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Mennonite Historian Vol. 17 No.4

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Mennonite Historian Vol. 17 No.4 Powered By Docstoc
					MENNONITE HISTORIAN
Published by the Mennonite Heritage Centre and the Centre for MB Studies in Canada                           Volume XVII, No.4, December, 1991




                                                                                                               Special Issue of MH

                                                                                                            This is the second and final special
                                                                                                            issue focussing on the theme of
                                                                                                            Mennonites and alternative se1vice
                                                                                                            (COs).




                                                                                                           yourselves with the region in advance. We
                                                                                                           cannot help you; help yourselves!" And so
                                                                                                           the Terekers, along with the other German
                                                                                                           and Russian settlers and estate owners, did
                                                                                                           help themselves, with the only assistance
                                                                                                           readily available; hired Cossack guards. An
                                                                                                           armed mounted division of Cossacks was
                                                                                                           formed, paid for exclusively by the local
                                                                                                           settlers. This measure reduced the thefts
This Clhibit _   mounted at the CO 50th AoniwnIIly Coofen:oce bdd ill Wmnipq 00 November 9. and murders to a tolerable level.                       The
It was designed by Ger.tId Loewen aDd brought ill by the Mmoooite Heritage Caltre. For detaik of the Cossacks preferred method of deterrence
conference see p.5.                                    Photo: Courtesy of Der &k (editor Elwin Srrempler).
                                                                                                           was to expel all residents from any village
                                                                                                           that harboured thieves, and then burn it to
                                                                                                           the ground.
The Terekers' Dilemma: A Prelude to the                                                                       In 1908 a new, and as it turned out,
                                                                                                           corrupt police chief was appointed to the
Selbstschutz                                                                                               region. He abolished the Cossack force, and
                                                                                                           formed a secret alliance with the local gangs
 by Teny Martin                                      more. In 1889, a century after their arrival of thieves. The thieves would kidnap local
                                                     in Russia, the Mennonites lived almost                landowners and demand fantastic ransoms,
     In 1901, several hundred avowedly exclusively in the South Ukraine, which had while the police chief would guarantee their
 pacifist Mennonite families settled -jown on become one of the empire's more safety.
 no-man's-land. A new Molotsehna daughter prosperous, developed regions. However, in                          The Terek villagers were also terrorized
 colony formed at the foot of the Caucasus tbe next three decades high land prices and                     and given an ultimatum:           either pay
 Mountains, along the shore of the Caspian population growth drove the Mennonites to                       protection money or face expulsion (the
 Sea. To the south, the mountains were found new settlements on the empire's residents of several Russian and German
 populated by fierce Islamic tribes, frontiers: in Siberia, Central Asia, and the villages had been expelled). The Terekers
 conquered by Russia only fifty years ago in Caucasus.                                                     agreed to "hire" a thief as "shepherd" for
 a brutal thirty-year war, and still only               When the central government's power each village. He would serve as the village's
 superficially pacified. To the north, along was shaken during the 1905 revolution, the                    "guarantor". These Otvetchiki (from the
 the Terek River, lay a string of Cossack border regions suffered the greatest                             Russian verb "to answer for") became a
 forts, which for 300 years marked the upheavals. And, as is still the case today,                         normal feature of Terek life until the
 southern-most line of secure Russian nowhere were the upheavals more brutal                               colony's demise in 1918. Mennonites paid
 territory, and from which the mountainous than in the Caucasus. Thus, the new Terek                       for protection first from the government,
 regions had been conquered. At the tiDle of settlers suddenly faced a dilemma, perhaps                    then the Cossacks, and finally the thieves.
 the purchase and settlement of this land, the only theoretically interesting to us, but of life           The principle had not changed.
 acquisition of tbe Terek lands was roundly and death significance to them. How does                          However, in the short run, the Otvetchiki
 criticized in the Mennonite press, but only one deal with the threat, not of war, but                     proved highly unreliable. Thieving was
 on economic and health grounds. Security anarchy?                                                         reduced, but did not stop, and when the
 concerns were not expressed.                           From 1905 to 1908, the Terekers sent               wealthy industrialist and local estate owner,
    The Terek settlement represented part of innumerable petitions and delegations to                      Hermann Neufeld, was kidnapped, outrage
 a major internal migration that was Russian officials, high and low. Invariably                           gripped the Terek settlement. The residents
 transforming a large part of the Mennonite the answer was: "Who invited you here?                         now had to deal with the crisis of anarchy, a
 community into a frontier people once You would have done well to acquaint                                situation where no force exists to provide
Page 2
  protection. A delegation was sent to St.
  Petersburg, to negotiate an audience with
  the premier, P.A Stolypin. He promised to
  take "energetic measures" to restore order,
 and kept his word. Punitive expeditions
 were sent into the region, and numerous
 native villages were annihilated.      These
 events were reported in the Mennonite
 press. However, the Otvelchiki were only
 temporarily abolished. Tbey returned soon
 after the inital harsh measures had run their
 course.
     The events of 1905-1908 proved to be a
 prelude to the revolutionary events of 1917-
 1918. Order broke down once more; almost
 the exact sequence of events unfolded.
 However, this time there was no Stolypin,
nor a strong central government to petition.
Tbe Terekers had to choose: fight or flee.             Scene from the Hermann Neufeld estate Em.iIiaoovb, in the Tad (Cauaaus) IICttlcmmt. StaDdiog
They did both. First they fought at least              beside tbe borsedrawo wagon is estate manager Jobann Doaben (father of Rev. Martin Durben of
 two major battles, involving over one                 WInnipeg). loset: Hermann Neufeld.                  Photos: Counesy of Egoa Burow, Berlin, Gennany.
hundred participants, and more than a
dozen fatalities.
                                                        A CO on Trial:                     The Court-martial of Amos Showalter
     Finally, in February 1918, the Terekers
abandoned their settlement, and returned to             Conclusion
                                                                                                               A. Do you mean that I am willing to live in
the Molotschna settlement from where they                                                                       this country and enjoy the benefits of it?
had come originally. When anarchy reached               by Ger/of Homan
                                                                                                                Q. Would your conscience pennit you to
the Molotschna, however, there was                         After having read this statement                     accept benefits from this country at the
nowhere to flee. The Mennonites decided                 Showalter was questioned by Second                     sacrifice of the lives of your fellow men in
to stand and fight, forming the well-known              Lieutenant George Imbrie, the judge                    repelling the foreign foe?
Selbstschutz (self-defense).                            advocate or the prosecutor. Below is part              A. I am not sure that I get your meaning.
    The experience of the Terek colony sheds            of the cross-examination.                               (questions again read by the reporter)
further light on the Selbstschutz episode,              Q. Private Showalter, do you believe in the            A. I cannot sanction the use of arms in
showing that this was not an isolated                  American instinaions?                                   taking human life under any condition.
occurrence. The Terekers had already faced             A. Will yOIl explain Ihat qllestion please?             Q. Can you answer Ihe question I gave you,
the dilemma of anarchy in 1905, indeed had              Q. Do yOIl believe in the American                     yes or no?
exposed themselves to it by imprudently                government?                                             A. I am not sure whether I get your meaning
settling recently-conquered, frontier land. In         A. I do.                                                but I consider it my duty to be a subject
doing so, they aligned themselves with                  Q. Do yOIl believe in supporting it?                   citizen of this country in-so-far as I can.
imperial, government violence against                  A. I do in so far as I can.                             Q. Why do you object to war?
revolutionary and nationalist violence, and             Q. What do yOIl mean by "in so far as I                A. Because it involves the taking of human
paid the price when the latter prevailed.              can"?                                                   life.
                                                       A. So long ILY it does not conflict with my             Q. Human suffering or human life?
   Teny Martin is a doctoral student In                belief and my dillies towards God.                      A. It involves the taking ofhuman life, which
Chicago, Illinois.    He is completing an               Q. Do you believe in resenting {sic J Ihe              to me is sacred.
extensive study of the Terek colony.                   invasion of a foreign foe?                              Q. Don 'I you expect to die some time
                                                       A. I cannot say that I do.                              yourself?
                                                       Q. Do you want somebody else to do it?                  A. Yes, sir?
                                                       A. I cannot say that I do.                              Q. Don't everybody die?
Bibliograpbical Note:   The best-known                 Q. Do you enjoy the benefits of this                    A. Most people have who lived in the past.
published work on the Terek settlement is              government you think so much of? Would                  Q. How are you going to prevent loss of
still Cornelius P. Toews.   Die Tereker                you enjoy these benefits if somebody else               human lives then? Have you any theory that
Ansiedhmg:        M~he               KoIonie im        defended it for you and kept the foreign foe            you can advance to stop the sacrifice of
VorderkouJaJsus. Entstehung. Entwiddung                out?                                                    human life in this war?
und Untergang.1901-191811925. (Steinbach,              A. Will you state your questions again please?          A. If everyone would take the attitude that I
MB: Echo Verlag, 1945). In 1972 this                   Q. If somebody else died in repel/ing the               do, no person would take the life of another.
volume appeared in an English translation              foreign foe to protect this government which            Q. Do you use railroad trains?
(The Terek SettlemenJ) prepared by Isaac A             you say you think so much of, would you                 A. Yes, sir.
Dyck.                                                  accept the benefits of it?                              Q. Street cars?                 (conJ'd on p.4)

