
         down the bridge over the Yalu.
1077 Friendly relations are reestablished with China (Sung dynasty).
1079 The Chinese emperor sends physicians and medicines to Koryo. First evidence of gold mining in Koryo at
1083 Wang-hun dies almost immediately after accession; his younger brother succeeds him as Wang-un. He
         institutes a Buddhist exam, which is of greater importance than the Confucian. He marries his sister.
1088 The bridge over the Yalu having been rebuilt, is again destroyed.
1095 Death of Wang-un. He greatly increased the influence of the Buddhist church in Koryoan affairs. Son and
         successor is Wang-uk, 11 years old with uncle Ong regent.
1096 Ong drives Wang-uk from the throne and proclaims himself king as Wang-ong. He establishes a second
         capital at Han-yang (=Seoul).
1100 The copper cash (heretofore money being iron) begins circulation. Buddhism has made greater material
         advances and has become more firmly rivited upon the body politic.
1100-10 A Liao man goes to Sung with plans to overthrow Liao through an alliance with Nujun. But Koryo
         advocates joining Liao against Nujun, but the emperor would rather wreck Liao. Meanwhile, the Liao king
         goes fishing and meets with the nobles of "savage" Nujun; the young man Agooda refuses to dance for the
         Liao king and flees across the Songari where he quietly begins building up an army.
1104 Construction of a palace begun at Han-yang (=Seoul).
1106 It is discovered that counterfeit cash are being produced; severe laws against this are promulgated, as well as
         laws against the adulteration of food.
1109 The king marries a relative and takes in as teacher the monk Un-jin. Construction of palaces at P'yung-yang
1112; ±3? With the Yu-jin growing restless again, a Koryo force is sent against them soundly suppressing them;
         their territory is divided into four administrative districts.
1113-4 Death of Wooyasoo. Agooda (A-gal-t'a) becomes chief of Nujun; he assumes the title Doobojilie (=Chief of
         Chiefs). He angers the Liao (Kitan) by not telling of the death and of his succession - asserting Nujun's
         independence of Liao.
1115 The king becomes a botanist, exchanging rare and beautiful plants with China.
     A-gal-t'a proclaims himself emperor and names his Yu-jin kingdom Kin and changes his name to Min. Kitan
         forces sent to put Kin down are severely defeated; Kitan appeals to Koryo but help is refused.
1116 While war between Kin and Ki-tan goes on, the Wun (under one Ko Yong-ch'ang in eastern Kitan) of Kitan
         makes an alliance with Kitan. Kin indicates it does not wish to antagonize Korea to jeopardize her designs
         on China; she gives Koryo the district of P'o-ju.
1116-7 The Kin defeat Liao (Kitan) armies many times and capture 50 walled cities.
1117 Kin defeats Kitan general Ya Ryul-lyung, burns their fleet and gives Ko-ryo two more districts. The Koryo
         border is once again at the Yalu. Kin now demands a Kin-Koryo treaty. It is refused by Koryo.
     A party of Nujun (=Kin) soldiers approach Baochow and are allowed to enter whereupon they take
         possession. Fearing its safety, Korea does nothing.
1118 The Sung emperor congratulates Agooda; desires for a Sung-Kin alliance are mutual.
1118-9 Severe famine strikes Liao, particularly in western Shantung, Shansi, Shensi and Honan (where there is
1120 Another demand for a Kin-Ko-ryo treaty. Refused. The king sends to have the northern fortresses rebuilt and
         have the walls strengthened.
      Sung-Kin treaty: All lands up to and including Yen are Chinese while the Liao Joongking and all east of it are
         Kin (ie; Liaotung and Liaosi); both will attack Lio, the Kin through Goobeikow, the Sung through Baigow.
         King Wang-o urges the Sung ruler to retain the Liao between him and Kin.
1121 The battle is on and (Dec) the Kin sieze Liao's central capital. The Liao king Yensi retreats to Yun-chow
         (=Kihien). The Kin force him from there and pressure him to Jaishan Meanwhile, Yensi's uncle assumes
         the title Liao king at Peking (for Yensi was forced to slay his ambitious son). The Kin besiege Tatung
         which finally goes over to the Kin on hearing of the uncle's assumption of power.
1122   The new Peking king (T'ai Tsung) sends an army against the Sung, defeating them near Baigow. (June) Death
         of the Peking king: The government is assumed by his widow who in tends to submit to Kin. She has the
         capital's commandant who had made her husband king killed. Agooda has messengers delay the large Sung
         army advancing northward; unnecessary, for a Liao general defeats them; Chochow and Yichow, however,
         open their gates to the Sung. (Dec) The Kin send suggestions on the partition of Liao. The Sung send
         messengers back demanding Lanchow, Pingchow and Yingchow as outlined in the previous treaty. But
         Agooda states these have been taken by Kin arms and so remains Kin. Soon Agooda siezes Peking, the
         widow flees; thus the five capitals and 9/10ths of Liao are in Kin possession. Treaty: Upon a huge
         payment, Agooda hands over Yenking (=Peking), Chochow, Tanchow (=Miywun hien and Shwunyi-hien),
         Shwunchow, Kingchow and Kichow to Sung while all northwest, mountains and rivers of Liao remain in
         Kin hands. Meanwhile, the main portion of Liao has moved west into Hia country, becoming the Western
1123   The new king has the official Yi Ja-gyum (who desired to rule and tried to assassinate the king) exiled.
       (Feb) Janggoo, Kin commandant of Pingchow (=Linyu of Chihli) delivers his city to Sung (he had before
         deserted from Liao to Kin). Dso, Kin commander of Yenking (also formerly of Liao) drives many people
         from there to Jang who hears of the ready availability of a Western Liao army. A Chinese minister Liangsu
         argues against accepting Jang's desertion as it would only bring the Kin down on the Sung. But the
         emperor goes ahead and accepts Agooda is very displeased and begins planning an offensive. (Sept)
         Sudden sickness and death of Agooda. Succeeded by brother Woo Chiwmai. (Nov) Woo or-ders Kin
         general DooMoo against Jang, but Jang forces DooMoo's retreat. The emperor makes Jang a lieutenant-
         general. (Dec) A new Kin force marches against Jang and he is defeated and flees to Yen chow. The
         Dootoong of Pingchow takes control of the city and while ready to hand it over to Kin is killed by the
         inhabitants who prepare to be besieged by the Kin; they are.
       Beginning at this time (to about 1150), uprising occur all over the country.
1124   Kin demands the head of Jang, and Sung acquiesces. This weakness of the Sung leaders causes the army to
         begin melting away, many going over to Kin. Meanwhile, 100,000 men rise in rebellion in Shantung and
         about 33,000 in Hunan. Now Sung sends general Toonggwei to Yaiyuen to meet the Kin who promise to
         hand over Southern Kin lands that should be Chinese: The Kin demand that the border between the
         countries be the Hwang Ho. Toon-ggwei is urged to stay for Shensi will be taken and if it goes, Chihli and
         Shantung will go. Toonggwei remarks that Sung will lose anyway. Mean-while, the Kin take Swochow,
         Taichow and besiege Taiyuen. Pingchow is finally taken (July). Another Kin army accepts the submission
         of Losu; Kin gains yushan foo and all the cities under Losu's jurisdiction.
1125   The last Liao king is captured by the Kin in northern Shansi: Kitan has come to an end. Meanwhile, the Kin
         reach the Hwang Ho, cross, take Kuchow and head for Kaifung, stating all they desire is a treaty in which
         they desire 5,000,000 ounces of gold, 50,000,000 ounces of silver, the cities and territories of Ttiyuen,
         Hokien and Joongshan (=Tingchow) with an imperial prince as hostage. A few days later they attack
         Kaifung, defended by commander Li Gang who manages to harass the Kin [the Kin complain about him
         and L. Gang is removed from office but reinstated after Sung's ablest minister complained loudly]. Finally
         it is agreed to give the Kin the three cities - they are besieged.
1126   Kin general Meiho manages to take Pingyang; Loongan immediately falls. Chinese officer Joong Shwaijoong
         defeats the Kin army of Pingyang and captures Showyang and Yutsu: He is completely defeated - Joong
         dies - by Meiho at Shahiwngling (Kill-Bear Pass). Toonggwei is executed. Li Gang is elevated to governor
         of east and north of the Yellow River and ordered to Tai-yuen to strengthen the defenses, but at Hwaichow
         other counsels have him disband his army - his men scatter. He is able to strengthen some cities but the
         inhabitants of north of the river flee to the south. Li Gang is recalled and another appointed in his place.
         (Oct) Fall of Taiyuen: Meiho drives the Sung army south, taking Loyang. Sung calls on all his countrymen
         to come to its defense, but then convinced that all Kin desires is the three provinces (Taiyuen, Hokien and
         Joongshan) he prepares a "treaty-feast". Orders are given to the three cities to submit to the Kin but they
       By this time the struggles of the Korean nobles have become very intense; they are resorting to violence, and
         some have designs on the throne, controlled for years by the Yi family. This year, Yi Changyom, planning
        to make himself king, attacks and burns the palace. Later, a quarrel arises between him and his associate
        T’ak Chun’gyong in which the latter is killed and the Yi family is banished.
1127 (Jan) Kang Wang, the emperor's brother, diverts the Kin by siezing 30 of their forts in the north. (Feb) The
        Kin force him to retreat and he orders them to fall upon the Sung capital. One division, under Dsua, refuses
        to accompany Kang Wang and sets out for Honan. He defeats a Kin army at Weikum foo. (March-April)
        With the Sung emperor and his family living in the Kin camp, one Chang Pang-ch'ang is nominated
        Chinese emperor (the official Wooko tries to murder him but fails). (May) The Kin retire northward, taking
        both the old and new emperors with them. (June) Commander Prince Kang, the emperor's younger brother,
        is elevated to emperor at Nanking, establishing the Southern Sung dynasty; Dsua is sent to garrison
        Hiangyang foo and nominated governor of the east capital (Kaifung).
1127-8 Dsua and Meiho battle many times, eventually Meiho defeats Dsua but Meiho is so worn out that he
        remains west of Kaifung. (Aug) Death of Dsua.
1129 All Kiangsi falls to the Kin.
1130 The fight between Buddhism and Confucianism goes on, with Buddhist monk Myo-chung (Myo Ch’ong;
        follower of To Son (see 850)) trying every scheme to have the Korean king end subsidies to the
     (Jan) Chinese general Yao Fei begins defeating Kin forces. Another general, Shijoong, with far less men that
        tbe Kin he battles, soundly defeats them; the Kin get the message and refuse to try to take any territory
        south of the Yangtze. This year too, the Kin banish the old Sung emperor and family to Woogwo.
1135 Unable to secure Koryo as an all Buddhist country, Myo-chung with fellow traitor Chokwang persuades the
        king to set up a kingdom named Ta-wi with its capital at P'yung-yang. After besieging the city, the
        kingdom ends and the traitors are executed (1136).
1145 Kim Pu-sik compiles the "Sam-guk-sa" - History of the Three Kingdoms.
1147 King Wang-hyon is completely given over to the priesthood, yet is a debauchee. The people ridicule him. He
        is called “Lord of Tranquility and Literature Appreciation”, builds many villas and almost every day sets
        out on a round of pleasures accompanied by literary men, feasting and composing poetry.
1165 Great numbers of Kin cross the Yalu and settle in In-ju and Chung-ju. The local magistrates drive them out.
        The Kin emperor forces the king to restore them but the magistrates again drive them out. So the emperor
        has 16 county officials siezed.
1169 The king makes eunuchs the instruments to exact greater sums of money from the people in order to carry on
        his feasting, but none of his military men share this hospitality.
1170 Thoroughly disgusted, the generals begin slaughtering eunuchs and civil officials (the uprising of Kyongin).
        The king continues his debauchery and the generals are dissuaded from killing him. General Chong
        Chung-bu begins destroying the houses of those officials guilty of crimes - a new custom.
1171 General Chong banishes the king to Ko-jien island and the crown prince to Chin-do island. He then places
        Wang-ho on the throne. All civil offices are filled by military officials; General Im Keuk-ch'ung becomes
        prime minister. Antagonism against Buddhist monks by the generals grows. A rebellion of civil officials
        led by Kim Po-dang is quelled. Finally, general Yi Eui-mun kills the deposed king. The monks try to kill
        gen Yi by b[- -?] him in his house but he rallies and kills hundreds then demolishes five monasteries. Cho
        Wi-jong of P'yung-yang raises a rebellion; winter comes and general Yi Eui-bang is unable to finish
        putting it down, tho he kills all of Cho's supporters in P'yung-yang. General Chong, distrusting Yi, retires.
        Chong's son kills general Yi and his relatives (1174).
1172 Cho Wi-jong seeks aid from Kin but none comes. He controls more than forty forts in Pukkye (northern
        March, P’yongan province) and Tonggye (eastern March, Hamgyong province).
1173 Kim Podang, commander of the northeastern provincial forces, tries to raise an army to attack Chong.
        Military officials carry out a thorough massacre of civil officials (the uprising of Kyesa).
1174 Cho Wi-jong rebels against the government of military officials. Cho is besieged in P'yung-yang - there is
        cannibalism. Finally the city is taken and the rebellion ends; Cho is killed (1176). But now bands of thieves
        and rebel remnants roam the country. The king attempts reforms but they are for naught: He meanwhile
        continues his debaucheries.
1176 Peasant uprising in Ch’ungch’ong province lasts for a year and a half. Meanwhile, uprisings break out in
        Cholla, Hwanghae and P’yongan provinces.
1179 General Chong and his son are killed by Kyong Taesung. A rivalry begins between Kyong and general Yi
        Uimin. Their forces are called tobang (general chamber). This rivalry lasts until 1196.
1182 Government slaves of Chonju in north Cholla province revolt and seizxe Chonju.
1190 An uprising occurs in the eastern capital, Kyongju, in north Kyongsang province.
1194 For the last few years outbreaks of banditry have been colmmon. Those of Kim Sami at Unmun and of Hyo
        Sim at Ch’ojon, both in north Kyongsang province, are especially large. They spread, attracting vagrants
        and the poor who ravaged districts and prefectures to the south. The government is only able to stop them
        at Miryang where they take 7,000 heads. Uprisings now begin to break out in waves.
1196 General Ch'oe Chung-heun cleans out the court; killing the court favorite general Yi Eui-mun and others,
        chases away the king's illegitimate sons. He conducts a thorough search for all who had opposed him, and
        eliminates them. He also takes firm measures to suppress the peasant and slave revolts which had been
        recurring for 30 years: He had built up a strong military force.
1198 General Ch'oe Chung-heun deposes the king, banishes the Crown Prince to Kang-wha and places Wang-tak.
        Soon Ch'oe's brother has the general banished and his daughter becomes queen. Ch'oe undoes all this and
        restores the rightful queen. Meanwhile, turmoil and strife wrack Korea. The slaves revolt with the objective
        of “abolishing the status of unfree people in the ‘Three Han’ (Korea)”, planning to burn the registers of
        public and private slaves and to kill civil and military officials.
1199 Uprisings at Myongju, Samch’ok and Ulchin in Kangwon province and another one in Kyongju.
1200 Slaves stage an uprising at Chinju in south Kyongsang province. More than 50 government slaves at Miryang
        in south Kyongsang province seize government property and flee to join the bandits of Unmun. The
        peasants of Kumhae in south Kyongsang province band together and try to kill powerful local families.
        The people of Nool Ward at Somch’on in south Kyongsang province revolt.
1202 An insurrection occurs on Cheju Island.
1202 –03 The people of Kyongju ally themselves with the people of Unmun, Ch’ojon and Ulchin and rebel.
1203 Buddhist monks at the temples of Pusok, Puin and Ssangam in north Kyongsang province raise in revolt.
1206 Genghis, son of Ya-sok-ha (or Yusuka, who had revolted against the Yu-jin), proclaims himself emperor and
        calls his empire Mong. Meanwhile, Ch'oe Chung-heun is allowing power and wealth to go to his head.
1212 An envoy sent to Kin is intercepted by Mongol videttes; the envoy is killed. Meanwhile the king tries to
        depose Ch'oe Chung-heun who by now controls the government. The attempt fails; Ch'oe banishes the king
        to Kang-wha and the Crown Prince to Chemulpo and sets up one Chong (Wang-o) on the throne.
1215-20 Kin peoples, suffering under the descending Mongols, begin entering Korea. First the Koreans are able to
        hold them back but soon the pressure is too great: Whang-ha province is lost (P'yung-yang becomes a Kin
        capital), then Whang-ju. Meanwhile, the priests are trying to kill Ch'oe. The Kin sweep past Song-do and
        are defeated at Seoul, retreat to Ta-bak San. The Yu-jin, allies of the Mongols, cross the Yalu and sieze
        Eui-ju; Koryo forces drive them out. The royal residence is moved to Pa-gak san to hold the north in check.