MENNONITE HISTORIAN is published quarterly by the History Archives Committee of the Conference of Mennonites in Canada and the Centre for Mennonite Brethren
Studies (Winnipeg) of the Canadian Conference of MB Churches. Editors: lawrence K1ippenstein (MHCA) and Abe Dueck (CMBS). All correspondence and unpublished
manuscriplllshouid be sent to the editorial offices at 600 Shaftesbury Blvd., Winnipeg, MB, Canada, R3P OM4 (Phone: [204]888-6781) or 1-169 Riverton Ave., Winnipeg,
MB, Canada, R2l 2E5 (Phone: (204) 669-6575). Individual 5ub5criptions may be ordered from these addresses. ISSN 0700 8066.
                                                                                                                                      Page 3
FAMILYHISIURY AND GENEA:LCXJY                                                                      Kasdorf, Alice (comp.). Genealogy of
                                                                                                Abraham GuenJher. Winnipeg, MB: Private
by Alf Redekopp                                                                                 publication,l991. 178 pp. This book traces
                                                                                                the descendants of Abram Guenther (1860-
Queries                                                                                         1948) and Katharina Wiebe (1863-1950)
                                                                                                who lived at Edenburg, Manitoba, just east
                                                                                                of Gretna. Contact: Alice Kasdorf, 122
Friesen - Searching for information on
                                                                                                Ridley Pl., Winnipeg, MB, R2Y lE6.
David Friesen born either in West Prussia
or Molotschna October 7, 1807, died 1893,
married to Helen Klassen (?), born August
12, 1812, died October 1892, had a son                                                          Noteworthy Articles
Abraham. Would like information regarding
place of residence, siblings and children. Is                                                      Schapansky, Henry, "Neuendorf, The Old
this the same D.A Friesen who was                                                               Colony Russia; The First Settlers: 1788-
Oberschulz of Halbstadt for seventeen                                                           1808, Part I", Mennonite Family Hrstory,
years? Contact: Lydia Church, 18 Kerman                                                         (October 1991), 148-155.
Ave., Grimsby, ON, L3M 3W4.                                                                        Goertz, Adalbert, "The Mennonite
Wiebe - Searching for information on                                                            Churches in 1823 in Prussia and Eastern
ancestors of Henry Wiebe born May 12,            FJizabeth [Friesen] Kroeker (1896-1989)        Europe", Mennonite Family HISIOry,
1871 in Molotsehna, migrated to the Terek       See "My Neudorf Scoop" by Ruth Friesen (ME/,    (October 1991), 146-147.
and died November 25, 1918 of typhoid           September, 1991, p.4).                             Peters, Alan, "Genealogy by the Map:
while fleeing from there, married to             Photo: Courtesy of Ruth Friesen, Hague. SK.    Finding your Roots in Prussia", Colifomia
Katharina Dick (DueCk?), born April 25,                                                         Mennonite HIStOrical Society Bulletin, No.25
1873, died October 21, 1918. Henry's            might be included in the project. Questions     (November 1991), 3-5.
parents were Dietrich Wiebe and Elizabeth       or comments should be directed to Jane             Recksiedler, Leslie D.        "Volhynia",
Funk, who died at a fairly young age.           Friesen, 38774 Road 64, Dinuba, CA, 93618.      Generations, Vo1.16 (September 1991),29-
Contact: Lydia Church, 18 Kerman Ave.,             Bert Friesen, Richard Thiessen and Alf       33.
Grimsby, ON, L3M 3W4.                           Redekopp, of Winnipeg, have designed
Bergen - Isaak Bergen, born ca. 1822 in         software which can be used to create a
Schoenhorst, died May 1895 in Kronsgarten,      database and registry of Mennonite                   GENFALOGY AND FAMILY
married Anna Peters (1824-1888), sons           genealogical records. It is presently being            HISTORY WORKSHOP
Heinrich (1856-1928), Abram (1858-1936)         tested and modified. The intentions are to
and Franz (1870-?) born in Schoeneberg.         work closely with other organizations such as      Date: March 2, 1992,7:30 p.m.
By the 1870$ Isaak was well established in      the california Mennonite Historical Society        Place: MBBC Chapel, 169 Riverton
Kronsgarten. Who were his siblings, parents     so that data can be shared and work divided           Ave., Winnipeg, MB.
and ancestors? Contact: Heinz Bergen, 59        to avoid duplication of efforts. Questions         Speaker and Topic:      Anna Ens,
Richardson Cr., Regina, SF:, S4S 412.           and comments may be directed to these                 "Doing Genealogy: Meaningful
Dertsen - Hoping to make contact with the       persons at (204) 669-6575.                            Time with the Living and the
family of a Heinrich Derksen who came to                                                              Dead"
America from the Soviet Union in 1927.                                                             Sponsor:     Winnipeg Genealogy
His wife was possibly Margareta Bocke.          Recent Publications                                   Committee of the Manitoba
Contact: Arnold W Mecksstroth, 1924                                                                   Mennonite Historical Society.
Kingsbury Dr., St. Marys, ON, 45885.
                                                    Janzen, Hedy (comp.). Our Heritage: the
                                                Descendonls of Heinrich P. Janzm.
                                                 Winnipeg, ME: Private publication, 1990.
Genealogical           Registry        and       147 pp. This genealogy and family history      Research in Progress
Database                                         traces the descendants of Heinrich P. Janzen
                                                 (1832-1902) and Helena Enns (1840-1914)        Huebert, Claas - I am gathering and
   The Genealogical Project Committee of        who lived in Tiegerweide, Molotschna.           compiling information on the descendants of
the california Mennonite Historical Society      Contact: Hedy Janzen, 2-246 Home St.,          Claas Huebert (1785-1853) who settled in
has recently decided to work at designing        Winnipeg, MB, R3G lX3.                         Muensterberg, Molotschna, in 1804. Alf
computer software that would make it                Plett, Marian and Leslie (comp.). Family    Redekopp, 229 Home Street, Wmnipeg, ME,
possible to computerize the genealogical        Register of Peter F. Plett 1884-1990.           R3G lX2.
records of all Prussian-Russian Mennonite        calgary, AB: Private publication 1990. 123
and Hutterite families. Once entered in the     pp. This book traces the descendants of
computer, these records would then be           Peter Plett and Sara Koop. Peter Plett was
available to all interested institutions and     born in Blumenhof, Manitoba and lived at          If you wish to announce any genealogical
 individuals through computer modems. The       Hochstadt and Prairie Rose (Landmark),          research in progress that you are involved in,
committee is interested both in persons          Manitoba.      This book has biographical      or ask questions about items on this page
designing software that might be appropriate    information and photographs of most             contact: Alf Redekopp, Centre for MB
 for the project, and anyone systematically     descendants. Contact: Leslie Plett, 8215-5th    Studies, 169 Riverton Ave., Wmnipeg, MB,
 compiling Mennonite genealogical data that     St. SJ.v, Calgary, AB, T2V 1C6.                 R2L 1£5.
Page 4

A CO on Trial        (collcL from p.2)
                                                   but done so in "a conversational manner".          30 instructions.    On November 25 he
                                                   Furthermore, he pointed out, the defendant         ordered his release and restoration to duty.
A. Yes, sir.                                       had never been given an opportunity to              Showalter was transferred (0 Camp Dodge,
Q. Don 'I you know Ihal every day Ihe street       appear before the Board of Inquiry. The            Iowa, on December 10. Here he was to be
cars and railroad trains Ihal you use kill         judge advocate rejected the defense                heard by a Board of Inquiry. 'Ibar hearing
somebody?                                          counsel's arguments by arguing that every          did not take place until mid-January 1919
A. II is accidental though.                        order from the Adjutant General of the             and resulted in Amos' discharge from the
Q. Isn'l il a fact Ihat Ihey do? Do you know       army and the President of the United States        service a few weeks later. 5
what is going 10 happen tomorrow?                  must be based upon the Selective Service              While in prison Amos became critical of
A. I know that accidents are going to happen.      Act of 1917, a measure that created only           the Mennonite response to war and
Q. And you LHe these vehicles of deslmction.       combatant and non-combatant services. But          "radically opposed to militarism."       He
A. I don 'I consider Ihem vehicles of               Imbrie     lambasted     noncombatants as         concluded that Mennonite men should not
desmlClion.                                         "cowards" who hid behind the "skirts of their     have registered for the draft and not have
Q. TILey kill people, don 'I Ihey?                 women" and "from the bayonets of the               gone to camp. Furthermore, he reproached
A. I do nol consider them as such. There           Huns in Europe." Furthermore, Imbrie               Mennonite ministers for their failure to
are accidenls in all walks of life.                asked, "What would happen if every coward          voice their convictions for fear of
Q. You say you refuse 10 work in the medical       and every pacifist, was allowed to come            imprisonment. 6
departmenl?                                        before his draft board and say 'I don't               His former fellow inmate at Fort
A. I do.                                           believe in war' and 'I don't want to go to         Leavenworth Allen Christophel disagreed
Q. If'hy?                                          war'?"     Finally he warned that allowing         and felt Amos had not been in jail "long
A. Because I consider il part of the military      Showalter to go free and unpunished would          enough or he would hardly consider it so
ente/prise which is engaged in taking human        give comfort to a "class of people who styled      desirable for our ministers to have been
lives.                                             themselves 'International Socialists, 1. W. W.'s   imprisoned.,,7 However, Amos did raise
Q. Al'l yolt a part of this government?            and Pacifists''', a small group of people the      some good points. One wonders if perhaps
A. I never voted.                                  government and the court must stamp out.           many Mennonites were not willing to suffer
Q. Don'l you claim 10 be an American                   Not surprisingly, the court found              much. This certainly cannot be said of
citizen, a citizen of Ihe United Siales?           Showalter guilty and sentenced him to life-        those conscientious objectors who were
A. Yes, sir.                                       imprisonment.       On November 6 Major            court-martialied in World War 1.8
Q. Did yolt ever take part in Ihe governmenl       General Leonard Wood, commander of
in any way?                                        Camp Funston Changed this sentence to              Endnotes
A. Yes, sir.                                       twenty-five years.        Like many other          1 For federal policies on conscientious objeclors
Q. Isn'l Ihis enlire government now engaged        Mennonite court-martialied conscientious           see Waller G. Kellogg, The ConscienJious
in an enteryrise such as you suggesl?              objectors, Showaller was imprisoned at the         Objector (New York, 1919), passim.
A. I think the gOI'ernment is bending ils eff011   disciplinary barracks at Fort Leavenworth,         20n these courts-martial see Records Group
in taking human life and I do not claim to         KRnsas.                                            153, National Archives, Washington, D.C. The
be a pari of Ihis government.                          While he was there his mother and              general court-martial records number of Amos
Q. What gm'ernment are you part of?                                                                   M. Showalter is 12222. The latter is hereafter
                                                   brother contacted Jacob D. Mininger,
                                                                                                      cited as GCMR 12222.
A. I don't take part in any government             superintendent of the Mennonite Gospel
                                                                                                      3MauwniJe Encyclopedia, s.v. "Showalter, by H.S.
politically.                                       Mission in Kansas City, and asked him to           Bender; GCMR 12222. All further infomlation
Q. Hm'e you always been that way?                  visit Amos. For some time Mininger had             on Showalter's court-martial is based upon his
A. I Ihink so.                                     been very busy ministering to the spiritual        this GCMR.
Q. What were yOIt doing before this draft          and sometimes even the material needs of           4See J.D. Mininger Collection. Archives of the
took yOIt?                                         Mennonite conscientious objectors at Fort          Mennonite Church. Goshen, Indiana, [-B-1, box
A. I was a studenl in college.                     Leavenworth. He knew Amos since the                6.
Q. Were your falher and mother doing               latter had some years ago attended his             5GCMR 12222.
anything at that time?                                                                                6Mininger to Allen Christophel, February 1919.
                                                   worship services in Kansas City. The two
                                                                                                      Mininger Collection, Archives of the Mennonite
A. My father is a fanner.                          men met in prison and renewed their
                                                                                                      Church, 1-11-1, box 6.
Q. What does he do with his crops 1                acquaintanceship.4
                                                                                                      7Allen Christophel to Mininger, February 13,
A. Sells them in the market.                           A few days after this meeting federal          1919. Ibid.
Q. Does he gel good prices for them?               officers ordered the release of Amos and           8After the war Amos did not become a
A. I think so.                                     many other court-martialied conscientious          missionary but continued his studies. In 1920 he
Q. Pretty high prices? Do you know why he          objectors. Unlike some camp commanders             received a master's and in 1922 a doctor's degree
is gelling high prices for them?                   and their subordinates who wished to harass        in biology from the University of Wisconsin.
A. He is selling Ihem at the market price.         conscientious objectors a bit longer,              Until 1934 he held a variety of research and
Q. He wasn'l selling at the prices effective       Secretary of War Newton D. Baker and               tcaching positions and in that year became
                                                                                                      professor of biology at James Madison College,
before the war, was he?                            others were eager to send all these men
                                                                                                      Harrisonburg, Virginia. He stayed here until his
A. I don't Ihink so.                               home as soon as possible. Judge Advocate
                                                                                                      retirement in 1960. He died in November 1968.
Q. Gelling all the money he could?                 E.H. Crowder while reviewing Showalter's           Information was kindly supplied by his son Mr.
A. I don't know.                                   trial and sentence could therefore easily find     John T. Showalter.
   At the end of the trial the defense             some technical reasons for setting aside the
counsel again challenged the jurisdiction of       sentence. He considered him a sincere                  Gerlof Homan is Professor of History at
the court and tried to refute the charge that      conscientious objector who had not been            the lI/inois State University at Nonnal,
Showaller had wilfully disobeyed an order          informed of his rights as set forth in the JUly    Illinois, USA.
                                                                                                                                          Page 5