        General Chung Kong-se prevents the entrance of Myun Ku-ha of east Yu-jin who had been defeated by the
        Mongols - from entering Korea. The Mongols - who are trying to destroy Kitan - desire friendship with
        Korea. Battle of Kang-dong; the Mongols allied with Yu-jin besiege and finally capture the city destroying
        the Kitan power. A meeting between a Mongol envoy and the king ends with promises of friendship. Death
        of Ch'oe Chung-heun; he is succeeded as "Mayor of the Palace" or "Shogun" by his son U. Rebellion in
        north by Han Sun and Ta Chi is put down by E Yu-jin leader Myun Ku-ha. The king reforms abuses in the
        rebellious areas and restores peace.
1221 The Mongols demand revenue; Kim Huei-jo handles the envoys well and the payments are minimal.
1222 Fearing a Mongol invasion, a wall is built near the Yalu river, from Eui-ju to Wha-ju.
1223 Japanese pirates land Kyung-sang province and ravage Keum-ju province, begining a chronic problem of
        Korea with Japanese pirates.
1224 Mongols change their tribute demands of Korea. Koryo discards the Kin calendar.
1225 Japanese raid the south. Korean-Mongol amity is broken as a Korean highwayman robs a Mongol envoy
        heading north.
1226 The Yu-jin (now part of the Mongol power) raid into Eui-ju area; the prefect drives them out.
1227 The envoy Pak In is sent to Japan to remonstrate against their pirates and find out their activities are not
        sanctioned by the Japanese government. Yu-jin bands ravage the north.
1228 Yu-jin bands ravage the north.
1231 Mongol forces under Sal Ye-t'ap cross the Yalu and sieze Ham-sin fortress and Ch'ul-ju. Battle of Ku-ju
        Koryo generals Pak So and Kim Kyong-sol defeat the Mongols who then bypass it and head south, taking
        Kwak-ju and Sun-ju. Mongols attack Ku-ju and An-puk fortress and are defeated. Mongols cross the Ta-
       dong river, sieze P'yung-yang and reach Song-do, ravaging the countryside for supplies. Mongol general
       Sal Ye-t'ap demands surrender. The prime minister plans flight. Again Ku-ju is attacked and the Mongols
       are repulsed.
1232 The Korean king surrenders. It takes a great deal of argument to have the prefect of Ku-ju accept. A Mongol
       residency is established at Song-do; the Korean king recognizes the Mongol emperor as suzerain. The
       viceroy Choe U forces the court to move to Kan-wha. Meanwhile, the people are rising against the Mongol
       governors. Cho-im manages to hold off the Mongols, but others are put down.
1233 More insurrections are put down with heavy Mongol hand. Second wall built at Kang-wha.
1234 Construction of palace at Kang-wha begins.
1235 Mongols begin real occupation of Korea. The king becomes a sun-worshipper.
1236 Mongol occupation reaches all southward, their only reverses coming at the hand of Son Mun-ju, prefect of
       Chuk-ju (=Chuk-san). They do not cross to Kang-wha.
1237 At Na-ju, Koryo forces successfully oppose Mongol forces.
1238 Mongols again flood Koryo, thoroughly plundering the country, weakening is beyond revitalization.
1239 Mongols withdraw and order the king to go to Peking and bow before the Mongol emperor. He refuses but
       sends a relative of Chun.
1240 Mongols again order the king to Peking; he refuses. So they order him back to Song-do; again he refuses
1241 Wang-ch'ul sends Sun, a relation, to Peking asserting him to be the king's son.
1242 Death of Ogdai Khan; peace comes to Korea.
1246 Accession of Gayuk Khan; renewal of hostilities against Korea.
1249 Death of Gayuk Khan. Peace again over Korea. The king begins construction of a palace at Song-do.
1251 Accession of Mangu Khan: War against Korea is inevitable.
1253-4 The emperor's brother Song-ju with Yu-jin and other allies cross the Yalu. Then Mongol general A Mo-gan
       reaches the Ta-dong river. Then general Ya Gol-da with 16 chieftans enters Korea. The king is urged to
       leave Kang-wha and submit but one voice points out the futility of this. The Mongols take the strongest
       fortress in Whang-ha province (To-san?) then Ch'un-ch'un. Ch'ung-ju resists general Ya Gol-da's siege
       then he moves to Kang-wha and demands the king's submission. The king promises and the Mongols begin
       withdrawing; the Koreans kill the traitor Yi Hyun and his son; the emperor now sends general Cha Ra-da
       to be governor of Koryo; a cruel and bloodthirsty man who begins to completely reduce and ravage the
1255 The emperor recalls general Cha Ra-da who builds fortified camps on his way out (for future use).
1256 Cha Ra-da is sent back to meet with the king (promising to be on his way back to Song-do); the Korean
       treasury is now completely drained. Cha now continues his bloody wanderings; he is defeated at Chung-ju
       and in the east. The king states he cannot go to Song-do with Cha in Korea; the emperor recalls Cha again.
1257 Death of Ch'oe Hang, viceroy and son of Ch'oe U, his son Ch'oe Chung becomes viceroy. An Yul leads an
       insurrection in Kang-wun province; it is put down. Famine wastes the country. General Cha again enters
       the country and to get rid of him, the king sends his second son and Ch'oe Chung. Now the aged slave Kim
       In-jun, turned out after years of faithful service to the Ch'oes, kills Ch'oe Chung. The king, glad to be rid of
       the oppressive viceroyalty, distributes the considerable Ch'oe fortune among the people.
1258 Mongols construct Eui-ju fortress. General Cha Ra-da advances to Su-an. The king leaves Kang-wha accross
       the straits to Tong-jin, but Cha de-mands the crown prince come also. Cha builds a line of forts from Sang-
       do to Tong-jin and the king retires to Kang-wha. The Mongols demand his return but will not cross the
       straits. Meanwhile, general San Gil-da is wasting the northern and eastern districts. The king appeals to the
       emperor to remove the Mongol forces and he'll return to Song-do. Meanwhile, two traitors overthrow the
       Koryo general of the north and go over to the Mongols.
1259 An envoy is sent to China but he is waylaid, robbed and killed by Korean ruffians. Mongols, now thoroughly
       discrediting the country, begin making P'yung-yang a permanent Mongol center. The king, convinced
       there's only one way to rid the country of the Mongols, sends the crown prince to the Mongol capital (Song
       Kil). It is ordered to destroy the palaces at Kang-wha. Death of Wang-ch'ul. Crown Prince U (Wang-sik) is
       in China; the grandson is placed as regent. Another envoy is sent protesting the depredations of Mongol
       troops; finally all troops are ordered out of Koryo. Meanwhile, Sung and Japanese pirates are ravaging the
       island of Quelpart.
1260 Accession of Kublai Khan (general Hol-p'il-ryul); he sends the crown prince (Wang-sik) back to Koryo. He
       moves his capital to Tong-jin which is only half an hour sail from Kang-wha.
1261 The Khan orders a census of Koryo, establishes a horse relay system and begins reestablishing the army.
1262 Tribute this year is remitted due to heavy expense of rebuilding Song-do. Also many goods stolen by
        Japanese pirates are returned.
1264 Japanese pirates attack southern Koryo; driven away by royal forces under general An Hong.
1265 The emperor decides (after the machinations of Koryo citizen Cho I) to secure the submission of Japan. The
        envoys are taken over on a Koryo ship. The envoys are made to wait five months then dismissed without
        an answer; Kublai Khan is angry and orders preparations for an invasion. Meanwhile, some disliking
        Koryo are stirring up bad feeling against the country at the Mongol court: General U-ya Son-dal is sent to
        demand the influential Koryo officials Yi Chang-yong and Kim Chun to Peking. Kim Chun kills U-ya Son-
1266-7 Another Mongol envoy to Japan. Meanwhile, Kim Chun has become headstrong over his success in killing
        the Mongol general and plans to become viceroy (ie; kingmaker). The king has him killed by one Im Yun.
1268 Some Japanese are captured by Koryoans and sent to Peking then returned. The crown prince goes to the
        Mongol court. Now Im Yun desires to be king maker; banishing those who would oppose him, he
        proclaims Chang, a distant relative of the king, as king; Im proceeds to loot the palace. Supported by the
        emperor, the crown prince returns, the king is reenthroned and Im Yun killed. Thinking the Koryo king
        unable to handle his affairs, the emperor sends a commissioner to assume control at Song-do.
1270 Another Mongol envoy (Cho Yong-p'il and Hong Ta-gu) sent to Japan Invasion preparations are carried on in
        Koryo. Meanwhile a rebel government is set up in Quelpart. Kublai Khan proclaims his empire's name as
1271 Return of Mongol envoy from Japan with Japanese envoy. Invasion preparations continue, though hindered
        by the Quelpart rebels. They begin ravaging the coast of Chul-la prov. In fear of their lives, the people of
        Keum-ju treat a party of maurading Japanese well.
1272 A Mongol-Koryo force overthrows the Quelpart rebels; a garrison is placed there.
1273 The invasion force is readied to go to Japan (meanwhile, famine in the capital and the emperor sends 20,000
        bags of rice).
1275 Death of Wang-sik. The emperor confers royalty upon son and successor Ko (Wang-ji) who has a Mongol
        wife and sends him to Koryo to take charge. The invasion force of 25,000 under generals Hol Ton, Hong
        Ta-ga and Yu Pok-hyong and 15,000 under Koryo general Kim Pang-gyung with 900 boats lands at Iki - a
        few successes - but finally withdraw seeing their force isn't large enough -a storm ruins most of the force.
1276-8 For the first time a general tax - the hop'o - is levied on the people to pay the recuring deficit. The emperor
        orders Korea to ready another invasion force. Meanwhile, the Mongol queen is gaining the dislikes of her
        Koryo subjects by her high-handed manner and oppressive methods.
1279 All Koryo officials adopt the Mongol coiffure and dress. The royal family journies to Peking. Meanwhile the
        Japanese have killed the Mongol envoy: Another invasion is decided upon.
1280 Famine; the emperor aids Koryo with 20,000 bags of rice.
1281 Hong is sent to superintend readying the invasion, but he is so obnoxious to the king that general Kim Pang-
        gyung replaces him.
1282 The invasion force (1,000 boats, 20,000 Koryo, 50,000 Mongols and soon to arrive 100,000 Kang-nam and/or
        others) leaves Hap-p'o. A fierce storm (kamakazi; Japanese “Divine Wind”) ruins the fleet while
        approaching the mainland. The invasion force returns. The emperor orders another invasion force readied.
1283 Hearing of Koryo's financial plight and his army's problems with Japan, the emperor ends further invasion
1289 Famine in China; Koryo is able only to raise 60,000 bags of rice (100,000 are demanded).
1290 T'ap-dan savages swarm down siezing two dists in Ham-gyung province. Koryo and Mongol forces hold them
        in check; the king takes refuge at Kang-wha.
1291 T'ap-dan savages reach Kyung-geui province. They besiege Wun-ju, the defense headed by literary man Wun
        Ch'ung-gap; they manage to capture chief To Cha-do; the T'ap-dan are quelled.
1294 Timur succeeds Kublai. He sends half of the 100,000 bags of rice stored in Koryo for the Japanese invasion to
        a famine stricken northern district. He gives back Quelpart to Koryo the island is now named Che'-ju.
1297 Death of the king's Mongol queen. The old king has the emperor turn the government over to his son.
1298 The king's son is given rule but family troubles with his Mongol queen cause the emperor to recall him and
        reinstate his father (Wang-ji).
1299 The emperor sends Whal-yi Gil-sa as viceroy to handle the rule of Koryo, for Wang-ji is incompetent. He
        abolishes slavery but states only the eighth generation of a manumitted slave may hold office. The emperor
        orders Koryo to bring Japan under their rule. He has 500 ships built on the south of the Yangtse at his
1302 Failing to conquer Japan, the Korean fleet is recalled.
1308 Wang-ji to Peking to straighten out family problems. Guluk Khan emperor; Wang-ji is thrown into prison and
        Wang-jang made ruler of Mukden. Soon Wang-ji dies and Wang-jang goes to Song-do. He becomes quite
        a reveller and debauchee.
1309 Wang-jang revives the government salt monopoly for his personal income He spends most of his time in
1314 Bored with him at the Peking court the emperor's mother has told Wang-jang to go back to Koryo. Instead, he
        abdicates in favor of his second son To (Wang-do). He orders a census, changes revenue laws, refines the
        measure ment of land and purchases great quantities of Buddhist and Sanskrit (Tibetan) books.
1317 Wang-do marries a Mongol princess.
1318 Wang-do returns to Koryo. Wang -jang is banished to T'o-bun or San-sa-gyul as a monk for refusing to return
        to Koryo.
1320 About this time Confucianism experiences a slight revival.
1322 The emperor orders Wang-do to Peking, for he has been detracted by his cousin who wishes the Koryo
1324 Death of the emperor. His successor proclaims general amnesty. Wang-jang returns to Peking.
1325 Wang-do and his queen return to Koryo. The queen dies.
1331 Wang-do asks the emperor to make his son Wang-jung king as the duties of government are interfering with
        his debaucheries. Wang-jung is sent to Song-do and Wang-do goes to Peking but is more depraved than his
1332 Wang-do is reinstated. Wang-jung is recalled to Peking to investigate serious charges against him; he is
        accused of killing a number of the best officials of his father.
1336 On a trip to Peking, the emperor sends Wang-do back to Korea with his father, disliking both.
1337 A member of the Hanlin Academy is sent to Korea to investigate the same subject (1332). The Korean
        minister Woo is sent to Peking and subsequently banished to Singan. The emperor orders that no Korean
        shall own a weapon nor ride a horse.
1340 Death of Wang-do. Wang-jung is allowed to return to Koryo. The courtier Cho Chuk tries to prevent his
        accession but fails and is killed. Wang -jung does not marry a Mongol princes but a Koryo woman. As
        famine is now in his country, he manages to have the burden of a Japan-conquering army taken off his
1344-5 Angered at Wang-jung's debaucheries that have ruined Koryo's economy, the emperor has the king brought
        to Peking bound; he is humiliated and dies. Wang-heun, eight years old, acceeds. The people and places
        that supported Wang-jung's amusements are sent away or destroyed.
1348 Death of Wang-heun. A dispute over the succession in Peking; the brother Chi in Koryo or Keui, son of
        Wang-do in Peking.
1349 The emperor makes Chi (12 years old) king (Wang-ji) of Koryo. He is married to a Mongol princess.
1350 Japanese begin coastal depredatioins, severely crippling Kyung-sang province. Ul-lam sends an envoy to
1351 Japanese corsairs ravage islands of Chul-la province. Acceeding to the desires of Koryu officials, the emperor
        makes Keui, his son-in-law, king of Korea. Wang-ji flees to Kang-wha.
1352 Death of Wang-ji by poison. Keui becomes king as Wang-uk.
1353-4 The scholar Yi Sak memorializes the king on five subjects; necessity for definite land boundaries; defense
        against Japanese corsairs; manufacture of war implements; fostering of study and learning; the evils of
        Buddhism. Wang-uk takes a Buddhist high priest as teacher and confers high positions on Buddhist monks.
        One Cho-Il-si kills many of the Buddhist "party" and proclaims himself prime minister. Soon, however,
        Cho-Il-si is killed.
1355 Great rebellion in China under Chu Yuan-chang. The Mongols ask Koryo for aid, they send 23,000.
1356 Japanese raiders are increasing their depredations. One Yi Cha-ch'un is made prefect of Sang-sung, Ham-
        gyung province.
1357-8 The relatives of the Mongol princes are put to death. The Mongol "resident" is sent packing to Peking
        Koryo forces sieze their former territory across the Yalu. Coinage and its value is reformed. The capital is
        moved to Han-yang (=Seoul).
1359 Japanese raids increase in severity; 300 Koryo boats are burned at Kak-san. An extra wall is built around
        Song-do and the government granaries moved inland. The Mongol district of Ha-yang comes over to
        Koryo. The wild tribes of Pang-guk-chin of the north submit. Japanese depredations threaten Song-do
1360 Not having an heir, Wang-uk takes a second wife. The "Red Head Robbers" (or Hong-du-juk) of the north led
        by Kwan Sun-sang and P'a Tu-ban seize Mukden and enter Liaotung and announce they're going to
        reestablish the Sung dynasty. They seize Eui-ju and Chong-ju; In-ju is invested but prefect An U forces
        them back to Chong-ju. The invaders approach P'yung-yang and enter the capital. Koryo forces defeat
        them and pursue them to Ham-jung where they are decimated. Red Head leader Whang Chi-sun is captured
        alive. Now more Red Heads by boat ravage P'yung-ju and An-ak but are repulsed by general Yi Pang-sil.
        Envoys are exchanged with Chang Sa-sung, Mongol pretender. Gen Yi Whan-jo, father of Yi Cha-ch'un, is
        appointed general of the west to guard against the increased depredations of the Japanese: This year they
        hit Kang-wha expecially hard. With the palace at Han-yang completed, the king moves there.