CO Meeting in Winnipeg                             CO status and was subsequently imprisoned        Portage Avenue Mennonite Brethren
                                                   for refusing to take up arms.                    Church in Lhe evening, David Schroeder
                                                      The motto of Vietnam war supporters:          declared confidently "Of course they
by Elizabeth Falk                                  "Love it or leave it" did not seem a fair        will...How could the Mennonites in a time
                                                  choice for Larry Danielson who loved              when the whole world is open to listen,
   The CO 50th Anniversary Conference             America but was deeply involved in the            betray the world in deserting the way of
held at the Mennonite Heritage Centre in          Vietnam anti-war movement. In his words           peace themselves?"
Winnipeg on November 9 resembled the              the sixties were a "violent decade" when
making of a Mennonite family portrait.            "anti-war protesters were attacked and               Elizabeth Falk is a freelance writer, and
   Historical background was presented by         beaten by badgeless police officers". In          volunteer at the Mennonite Heritage Centre.
William Janzen in his paper: "World War II         1970 Danielson and his wife changed
Relations of Canadian Mennonites With             allegiance to Canada. They now live in
Their Government". Interactions dealing           Manitoba.
primarily with military exemption and                 Drawing into the global village "Our CO
alternative service were complex, requiring       Colleagues in Eastern Europe", Lawrence           Letter to the Editors:                   An
attention at the level of general policy and      KIippenstein drew attention to CO
also at the level of individual cases, said                                                         Answer for Urry on HUP
                                                  experiences in the Soviet Union, Poland,
Janzen. "The Mennonites did not always            (formerly) East Germany and Hungary.
speak with one voice, but neither did the         Outside of the framework of the Mennonite         by Peter Lohrenz Neufeld
government. Nevertheless, the end result          family portrait, Jehovah's Witnesses,
was comparatively good."                          Nazarenes, Pentecostals, Seventh Day                 I wish to comment on Jim Urry's
   Those "missing from the photo" in the          Adventists, and Catholics alike have been         September/91 MH remarks concerning my
family portrait fifty years ago, were put back    struggling for peace and freedom of               March/91 MH article "Mennonite Aviation
by Ted Regehr in his paper "Lost Sons:            conscience in Europe, often experiencing          Pioneers: The HUP Project at Chortitza".
The Canadian Mennonite Soldiers of World          imprisonment for the cause. KIippenstein             First, I must underscore the fact that the
War Il". Regehr cited records which show          said "Pacifism...has rooted itself in strange     Mennonite airplane trial flight occurred in
that while about 7,500 Canadian Mennonites        places, and sprouted under conditions where       1908. Urry's reference to it as "before
rendered alternative service as COs, 4,508        one might not expect it to originate and          1914" is most misleading. Adding six years
Mennonites (within a given ethnic criteria)       flourish". The dynamic influence of cas in        to the date makes a major difference and
served in the armed forces. A total of            Europe has brought about significant              greatly minimizes the work of Kornelius
42,042 Canadians were killed in World War         changes in government military service            Hildebrand, Peter Unrau and Henry
II. Of these, 124 were Mennonites. Regehr         policies. KIippenstein stated that as recently    Plenert. Urry cites 1910 for the first
discussed the alienation and pastoral neglect     in the late winter of 1991 the USSR               Russian-designed plane built and designer-
of Mennonites who enlisted. "Jesus' parable      -announced that it would permit legal              pilot Igor Sikorsky's work. Presumably, his
of the prodigal son...was referred to             exemptions to military service.                   plane "became briefly airborne on June,
frequently", said Regehr.        "The church         "2001: Will Mennonites Still Stand for         1910" and by September 1912 operated
elders saw themselves in the figure of the        Peace?" Addressing banquet guests at the          properly.
father, but behaved like the older brother."                                                           Even if those dates are accurate, how
   A conference participant who identified                                                          does that negate the work of the three
himself as being one of the "lost sons", said                                                       Mennonite youths? If Russian research
he had been "fully indoctrinated at the                                                             were really all that advanced, why did the
MCI". When his call-up notice came he                                                               three need to hide and destroy their plane
searched the Sermon on the Mount and                                                                during the First World War so authorities
prayed, asking himself "again and again and                                                         wouldn't find it and accuse them of
again" what he would have done if he had                                                            collaborating with Germany? Since my
encountered the anarchy which his parents                                                           parents, grandparents, aunts, uncles and
encountered in Ukraine. Eventually he                                                               many relatives lived in that general area
concluded he could not have stayed wehr/os                                                          until the mid-1920s and I often discussed
(non-resistant) in the situation, and he                                                            such matters with them, I'll stick to my
couldn't live with himself if he said he was a                                                      statement that it was German sources which
CO. He added further, "I have wrestled                                                              initiated and influenced the plane research,
with this ambivalence all my life".                                                                 not Russian.
   By 1943, the possibility of "restricted                                                             Secondly, Urry cites NJ. Kroeker's 1981
enlistment" had been worked out for the                                                             Chortitza history as another account of the
cas. Jake Wiens chose to join the army's         FOl"IIICr Altona area residents, (I-r) Jake        HUP project, implying my article wasn't
medical corps, but instead of being sent         Schroeder, Hcmy Funk and Menno Klassen             original research. I'm so glad he brought
overseas, he was posted to assignments in        reminisce at the 50th Anniversary CO reunion       this up. When I wrote and hand-delivered
Canada where he had to make repeated             held in Altona on November 10. About 325
                                                                                                    the article in mid-August 1990 I'd not yet
                                                 persons in all attended the Sunday afternoon and
choices of conscience.         "I had many                                                          heard of Kroeker's book. Last winter while
                                                 evening sasiODS.      Menno Klassen, John C.
questions at that time, and still do when I      Klassen, lAwrence Klippensteiu and othels          doing a CMBC independent church history
think about it," said Wiens.                     brought prt:Seotat:ODS to the gathering. It has    study, focusing on Mennonites and marine-
   Betty Goossen told the conference that        been suggested that another similar n:unioo be     related topics, his was one of my numerous
her husband, the late John Goossen, lost his     held in 1996.                                                                     (coru'd on p.9)
Page 6


 Recent Acquisitions - MHCA

 1. A manuscript on the study of Low
 German verbs. By Reuben Epp, Kelowna,
 BC
 2. A video of three Low German play
 performances.     Courtesy of H.G. Ens,
 Winkler, ME.
 3. Manuscript. "German Settlements in
 Poland" by Ewald Wuschke (duplicate).
 4. Copy of translation of Hochfeld (SK)
 Church records. Courtesy of Ruth Friesen,
 Hague, SK.
 5. Jacob Hiebert Family manuscript.
 Courtesy of Peter Hiebert, Winnipeg, MB.
 6. COs in Russia photos. Various donors.
 7. A copy of CO documents from WWII.
 Courtesy of John Dueck, Winnipeg, ME.
 8. Materials on the history of Mennonites           A plaque commemorating the educatiooal and othec cootribulioos of AItaler David Toews of RnRhem,
 at Orenburg, USSR. Courtesy of Olga                 Saskatchewan, was UDYciIed at the MHCA cairo 011 September 12.. In the pbolo (I-r): <:l1riIline WICDI,
 Hildebrandt, Germany.                               Melanie WICIIS, Margaret WICDS, Anlhooy Waens, Helene Rieaen, Loi& WICDS, Vidor WICDS, David
 9. Materials on a school reunion at                 Rieacn, Kimberly Epp, Paul Janzea, Joim J. Friesen. Lawrence Klippenstein, and Gerl1anI Em.
 Randolph S.D., Manitoba. Courtesy of                Correction: The cutlina roc the TOCWII r.amiIy picture in MIl, September, 1991, p.6 sbouId bne said Joim
                                                     Ens, son-in-law of EIaie Hooge (Toews) and refeceocea to "oepbew" and "niece" sbouId haw: read
 Eunice Mantie.
                                                     "grandson" and "granddaugbta" respectively. We Ibant Blake Friesen and KaIhariDe WJeDa roc this
 10. C..erhard and Maria Hiebert letters from        correction. Our apologics!                                 Pholo above: Courtesy of Rudy Regehr, Winnipeg.
 the USSR. Courtesy of Anne Hiebert
 Neufeld.
 11. Materials related to Martin Klaassen
 and the Klaas Epp trek. Courtesy of Esther                                                                        HEPPNER/HOEPPNER '92
 Bergen.                                                                                                                REUNION

                                                                                                               Place:   Steinbach Bible College
 Apologies! We Goofed!                                                                                         Steinbach, Manitoba.
                                                                                                               Date:    July 17, 18 & 19, 1992
  1. Regarding the letter by Maria Epp (MH                                                                     Early Registration: Prior to May 1,
 June, 1991, p.4), please note that Maria was                                                                     1992 for reduced fee.
 not a teacher at Barvenkovo Middle School                                                                     Contact address: Heppner/Hoeppner
 as stated in the article. We thank Maria for                                                                     '92 Reunion, Box 961, Steinbach,
 sending the correction.                                                                                         MB, ROA lAO
 2. Regarding the photo about Russian
 Mennonite COs (MH September, 1991,
 p.20). David G. Rempel notes correctly that
                                               Abe Born, a retired minister and bospital
                                                                                              ....""
 technically these men were not in the admioistratoc or Altona, belped his motber,
 Russian army. They were under civilian Anna, celebrate ber 103rd birtbday on June 28.
 administration of groups like the All-Russian Sbc bas tbirteen children, sixty grandchildren and
 Zemstvo Union. Moreover, the authorities avcr one bundred great-grandchildren witb a
 who questioned their loyalty wodd most total extcnded family or oearty three bundred
 likely have been Petrograd, not Moscow and fifty persons. Her busband, HeiDrich, a
 authorities. Dr. Rempel also provides a farmcr and Berglhalcr minister, passed away in
 longer article on this theme which we hope J 952, just aficr tbey bad retired 10 Altona.
 to publish in the future. We appreciate this
 assistance.                                   p.5). It should have said 1891-1968. We
 3. In the book That There Be Peace. thank Harold Huber of Eastern Mennonite                               The oldest bouse rcmaunng in ReinJand,
 Mennonites in World War II, regarding the College, Harrisonburg, VA, for helping us                       Manitoba, was dismantled this past summer. 1be
 photo on p.49. Change the name E. Enns here.                                                              most recent owners are tbe Henry Penner's who
 to Ed Penner. We thank Mr. Penner for                                                                     havc built a new house nearby. 1be photo was
 drawing our attention to this error. The                                                                  lakcn on the occasion or a Mennonite villages
 book is available at the Mennonite Heritage                                                               tour tak-co by members or tbe Geocral
 Centre.
 4. We missed a date for the photo of
 Amos Showalter (MH, September, 1991,
                                                       II1E:N~
                                                          O!ldRiTf::\GE CEf'FRE
                                                600 Shaftesbllry Blvd Winnipeg.Manltoba.Canada R3P OM4
                                                                                                           Confcrence Historical Committee, during tbc
                                                                                                           days or mcctings held at the Mennonite Heritage
                                                                                                           Centre in August.
                                                                                                           Photo: Counesy of Wilma McKee, Hydro. OK USA.
                                                                                                                                         Page 7


Peter Koslowsky    Tenor:                                                                           Now all I need to hear - that Peter never
Some Formative Memories                                                                           owned a blue suit! But if so, 1 will take
                                                                                                  responsibility for my own colour-blindness -
                                                                                                  not for any colour-blindness in my memory.
by John Martens
                                                                                                    John Martens is Professor of Music at
   1 am nine years old. The little "Bunch"                                                        Mennonite Brethren Bible College.
community church seven miles southeast of
Sperling is hopping with excitement. Jake
Pauls, Peter Koslowsky, Abe Neufeld and
Pete Neufeld - top to bottom - are                                                                       Appreciation Night For
serenading, charming and generally blessing
us with twenty-two of Stamps, Blackwood                                                                   PEIER KOSLOWSKY
Brothers and other arrengements.                                                                                   TENOR
   That's right - twenty-two. We counted
them all. It was an evening of encores,                                                               Featuring: Premier performance of
without applause; only "Bitte singt noch                                                                Thomas Jahn Liederzydus; solo
mehr" (Please sing some more). This was
                                                                                                        performances by recipients of
my first memory of Peter Koslowsky. 1                                                                   Peter Koslowsky MBBC Music
could not have known then that the~e would
                                                                                                        Awards.
be many more, and that they would be                 Peter KnsJowsky - farmer - tenor.
formative in my own singing career.             The photo is from CDC TU1IQ, January 7,1955,             Sunday, January 12, 1992
   Two years later in Winnipeg's Civic
Auditorium a second major memory was delight when at the appointed time he
                                                                                                                 7:30 p.rn.
born - three in fact survived the day. There turned to the audience and sang?                              MBBC Auditorium
was Benjamin Horch with his baton                  The year was 1955. I was principal of a                1(0 Riverton Ave.., Wutnipeg
conducting Handel's Messiah (I had never two-room school, my first school.                    A
                                                                                                        Sponsored by Centre for MB Studies
seen a baton, let alone witnessed it being radio/record player set was my second
                                                                                                         and Music Department of MBBe.
used so effectively), there was a red-head purchase - my first was a blue suit. That
alto, and there was Peter's "Comfort YetI. year Peter was tenor soloist in a CBC
Driving home in our '36 Chev, I remember broadcast performance from Vancouver, in
debating with WiIlie, my twenty-two year old Haydn's TIle Seasons. All evening 1 listened.
brother, about the key of "Comfort YetI. Toward the end of the oratorio the tenor                 Recent CMBS Accessions
Once at home, 1 reproduced it as well as 1 has a scale passage to high B natural and
could on the pump organ in D flat. Willie Peter's velvety-smooth voice broke ever so               1. Ten pages of materials related to Jacob
maintained it was an E. Years later, when slightly. He was human after all! Thirty                 A Kroeker. Courtesy of Esther Mary
I finally had a score, I found out that he years later, when 1 finally had the                     Kroeker Unruh, Abbotsford, Be.
had been right.                                 opportunity to sing the same scale passage        2. Personal papers (2.5 linear feet) of
   But more than Peter's voice lingers on in with the Winnipeg Philharmonic, I struggled           Kaethe Klassen and the late H.F. Klassen.
my memory of that day. With Peter I have not only with the challenge Haydn left, but              Courtesy of the family.
never been able to separate sound from also with the challenge of the thirty-year-old             3. A genealogical collection entitled
sight. Sitting in the left balcony, I still see memory.                                           "Ancestors and Descendants of Frank F.
him, dressed in a blue suit and standing on       June 1%7, Tache Hall, University of             Jantzen".     Courtesy of Alvina Block,
a smallish box which raised him eight inches Manitoba, at the CBC Summer Festival of              Winnipeg, MB.
above the players, waiting for the orchestra Music - a final favourite memory: As in              4. One cassette recording of Peter
to begin, his regal physical bearing bringing 1947 Peter was in his blue suit. Beethoven's        Koslowsky singing with the Eric Wild
strength and presence to his singing. I'm An die feme Geliebte was superb, but I                  Orchestra on the CBC Sunday Concert
not sure what went on in my mind while I cannot begin to describe Handel's "Care                  Series.    Courtesy of Peter Koslowsky,
sat there, but I do know that today I seldom Selve". The memory still stirs me deeply as          Winnipeg, MB.
stand before an audience waiting for 1 write this. I have never attempted to sing                 5. Additional papers of e.A DeFehr.
"Comfort YetI to begin without thinking it for fear of dishonoring the memory.                    Include files of correspondence from the
about Peter standing there, forty-five years Thank you, Peter!                                    19405 and 19505 relating to tbe Mennonite
ago, and I, too, stand tall.                                                                      settlements in South America, as well as
   I was seventeen attending Steinbach                                                            other items such as maps, charts and
Collegiate. 1 was sitting in the Niverville                                                       blueprints of various projects. Courtesy of
                                                   C Centre for                                   Ae. DeFehr, Winnipeg, MB.
M.B. Church watching the combined
Niverville and Steinbach MB church choirs
                                                   M           Mennonite                          6. One spiral-bound notebook containing
walk on stage to sing John Farmer's Christ         B            Brethren                          the diary of B.B. Janz while on a trip to
and His Soldiers. With a heavy heart 1             S                Studies in Canada             South America in 1947 on behalf of the
noticed that Peter would be conducting their       1-189 FIverton - . WInnipeg, e.-la R2L 2E5     General Conference of Mennonite Brethren
performance. Who would sing the tenor                                                             Churches in North America. Courtesy of
arias? Can you imagine my relief and                                                              Center for MB Studies in Fresno, CA
Page 8

Rosengard's Christmas

by Maria Lodge

   All was ready. The long-awaited night
had come at last. For weeks the regular
school schedule had been disrupted by
rehearsals of songs, poems, dialogues, and
plays - most of them in German. This was
as Mennonite a community as anyone could
imagine. Not a name on the entire school
register was other than the familier names
of Mennonites having at one time or other
found their was to southern Manitoba from
the steppes of far-{)ff Ukraine.
   All around was evidence of the
tremendous amount of pride and energy
that had gone into making this evening one
of the memories which would linger with
                                                 'Ibe Grade I-VIII pupils of 1953 allhe Randolph scbooI near Sleinbacb. Jacob J. Wedel (centre back)
them through the long, cold winter months
                                                 was leacher allbe lime. 1be scbooI was in operalion from 1919-1972. Formerstudeots ollbe Randolph
ahead.      A colourful border had been          S.D. held a reunion in AugusL Photo and infomlalion: Courtesy of Elsie Friesen (Wedel) and Eunice Manlie.
carefully created along the top of the
blackboard at the front of the school, and          Finally the concert began as the children          himself, and those other parents in the
the wall to the right as one entered the         sang Stille Nacht, Heilige Nacht, the                 community whose arrival in the country very
classroom. Yes, the classroom. This was a        melodious voices and the monotones all                nearly coincided with his, he annually
one-roomed country school with a small           together. For this community, religious               rehearsed a Ukrainian song with his yo~ng
entrance, a room for coats and boots, a          exercises were conducted in German.                   students.
small store room, and one classroom.             World War II was past, but even during its               Christmas, 1946, was no exception. In
Tonight the parents with their small             worst days, no one had molested the people           matters of education, a teacher as imposing
children, as well as the young girls, were       of Rosengard in the use of the language              as Mr. Penner, carried significant authority
seated in the children's desks, while the        which had become their own so many                   in such a small community.            Nobody
young men stood in the back, overflowing         generations ago. So long ago, that nobody            questioned the selections he made. In any
into the coatroom. Somehow there was             remembered when it occurred.                         case, the school on this night was seen to be
room for everyone.                                  And then came the recitations, preceded           doing two things that other Mennonites, in
   The designs on the blackboard had been        by either a curtsy or a bow, depending on            other communities had feared would be lost
carefully traced from imprints left by tapping   the gender of the performer. The first one           to them. It was giving religious instruction,
chalk-saturated blackboard erasers over the      was a Willkommen poem. Who would not                 and it was giving it, for the most part, in
perforated lines on small sheets of paper,       feel welcome? The people of Rosengard                German.
placed in storage year after year, and saved     had their differences. After all, there were             The evening passed quiCkly, Peace on
for this express purpose. The bells, the         both "Ru13Ulnder" and "Kanadier", and fifty          Eanh, Goodwill Toward Men and Hark the
candles, the wreaths, were all filled in with    years' separation in two vastly different            Herald Angels Sing blending sweetly with 0
coloured chalk, reserved only for such           countries had made them into virtually two           Tannenbaum and Suesser die Glocken nie
special occasions. And during the weeks          sub-cultures. But on Christmas Eve in that           Klingen. Before long, every well-rehearsed
before Christmas, while the remainder of         one-roomed school, those differences were            word had been spoken, and every note had
the blackboard was used for regular school       quietly laid aside for one brief hour. High          been sung. It was almost time to venture
activities, great care was taken to leave the    German was acceptable to everyone as a               into the cold night air, but not quite. Every
coloured drawings intact.                        means of expression in worship.         And          child of school age or younger had a present
   In the corner, magnificently decorated,       certainly the Christmas concert was an act of        coming - a brown paper bag filled with nuts
stood the tree. Before long its little wax       worship.      "Frosty the Snowman" and               and candy. Canadian communities in 1946
candles would be lit, adding a spectacular       "Rudolph the Red-nosed Reindeer" had not             didn't come much poorer than Rosengard,
sparkle to the little country schoolhouse.       yet entered the scene in Rosengard.                  with its small subsistence farms, but the
The poverty all around this small community      Christmas Eve was a time for telling the             annual custom of providing sweets for the
could not dampen the joys of the season.         story of Christ's birth. And everyone was            children was not neglected.
   An expectant hush fell over             the   welcome to share in that great story.                    Lehrer Penner must have Slept well that
assembled guests as the concert was about           RuBl3nder "tastes" probably did dominate          night. It was the last of his six years of
to begin. All whispering ceased ac; the          somewhat that evening. The teacher was               teaching in the Rosengard school, and the
teacher, Mr. Jakob Penner, took his place        born, and had been educated, in the                  concert had, as always, been a success.
on the platform erected specially for the        Mennonite villages of Ukraine. The concert
annual Christmas concert. The children,          carried that flavour and the other                     Maria Lodge was a Grade One student
seated on trestle benches arranged along         RuBiander of Rosengard gave him their full           during 1946-47 at Rosengard S.D., located
one wall, waited in restless silence for the     support. Mr. Penner had arrived in Canada            approximately 15 Ian. southwest ofSteinbach.
program to begin.                                during the 1920's and as a reminder for
                                                                                                                                          Page 9