1361 General Yi Whan-jo becomes general of all forces in north and northeast. Japanese ravage southern coast,
        especially Nam-ha, Ko-sung, Ko-je, Ul-ju and Fusan. Death of Yi Whan-jo; his son Yi Cha-ch'un (known
        as Yi T'a-jo) succeeds as general of north and northeast. The Red Heads descend, sweeping all before
        them, defeating general Yi Pang-sil who cannot prevent the king from fleeing to Ch'ung-ch'-ung province
        then Pak-ju (=An-dong). The Red Heads enter Song-do. Chong Se-un is made CIC of all Koryo forces; he
        defeats the Red Heads at Song-do with much slaughter. A jealous official has Chong Se-un killed. A wild
        tribe under Nap-t'ap-chul (and with Koryo turncoat Cho So-sang) cross the Yalu, ravaging to Puk-ch'ung
        and Hong-wun. Japanese invade the south. General Yi T'a-jo is sent against Nap-t'ap-chul, he continually
        defeats them, is appointed general of the forces in the north; he annihilates their colonies throughout the
        entire north, forcing them to conclude a treaty of peace. Ho-dok-ko Pul-wha leads a revolt on Quelpart and
        becomes a nominal part of the Yuan empire.
1362 With the Yuan dynasty tottering, the emperor proclaims on Hye called Prince Tok-heung, a relative of Wang-
        uk, as king of Korea to maintain the Yuan dynasty. But the Koreans give him a hot reception and he returns
        to his native capital.
1363 The king reenters Song-do and preparations are made to oppose the pretender.
1364 10,000 Mongols cross the Yalu and beseige Eui-ju and are defeated; general An U-gyung makes a stand at
        An-ju where joined by general Ch'oe Yung and Yi T'a-jo along with Yi Sun, U Che and Pak Ch'un (with
        Yi T'a-jo gone, the Yu-jin under Sam Seun and Sam Ka seize the whole northeast). The Mongols are
        defeated at Chong-ju, then at Su-ju and general Yi runs the few remaining accross the Yalu; then he expells
        the Yu-jin from the northeast. The Japanese seize a Koryo fleet sent out against them. The emperor decides
        to leave Wang-uk on the throne. Meanwhile, Japanese depredations are creeping closer to Song-do.
1365 The king falls under the control of the monk Sin-don, to whom opposition swiftly grows. Through Sin-don's
        machinations, the king gains an heir (actually Sin-don's son!).
1366 To protect himself, Sin-don begins taking land and property of high officials and distributing them among the
        people. The Japanese establish a permanent base on an island near Kang-wha.
1367 The Mongol rebels on Quelpart are brought to terms. The desparate Mongol emperor plans to move to
        Quelpart; he notifies the king that he relinquishes Mongol claims to the island.
1368 End of the Mongol Yuan empire in China; establishment of the Ming. A Japanese envoy arrives and is
        snubbed by Sin-don; possibility of an agreement to curb the pirates is lost. Sin-don has the national exams
        done away with.
1369 King Wang-uk sends congratulations to the new Ming emperor. A Ming envoy arrives Song-do; Wang-uk is
        acknowledged as king of Korea. Koryo adopts the Ming calendar. Resident Japanese of the south rise in
        revolt and begin ravaging. A new census of arable land is made, with concomitant reestimate of revenues.
        The king hands over to Sin-do the whole care of government. General Yi T'a-jo is appointed CIC of all
        northeast territory; general Yi Im-in is CIC of all northwest.
1370 General Yi T'a-jo crosses the Yalu, takes bullocks and horses from the Yu-jin. Koryo adopts the styles of
        Ming dress.
1371 General Yi T'a-jo, campaigning against the Yu-jin whose territory is between the Yalu and Great Wall,
        attacks Ol-ja fortress, then attacks Liao fortress then returns to An-ju. Meanwhile, the Japanese [rain?]
        north of the capital; Ha-ju is attacked; general Yi drives them away. Finally seeing the light, Wang-uk has
        Sin-don and his two sons executed.
1372 General Chi Yun puts down a band of Mongol and Yu-jin robbers under Nap T'ap-chul and Ko-gan. The
        Mongol horse breeders of Quelpart revolt but the common people put it down. Japanese strike the east
        coast, reaching An-byun and Ham-ju (=Ham-heung). The king begins dabbling in sodomy, having a
        "school" of boys for such purposes.
1373 Japanese ascend the Han and raze Han-yang. The king makes Kim Heung-gyung his favorite. General Ch'ow
        Yung replaces general Kul Sang (beheaded) to oppose the Japanese.
1374 General Yi Hyun unfolds a plan to build a navy to oppose the Japanese; it is accepted. Meanwhile, the
        Japanese do as they wish in Whang-ha province. The Ming emperor desires 2,000 horses from Quelpart,
        but the Koreans must overthrow the Mongols there to obtain them; they do.
1375 A eunuch assassinates Wang-uk. Sin-u, the supposed son, ascends the throne - the eunuch is executed. Sin-u
        is at the mercy of unscroupulous minister Li Yinyin who imprisons Sin-u and places his son Mao on the
        throne. A dispute between Ming and Mongol factions in the Koryo court erupts over who is rightful ruler.
1376 The Mongol faction carries, and the king of Mukden with Koryo renegades advances. Meanwhile, the
        Japanese ravage the south: They take Kong-ju, routing general Pak In-gye. Battle at Hony-san, general
        Ch'oe Yung almost annhiliates the Japanese. An envoy to Japan ascertains that the pirates are also Japanese
        rebels which are impossible to control; they ravage Kang-wha and Chul-la provinces.
1377 Mongol chieftan In-puk-wun suggests a Mongol-Koryo alliance to attack Ming but Sin-u requests the king of
        Mukden bound. Japanese attack southern coast; incompetent general Ch'oe Yung is banished.
1378 Mongols invest the Koryo king and he accepts the Mongol name of the year. Japanese ravage Ch'ung-ch'ung
        province, kill 1,000 men on Kang-wha and burn 50 boats. General Yi T'a-jo is appointed CIC of Koryo
        forces. The Japanese ravage east and south and advance on Song-do. Battle at Chi-ri mtn; Yi defeats them
        severely. Kang-wha is ravaged. Battle at Ha-ju; Yi slaughters the Japanese to a man. Now negotiations
        with shogun Pia-ga-da (Yoshimitsu) brings promises that the Japanese government will try to control the
        pirates. Im Sun-mu brings the art of making gunpowder to Koryo.
1379 (early) Japanese ravage Ch'ung-ch'ung province and Kang-wha and advance of Song-do, defeating general
        Ch'oe Yung. Gen Yi T'a-jo hands them a severe defeat. Generals Na Se and Sim Tuk-pu defeat the
        Japanese at Chin-p'o. (Autumn) Japanese again ravage near the capital. The king desires moving to Puk-so
        San, but is turned down. Meanwhile, renegade Mongol general Ko-ga-no has set up a government in Liao-
        tung and desires union with Koryo. Outcome?
1380 Japanese government sends 180 soldiers under general Pak Ku-so to aid Kor-yo against the pirates.
        Meanwhile, jealousy is undermining the government - Yi T'a-so's friend general Yang Pak-yun is killed.
        The king is more of a debauchee than ever. The Japanese brag they'll soon be in Song-do: Battle of Un-
        bong; general Yi T'a-jo severely defeats them.
1381 The Ming emperor tries to bring Sin-u down to earth by levying a heavy tribute upon him. Compliance is
1382 Generals and large numbers of troops are stationed (at considerable local expense) at all the larger port cities
        to fend off now frequent Japanese mauradings.
1383 Sin-u sends as much tribute as he can, but the Ming emperor states it isn't enough. The capital is moved to
        Han-yang. With general Yi in north campaigning against the Yu-jin, the Japanese ravage the South.
1384 Envoys are exchanged with Mongol chief Nap-t'ap-chul. The capital is moved back to Song-do. General Yi
        defeats the Yu-jin under Ho-bal-do. Ming warns Koryo against friendly relations with the Mongols.
        Japanese land near Kang-neung and ravage north to Nang-ch'un.
1385 Chong Mong-ju is sent to Peking with 2,000 horses; he manages to revive friendly relations with Ming.
        Meanwhile, Sin-u is finding it very difficult to come up with Ming tribute The Mongols are spurned.
1386 Ming emperor formally recognizes Sin-u as king of Koryo, but the king only continues his licentiousness.
        General Yi defeats a band of Japanese at Tu-man river. The king begins going out in the streets in disguise
        and committing deprived crimes. To finally quiet Quelpart, general Yi Hang is sent; he brings away all the
        horses, doing away entirely with the island's horse breeding business.
1387 A closer union between Ming and her suzerain Koryo: Many fortified cities are built along the east Chinese
        coast to keep watch on Japanese raids.
1388 Sin-u decides to invade Liao-tung, an insane idea with the Japanese problem and its need of troops; the
        presence of the great Ming power; the presence of Ming government in Liaotung: Koryo's economy cannot
        support it. Nevertheless, he persists; a protective wall is built around Han-yang. Ch'oe Yung is made CIC
        and Yi T'a-jo his lieutenant; Yi argues against this war. Koryo forces cross the Yalu; Sin-u discards the
        Ming calendar and adopts Mongol dress. With Koryo's army heading north, the Japanese sieze 40 districts
        in the south. General Yi defects to Wi-ha island in the mouth of the Yalu where he and his troops agree to
        depose Ch'oe and end this insane war; march toward Song-do slowly - for he allows the king to reach
        Song-do first. Gen Ch'oe-yung mans the walls but many Koryo troops have joined Yi. Yi's forces take the
        city. General Ch'oe-yung is banished. A search begins for a blood relative of the Wang family to be king;
        Sin-u passes out of history with his concubines. Yi concurs with the powerful Cho Ming-su in placing Sin
        Chang, adopted son of Sin-u, on the throne. New laws are changed; land law making people more safe in
        the possession of their property. Battle of Nam-wun; general Chong Chi severely defeats the Japanese. The
        banished king is sent to Yo-heung and general Ch'oe is killed. The scholar Yi Sak explains all to the
1389 General Yi launches a great offensive against the Japanese. General Yi deposes Sin Chang and places Wang-
        yo on the throne to have a legitimate relative of royalty on the throne. His first act is to banish Yi sak and
        Cho Min-sa who supported Sin Chang. The two banished kings are killed.
1390-2 Attempt to assassinate general Yi aborted. A war office is established; system of conscription insstituted.
        The crown prince returns from Peking and general Yi is injured in an accident; Chong Mong-ju moves to
        have Yi put away. Chong Mong-ju is killed. Soon the king sees how ridiculous his position is and he hands
        over the seals of rule to general Yi T'a-jo: The Wang dynasty comes to an end. The ex-king eventually
        goes to San-ch'uk (dies 1395). The Ming emperor agrees to have the new kingdom called Cho-sun
        (Choson) - "Morning Freshness" - and Yi T'a-jo's son is sent to Peking. Many relatives of the former king
        are killed.
1393-8 Cho Chin charged with building a wall around the new capital at Han-yang (Seoul means "capital").
        Choson's northern border is at Ma-ch'un Pass. The Mongols hold Ham-gyum province. Envoys come from
        Japan, Liu-kiu islands and from Sam-na. Restrictions are placed on the priesthood, hereditary slavery is
        abolished. High military and naval offcials are placed at all great southern ports. The three ports of Ch'e-
        p'o, Yum-p'o and Pu-san-p'o (Fusan) are set aside where Japanese envoys and trading parties can be
1399 Pang-suk and Pang-bon, T'aejo's sons by his second queen plot to kill their rival half-brothers in order to
        secure the succession for themselves. The plot is discovered; they are killed. Han-yang isn't yet popular, so
        the court moves to Song-do for awhile. Tired of his son's strife, T'aejo decides to retire in favor of eldest
        son Prince Yong-an. But fifth son prince Chong-an is popular choice. T'aejo decides that after ruling
        awhile, Yong-an shall step down in favor of Chong-an. T'aejo retires to Ham-heung. Chongjong's first act
        is to disband all feudal retainers thereby dealing a death blow to developing feudalism.
1400 Noting T'a-jong's impatience, Chongjong hands over the kingship to him (as T'aejong) and retires.
1401 T'aejong begins reforms. He ends the use of wine in the palace so more grain would be available during
        famines. Takes lands from monasteries and gives them to the people. Further restricts the perogatives of
        the monks. Hangs a drum by the palace gate for audiences in order to right an unresolved grievances. He
        orders changeover to cast copper type characters.
1406 Copper buddhas sent from Quel-part to Peking. Limitations are placed on length of sentences against
        criminals. All the queen's brothers are killed (for sedition?).
1409 Japanese envoy Wun-do-jin arrives in Korea. King T'aejong orders the restoration of royal hunting lands in
        Whang-ho province restored to the people.
1413 Severe drought. T'aejong discounts the efficacy of the exorcists and fortune tellers in relieving it; he has all
        their books burned.
1419 T'aejong retires in favor of his fourth son Ch'ung-nyung (as Sejong) (his first son crown prince Yang-yung is
        dissolute and worthless). Sejong orders the making of musical instruments and a clepsehydra. A work in
        astronomy is published. He himself publishes "The Five Rules of Conduct", "The Duties of King, Father
        and Husband", "Good Government and Peace" and a work on military tactics. He ends the maintenance of
        a herbarium. He ends allowing concubines and eunuchs meddling with state affairs.
1420 A college of letters is established. (Summer) Japanese begin their ravages, landing at Pi-in they move up into
        Whang-hu province and state they need provisioning to go to China, they are not here to harm Korea. A
        large Korean force is assembled at Ma-san har-bor; it sails and at island of Tsushima burns 129 Japanese
        boats and 1,939 houses. Difficulties at Ni-ro harbor force return to Korea.
1421 Custom of building a monastery at the grave of the king is discontinued. It is decreed that every man charged
        with a capital offense shall have three trials and their details shall have royal inspection.
1422 Death of T'aejong.
1423-31 Sejong edits a book on agriculture telling in what districts and what kinds of soil different species of
        grains and vegetables thrive best. Penal laws are changed: Beating to be administered on legs and not on
        back; no murderers to be bound in prison if under 15 or over 70; no prisoner under 10 or over 80 is to
        suffer under the rod; the king's relatives are not exempt from punishment if guilty of a crime.
1432 The Ya-in cross the Yalu and begin ravaging back and forth over the border.
1433 General Ch'oe Yun-dok crosses the Yalu and captures the chief Ya-in city of Ta-ram-no. Now, with northern
        Ham-gyung province sparsely settled, opportunities for settlement are opened for Koreans of the south. But
        the Yu-jin chiefs Ol-yang-t'ap and Hol-ja-on are harrying the land.
1436 Korean forces finally quell the Yu-jin, allowing peaceful settlement of Han-gyung province. About this time
        the Japanese Daimyo of Tsushima, Chung Seung, revives trade relations with Choson.
1443 Institution of the custom of giving the Daimyo of Tsushima a bonus of 200 bags of grain a year.
1450 Death of Sejong. One of his most striking accomplishments is the development of a pure phonetic alphabet
        whose characters are based on the Sanscrit. In this work, he was assisted by the scholars Sin Suk-ju and
        Sung Sam-mum (who consulted with banished Chinese scholar Whang Ch'an). Son and successor is Hyun
        (as Munjong)
1452 Having suffered from Confucian excessis, Munjong dies. His young son Hong-wi, 11 years old, becomes
        king (as Tanjong) by the graces of prime minister Kim Chong-so, because the boy is opposed by the
        powerful faction led by his uncle Prince Su-yang, "The Tiger" Su-yang has the prime minister killed and
        all the other supporters of the king, except the venerable Sung Sam-mum, and becomes actual ruler of the
1456 By this time Tanjong has encouraged the wider developement of sericulture. Now he finally caves in from his
        uncle's pressure and abdicates in Su-yong's favor (as Sejo). Tanjong is a virtual prisoner in the palace.
1457-9 Pak P'ang-yun, Sung Sam-mun, Yi Ga, Ha Wi-ji, Yu Sung-wun and Yu Eung-bu conspire to assassinate
        Sejo, are discovered and killed along with their families. Tanjong is eventually strangled. Sejo begins
        reforms: Establishes pleasant relations with the Liu Kiu islands and the wild northern tribes. Establishes
        prefectures along the northern border to strengthen that area. Women's dresses are shortened to distinguish
        them from men's. School founded for study of Chinese vernacular. The criminal court is ordered to issue a
        monthly transcript of its proceedings. Hospital founded for dispensing medicine for indigestion. Medical
        government bureau founded and medical works published. Census. Military games are held for practice.
        Sejo is hostile toward Buddhism.
1460 Publication of books on weaving, military matters and women's manners. By taking care of the army,
        successes are many; (the Ol-yang-hap is defeated) the tribes of I-man-ju, Ol-jak-heup and Yan-ba-a-gan
        swear allegience.