Assiniboine Travel               Russia
Tours in 1992

1. Soviet Union Network Conference Tour
- May 6-25. Assiniboine Travel Service Ltd.,
in conjunction with the Soviet Union
Network, has arranged a special departure
including the SUN/ACB Convention in
Odessa. Hosts: Dr. George K Epp and
Hany Giesbrecht. Moscow, Zagorsk, Kiev
(for those of Mennonite background,
Zaporozhye is an alternative), Odessa
(SUN/ACB Conference), Yalta, Simferopol.
(Crimea), St. Petersburg (Leningrad).
2. Discover Your Heritage Tour - May 10-
30. This tour is designed for personal
connections with places and people wherever
we go. Host: Dr. Bernie Wiebe. Prague,
Moscow, Omsk, Karaganda, Orenburg,
Zaporozhye, St. Petersburg (Leningrad).
3. Mennonite Heritage Tour - June 28-
                                               L - R: Peter Unrau, KomeIius HiIdebraod and Henry PIeuert (Sr.). Takco at • UDi¥enity, P'*IlJIy
July 18. Tour concentrating on Russian
                                               Darmstadt, GennaDy, befoce WWl                    Photo: Courtesy of Henry Plenert, Winnipeg. MB.
Culture, Churches and Current Issues.
Host: Dr. Walter Sawatsky. St. Petersburg
(Leningrad), Riga, Kiev, Odessa, Tashkent,
                                               Answer to Urry on HUP
Moscow.
4. Cultural &change Tour, Western              (coneL from p.5)                                      HUP
Europe and U.S.s.R. - June 30-July 20.
Host: Victor Sawatsky. (Waiting list only.)    sources. A copy of the project is now
5. Mennonite Heritage Tour - July 2-21.        available in the Mennonite Heritage Centre
Host: Dr. John Friesen. Gdanzk, St.            archives.
Petersburg (Leningrad), Orenburg, Moscow,          Because the motor proved to be the most
Zaporozhye, Khortitza, Schoenwiese,            effective part of the plane and for years
Molotschna, Yalta, Kiev.                       after powered a Dnieper boat, this aspect of
6. Russia and Eastern Baltic - July 11-29.     HUP II was included in the study. An
Host: Dr. David Riesen. Helsinki, Tallin,      endnote reads: "Peter Lorenz Neufeld,
Moscow, St. Petersburg (Leningrad). A          'Mennonites Make Aviation History', in The
generic tour, no specific Mennonite            WIIJIIipeg Tribune, September 9, 1972. The
highlights.                                     somewhat confusing report in this research
7. Mennonite Odyssey Tour - August 4-24.        outlined on pp. 190-191 of NJ. Kroeker's
Reflections on the Mennonite story, the         1981 book FInI MennoniJe VUJages in
people of Russia, and the new "union".          Russia, 1789-1943, is undOUbtedly based at
Host: Dr. Lawrence Klippenstein. Gdansk,        least partly on this article reprinted in my
St. Petersburg (Leningrad), Moscow, Omsk,       1973 book Prairie VIStas.          Note his
Karaganda, Kiev, Chortitza, Molotschna,         ambiguous reference to this study as
Odessa.                                         supposedly his own research, which he
8. Mennonite Heritage Tour - September          claims is based on 1979 correspondence with     'Ibe airplane HUP built by Hildebrand, Unrau
1992. Host: Anne Berg. Moscow, Alma             H. Hildebrand. Unfortunately, both men          and PIcnct1 (Sr.). Note that the photo provided
Ata, Tblissi, Yalta, Zaporozhye, St.            have since died and can't comment.              for Peter L Neufeld's story in MH (March,
Petersburg (Leningrad).                            This matter was discussed at length with     1991) was really of tbe glider tbese men builL
                                               my CMBC advisor, and my HUP version                 Photo: Courte>y of Henry Plenert, Winnipeg. ME.
   For further information regarding tours     stands. As my MIl article showed, my
to the U.S.s.R., Eastern Europe and to         research was based on lengthy
numerous other exotic destinations call:       correspondence and interviews with                                 New Book
                                               Hildebrand and            numerous other
                                                                                                   Katharina Krueger. Schicksal einer
                                               descendants and close relatives of the
            John Schroeder                                                                         Ruplandgeschichte. Erlebnisbericht.
                                               Mennonite fliers. Naturally, it also included
     Assiniboine Travel Service Ltd.           material uncovered since 1972.                      (Goettingen, 1991), pb" 1% pp.,
          1317 Portage Avenue                                                                      $15.00.   Order from Mennonite
       Winnipeg, MB R3G OV3                                                                        Heritage Centre, 600 Shaftesbury
                                                  Peter Lohrenz Neufeld now resides in
       Telephone: (204) 775·0271                                                                   Blvd., Winnipeg, MB, R3P OM4.
                                               Selkirk, Manitoba.  He graduated from
          Fax: (204) 783-0898                  CMBC in 1990.
 Page 10


 The 'Missing'                Village        of       with/under other family. #1-#15 had full         He related 10 me Ihe odyssey of Ihe Kronsganen
                                                      farms. #16 to #25 were landless. The             lis!. If interested please write. There is also a
 Kronsgarten                                                                                           list of residents during the 19205.
                                                      complete list gives the names and ages of 73
                                                      male and 78 female inhabitants. Klass App,       3. This list musl have been printed in or after
by Heinz Bergen                                       #24; Bartel, see Mewsen; Franz Baumann,          1815. because dealhs of heads of families are
                                                                                                       shown following the 1811 reference year, up to
                                                      #11; Henrich Baumann, #20; Henrich
                                                                                                       1815. This formal is similar 10 B. Unruh's
      for the sake of historical completeness         von Bergen, #12; Johann von Bergen,
                                                                                                       'familicn Liste vom 19. Juli 1811' pp.330-331.
  Clnd to assist genealogists and other               (#12); Jakob Dyck, #9; Dik, (#22); Epp,          4. See Marianne Janzen, "The First Mennonite
  interested folk, an article about the               see App; Jacob Erz, #21; Stephan Erz,            Settlers in Russia" (1989), unpublished
  "forgotten" village of Kronsgarten is               #5; Henrich Erz, (#5); Gerzen, see Erz;          manuscript, Mennonite Heritage Centre
  overdue.                                            Kornelius Harder, (#23); Anna Janzen,            Archives, pp.14-15.
      Prof. Benjamin Unruh's book, despite its        (#7);      Julius Jantz, #19;         Johann
  six hundred footnotes has no list of residents      Kaunhuben, #6; Franz Klaas, #8; Isak               fleinz Bergen is a genealogist residing in
  on this village. Not even the Mennonite             Klass, # 14; Jakob Klass, #13; Johann            Regina, Saskatchewan.
  Encyclopedia, makes mention of Krans·               Klass, #1; Johann Klass, #17; Konrad
  garten in its updated fifth volume. It does         Klass, #10; Peter Klass, #2; Klassen, see
  carry a number of derivations from it in            KlaaslKlass; Dietrich Knells, #18; Jakob
  America. The 1988 Index of Alan Peters             Bartel Mewsen, #4;           Johann Bartel             A JOYOUS CHRISTMAS
  also misses most of the 151 persons once           Mewsen, #16; Zacharius Bartel Mewsen,                        TO ALL
  resident in this Old Colony village.                #3;     Abraham Quiring, #7;        Wilhelm               OUR READERS!
      Kronsgarten, established in 1797, was not      Radikop, #22; Peter Regier, #15; David
 without merit. Almost as many poems and             Reimer, #23; Johann Toews, #25; Peter                 Thank you for your support
  songs have been written about it as about          Warkentin, (#14); Peter Willer [Wieler?]
  Rosenthal. It had its outstanding people.          (#12).3
                                                                                                                                 inl99l!
  Mr. Henry P. Rempel fills a whole page of              It need not be assumed that all of the
  the January 28, 1989 issue of /Jer Bote, with     above families were original settlers. This
  the notable ones he remembers from his             list is not identical to the 1797 census list
 generation alone. The long·time Chortitw           obtained by David G. Rempel, and used by
 volost secretary, Jacob J. Klassen, was from        Marianne Janzen. 4 She has the following:
  Kronsgarten (Der Bote, April 1956), as was         Widow Franz Bartel, Jacob Bartel, John
 the aviator Henry Plenert about whom this          Bartel, Steven Gerzen, John Janzen,
 publicalion carried a front page article in its    Wilhelm Janzen, Conrad Klassen, Conrad
 March 1991 edition. There was also that            Klassen, Franz Klassen, John Klassen, John
 frivolous maiden who jilled the young diarist      Klassen, Peter Klassen, John Nickel, Abram
 Jacob D. Epp on the eve of their                   Quiring. Mr. Peter Plenert submitted a
 Kronsgarten wedding in October, 1840 (cf.         village plan as it existed in 1876, listing the
A MennoniJe in Russia, by Harvey L. Dyck).          fifteen farms and four small holdings (+)
     According to official documents thirty-two    occupied there at the time: Heinrich Bartel,
 Frisian families arrived in the Old Colony on      Isaak Bergen, (+) Abr. Block, (+) Salam.
 August 22, 1793. They volunteered 10 settle        Block, Peter Block, Heinr. Dueck, (+) Pet.
on the lwO oUllying parcels of Chortitw's          Gaertz, ( +) Heinr. Goertzen, Bernh.
 land allotment. The village of Schoenwiese        Klassen, Jak. Klassen, Jak. Klassen, Joh.
was established on the opposite side of the        Klassen, Joh. Klassen, Peter Klassen, Wilh.
 Dnjepr river south of Alexandrovsk. Krons·        Klassen, Gerh. Rempel, Jak. Rempel, Joh.
                                                   Rempel, Peter Siemens.
garten's location, however, was to be a                                                                             .,
three-days journey by wagon further north.
 It lay across the river from Ekaterinoslav,
(now Dnepropetrovsk).             This spatial
                                                        The Mennonite Heritage Centre has
                                                   begun to collect materials on Kronsgarten.
                                                   If you have articles, diaries, memoirs,
                                                                                                                   -
                                                                                                             IJrftt'e ':\w"J.j

                                                                                                              .l1n~ ~nrdtJ




detachment might explain in part its official      photographs, maps, etc. on Kronsgarten,
                                                                                                            A pc anal aCCount by veteran mis-
"non-existence".J                                  could you send them to the MHC? The
                                                                                                         sionarie of their many year in th
     Fortunately for future generations that       materials will be copied, then, depending on          northen Manitoba commWli£\' ofPauln·
will     be    searching     for   Kronsgarten     your wishes, the originals, or a copy will be         gassi- Thc book t..tlle ahout the 'Cli'
unaccounted-for ancestors, David G.                returned to the owners. Send items to the             feld', effort, to interpr . t the go p 1. in
Rempel obtained a 1797 list of the first           following address:        Mennonite Heritage          word and deed, to a mall group f
homesteads.        Researchers will find a         Centre, c/o HB Kronsgarten Project, 6lXJ              neglected people.
complete listing of Kronsgarten's inhabitants      Shaftesbury Blvd., Wznnipeg, MB, R3P OM4.                                       8.00
for the years 1811-1815 in a non-Mennonite
book by Dr. Karl Stump: The Emigration             Endnotes                                              Available from your local church relar-
from Germany to Russia in the Yean 1763 to                                                               cd bo       re r from
1862, pp. 873-874. 2                               1. As a point of interest it might be pointed out    ~                        600 Shaftesbury Blvd.
     Here are the families of 1811, a list         that later on Wiesenfeld was established further      ~UHLICATIONS            Winnipeg. MB R3P OM4
adapted from Dr. Karl Stumpp's more                north, on the Prijut River.                                                   (204) 888-6781
complete list. 0 signifies family head listed      2. Another list was given to me by Dr. Stumpp.
                                                                                                                                        Page 11

Book Reviews        (concL from p.12)            Froese, Art Friesen, and Ben Fehr. Both          Mennonite life but without denying the
 insider/outsider about the experiences of a     young and old readers will no doubt enjoy        Mennonite influence on their lives.
 young person in a Hutterite colony in south-    this book as well as the Born Hutterite book.    Balancing of the Clouds is what one might
 western Saskatchewan. He tells stories          They may also gain valuable insights into the    call a spiritually-{)riented work, while
 about Hutterite marriage customs, various       lives of Mennonites and Hutterites alike.        Mennonite Artist goes to some length to
 childhood pranks, how colony people view        Church libraries would do well to place          distance itself from at least the Mennonite
 the outside world, including "English girls",   these stories on their shelves.                  Church as it existed for the artists.
 the power and influence of the preachers                                                         One cannot come away from the second
and teachers, and buying such things as            Harry Loewen holds the Chair in                book without feeling a sense of loss. The
shoes and waterbeds in Moose Jaw.                Mennonite Studies at the University of           reader may well ask the question "Why do
    Contrary to some people's beliefs about      Winnipeg.                                        these artists feel somewhat ill at ease within
the ways of the Hutterites, these                                                                 the Mennonite community when reading
descendants of the strict sixteenth century                                                       Balancings demonstrates with understated
Anabaptists have a lot of fun and they know                                                       elegance that there is in fact room for artists
how to enjoy life, including good food and        Klassen, Mary and John Unrau. The               among us?"
alcoholic beverages. The Hutterite world as      BaJmu:ing of the Clouds.    (Winnipeg,
portrayed in these stories does not seem          MB: Windflower Communications,                     Rudy A. Regehr is executive-secretary for
drab or unattractive. The author's good will      1991). Hdc., 70 pp., $29.95 CAN.                the CR Board of the Conference of
toward his people is easily conveyed to tbe                                                       Mennonites in Canada.
reader of these stories.                         Reimer, Priscilla.Mennonite Artist:
    The language used in the stories is close
                                                 Insider as Outsider.(Winnipeg, MB:
to the way reasonably well-educated
Hutterites would speak. Germanisms are
                                                 Manitoba Mennonite Historical
used to good effect, adding charm and            Society, 1990). Pb., 60 pp., $10.00              BOOK NOTES
bumour to the book. However, with regard         CAN.
to the dialect used by modern Hutterites,                                                             MCC (Alberta), helped by the Mennonite
the author is mistaken in calling it Low         Reviewed by Rudy A. Regehr                        Historical Society of Alberta, recently
German (Introduction, p.3), in contrast to                                                         published A Celebration of ServiJ:e 1965-
High German used in the churcb services              Mennonites have long held a solid            1991. (1991, pb., 282 pp., $10.(0). It was
and German school. The Tyrolese German            reputation for their good music. In recent      edited by Dr. John J. Bergen of Edmonton.
dialect spoken by Hutterites is Upper (or         years they have also come into their own           German readers may now purchase in
High) German, not Low German.                     with a number of writers who have               book form Gerhard Dollinger's Ein
    Alan Warkentin, the author of CuJJivating     Mennonite connections as part of their          Landarzt ErzoehJt (1991, hdc., 144 pp.,
Dreams, found in "a dusty old box" in the         background. Artistic endeavour has not          $9.(0). It was serialized in Der &xe a year
back of his closet several poems, letters, and    been our forte except for those who are         or two ago.
other writings by an uncle of his he had         younger and have grown up in relative               The story of Germans in Russia is told
never known. Uncle John Elias had lived           prosperity.                                     further in Katharina Krueger's SchicksaJ
near Haskett, Manitoba, during the 19205             It was usually supposed that art could not   einer Rufl1onddeutschen..     Erlebnisberichl
and '305, growing up and working on his           thrive among pioneers and their pioneering      (1991, pb., 194 pp., $15.(0). It is available
father's farm.      In his free time John        efforts at survival. So the publication of       at the Mennonite Heritage Centre. A
dreamed dreams and wrote poems. As a              Mary Klassen's paintings done in the midst      related book is by Gottlieb Beratz, 7he
"writer" he was often misunderstood and          of difficult times is in itself remark3ble and   German Colonin on the Lower Volga.
made fun of by his friends and others            noteworthy. BaIoncing of the Clouds is a         Their Origin and Early Devdopment,
around him.                                      worthwhile addition to any coffee table          published in translation by the American
   The poems of John Elias are certainly not     collection. It includes a series of paintings    Historical Society of Germans from Russia.
great literary pieces (in fact they are          made largely in early life and published now     It was translated by Leona Pfeiffer, LaVern
reminiscent of Sara Binks' "poetry", although    with commentary by ber son, John Unrau, a        J. Ripply and Dona Reeves Marquardt.
they are serious in intent).        They do,     former Rhodes Scholar and currently              Write to: AHSGR, 631 D St., Lincoln, NB,
though, express a Mennonite young boy's          Professor of English in Ontario.                 68502-1199, USA.
aspirations and difficulties in growing up           Another book of Mennonite art was               The German Canadian Congress is
during the Depression. John not only wrote       published just prior to Assembly XII in          pleased to announce the publication of Dr.
poems but he also sought to acquire an           Winnipeg to showcase some of the work            Gerhard Bassler's The German Canodion
education, including areas like journalism,      done by a number of persons related to the       Mosaic Today and yesterday. IdenJiJies,
through correspondence so as to improve          Mennonite community.              Its title is   Roots and Heritage (1991, pb., 205 pp.,
his chances for the future.                      Mennonite Artist: Insider as 0uJsiJler.          $14.95).     Note also the publication of
   Warkentin pieces together the poems               The book by John Unrau, who is himself       Volume XI of the German Canodion
with stories on how life might have been         not closely connected to the Mennonite           yearbook (1990, hdc., 420 pp.).
during the Depression years on the prairies.     community, nevertheless clearly reflects his        To order the above items contact
The headings of the chapters are taken from      mother's strongly-felt loyalty to Mennonite      respectively: Gemwn Canadian Congress,
the titles of the poems, with the stories'       faith and values. That is not as explicit in     965 Richmond Rd., Ottawa, ON, K2B 6Rl;
content dealing with love, sadness, hope, and    the other publication. One senses that in        and Historical Society ofMecklenburg Upper
death as experienced by the youthful poet.       MennoniteArtist many of the artists are busy     Canada, Box 193, Stn "K~ Toronto, ON,
   The book is illustrated by Helen E.           distancing themselves from the centre of         M4P 2G5.
Page 12