1461 Codification of the law and its publication. Publication of works on veterinary surgery, astronomy, geology,
        music, writing, the signs of the times, agriculture, livestock, foreign relations and arithmetic.
1465 Erection of a monastery in Seouls in which the Buddha is standing.
1468 Yi Si-a raises a revolt in Ham -gyung province. Generals Yi Chun, Cho Suk-mum and Hu Chung defeat the
        revolters at Man-nyang mountain. Another force is sent against the Keum-ju tribe beyond the Yalu. Sejo
        resigns in favor of Yejong. Sejo retires, studying the estimation of distances by eye, but soon he dies.
        Regent for Yejong is the queen mother.
1469 The great bell Sejo had cast and hung at the south gate of Seoul, is moved to the center of the city. Seoul is
        divided into north, east, south, west and Central districts. Promulgation of the Kyung-guk Ta-jun, or "The
        Great Laws for Governing the Country".
1470 Death of Yejong. Songjong is nominated king, with the same queen mother as regent: Abrogation of the law
        in which all are required to wear the ho-pa, or identity tags, instituted by T'aejong. Envoys arrive from
        Quelpart, from Ku-ju Si-so of Kwan-su province of Japan, from Wun-jung town on Tsushima, from Liu-
        kiu islands and from the Japanese island of Sal-ma.
1472 All sorceresses, fortune tellers and Buddhist monks are driven from Seoul and forbidden to reenter.
1473-6 A schedule of yearly government exams is established. Criminal procedure is changed in which all men of
        scholarly rank who commit a crime are tried before the college of scholars. Songjong publishes Che-wang
        Myung-gan ("The King's Clear Mirror") and O-ye-eui ("Five Rules of Conduct"). A library is established
        and in it are collected all books that can be found. The Buddhist convents are driven out of Seoul.
1477 The queen mother retires from the regency. A law is passed prohibiting damning girls.
1478 Death of the queen. The concubine Yun is raised to royal consort but soon done away with because she was
        too hot tempered.
1479-81 Reforms: Grave plots not allowed to interfere in the making of fields; the king makes available aid to those
        too poor to marry. Songjong publishes four books; on marriage, funerals, ancestor worship and "On
        Reaching Manhood". He is a Confucianist. The Yu-jin tribe is quelled at the request of the emperor.
1482 Construction of two forts on the Yalu river near Kang-gye to oppose wild tribe outbreaks.
1484 Construction of the Ch'ang-gyung Palace. Publication of the Tong -guk T'ong-gam ("Complete Mirror of the
        Eastern Kingdom"), Korea's annals down to 1392, authored by Su Sa-ga (=Su Ko-gan).
1486 Remeasurement of the land to discover property that isn't yielding revenue.
1489 Cholera sweeps the country. Songjong prohibits calling on Buddha to send it away.
1490 Destruction of musical instrument types made under Sin-don; new types are made and music becomes purer
        and more serious. Invention of the so-ni, a catapult like instrument of war.
1491-2 Border wars in Ham-gyung province; royal troops commanded by general Hu Chung.
1494 Death of Songjong. Yonsan, 20 years old and son of ex-queen Yun ascends. The prime minister, Kim Chong-
        jik, resigns, stating that Yonsan bodes ill for Korea: He beheads his tutor Cho Chi-su.
1496 More revenue demanded from Chul-la province; its land is remeasured. Yonsan has all of the people involved
        in having his mother deposed (1478) killed with their families and their houses razed: A reign of terror
        begins. Kim Chong-jik is killed and the schools are closed; the higher classes of people leave the city.
        Debauchery, oppression and theft become the norm.
1504 Placards protesting Yonsan's methods are posted in Seoul. Yonsan recalls banished peoples and has them
1506 Song Heui-an, Pak Wun-jong and Yu Sun-jong lead a revolt that unseats Yonsan (who, along with his son is
        banished to Kyo-dong island). Chung-jong, second son of Songjong is raised to the throne; there is a
        universal holiday.
1507-11 Chungjong does away with Yon-san's Dog and Falcon bureau, abolishes his "Woman's Bureau". He
        returns houses despoiled by Yonsan to their owners. Revives the law requiring a written report of the
        proceedings of the criminal court. Tired of being oppressed by the prefects, Japanese Ko-jo-mo and Ko-su-
        jang kill the prefect of Fusan and attack Ch'o harbor taking its prefect alive. Ung-ch'un and Tong-na
        provinces are ravaged. 1,000's are killed by Korean troops. The custom of giving the Daimyo of Tsushima
        a bonus is ended (1510).
1512 Diplomatic relations with Japan are practically suspended; limited trade is allowed. The custom of hanging
        robbers is ended. Limits on number of blows delivered during cross examination established. Publication
        of 2,940 volumes of the Sam-gang-hans -sil. Establishment of a foundling asylum. Beginning of
        maintainance of arms to be ready on moments notice.
1518 Earthquakes cause much loss of life and property. A headquarters for books is established at Seoul. Under
        advice of the king's teacher Cho Kwang-jo ("The Confucius of Korea") the headquarters of the Buddhist
        divines and sorcerers are done away with
1522 Japanese Teung Wun-jung ravages Chinese district of Yung-p'a and on way home lands Whang-ha province
        where a Korean force captures them and sends them back to China.
1524 Cholera decimates P'yung-yang.
1525 Envoy Yi Sun, returning from Nanking, brings a compass to Korea.
1536 Official history of the dynasty brought up to date.
1537 Upper and lower classes are here after distinguished by different dress.
1541 Scholar Chu Se-bung founds a school at P'ung-geui.
1542 The king orders the making of the Ok-pyun (=Korean-Chinese dictionary).
1544 Death of Chungjong. Son and successor is Injong who goes to such Confucian extremes in mourning his
        father, becomes quite ill.
1546 Death of Injong. Myongjong, his half-brother, 12 years old, succeeds him. His mother is regent; she is
        unscrupulous and her brother Yun Wun-hyung is equally so. The brother and Yun Im, uncle of Injong vie
        for influence. The queen mother and her brother manage to have Yun Im and his followers either banished
        or killed; Yun Wun-hyung becomes ascendant. Meanwhile, there is pestilence in Ham-gyung province.
1548 So-i Jon-sa heads a Japanese delegation seeking assumption of trade with Korea. It is granted as long as
        tribute is brought to Fusan from Tsushima twice a year. Copy and dissemination of the books Kang-mok
        Chun-P'yung and Sok-kang-mok on Chinese history and military works Pal-myung Kang-eui and Mu-
        gyung Ch'ong-yo. There are protests over the rule of the queen mother and her brother; more followers of
        Yun Im are killed.
1550 Manufacture of the Sun-gi-ok-hyung (="Heaven Measure") an astronomical instrument.
1552 The queen mother has a law passed requiring government sanction for a man entering the priesthood. The
        monk Po U by this time has gained immense infulence at the palace.
1553 Conscription for building and maintaining the army is inagurated but is soon unfavorable and is modified by
        payment of a modest sum to purchase exemption.
1554 Myongjong is 21 years old. The queen mother, now exregent, and her brother lose much of their power. The
        tribe of Kol -gan-bul is repulsed. A Japanese party raiding in China is captured and sent to Nanking.
1555 A Japanese force lands Chul-la coast and kill several prefects. They are soon defeated by Korean forces under
        the governor.
1556 Japanese pirates land Tal-yang Chul-la province, besieging the town. The harbor forts O-ran, Ma-do and Ka-
        ri are taken along with the towns of Chang-heung and Kang-jin. Yi Yun-gyung, prefect of Chun-ju, raises
        a small force and severely defeats them; the survivors flee to Quelpart where they are killed.
1563 The butcher Im Ko-jung of Yang -ju raises a rebellion but it is smashed in the Ku-wul mountains.
1566 Death of the queen mother. Her favorite monk Po U is banished to Quelpart and killed. Now the death of Yun
        Wun-hyung is demanded but the king deprives him of all official position and drives him away from the
1568 Death of Myongjong. The queen nominates Prince Ha-sung, 17 years old, as Sonjo; she is regent.
1569-70 Corrections to the abuses wrought by the "rules" of Myongjong are begun. Books for the instruction and
        elevation of the people are published and distributed. The Ya-in cross the Yalu near Kang-gye town;
        Korean forces eventually drive them out. Death of prime minister Yi Chun-gyung after warning Sonjo to
        avoid favoritism toward any faction and oppose any faction's rise in power.
1572 Trade relations are reestablished with Japan; they are allowed to resume operations at Fusan. No Korean
        envoys go to Japan. It is decreed that any Japanese that land outside Fusan is to be considered a pirate.
1575 Death of the queen regent; the custom of wearing mourning on the death of a royal personage is begun.
        Formation of the four political parties; No-ron (the "Old Men's Party"), So-ron (the "Young Men's Parth"),
        Nam-in (the "Southerners") and Puk-in (the "Northerners"). Rivalrys and distribution of offices to the
        "faithful" begin disrupting Korean order. The two original founders, Sim Eui-gyum and Kim Hyo-wun are
        banished but the parties are thoroughly established.
1579 Pak In-gul urges the king to act as peacemaker among the four parties.
1583 Sonjo, believing that neglect of the classics is causing the political strife, orders publication of "Religion in
        the Mind", "Pictures of the Good and Evil Will" and "The Legacy of Kim Si-seup". Northern savages
        under the Pon-ho take Kyong-wun prefecture, Ham-gyung province; Sil Yip, prefect of On-sung, drives
        them out.
1587 The Japanese Taiko Hideyoshi sends envoy Yasuhiro to Korea demanding a Korean envoy in Japan in
        exchange for all the ones Japan sends to Fusan. No answer.
1588 Northern tribes still harassing the border and repelled by general Yi Il. (Spring) Three Japanese envoys,
        Yoshitoshi, Tairano and Tsugiobu, arrive and are quartered near Seoul; they demand a Korean envoy in
        Japan. Several months later Sonjo states he'll send an envoy only if Japan sends back some Korean
1589 (July?) The renegades are returned and killed. The prime minister is discovered to be involved in a plot to
        overthrow the government. He is banished and his followers beheaded.
1590 (March?) Three envoys Whang Yun-gil Kim Sung-il and Ho Sung, are sent to Japan.
1591 The envoys return with Hideyo-shi's request for free passage for his army through area so that he can conquer
        China. Sonjo refuses to allow this. Preparations for the inevitable war are begun.
1592 (April) 250,000 man Japanese army under Kato and Konishi land and overwhelm the Fusan garrison. The
        Japanese are using firearms, heretofore unknown in Korea, and so are at a distinct advantage. Tong-na is
        taken - the Japanese begin moving northward and many prefects begin fleeing. Yung-san is abandoned.
        Kim-ha taken, Seoul is in panic; general Yi Il is made CIC; he begins setting up the defense. Prime
        minister Yu Sung-nyong is made minister of war, with Sil Yip vice-minister of war. Sonjo and the queen
        head for P'yung-yang; the eldest son goes to Han-gyung and prince Sun-wha to Kang-wun province. The
        people of Seoul loot and fire the city. The Japanese enter Seoul while Sonjo is at Cho-hyun-ch'an. General
        Kim Myung-wun is ordered to make a stand at the Im-jin river. Sonjo and party head northward and soon
        cross the Ta-dong and enter P'yung-yang. General Han Eung-in is ordered to try to retake Seoul. General
        Yi Hang-bok, who had escorted the queen from Seoul is made minister of war. The Japanese advance
        pauses at Seoul; despite the weakening effects of party rivalry, a Korean defense is being organized.
        Meanwhile, Japanese forces overrun Koreans near Puk-du-mum mountain. Battle of Ok-po island; Korean
        fleet under admirals Wun Kyun and Yi Sun-sin decimate a Japanese fleet, cutting off the Japanese armies
        from their supplies. Admiral Yi's success is due in part to his Kwi-sun, or "Tortoise Boat", a heavily
        armored battle ship that the Japanese cannot oppose. The Japanese fleet at Tang-hang harbor is run off and
        another is destroyed off Pyuk-hang harbor. (May) Japanese renew advance in north and east; Kang-wun
        province overrun; Yung-won fortress taken. Taken by a ruse, the Japanese defeat a large Korean force
        under general Kim Myung-wun and cross the Im-jin river. The defenses at the Ta-dong river are
        strengthened. (June) Preparations are made for the king to move to Ham-heung. Japanese reach Ta-dong
        river. A plan of attack by generals Kim Myung-wun and Yun Tu-su backfires and the Jap-anese use the
        thusly revealed fords across the river. Sonjo is at Pak-ch' un and P'yung-yang falls to the Japanese. The
        crown prince is sent to Yi-ch'un with general Ch'oe Heung-wun. Sonjo goes to Ka-san: Yu Sung-hyong
        manages to gather stores for an anticipated aiding Chinese army at Chong-ju Sonjo goes to Pak-ch'un.
        Meanwhile, Japanese take Ha-jong; they are over running the country. Local resistances are speedily put
        down except they are unable to take Yun-an, Whang-ha province, under Yi Chong-um. (July) Sonjo to
        Eui-ju. A popular army is organized in Chul-la province under Ko Kyong-myung, Kim Ch'un-il, Kwak
        Cha-u ("General of the Red Robe") and Chong In-hong. They harass the Japanese, forcing them to
        withdraw from Eui-ryung, San-ga and Hyup-chun districts. Now assailed by rivalry, general Kwak
        withdraws to a monastery. Battle of Tam-yang, he is defeated. Battle near Cho-gye; hampered by a ford,
        the Japanese are severely beaten and slaughtered by Korean troops under Chong In-hong, Kim Myon, Pak
        Song, Kwak Chun, Kwak Il and Son In-gap. Meanwhile, Kim Ch'un-il, with friends Song Che-min and
        Yang San-do fortify Tok-san and attack the Japanese at Keum-nyung, massacring them. They now fortify
        Kang-wha island. An envoy sent to China asking aid returns without success. The emperor commands the
        prefect of Liao-tung to adequately house Sonjo if he enters. General Suk Sung states he alone will come to
        Korea's aid. Battle at I-ch'i; Koreans under general Kwun Yul massacre the Japanese in a mountain pass.
        (Aug) Battle of Han-san island; admiral Yi Sun-sin completely defeats a Japanese fleet carrying 100,000
        reinforcements, signing the invasion's death warrant. Chinese general Cho Siung-hun with 5,000 crosses
        the Yalu and reaches P'yung-yang, enters and is defeated. Now Buddhist monk Hyu Chung (="The Great
        Teacher of So-san") organizes a non-violent support corps throughout Korea. More local resistance units
        spring up; P'yung-yang is surrounded, though weakly. General Cho Hon runs the Japanese out of Ch'ung-
        ju. Battle at Yo-san, the Japanese win a Pyrrhic victory and retreat southward. (Sept) Chinese general Sim
        Yu-gyung meets Japanese commander Konishi at Kang-bok mountain and obtains a 50-day truce in which
        talks with China would be obtained to gain Japanese submission to the emperor: A Japanese zone is
        established at P'yung -yang. Meanwhile, local battles occur with foraging Japanese groups. Battle of Chin-
        ju; Japanese siege is frustrated by general Kim Si-min and they withdraw. Battle at Kyong-ju; general Pak
        Chin attacks the Japanese garrison with a sort of rocket bomb invented by Yi Yang-son; they defeat the
        Japanese. Now guerilla organizations arise throughout Korea, wearing down the Japanese force. Battle of
        Kil-ju, Korean popular forces order Pa-ch'un and Chi Tal-wun (financed by Yi Pung-su) defeat a Japanese
        force. Soon the Japanese presence is limited to the area around P'yung-yang; Kwun Yal, governor of Chul-
        la province, opens a free passage to the north so that messengers now move easily between north and
        south. (Dec) Sim Yu-gyund returns and informs the Japanese they must leave Korea totally or else be
        destroyed. They refuse. Chinese army of 51,000 crosses the Yalu - commanded by Yi Yu-sung; he heads
        for P'yung-yang.
1593 (Jan-Feb) P'yung-yang besieged after a gallant defense, the city is finally taken; most of the Japanese are
        killed; only Japanese general Koni-shi and a small force manage to escape They reach Seoul and kill many
        innocents and are joined by Japanese general Kato and his forces. Koreans build a suspension bridge
        across the Im-jin river and general Yi crosses; he sends general Wang P'il-juk to Seoul while returning to
        P'yung-yang to head off Kato. Meanwhile, Kwun Ryul, governor of Chul-la with 4,000 men marches on
        Seoul and manages, with timely aid of admiral Yi Pin, to cut off the Japanese in Seoul from all sources of
        fuel. (Mar) The king returns to Yong-yu. Meanwhile the Japanese sue for peace; general Sim Yu-gyung
        sets the terms: Must give up the two princes, must leave Seoul and go to Kyung-sang province and there
        conclude peace and have the Japanese king recog nized as vassal of China. (April) Japanese comply with
        the peace proposals and leave Seoul. General Yu Yu-song enters the city and finds conditions there
        deplorable; people reduced to cannibalism. He forbids pursuit of the Japanese who, after crossing the Han,
        desecrate several royal tombs. (May) Finally pursuit is authorized but the Japanese are too far to the south:
        Without transport across the sea, they fortify the coast from So-sang harbor to Sun-ch'un, after taking
        Sung-ju after a gallant but desparate Korean defense. (Sept) By this time admiral Yi has built up a solid
        navy and is appointed the admiralty of Ch'ung-ch'ung, Chul-la and Kyung-sang provinces. Now, feeling
        back-bone of the invasion is broken, commissioner Song Eung-ch'ang (overseer of Chinese forces in
        Korea) and general Yi Yu-song start back for China, leaving 10,000 Chinese under Korean general Yu
        Chung and O Yu-ch'ang as bodyguards for the king. (Oct) The king enters Seoul the city is in ruins;
        rebuilding begins. (Nov-Dec) A faction arises desiring the king to step down in favor of his son, but Sonjo
        knows his son to be unfit, so at the advice of Song Eung-ch'ang, gives him governorship of the southern
        provs at Chun-ju. Meanwhile one Kim Yuk-nyung is harassing the Japanese while Song U-jin, Yi Neung-
        su and Hyun Mong are leading rebellious groups in support of the crown prince, but the emperor will not
        allow the son of a concubine to sit on the Korean throne. Sonjo begins reorganizations; the collection of
        revenues to be easier on the people; reorganizes the army (ie; must pass a physical test, be able to shoot
        guns and arrows and use a battle axe). General Ko Yang-gyun replaces Chinese general Yi Yu-song (for he
        showed favoritism toward the Japanese) and he demands the Korean's make peace with the Japanese so
        that the latter can do obesience to the emperor. The king refuses; but Yu Song-nyang urges and an envoy is
        sent to China asking peace between Korea and Japan: General Yu Chung is recalled from Kyung-sang
        province. Yu Song-nyong is recalled and replaced by general Son Kwang who manages to have Japanese
        general So Su-hi to the Chinese capital; he agrees to 1) allow the emperor to give the Japanese king royal
        investiture, 2) every Japanese soldier must leave Korea and 3) Japan promises to never disturb Korea again
        But the Japanese are not trusted and Yi Chong-sung – with his second Yang Pang-hyung - is made envoy
        extraordinary to go to Japan and feel them out.
1594 Japanese marauding bands harass the south. Battle of Hoe-mun mountain a Japanese band is massacred. The
        emperor again refuses to nominate the crown prince the king's successor. General Yun Keun-su, jealous of
        general Kim Tuk-nyung's successes, lies about him to the king and Kim is imprisoned for a year.
1595 (April) The Chinses embassy to Japan arrives Seoul; general Sim Yu-gyumg tells Kato to remove all
        Japanese from Korea before he arrives Fusan. Kato (after conferring with Hideyoshi) desires a Korean to
        go with him and stalls around making it look like his Japanese are leaving (Sept) Kato invites Yi Chong-
        sung to come south and accompany him to Japan. Yi accepts. Now, Kato goes to Hideyoshi to "receive
        further instruction". (Nov) Kato returns and states he'll take general Sim to Japan to arrange the investiture
        and call Yi when ready.
1596 (Jan) The Chinese So Hak-myung comes from Japan and informs Yi Chong-sung that Hideyoshi has no
        intention of becomming a Chinese vassal and that if Yi crosses to Japan he may well never return. Yi flees
        to Seoul. The emperor raises Yang Pang-hyung to embassy and his second is Sim Yu-gyung who has been
        to Japan and married a Japanese daughter Arima and thought by the Koreans to now be Japanese. Now it is
        felt a Korean emissary should also go to Japan. (May) General Konishi sails for Japan with the Chinese
        embassy and the Koreans (Whang Sin and Pak Hong-jang). Sonjo tries to hand over his reign to the crown
        prince who now refuses. Meanwhile, party rivalry still abounds; ministerial jealousies at court cause the
        death of general Kim Tuk-nyung. (Later in the year) Hideyoshi treats the Chinese embassy impolitely and
        insults the Koreans vowing a second avenging invasion. Now the Japanese agent Yo-si-ra hatches a plan
        whereby court jealousies manage to have admiral Yi Sun-sin degraded and thereby put out of the way; with
        admiral Yi and general Kim out of the way, the next Japanese invasion will have an easier time.
1597 Kato and Kanishi (under 17 year old CIC Hideyaki) sail for Korea and land So-sang harbor. The Koreans
        under general Kwun Ryul fortify Cho-ryung pass. (Jan) Envoy Kwun Hyup goes to Nan-king: Chinese
        army under general Yang Ho (Military commander), general Hyong Ka (General in Command) and
        admiral Ma Gwi (commander naval forces) is immediately sent to Seoul where they branch our southward.
        Meanwhile admiral Wun Kyun is undoing all of admiral Yi's good work and alienating his troops. Battle of
        Chul-yung and Ka-dok islands; the Japanese fleet and a storm defeat admiral Wun Kyun whose forces
        desert him. Wun is captured and beheaded. Admiral Yi Sun-sin is reinstated, quickly rallying a growing
        force. Battle of Nam-wun, Japanese forces take the city commanded by Chinese general Yang Wun, he
        escapes but eight Korean gens are killed. Chul-la province is disturbed, the queen and crown prince are
        sent to Su-an. Battle of Chin-do island; admiral Yi de-feats and scatters a much larger Japanese fleet. Battle
        of Keum-o-p'yung, Korean generals Ha Sang, U Pak-yung, Yang Teung and P'a Sa severely defeat the
        Japanese (who were heading for Seoul) (Oct) General Konishi builds To-san fort at Ul-san. (Oct-Dec)
        Battle of Ulsan; Koreans and their allies the Chinese beseige the fort but general Yang Ho is forced to raise
        the seige with the approach of Japanese reinforcements. About this time also the Roman Catholic Church
        enters Korea; general Konishi is a Catholic and has priests in Korea to minister Christians in the Japanese
        army (Kato is a Christian). Meanwhile, a growing number of Japanese are leaving the army, marrying
        Korean women and settling down mainly in Kyung-sang province.
1598 (Jan) Chinese admirals Tong Il-wun and Chil Lin are sent to join Korean admiral Yi. (July) His enemies
        (including one Chung Eung-t'a) at Nanking have general Yang Ho recalled; Chung now sows lies about
        Sonjo and his conduct during the war. Sonjo is dumbfounded and sends counsellors Yi Hang-bok and Yi
        Chung-gwi to Nanking; they uncover the lies and Chung is executed. (Sept) Chinese forces under generals
        Hyong Ka and man Se-duk leave Seoul to oust the Japanese from Ul-san (under Konishi), Sun-ch'un
        (Kato) and Sa-ch'un (Sok Mang-ja) Battle of Sa-chun, the Japanese defeat Chinese general Tong Il-wun.
        Battle of Sun-ch'un; general Yu Chung is unable to defeat Kato and so it is agreed to let Kato and his
        forces leave for Japan but admiral Yi decimates the fleet - Kato escapes. Admiral Yi scuttles another
        Japanese fleet using a fire shooting tube of his own invention, but while pursuing Kato is killed. His
        nephew Yi Wan takes over. But Hideyoshi has died and his son is set up as Shogun; the Japanese armies
        are recalled from Korea.
1599 (Spring) Chinese armies leave Korea, leaving generals Man Se-dok, Ta Cham and Yi Sung-hun behind until
        things become more settled.
1600 The emperor sends much money for the construction of shrines to the ancient spirit of giant warrior Kwan U.
        Korean political party rivalry becomes more intense.
1601 Trade relations are suspended with the island of Tsushima. Admiral Yi Sun-sin is given posthumous honors.
1605 Japan asks a treaty to be made. Monk Yu Chung is sent to Japan.
1606 Yu Chung returns to Korea bringing 3,000 captives. General Song U-gil breaks up the troublesome tribe of
        Hal-cha-on, north of the Tuman river.
1607 The Japanese continue urging a treaty between Japan and Korea. (Autumn) Sonjo take ill, but Prince Kwang -
        ha is angry because Sonjo has nominated his two year old son (the first child by the queen) as heir without
        the emperor's permission. [Kwang-ha is not liked and considered incapable]
1608 Death of Sonjo after desiring that Prince Kwang-ha take care of his infant son. Kwang-ha to the throne as
        Kwanghae. He banishes prime minister Yu Yong-gyung; later his brother prince Im (who the emperor
        wondered why was not king) is killed along with the prime minister.
1609 Diplomatic and commercial relations with Japan are assented to: Only Fusan is opened to them; only 20 boats
        a year can come; diplomatic agents of the Shogun can only stay 110 days; agents of lesser Japanese
        officials can only stay 85 days and 55 days as to their rank.
1610-3 Kwanghae begins to "legitimize" himself; deposes the queen and sets up his dead mother as real queen
        Eventually Sonjo's younger son is killed by being beaten in a closed room, his mother banished and her
        father is killed. Many people protest and are killed for it. Those loyal to Sonjo, except venerable Yi Hang-
        bok, are killed.
1615 Kwanghae's tyranny grows. Cousin prince Neung-ch'ang is killed in the heated chamber. The monk Seung-ji
        gains his favor and has him build In-gyung Palace which expense brings the selling of public offices after
        razing many houses and levying very heavy taxes. Officials begin to be ridiculed.
1616 Kwanghae finally manages to have the dowager queen (mother of Sonjo's grown son) excluded from further
        public influence.
1616-7 Manchu chief Norach'i defeats Chinese generals Yi Yong-bang, Chang Seung-yun and Yang Yo-gwi. Aid
        is sought from Korea. 20,000 under generals Kang Hong-rip and Kim Kyong-su are sent to the northern
1619 (Jan) Battle of Eui-ju; the allies defeat 500 Manchu troops. Battle at Pu-go, 10,000 Manchus troops rout the
        allies; Korean general Kang Hong-rip, as per Kwanghae's instructions, goes over to the Manchus. Norachi
         has general Kim killed. (April) Diplomatic intercourse between the Manchus, now allied with Mongols and
         Korea: Norachi desires Korea to aid him against Ming; Korea desires friendship and Ming positioned
         between Korea and the Manchus.
1621 By this time the Manchus hold all of Liaotung, Chinese are fleeing everywhere. Kwanghae plans to move to
         Kang wha if necessary; he is forced to reappoint Han Chun-gyum General in Charge with Han Myung-yun
         his second.
1622 Manchus invade China proper. Chinese general Mo Mun-nyung flees to Ko-rea and seeks aid from Kwanghae
         but none is forthcoming. Meanwhile, the price of public offices has risen so high that the office of prime
         minister is vacant; Kwanghae is ruled by a favorite concubine who has made herself and her relatives rich.
         Kim Nyu leads Sim Kyong-jin, Sim Keui-wun, Kim Cha-jum, Ch'oe Myung-gil and a band of troops to
         depose Kwanghae; the king is siezed and his nephew Prince Neung-yang is elevated king (as Injo). First
         act he restores the queen dowager. Injo banishes Kwanghae to Kang-wha and his son to Kyo-dong isl.
         Recalls queen dowager's mother from exile on Quelpart. He begins restoring proper order in government:
         Any person occupying a purchased office is out; land taken from people is returned; clerks pay withheld
         revenue. Kwanghae's favorite concubine Yi I-ch'um and 17 others executed. Order is restored. Yi Kwi is
         made General in Charge. Injo suppresses Buddhism.
1623-4 Yi Kwal, thought to be affronted, leads a rebellion to clear out Injo's bad influences at court. Battle at
         Whang-ju; Yi Kwal defeats loyal forces under general Chang Man. Battle at Cho-t'an ford; Chang Man, Yi
         Chung-ho and Yi Tuk-bu are defeated by Yi Kwal. (Meanwhile, Injo is killing many accused of being in
         league with Yi Kwal.) Yi Kwal goes to Song-do; Injo flees to Kong-ju. Yi Kwal enters Seoul and
         proclaims Injo's uncle king. Battle of Seoul, Yi Kwal is defeated by the loyalist troops; he flees to Muk-
         pangi and is killed. Injo enters Seoul. (Sept) Another revolt attempts to put prince In-sung, Injo's brother,
         on the throne, but it is stopped and In-sung is banished to Kan-sung. A law is issued requiring all roofs in
         P'yung-yang to be tiled instead of thatched as a precaution against fire
1625 Korea makes preparations for war. The Manchus are held back this year by Chinese general Wun Sung-whan:
         Norachi dies of chagrin and second son and successor (goes to)(is?) Hongt'asi.
(July) The wall of the great mountain fortress of Nam-han is completed.
1626 (May) Manchu's 30,000 cross the Yalu. Eui-ju taken. Reason for their invasion sent to Injo: 1) Injo did not
         send envoy on death of Norachi, 2) never thanked the Manchus for sparing the Koreans at Pu-go, 3)
         afforded asylum to Manchu enemy Mo Mun-nyong (Chinese general who gained successes against them)
         and 4) Koreans have killed many Manchus in Liao-tung. Yong-ch'un taken as is Kwak-san. An-ju taken.
         Injo goes to Kang-wha. At Whang-ju the Manchus dictate terms of peace 1) Hand over Mo Mun-nyung, 2)
         give 10,000 in aid to invade China, 3) give up P'yung-an and Ham-gyung provinces. The Koreans delay.
         Manchus reach P'yung-san. People of Seoul flee the city. The Manchus force Injo to a treaty else Korea
         will be destroyed. Injo accepts.
1627 (March) Treaty ceremony at Kang -wha, Korea swears fealty to the Manchus. The Manchus begin moving
         northward plundering and stealing from people as they go. They leave garrisons at An-ju, Sun-ch'un and
         Eui-ju. Soon local contingents begin wiping out Manchu groups wherever they're found. Manchus
         complain but Injo replies that they agreed to go peacefully and not destroy the country and steal from
         people. The Manchus return the Korean captives they had taken. (April) Injo returns to Seoul; he begins
         establishing a well drilled army: Every citizen 15-45 is required to have military duty. (Dec?) Yi In-jo,
         former official of Kang-wun province, raises a rebellion but is quickly put down. Yu Hyo-rip, exiled in
         Che-ch'un and relative of Kwanghae's wife raises an insurrection.
1628 Yu Hyo-rip and followers sieze Seoul but the group is siezed by forces under the prime minister. The
         Manchus again fret over Korean laxness in meeting their treaty obligations, but the Koreans comply.
1629 A naval station is established on Kyo-dong island to guard Kang-wha. Chinese general Mo Mun-nyung,
         stationed on Ka-do isl near mouth of the Yalu and leaning toward the Manchus and harassing northern
         Korean shores, is eventually executed by Chinese general Wun Sung-han. The two Korean patriots Noron
         and Soron are carrying on disruptive rivalry as each circulates in and out of governmental control. Injo
         establishes the Mu-hak, a body of 200 men that are swift couriers.
1631 Manchus attack Ka-do to remove Chinese but are defeated. Korean envoy Chong Tu-wun meets Roman
         Catholic priest Jean Niouk at Nanking; the priest gives Chong volumes on science, a pair of pistols, a
         telescope and other items.
1632-5 Preparations for war are begun. Fortification of Kang-wha island in preparation for another Manchu
        invasion. Construction of Ch'ul-san and Un-san forts in P'yung-an province. Construction of a fort near
        Eui-ju; a tacit declaration of war. The Manchus demand tribute. At 1st, Injo refuses.
1636 Tribute is sent to the Manchus (Spring) Remeasurement of arable land in three southern provinces and
        adjustment of revenue. The Manchus (now calling themselves the Ch'ing dynasty), readying to invade
        Korea, send generals Yonggolda and Mabuda as "envoys" to Seoul, they are insulted and sent fleeing. The
        prime minister states war is now inevitable. Chinese general at Ka-do informs the emperor that Korea has
        broken with the Manchus. (Oct) Manchu general Mabuda appears on the west bank of the Yalu. It is soon
        too late to agree to reiterated Manchu terms; they approach Eui-ju. The prefecture of Eui-ju, P'yung-yang
        and Whang-ju are moved away. General Kim Cha-jum has the fort at Chong-bang mountain rebuilt and he
        does not guard the Yalu! (Dec) 140, 000 Manchus cross the Yalu. Injo moves to Kang-wha; Sin Keui-wun
        in charge at Seoul. But the Manchus cut off Injo and he holes up at Nam-han fortress, but his family
        reaches Kang-wha commanded by Kim Kyong-jeung. The Manchus enter Seoul then reach Nam-han and
        demand Injo's compliance with their three conditions - refused. The Manchus demand the criwb prince -
        refused. The fortress is besieged.
1637 Nam-han is nearing starvation. The Manchus demand surrender - turned down but Korea will accept
        vassalage to Ch'ing. There are many attempts to break the siege, but they fail. The Manchu emperor and
        Injo correspond over a settlement of the conflict. Injo refuses to surrender but will accept vassalage. A
        Manchu force attacks Kang-wha, crossing on rafts; the Korean force is unprepared; general Kim Kyung-
        jeung flees. Kim In escapes with the crown princess' two year old son. The Manchus massacre all
        innocents who haven't escaped. Now they take the crown princess and her retinue and officials and return
        to Nam-han. Finally (31 Jan) Injo agrees to surrender. He returns to Seoul and next day the Manchu army
        begins moving northward. Terms of the surrender: Injo accepts vassalage, receiving seal of office from
        Ch'ing; discard Chinese calendar and accept the Manchu; the crown princess, prime minister and son are
        hostages at the Manchu capital; must aid Ch'ing in invasion of China; must observe birthdays of Manchu
        empress and crown prince; must pay for return of Korean captives; Korean people must intermarry with the
        Manchu; all Manchu captives must be released; commerce with Japan is solely up to Korea; must build no
        more fortresses; must send a huge tribute every year. Now reconstruction begins; Injo rewards those who
        were faithful and punishes those who were not. (Mar) General Mabuda, aided by Korean general Im
        Kyong-up, wrests Ka-do island from the Chinese. Korea begins cultivating friendlier relations with Japan.
        (Sept) Injo informs the Ming court that his surrender to the Manchus was not at all voluntary. About this
        time tobacco becomes common in Korea (having arrived 30 years ago, but its use restricted by high prices).
        5,000 are sent to aid the Manchus invade China but they are a month late and are sent back.
1638 Battle of Teung-na; Manchu and Korean forces defeat the Chinese (first secretly warned by the Koreans).
        Battle of Puk-sin-gu (before which the Chinese and Koreans agree to shoot blanks at each other), Chinese
        are defeated; now Koreans keep up a running commentary to the Mings about Manchu weaknesses,
        strengths and plans. Unprepared for aiding the Manchus against Kon-ju-wi, the Koreans are sent home.
        Manchu troops under Yonggolda and Omokdo appear in northern Korea investigating rumors of certain
        officials councelling against the Manchu power; four prominent officials are sent captive North.
1639 King Chilga, the Ch'ing emperor's brother, tries the four men - they are imprisoned, later sent to Eui-ju. Injo
        sends monk Tok-po back to China explaining that Korea was forced to surrender to the Manchus.
1640 Japan asks that their use area of Fusan harbor be enlarged. It is refused.
1641 Death of prince Kwang-ha on Quelpart.
1642 Ch'oe Hyo-il of P'yung-an province with two accomplices, joins with Chinese forces and prefect of Eui-ju to
        attack the Manchus. Yonggolda finds out about it and many are executed.
1643 The Ming emperor exonerates Korea from all blame in her relationship with Ch'ing. But the Manchus find out
        about this exchange, are angry and call for several ministerial heads. Only one, Ch'oe Myung-gil, is
        imprisoned. Meanwhile, the Japanese are returning prisoners they siezed in the Hideyoshi war. Publication
        of the historical work Tong-sa Po-byun.
1644 The crown prince and brother Pong-im return from China, but the crown prince dies, therefore the succession
        falls to his infant son. But Pong-im's wife begins maneuvering to have her husband nominated.
1645 Injo is convinced and declares for Prince Pong-im against the advice of his court. Now prince Pong-im has
        his brother's widow put to death, as well as her two brothers. Meanwhile, a rebellion is Kong-ju, Ch'ung-
        ch'ung province, is put down.
1646 A law is decreed intending to control corruption to ease the burden it places upon the people.
1647 Noted scholar Song Si-ryul enters Korean politics.
1648 Injo, still hating the Mongol yoke, begins eauiping an army.
1649 (Summer) Death of Injo. Prince Pong-im assumes rule as Hyojong. The practical autocrat Kim Cha-jum is
        deposed and Song Si-ryul, offended, departs the country. Kim Cha-jum sends word to Ch'ing that Hyojong
        intends to overthrow his suzeranity; generals Yonggolda and Mabuda arrive at the Yalu and envoys are
        sent to Seoul, the difficulty is straightened out.
1650-3 Famine in the north. Corruption removed from the examinations. Rebellion of Kim Cha-jum and Kim Sik
        (brother-in-law of Injo) is unsuccessful. Palace built at Kang-wha and provisions stored. Beating criminals
        to death is abolished. Exacting rent for water drawn from government reservoirs for irrigation is prohibited.
        Scholar Kim Sang-bum publishes a calendar of his own after studying the works of Jesuit priest Tang-yak-
        mang of China for 22 years. Wreck of the Sparwehr on Quelpart; Hendrik Hamel and 35 others are taken
        to Seoul (escape C.1667). Taxable land is remeasured and controls placed upon farming hillsides for fears
        of diminishing fuel supplies.
1654-8 Appointment of Yi Wan as CIC; begins drilling people in science of war; construction of fortresses at
        Sung-jin, Yi-bain-keum-sung and Kyuk-p'o; four generals appointed to guard Seoul; grain massed at Wha-
        ryang near Chemulpo; Kang-wha provisioned; huge store-house constructed at Chang-sani; military officer
        school established. A more efficient dress code promulagated.
1659 Death of Hyojong. Son and successor is Hyonjong.
1660 Reign of Hyojong: Increases severity of penalty for murder. Army ordered better clothed. Tax on hemp
        remitted, also ginseng in Ham-gyung province. Tax on gold mines at Tan-ch'un remitted. Land tax in
        Ch'ung-ch'ung province lowered. Party rivalry among four parties; the Nam-in led by Hu Mok; the So-ron
        under Yun Cheung, the Noron under Song Si-ryul and the Su-buk under Yu Yong-gyung. The first and
        third are the strongest; their leaders are bitter enemies. At this time Song Si-ryul's party is paramount, and
        so rivalry is minimal: Song Si-ryul is prime minister. Further reforms: Men with families prohibited from
        abandoning them to become monks. It is forbidden to call to account any man's relative because of his
        fault. Remittence of a large portion of the onerous taxes on salt factories and fisheries. Abolishon of poll
        tax on children. Plans of attacking China are given up. Buddhist convent in Cha-kol razed. If girls are to
        become palace women, it must be by the father's permission and not by force. Redistribution of forest lands
        and fairer apportionment of fuel supplies. More savage areas civilized, schools established. Criminal court
        established at Seoul to take justice out of the prejudiced hands of the prefects. Common prostitutes become
        government slaves. The court and capital are forced into greater economy so that the commoners will
        receive a fairer shake. The copper types destroyed by the Japanese (Hideyoshi War) are restored. A census
        is taken Marriage is forbidden with people of the same family name. Nepotism is suppressed. Home
        established for illigitimate children.
1674 Death of Hyonjong. Son and successor is Sukchong, 14 years ool. Now with Hyonjong's strong hand gone,
        party strife boils; the Nam-in party of Hu Juk is ascendant and has Song Si-ryul banished to Wun-san.
1677 A complete census is made.
1678 Permission is given to the Japanese to increase the size of their use area at Fusan. The Korean government
        agrees to keep the place in repair.
1680 Hu Juk takes advantage of his party's power and is called to account he and his followers are executed; his
        party, the Nam-in, is abolished. Su-kchong recalls the No-ron party and Song Si-ryul; Kim Su-han
        becomes prime minister. Reforms: Abuses in army rolls corrected; abolition of unlawful collection of
        taxes. Many naval stations established. Border forts along the Yalu upgraded.
1684 The "Knife gang" of robbers terrorizes the area around Seoul; the gang is suppressed.
1686 Foreigners enter Korea preaching the Roman Catholic doctrine; it spreads and Sukchong is compelled to sent
        them out.
1687 Sukchong takes the concubine Chang who soon gains control over him.
1688 Chang gives birth to a son (the queen is childless) and Sukchong intends to name him as successor. The No-
        ron party protests; Song Si-ryul is sent away. The Nam-in party regains ascendancy; Song Si-ryul is
        banished to Quelpart.
1689 (May) Sukchong deposes the queen; concubine Chang is proclaimed queen, her father becomes a prince. Song
        Si-ryul, called to Seoul, is ordered to take poison.
1690 Chang's son is made crown prince. The heavy tax on the people of Song-do for supplying silver dishes for
        feeding (and then given to) the yearly Chinese embassy is remitted.
1695 Queen Chang is driven away and the old queen reinstated, the Nam-in party is cast out and the No-ron party
        regains ascendancy. New law states no royal concubine shall be raised to the position of queen.
1699 Death of the queen. Concubine Chang, many sorceresses and members of the Nam-in party are executed as
        being the causative agents for the death.
1702 About this time the palace's secret prison is abolished.
1711 Construction begins on the mountain fortress of Puk-han.
1720 Death of Sukchong. All Korea wears mourning clothes (a new custom). Son and successor Kyongjong is son
        of concubine Chang. With Nam-in party practically disappeared, party rivalry is between the No-ron and
        So-ron, though the No-ron is predominant. Kyongjong is weak, and the party leaders (one or the other)
        weild actual power.
1721 Repairs carried out on Japanese buildings at Fusan. Rivalry between the No-rons and So-rons rises in fever
        and sanguinity.
1722 Famine on Quelpart. Grain is sent and the horse tax remitted.
1723 Era (±?) in which foreign clocks, barometers and water hose are coming to Korea from Peking, introduced
        there by foreigners. The envoy Yi I-myung findes great similarity between Christian doctrines and those of
        the Chin classics.
1724 Repairs carried out on Japanese buildings at Fusan. All convents outside Seoul are ordered destroyed. (Aug)
        Death of Kyongjong of poison (?) or food poisoning (most probable). His brother, Yongjo, succeeds. He
        proclaims his son crown prince. Though unproven, he is forced to order the execution of Kim Il-gyung for
        accusing him (Yongjo) of murdering Kyongjong.
1725 Yongjo (1 Jan) proclaims the cession of all party strife, the needs of the country transcends those of the party.
        Thus the No-ron party gains permanent ascendancy, the So-ron is fighting a losing battle for influence.
        Corruption in the dispensary is removed and it once again begins dispensing medicines for public health.
1726 The daimyo of Tsushima requests the revival of the custom wherein the Lords of Tslushima receive their
        seals from the king of Korea. Prohibition against the making, selling or drinking of fermented wines or
        distilled liquors is instituted as a capital offence. Yongjo also decrees luxury must be curtailed.
1727 The No-rons pressure Yongjo to continue persecuting the So-rons, but Yongjo, revulsed at this, recalls many
        So-rons to positions in government. But the So-rons, knowing it only to be temporary, begin a conspiracy
        against the king and the No-rons that honeycombs all Korea; the plan is to place prince Mil-wha on the
        throne in March. But Yongjo finds out and military precautions are taken. Rebel leader Yi In-jwa takes the
        government provisions and arms at Chung-ju and heads for Seoul. Battle of An-sung; the rebels are
        defeated by general O Myung-hang (a So-ron): The So-ron party is effectively abolished and all fierce
        party rivalry ceases. Yongjo issues an edict against mining. Death of the heir apparent.
1729 Rebellion in the south to place Ha Keui, a relative of Yongjo on the throne; it is suppressed.
1730-2 Reforms: The grandson of a slave woman is free. Construction of reservoirs. Model of solar system built.
        Two forms of torture done away with. Granary built on east coast. Prohibition reiterated. Construction of
        inner wall at P'yung-yang.
1733 Famines; bureau of agriculture appointed to organize production and prevent future famines. Yi Keui-ho
        invents a war chariot with swords or spears extending from the hubs. A secret police is set up, to watch the
        observance of Korean law; they are given rules of conduct to prevent their being readily detected
1734 Yongjo makes his second son heir apparent.
1735-42 Reforms: Does away with punishment to those who compete with guilds or monopolies established at
        (center of capital) Chong-no. Revival of law establishing standard size for the whipping rod, and whipping
        rules set out. Theives no longer branded on forehead and each cheek Clumsy three-deck war vessels done
        away with, replaced by a speedy "Sea Falcon Boat". Yardsticks are required to be uniform length
        throughout Korea. Holders of literary degrees returned to wearing red. Manufacture of new musical
        instruments undertaken.
1743 West and northeast gates of Seoul roofed
1744-9 Reforms: Reduction in the use of silk. So-ron party abolished Reorganization of government exams list.
        Repairs on Japanese buildings at Fu-san (1748). Sorceress class done away with. One-wheeled chaise
        introduced. Decreed no one above ninth official grade can be beaten as punishment for a crime.
1750 Plebiscite in Seoul to determine taxes; the land and poll taxes are scrapped for a house tax.
1751 A grandson born to Yongjo. Mountains around Seoul policed to prevent all the trees from being cut down.
        Construction of a fort at Im-jin river. Famines create large dole in Seoul. Death of Yongjo's mother and the
1753 A woman in Whang-ha province claims to be a Buddha, a disturbance begins, she is executed. Orders are sent
        out to suppress Roman Catholicism in Whang-ha and Kang-wun provinces as it is alleged people adopting
        the faith are throwing away their ancestral tablets.
1755 Clearing out of the great sewer of Seoul. A policy of cleaning it every three years is begun.
1761 A No-ron group, fearful that the crown prince is truely "partyless" (unlike Yongjo who has made the No-ron
        the only party) plots to have him done away with; they are joined by the crown prince's sister who desires
        her husband to be made king. The plan works, the crown prince is starved to death and Yongjo's grandson
        named heir apparent.
1764 Yongjo is now feeble. His physicians prescribe a little wine; the prohibition laws relax some.
1765 Repair work carried out on Japanese buildings at Fusan.
1767 Full census of Korea carried out.
1768-70 Construction of a new rain guage. Punishment by beating the feet abolished. Naval tactics officer of
        Whang-ha province disciplined due to wrecks. Revival of ringing a bell by the palace gateway by those
        desiring to lay a greivance before the king.
1771 The Noron party splits over royal lineage politics; the Si and Pyuk factions.
1772 Ancient willows are cleared away from Seoul's sewer, it is reconstructed. Two more Noron factions arise; the
        Nak and Ho, over interpretation of Confucian classics.
1773 Emancipation of the serfs - slavery, however, is maintained.
1774 Yongjo is now 90; his complete mental and physical collapse is noted. One Hong In-hau manoevers to
        prevent the crown prince from succeeding. Su Myung-sun memorializes Yongjo about the goodness of the
        crown prince and Yongjo makes the crown prince king. Some of Hong's friends are banished.
1775 More of Hong's friends are banished.
1776 (March) Death of Yongjo. Many literary works have been published during Yongjo's reign, including "How to
        deal with the native fever", "The evil deeds of the Soron party", "Conduct and Morals", "Fortifications and
        Military tactics", "A collection of Morals", "A reprint of the Confucian work So-hak-ji", and the Mun-hon
        Pi-go, "An abstract, in 100 volumes, of five important historical and geographical works". Chongjo, the
        crown prince, assumes rule. Hong In-hau is banished then poisoned.
1777 Assassination attempt is discovered; Hong Sang-bom and family - who desired to have Chongjo's brother as
        king - are executed. Soon, however, Chongjo is forced to have his brother killed. The presence of
        sorceresses in the capital is prohibited. Chongjo, without issue, takes a concubine, the sister of a fovorite,
        Hong Kuk-yung. Scholar Kwun Chul-sin with a company of disciples go into a mountain retreat and study
1779 Chongjo takes a second concubine, daughter of Yun Ch'ang-yun. Hong, father of the first opposes this and is
1780-2 Repair work on Japanese buildings at Fusan.
1780 More officials are drawn from the northern areas. The book Il-deuk-rok set up to be a record of all
        discussions in council Chongjo spends much of his personal fortune to relieve several famines.
1783 Panic sweeps the land over a rumor that Korea is to be invaded by a great power.
1783-4 Yi Sung-hun is sent to Pe-king by Yi Tuk-cho (baptized Jean Baptiste) of Kyong-ju where he meets the
        Portuguese Alexandre de Govea of the Franciscan order, accepts Christianity and is baptized as Pierre. He
        returns to Yang-geum (birthplace of Christianity in Korea). One of his converts is Kwun Il-sin, baptized as
        Francois Xavier. The Christian faith begins spreading southward.
1785 Ministry of Justice begins active operations against Christianity; many converts defect.
1786 Repairs carried out on Japanese buildings at Fusan. The town of Eui-ju is set up as a customs port to prevent
        the importation of Roman Catholic books into Korea.
1787-8 The Chinese on Sin island off Eui-ju are [fun off?]. Cholera ravages Korea. Hong Kuk-yung attempts to
        place Chongjo's half brother prince Eun-on on the throne but is discovered and executed.
1789 City of Su-wun established as the king moves his father's grave there.
1791 An order goes out to supress Roman Catholicism, being called "The Diceiving Religion" as its prosyletizers
        advocate burning ancestral tablets.
1792 The pope places the care of the Korean church in the hands of the Bishop of Peking.
1794 Repairs carried out on Japanese buildings at Fusan. Famine in southern and central provinces. Chinese Roman
        Catholic priest Tsiou crosses the Yalu and escapes capture.
1796 Great numbers of type are added to the Font. By this time has been published "The Gradation of Penalties",
        "A commentary on the Chinese classics", "The Proper Conduct of the King", "The Record of the Decisions
        in Council", "On Korean customs", "On military tactics", "On forms of official correspondence", "On the
        science of government". Now se-veral editions of military and Confucian works are published (one is a
        digest of all the Confucian classics in 99 volumes). It is decided to mint a five-cash piece to meet
        government deficit. This is turned down in favor of retrenchment.
1799 Plague ravages P'yung-yang; cured by eating beef.
1800 Chongjo makes his son heir. (June) Death of Chongjo. His infant son Sunjo is under the regency of his
        grandmother. She razes the monastery outside the west gate because of its sorceresses and fortune tellers.
        The tax maintaining the palace guard is remitted. Herb tax remitted, it supported the government
1801 Repairs carried out on Japanese buildings at Fusan. Active opposition to the Christian faith begins supported
        strongly by the queen mother who is a member of the extremely anti-Christian faction Pyuk. Many are
        killed, including the priest Tsiou. Whang Sa-yong calls on China to overthrow the present Korean dynasty
        and install one more in sympathy with the Christian faith; he is seized and killed.
1802 Christian persecution is halted, the Roman Catholic Church seeming to be crushed.
1803 Much of P'yung-yang is lost in a fire.
1804 Fire almost destroys P'yung-yang.
1805 Death of the queen mother. Christian persecution ceases. Government corruption runs riot.
1811 Hong Kyong-na, a wealthy resident of P'yung-an province, organizes an army of miners and raises a
        rebellion; Chong-ju is taken. Sunjo appoints Yi Yo-hon CIC. The rebels take Ch'ul-san, Ka-san, Song-
        ch'un, Yong-ch'un, Pak-ch'un and Son-ch'un, taking all government provisions and arms. Their strength is
        spent taking An-ju government troops arrive and beseige the rebels at Chong-ju fortress. Finally it is taken
        and Hong is executed.
1812 Christians call for a priest from Peking but none is forthcoming.
1813 Repairs carried out on Japanese buildings at Fusan. Serious rebellion on Quelpart.
1814 Famine in south. Flood in Kyung-sang province. Seoul is without rice and government granaries are opened.
1815 Thousands of destitute from famine and flood enter Seoul. Government is hard pressed to feed them. Typhus
        breaks out.
1816 High winds fell 2,000 houses in Ch'ung-ch'ung province.
1821 A severe cholera epidemic sweeps Korea.
1822 Repair of Japanese buildings at Fusan. Cholera again sweeps the country.
1824 Gov't remits 69,300 bags of revenue grain in north because of robber band depredations.
1827 Crown Prince appointed deputy king; a son is born to him. More taxes are remitted.
1828 Storm makes many destitute in Ham-gyung province.
1830 Death of the crown prince. His tomb burns to the ground.
1831 Repairs carried out on Japanese buildings at Fusan. Pope Gregory XVI makes Korea a bishopric with M.
        Bruguiere as bishop. Chinese Yu is appointed to accompany him to Korea from Europe.
1832 An English vessel appears off Hong-ju; captain Basil Hall desires to trade but permission is refused. Fires and
        floods plague the land, as does famine.
1833 The palace burns down. Famine sweeps the land along with cholera.
1834 Epidemic of native fever in Seoul in addition to famine and cholera. The prime minister is blamed and he
        flees to the country. (Dec) Death of Sunjo. Successor is grandson Honjong, with grandmother Kim (=Sun-
        wun Whang-ho) as regent. She begins reforms; judicial, economic and agricultural. Bishop Bruguiere dies
        after three years attempting to enter Korea; Yu had placed obstacles in his way for he desired to hold
        supreme power in the Korean church.
1835 Pierre Philibert Maubant, appointed Bishop of Korea, begins secretly to work in Seoul.
1836 Repairs on Japanese buildings at Fusan.
1837 Two French priests, one being Bishop Imbert, arrive Korea. There are an estimated 9,000 Catholics in Korea
1839 Yi Chi-on, hater of Christians, become prime minister. He begins a persecution. (21 Sept) Execution of Mau-
        bant (=Pom Se-hyung), Imbert (=Na-ba Do-ru) and the other French priest (=Chong-a Kak-bak-i).
1844 Two more French priests enter via Quelpart.
1846 A French gunboat arrives Korea with a letter of complaints about the deaths of the French prelates,
        threatening punishments if anti-Christian activities continue. New anti-Christian outbreaks arise.
1847 Two French boats, frigate La Gloire and corvette La Victorieuse, seeking an answer to the letter, run aground.
        Koreans succor the crews and an English ship carries them back to Shanghai. The Korean government
        answers the letter supporting their reasons - which are valid - for executing the prelates. The French
        government does not accept this but other matters prevent her pressing it further.
1849 Death of Honjong. His grand-mother Kim nominates his nephew, son of his banished brother, as Ch'olchong;
        he is 19 years old. Introduces reforms; families of banished men may follow them into exile; gambling
        severely limited; merchant's monopolies broken up; and others.
1850 Repairs to Japanese buildings at Fusan.
1850-9 Rapid growth of Roman Catholicism in Korea. Ch'olchong is not able to counteract with an equally
        appealing doctrine. The French portray Ch'olchong as a debauche; greater numbers of foreigners enter
        Korea. Berneux becomes Bishop of Korea. Repairs to Japanese buildings at Fusan (1857).
1860 News comes of fall of Peking. There is concern at court: 1) the emperor will not be allowed to force his way
        into Korea, 2) forts constructed along neutral border to prevent entrance of outlaw bands, and 3) forts to be
        built and army reorganized to guard against an invasion of foreigners and consequent establishment of a
        depraved religion. This plan is accepted.
1861 (Feb) News comes of the flight of the emperor; Korea is electrified people flee for the higher ground. Now
        preparations for war are made; taxes are onerous and riots break out.
1864 (Jan) Death of Ch'olchong. Queen Cho becomes regent over Kojong second son of Prince Heung-sung (name
        Yi Ha-eung); queen Cho thus forces the Kim family to retire from power. Repairs on Japanese buildings,
1864-5 Rise of the Tong-hak sect in the south under Ch'oe Pos-sul of Kyong-ju; it is the eastern sect of Christianity
        as opposed to the western sect; Roman Catholicism. Dowager queen Cho is a violent opponent of
        Christianity and fills offices with Roman Catholic enemies. Soon, however, the regency is taken over by
        prince Ta-wun, father of Kojong. He has arable land remeasured for new revenue to finance his anti-
        Christian plans. Orders con struction of new palace at ruins of Kyong-bok palace, with Korean finances are
        hard pressed to pay for. Has his son Kojong betrothed to his wife's niece (Min Ch'i-rok) who is four years
        older than Kojong and therefore becomes queen.
1866 (Jan) Russian gunboat anchors Wun-san harbor; request Russian-Korean trade. Reply; as Korea is vassal of
        China, Russia must speak to Peking. The regent decides to eradicate Christians, as they favor joining with
        France and England against Russia. (23 Feb) Bishop Berneux is sent to jail and (26 Feb) decapitated,
        begining the execution of Roman Catholic prelates. Priest Ridel escapes and informs admiral Roze in
        Cochin China; a revolt there prevents him from sailing right away. China tells the regent that killing
        foreigners is dangerous business. (24 June) American vessel Surprise wrecked off Whang-ha province; the
        crew are cared for and sent to China. (Sept) Vessel Gen Sherman arrives Ta-dong river seeking trade.
        Refused, she pushes up to P'yung-yang, is wrecked and her crew killed. Roman Catholic persecutions
        resume. (20 Sept) French fleet under admiral Roze explores the Han river on a surveying expedition. Seoul
        panics. France informs China she refuses to recognize the suzeranity over Korea and will do as she pleases.
        (11 Oct) Han river blodkaded by the French. Meanwhile, Korea is mobilising her army. (13 Oct) French
        fleet seizes Kang-wha. Attack on fortress of Chong-jok fails and the French retreat. Persecution of
        Christians begins anew. Funds for building the new palace run out and the regent orders the coining of
        more money. Inflation begins to plague the economy.
1867 The regent purchases old discarded Chinese cash money by the cartload and hauls them into Korea, forcing
        them to be used as legal tender.
1868 Publication of "The Six De-partments and their Duties". Russia demands Korea recall her refugees that are
        beyond her border. (Sept) 2,000 Christians killed.
1869 Japan requires closer commercial and diplomatic relations with Korea - Korea refuses.
1870 The Korean government stops the annual grant of rice to the Japanese colony of Fusan, angering Japan
        Japanese envoy Hanabusa (=Korean Wha-bang Eui-jil) comes with request for treaty of commerce. He is
        turned down.
1871 (16 May) US fleet under rear admiral Low leaves Nagasaki and (30 May) arrives near Eugenie island: It is
        desired to elicit a treaty of trade. Refused. The regent once again begins arming strategic points. Fort Tok-
        chin is taken but then the US fleet sails away.
1871-2 Hanabusa again comes to Seoul and is lodged at the behest of the queen, whose faction (headed by her
        brother Min Seung-ho) is working to have the regent removed, for Kojong is soon to be of age.
1873 The official Ch'oe Ik-hyun memorializes the throne about the illegal presence of Hanabusa and the indiscreet
        use of public funds by the regent. Kojong cuts off most of the regent's funds. Meanwhile, Min Seung-ho
        and the regent's son Yi Cha-myun agree to remove the regent and share power themselves. (Dec) The
        regent is removed; the Min party absorbs all power; their puppet prime minister is the ex-regent's brother.
        An assassin sends a bomb to Min Seung-ho in disquise as a gift and he, his mother and son are killed. Min
        T'a-ho takes over the leadership of the government.
1874 Use of the 100 cash piece is discontinued. (Feb) Birth of the crown prince. Real estate taxes are permanently
        remitted around Seoul.
1875 Palace politics keep the court at Seoul "active". (Sept) Korean batteries at Yong-jung accidentally fire upon
        the Japanese man-of-war Unvo Kwan; it silences the battery. Japan asks for talks to lead toward a treaty;
        accepted. Japan and Korea settle their differences [blocking?] an agreement.
1876 (27 Feb) Despite the advice of the ex-regent, a Japanese-Korean treaty is signed and ratified. (May) Korea
        sends a semi-official envoy, Kim Keui-su, to Japan.
1879 (June) Hanabusa sent to represent Japan at Seoul. He intervenes on behalf of the Japanese government to save
        two French priests from prosecution.
1880 (Summer) Kim Hong-jip returns from Japan where he met a Chinaman who urged Korea to cement relations
        with the US, China and Japan to avoid Russia; also that western greatness is due to Protestant Christianity
        (ie; Christianity is in two sects, Protestant and Catholic, just as Confucianism is in two sects, Chu-ja and
        Yuk-song-san). Yi Man-son, Hong Cha-hak and Pak Nak-kwan are violently opposed, but the king, seeing
        in them the restoration of the regent's policies, has Yi ban -ished, Hong executed and Pak imprisoned.
1881 (March) The king desires to open Korea's eyes to the world; Cho Chun-yung, Pak Chong-yang, Sim Sang-hak,
        Cho Pyung-jik, Min Chong-muk, O Yun-jung, Om Se-yung, Kang Mun-hyung Hong Yung-sik, Yi Wun-
        whe and Yi Pong-eul are sent to Japan. Another party under Kim Yun-sik is sent to Tient-sin. (30 Aug) A
        conspiracy to unseat the king and place Yi Cha-sun, the ex-regent's son, in his place and restore the ex-
        regent is discovered. The conspirators are siezed and (Nov) executed. Meanwhile, a Korean liberal party is
        forming which favors opening Korea to the world and establishing reforms. A Ki-mu, or Machinery
        Bureau is established to take charge of the introduction of foreign machinery and implements into Korea.
        The Min party, not wishing to lose its ascendancy, "becomes" the Conservative party.
1882 Min Yung-ik, queen's nephew and adopted son of Min Seung-ho and a liberally minded sort, joins the Liberal
        party who has the king bring Japanese lieutenant Isobayochi to Korea to drill Korean troops in military
        tactics. Some Koreans, including young Su Cha-p'il, are sent to Japan to study military tactics. Liberal
        leader Pak Yung-hyo is sent as first minister to Japan. (9 June) The Royal guard, shorted of proper meals
        and pay by a corrupt official under Min Kyum-ho, arise in revolt. Min Kyum-ho flees but the corrupt
        official is beaten to death. Lieutenant Isobayo-chi is killed and the Japanese legation is holed up at
        Chemulpo; the mob of soldiers begins exterminating the Mins. (10 June) The mob, reorganized enters the
        palace: They kill the king's Min officials before his eyes and demand the queen, but she escapes to Chang-
        wun with the aid of Hong Cha-heui. The ex-regent appears and orders the soldiers to stop their rampage,
        they do. Now, assuming the queen dead, the ex-regent assumes power. (5 July) Japanese count Inouye and
        Kim Hong-jip confer at Chemulpo; Korea refuses to pay an endemnity for the Japanese lives and property
        lost. Some Chinese troops, at the request of the Conservative party (leaning toward China) camp about the
        capital. The general, O Jang-gyung, wrests away the regent to China (he is banished to near Tientsin): The
        queen is recalled. (Dec) A foreign office established in Seoul with Kim Yun-sik Minister of Foreign
1883 (19 May) Treaty between USA and Korea ratified (general Foote is first US minister); Foote leaves Korea to
        prepare the establishment of a legation in Seoul. A whaling monopoly is established and other
        technological advances appear in Korea; powder mill, foreign mint, etc; Chemulpo and Wun-san opened to
        foreign trade. (Summer) Min Yung-ik is made special envoy to US. An American (demonstration) farm is
        set up 10 miles east of Seoul. (Autumn) Treaty between Korea and Germany ratified. Month later, treaty
        between Great Britain and Korea is ratified. The British establish a consulate general in Seoul.
1884 The queen is gradually falling more in agreement with the conservative party. G C Foulk suggests founding a
        school for the instruction of western languages and science; the US secretary of state is asked to send three
        instructors but the matter is dropped. (Spring) Ensign G C Foulk becomes naval attache of the American
        legation and begins influencing further reforms. (June) Pak Yung-hyo a progressive, becomes mayor of
        Seoul: He begins sanitary reforms and municipal improvements, but is soon slowed by the conservatives.
        (Autumn) the 12 young Koreans sent to Japan to learn military tactics return and divide over their party
        loyalties, but the conservatives are slowly gaining ground and are siding with China. The progressives (or
        Liberals) therefore begin leaning more and more toward Japan. (Dec) The liberals plan to regain power by
        ridding the government of the conservatives and seating their own man as ruler by using Japanese help, but
        that falters. Nevertheless, they manage to enter the palace, kill several conservative ministers and imprison
        the king at his cousin's house. Yi Cha-wun and Hong Yung-sik become prime ministers. Pak Yung-hyo
        becomes Geneeral in Charge. Su Kwang-bom becomes minister of foreign affairs. Kim Ok-kyun becomes
        minister of finances and Su Cha-p'il becomes Lieutenant General. A Chinese force attacks the Japanese
        who begin falling back; the new government takes the king with them (the crown prince, queen and king's
        foster mother escape to No-wun). Soon the king escapes and the liberal government is wiped out along
        with many Japanese. Amends are made to Japan for her losses. The king's government is restored though
        he is now under Chinese protection.
1885 (Jan) The Korean government apologizes to Japan, pays an indemnity and executes the murderer of count
        Inouye. Construction of Japanese legation (Spring) in Seoul. Government hospital built under auspices of
        Dr H N Allen of the American Presbyterian Mission. (April) Tientsin Convention between Japan and
        China; both agree to evacuate Korea. (Sept) The customs office is reorganized and put under the
        management of the Inspector General of Chinese Customs Sir Bobert Hart. (Oct) Treaty with Russia signed
        and a legation is established in Seoul. Revolt in Yo-ju over unjust and onerous taxation; the prefect and his
        clerk are killed. Completion of Seoul-Peking telegraph line. Korean commissioner Yi Chung-ha meets with
        Chinese commissioner and determines exact boundary between China and Korea along the Tu-man river.
1886 (Feb) The hereditary transmission of slaves and use of slave labor by the guilds in palace work is abolished.
        (Spring) Judge O N Denny, exconsul general of US to China, becomes advisor to the Home and Foreign
        Office. He labors to maintain Korean independence, in opposition to Chinese commissioner Yuan who
        styles himself Resident. The conservative party dominates, favors China and so Judge Denny finds his aims
        difficult to achieve. The matter of a school to teach western language and science is again brought up and
        (July) three instructors selected by the US commissioner of education arrive Seoul. Cholera devastates
        Seoul. (Sept) Royal English School is opened. Establishment of trading station Whe-ryung on the Tu-man
        river for trade with Russia; it is not an open port. Pak Chong-yang is appointed Korean minister to the US.
1888 Corruption, nepotism and the buying and selling of offices rises to the limits of many localities.
1889 Kojong proclaims severe punishments for the taking of bribes and extortion of money. He also speaks about
        robbery and gambling.
1890 Pak Che-sun, substituting for ailing Cho Sin-heui, sets out as embassy for Europe but the Chinese detain him
        at Hong Kong (April) Death of dowager queen Cho. A dispute over Japanese intrusion into Korean fishing
        grounds where the former refuse to observe Korean customs results in Korean helplessness.
1891 Min Yong-jun, a fierce conservative, is elevated to power. Ko-jong's son by concubine Lady Kang be comes
        prince Eui-wha. There is popular outcry over popular burdens in paying for official corruption; laws are
        quickly passed to ease the strain. A consulate founded at Tientsin; Yi Myung-sang is first consulate.
1892 The state of Koren economy and politics grows more strained.
1893 Insurrection and ferment throughout Korea; the Tong-hak sect threatens Seoul's foreigners. The queen
        elevates a mudang, or spiritual medium, to princess. The country seems on the verge of anarchy. The Tong-
        hak announce they are going to extirpate the foreigners, who begin to congregate at Chemulpo; Korean
        forces are unable to check the rebels: This allows Japan who considers Korea independent and dislikes the
        growing Chinese influence.
1894 (Spring) Korean detective Hong Chong-u kills Japanese political refugee Kim Ok-kyun. Japan is alarmed.
        Soon the Tong-hak sieze Chun-ju. The government calls on Chinese aid to put down the anarchy. (June)
        1,500 Chinese troops land Chemulpo. Since China did not notify Japan, she has broken the Tientsin
        convention; (9 June) Japanese minister Otori arrives Seoul with 400 marines. (12 June) Japanese
        contingent is now 8,000. The Tong-hak retire, creating an unneccessity for the Chinese and Japanese
        troops. (16 June) Japanese land 3, 000 at Chemulpo; Chinese nationals begin leaving. (25 June) Russia,
         Britain, France and USA representatives at Seoul ask Chinese and Japanese to withdraw. Chinese refuse
         unless Japanese go, Japanese refuse until Korea stabilizes her political climate. (July) Japanese minister
         hands Korean government list of necessary reforms. By this time 15,000 Japanese troops are in Seoul. (20
         July) The Korean government is given three days to institute the Japanese reforms and remove Chinese
         troops. (23 July) Receiving no substantial answer, the Japanese take the palace and Kojong; the Min
         faction is thrown out and prince Tai-wun is given a leading role in the government. Japanese and Chinese
         begin racing, building up their land and naval forces in Korea. (25 July) Japanese take the palace; minister
         Otori assures Kojong's safety and the ex-regent is called to participate in discussions of future plans.
         Banished liberals are recalled. Amnesty is given to prisoners. Kojong declares; class differences abolished,
         political parties abolished. (26 July) The Ceremonial Department is abolished and the Educational
         Department founded in its place. The Department of Public Works broadened to include Agriculture and
         Commerce. A list of 23 needed reforms is issued they range over all facets of Korean life, economy and
         politics. (27 July) The P'ung incident; naval skirmishes, two Chinese boats are disabled and 1,000 troops
         drowned. (28-9 July) Battle of A-san; Japanese under general Oshima defeat Chinese under general Yeh
         Chi-chao who escapes to P'yung-yang. (Aug) Reorganization of Korean money. A decimal system of
         coinage is introduced, but the proposed withdrawal of the cash meets popular resistance. Weights and
         measures are standardized. Students are sent abroad to gain an education The Ta-wun-kun, or former
         regent, adds stability to the government - the queen retires from active politics - the cabinet is a mixture of
         progressives and conservatives. (10 Aug) Major Ichinohe leaves Seoul with the vanguard and (11 Aug)
         arrives Songdo and begins reconnoitering Ta-dong river. (16 Aug) The formal act of Korea casting off
         Chinese suzeranity is carried out. (19 Aug) Lieutenant-general Nodzu brings reinforcements to general
         Oshima. (20 Aug) The political refugee Pak Yong-hro (since 1884) is allowed to return from Japan. (23
         Aug) Oshima heads north. (30± Aug) Provisional treaty; Japan guarantees independence of Korea and
         Korea agrees to look to Japan for advice and to aid her any way possible. (15 Sept) Japanese besiege the
         Chinese at P'yung-yang and finally best them; the Chinese flee northward. (16 Sept) Battle off the Yalu;
         the Japanese fleet under admiral Ito gains a Pyrrhic victory over the Chinese fleet, the latter saved by its
         two ironclads; Ting-yuen and _______. Later, Japanese forces chase Chinese forces out of Korea; the war
         moves to China and Korea falls under Japanese occupation. (Oct) Chinese are driven across the Yalu and
         the Tong-hak arise in the south again. General Sin Chung-heui is sent against them aided by Japanese
         troops. In battles at Kong-ju, Ung-jin, U-gum Hill, Yi-in village, Hyo Harbor, So-san and Hong-ju, the
         Tong-hak are finally bested but now move their rebellion south, mainly to No-sung. 11 days later they are
         exterminated. (20 Oct) Count Inouye arrives Seoul and becomes minister. (Nov) Progress is made in the
         reconstruction of the government; pardons; amnesty; etc. The War Dept takes over control of all divisions
         of the Korean defense forces. Japan ese tactics are adopted.
1895 (5 Jan) Kojong swears to uphold an independent Korean government and to inagurate 14 reforms dealing with
         the economy, royal succession, law, justice, taxation, schooling, etc. This is his "Reform Oath". (Jan)
         Decapitation and public execution are done away with. (Feb) Kojong declares offices are opened to anyone
         who can qualify. (Mar) Japanese manage to have the Korean government reinstate Buddhism. (July) The
         government issues new mining, quarantine and army regulations. A postal system is established. Count
         Inouye retires from the legation; frustrated by the mutual hatred and opposing views between the queen
         and ex-regent. Since the queen was disposed toward Inouye, the ex-regents prospects improve. (Summer)
         Cholera. (Aug) 117 men are sent to study in Japan under auspices of the Educational Department. (1 Sept)
         Viscount Miura, a Buddhist, assumes duties of Minister left by Inouye; he is friendly with the ex-regent.
         Min Yong-whan, the queen's most powerful friend is sent to America as minister; though Miura is not
         actively involved, the queen is murdered (8 Oct) to remove a stumbling block to rapid progress (ie;
         "Japanization") in Korea. The Japanese government denies any hand in the matter yet other anti-Japanese
         ministers are killed. (9 Oct) A wholly Japan sympathising cabinet is appointed. (11 Oct) An edict is
         published accusing the queen of crimes and she is deposed. (Oct-Nov) The Japanese government, begining
         to learn about 8 Oct, recalls Miura. (11 Nov) A full investigation is begun and the queen's death
         announced. Popular outrage against Japan forces the replacement of the Japanese trained troops of the
         palace guard (with other Japanese trained troops). (28 Nov) A trial is held convicting three men - actually
         scapegoats - of killing the queen.
1896 (Jan) The cabinet issues an edict forcing all Koreans to cut off their top-knots, their marks of Korean
         citizenship. News comes of a Japanese court absolving Miura of any complicancy in the murder of the
        queen. The Korean populace is angry. Now known traitors are appointed to the cabinet and Kojong is
        desparate for not being given any say in Korea's rule. (11 Feb) Kojong goes to asylum with the Russian
        legation. Many pro-Japanese cabinet ministers are killed, others flee for their lives: Japan has lost all; the
        king has thrown in with Russia and the people hate Japan. Sporadic revolts flare up. A new trial is held
        concerning the murder of the queen and the culprets are properly dealt with. A new cabinet is appointed.
        "The Independence Club", a society under Dr Philop Jaishohn blossoms forth, supporting Korea for
        Koreans - it gains the royal sanction; independence from China and Japan. Needed reforms are enacted;
        torture abolished in Seoul courts; concession given to a US company to build a railroad from Seoul to
        Chemulpo, various schools founded. Min Yong-whan appointed special envoy to the coronation of the
        Czar. (7 April) Dr Jaishohn founds a newspaper "The Independent". (14 May) Signing of Waeber-Komura
        Agreement (later the Lobanoff-Yamata Agreement); Japan and Russia agree to respect Korean
        independence and not send troops into the country except by common consent. (Summer) Material
        improvements in Seoul. (July) Concession given to a French company for a railroad from Seoul to Wiju.
        Begin construction of Myung-ye Pal-ace, as Kojong is anxious to be away from the Russians. Salutary
        edicts; more systematic collection of revenues, reorganization of gubernatorial and prefectural systems,
        definition of powers and privileges of provincial officers, further regulation of postal system, defining of
        powers of trade superintendants in open ports, abolition of illegal taxation, establishment of courts of law
        in the provinces and open ports. Meanwhile the gap between the Independence party and Conservatives is
        widening; there are fears that Korea is descending toward being split into two spheres of influence;
        Russian in north and Japan in south.
1897 Utilitarian reforms continue. The Conservative element in gaining greater influence and control in the
        government. Russian influence is gaining in Seoul. (Feb) Kojong leaves the Russian legation and moves
        into Myung-ye palace. There is a growing backlash against reforms in favor of the old well-known ways.
        Korean army training has been taken from the Japanese and given to the Russians. (Aug) 13 More Russian
        military instructors are imported. Russians replace Mr Waeber with Mr A de Speyer (7 Sept) who begins
        carrying out Russia's more aggressive wishes. His hardline, however, is opposed and even tually he is
        recalled. (17 Oct) Ko-jong has himself crowned Emperor of Tai-han. (21 Nov) Funeral ceremony for late
        queen held.
1898 The Conservatives are in full control of the government and the Independence Club is about dead. Reforms
        grind to a halt. The British halt Russian designs on gaining control of the government with a show of naval
        force at Chemulpo. (Feb) Death of prince Ta-wun, Kojong's father. Despite anti-reform stance, concessions
        for material improvements are given (electric company, tramway, water works, etc) (12 April) N Matunine
        assumes De Speyer's place; the Russo-Korean bank closes and the Russian military and other officers
        leave. The Independence Club has become a nuisance, relegated to protesting various occurrences. (10
        Sept) Attempt to poison Kojong and the crown prince fails. Kojong decides to have a bodyguard (15 Sept)
        it is installed against opposition from the Independence Club. Japanese obtain concession for Seoul-Fusan
        railway. Independence Club issues six articles they feel are best for Korea; it is anti-foreign power; the
        proposal has mass support and so (30 Sept) Kojong orders their being carried out [1) officials and people
        shall not depend on foreign aid, 2) any agreements with foreign powers must be signed by all ministers of
        state and president of the privy council, 3) offenders to be punished only after public trial at which they
        had ample opportunity to defend themselves, 4) his majesty may appoint ministers but the cabinet may
        disapprove, 5) the finance department shall control - and only it will control - sources of revenue and
        methods of raising taxes, 6) existing laws and regulations shall be enforced without fear or favor]. The
        Conservatives organize a "counter force" and Kojong removes royal sanction from the Independence Club
        - it protests and illicits a decree of freedom of speech. Popular meetings occur and growing brutality as
        party differences heat up. By Dec, the Independence Club loses all support and disappears.
1899 (Jan) Founding of mission of the Greek Church in Seoul, joining the Presbyterian Church of America (1884),
        the Methodist Episcopal Church of America (1885), the Australian Presbyterian Church (1889), the
        English Church Mission (1890), Southern Presbyterian Church of America (1892), Southern Methodist
        Church of America (1896) and the Canadian Presbyterian Mission (1898). Korean politics are somewhat
        calmer this year; and material advances continue (railroads, ports, education, publishing, currency, trade,
        postal, etc).
1900 (15 Jan) M Pavlow returns to Seoul; Russia begins to gain her desires through intrigue.
1901 Russia makes steady advances in increasing her influence. (March) A Japanese resident of Chemulpo
         purchases the island of Roze. An investigation reveals a corrupt wealthy man, who is forced to repurchase
         the island from Japan. The Russian (Greek) Church begins a propaganda campaign. By the end of the year,
         Japan-Russian strains have grown considerably. Minister Yi Yong-ik has authorized the minting of the
         easily counterfeited Korean nickel piece and bungled crop import-export flows resulting in popular
1902 Attempt to revive the Buddhist cult, but the religion is dead in Korea and the attempt fails. The government is
         centralized and Yi Yong-ik is a prime influence. Special agents are sent out to collect taxes but such an
         outcry prevails that they are recalled. Russian sympathizers are moving into Korea. Japan hatches a plan to
         colonize portions of Korea Defensive alliance between Great Bri tain and Japan signed; they guarantee
         independence of Korea and integrity of the Chinese empire; a slap in Russia's face. An attempt is made to
         halt counterfeiting the Korean nickel; it fails. (Spring) The First Bank of Japan (the Dai Ichi Ginko) issues
         special bank notes to circulate in Korea only so that Japanese currency wouldn't be used (Korea's trade
         deficit doesn't enable Japanese currency to stay in the country). 30 lighthouses are ordered constructed
         along the coast. Yi Yong-ik is gradually gathering complete control of the government and economy to
         himself. (11 Sept) Acting minister of Foreign Affairs prohibits use of Japanese bank notes - rescinded. (27
         Nov) Yi Yong-ik is called to account; Kojong strips him of his titles. Yi flees to the Russian legation. Soon
         (Dec) Yi is restored, supported by Russia (-"he's the only man who can handle Korean finances" -) and
         opposed by Japan which is in Yi's favor. Japan now realizes there can be no peaceful solution to the
         Russian-Japanese-Korean problem.
1903 (7 Jan) Yi Yong-ik, sent away to purchase Annam rice, and supported by Russia, returns and attacks the Bank
         of Japan for interfering in Korean finances: He forbids the use of Japanese bank notes. The Japanese
         pressure (Yi's Russian backing disappears) and the order is rescinded. A secret agreement allows Russia to
         harvest timber along the Yalu; now Russia asks to use the port of Yong-ampo in connection with this.
         Japan, Great Britain and USA urge the port's opening to foreign trade, but Russia wants it only for herself.
         Soon, Russia is abusing her presence along the Yalu. Japan protests. Russian renames Yongampo Port
         Nicolas. (Oct) Japanese merchants in Seoul begin calling in outstanding moneys, no further loans are
         made. Korean people and the foreign legations are ready for war.
1904 (Jan) Korean pawn brokers suspend operations. Various local uprisings occur. Russia manages to have Korea
         declare her neutrality (ie; Japan is automatically the aggressor when her troops use Korea to attack Russia).
         (22 Jan) General Ijici arrives Seoul as military attache to Japanese legation. (26 Jan) Urged by Ijichi, Korea
         still maintains her neutrality. (29 Jan) All Korean students recalled from Japan. (Feb) Japanese and Russian
         military movements maneouver for war. (8 Feb) Chemulpo is practically blockaded by Japanese vessels:
         Already the Japanese minister has left St Petersburg and Baron Rosen's credentials handed back to him in
         Tokyo. The two Russian gunboats at Chemulpo are told to leave by noon or else be scuttled. They steam
         out of the harbor, are badly crippled by the Japanese and limp back in: One sinks and the other is blown up
         Now all Russian citizens are shipped out. Japan begins moving men northward. (23 Feb) Korea signs a
         protocol with Japan becoming Japan's "silent partner" in the war: Korea gives Japan the right to use Korea
         as road to Manchuria and will give them every possible facility to prosecute the war: Japan guarantees
         independence of Korea and safety of the Imperial Family. Japanese move into power and demand many
         special privileges not all of which Korea may wish to grant. (28 Feb) A small band of Cossacks raid near
         Pyeng Yang and withdraw. After a few skirmishes (28 Mar) all Russian troops have left Korea and she is
         no longer a belligerent. (25 April) Battle of Wanson harbor, the Russian fleet sinks a lone Japanese boat,
         then later a Japanese transport is sunk. (May-June) Skirmishes and manoeverings. (30 June) Second Battle
         of Wonson harbor; Russian fleet begins shelling Japanese buildings and withdraws. (June-July) Rise of the
         Po-an-whe society ("Society for the Promotion of Peace and Safety") in opposition to the Japanese
         presence. (16 July) Japanese police begin raiding the society's meetings. As the year progresses, Japan
         gathers greater and greater control over Korea's political and economic management.


     History of Corea, Ancient and Modern Rev. John Ross; Paisley: J and R Parlane; 1879

     The History of Korea; Han Woo-keun East-West Center Press; Honolulu; 1971

     A History of Korea; Takashi Hatada American Bibliographical Center Clio Press; Santa Barbara; 1969

     Hulbert’s History of Korea: Weems, C.N., Editor; Hilary House Publishers Ltd., N.Y. 1962

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