BOOK REVIEWS                                      pioneering era in Manitoba. The latter             forming a viable and united church life.
                                                  consists of eight reflections relating to the      The pioneering ventures of the Conference
Delbert Plett, compo and ed., Pioneers            Holdeman division of 1881-82. Five of              of Mennonites in British Columbia moving
and Pilgrims. The Mennonite Kleine                these are by elders involved in or close to        toward this goal are aptly recounted in this
Gemeinde in Manitoba, NebraskLl and               this traumatic event: Peter Toews, the             book.
                                                  Kleine Gemeinde elder leading the                      Mennonites in British Columbia have
Konsas, 1874 to 1882. Volume 5. The
                                                  conversion of half of his church into the          been at the forefront of important trends
Mennonite Kleine Gemeinde Histor-
                                                  Church of God in Christ, Mennonite                 among Canadian Mennonites. They were
ical Series. (Steinbach: D.F.P. Pub.,             (Holdeman) group; Heinrich Enns, who               exposed to the charismatic movement which
1990). Pb., 604 pp., $19.95 CAN.                  served briefly (1866-68) as elder in Russia        brought divisions as well as renewal. After
                                                  and remained a respected leader after his          absorbing many post-war refugees with a
Reviewed by Adolf Ens                             resignation; Jakob Wiebe, elder of the             strong German cultural identity, several
                                                  Krimmer Mennonite Brethren in Kansas,              decades later the same conference
   "Pioneers" in the title refers not to Kleine   formerly part of the Kleine Gemeinde and           welcomed converts of other ethnic origins,
Gemeinde founders but to leaders during           now also involved with Holdeman's                  such as the Chinese. The establishment of
the years of pioneer settlement in North          evangelism in their midst; Abraham L.              Columbia Bible College as an institution
America beginning in 1874. This volume is         Friesen, elder of the Kleine Gemeinde in           operated jointly by the Conference of
not narrative, as the sub-title might imply,      Nebraska; and Jakob M. Kroeker, elected            Mennonites in BC and the BC Conference
but mostly a collection of documents that         elder of the Manitoba Kleine Gemeinde              of Mennonite Brethren Churches has
shed light on this period from the                after Peter Toews and his group had left.          succeeded in this province also.
immigration to North America to the great            Genealogists will appreciate the family            The author has described these and other
division of 1882.                                 histories of ten prominent clans given with        trends in a very readable and informative
   To collect this massive volume of primary      massive detail and extremely useful cross-         style. 'This book is a valuable addition to
source materials, Plett has combed Menno-         references (234 endnotes in one case), in          the growing shelf of proVincial conference
nite archives as far away as Newton and           the style introduced in Volume 4 of this           histories in Canada.
Goshen, tracking down many items found            series.
only in private hands. To present all this           The introduction of more efficient                Peter Rempel is assistant archivist     oJ   the
material in English, he has enlisted or made      production methods, made possible by the           Mennonite Heritage Centre.
use of the services of about a dozen              now relatively inexpensive computer
translators. For this Plett and his band of       technology, allows the publisher to make this       Hofer, Samuel.        Born HutteriJe.
collaborators deserve the thanks not only of      volume available for the very reasonable            (Saskatoon: Hofer Publishing, 1991).
Kleine Gemeinde members and descen-               price of $19.95. It is to be hoped that the         Pb., 134 pp., $10.00 CAN.
dants, but of the larger Mennonite                author will be richly rewarded for his
community.                                        prodigious labours by having many of us bUy        Warkentin, Alan. Cultivating Dreams.
   Some of the historical essays given in         this volume, and continuing the re-                (Morden, Manitoba: Willow Creek
translation here were published earlier in        interpretation begun by him of this                Publishing, 1990), Pb., 115 pp., $6.95
German on the occasion of the sixtieth            significant era of Mennonite history.              CAN.
anniversary of the East Reserve (1935), the
                                                                                                     Reviewed by Harry Loewen
75 GeJmkfeii!l' of the immigration to               Adolf Ens teaches history and theology oJ
Canada (1949), or in newspapers. Two new          Canadian Mennonite Bible Col/ege,                       Hutterites have a venerable tradition of
ones are a detailed description of the fire       Winnipeg.                                           historical and devotional writing.          The
insurance system (Brandordnung) of the                                                                OlT'Ollii:les, Hutterite songs, and tbe writings
Kleine Gemeinde by Henry Fast, and a                                                                  of Riedeman and other leaders, are well
revisionist essay by Plett himself entitled:
                                                  Lehn, Cornelia. Frontier Challenge. A               known. When it comes to creative literature
"Emigration for Principle or Profit: Socio-       Story of the Conferena of Mennonites.               or fiction, however, Hutterites, like
Economic Background of the 1870s                  in British Columbia. (Clearbrook, B.c.:             Mennonites until fairly recently, have been
Emigration." The latter, making fresh use         Conference of Mennonites in British                 less productive. For both Hutterites and
of available primary sources, illustrates the     Columbia, 1990). Pb., 216 pp. $15.00                Mennonites literature like the arts in general
kind of "second look" readers and scholars        CAN.                                                had to edify and be useful in some practical
are invited to take of the era in question                                                            way before it was considered acceptable.
                                                  Reviewed by Peter H Rempel
(1874-82).                                                                                            Mere entertainment was not reason enough
   Parts I and V are particularly rich in            British Columbia was the destination for         to write and publish fiction.
materials for such "second look" reflection.      those involved in the last major relocation of          Bam HuJJoiIe by Samuel Hofer is a
The first contains over a hundred substantial     Mennonites within Canada. The "frontier             collection of fictionalized stories about
letters and a large number of smaller letter      challenges" which they faced there were not         Canadian Hutterites. The author, who now
or diary excerpts, illustrating social,           limited to the establishment of new                 lives in        Saskatoon, writes as an
economic, and religious conditions of the         livelihoods. There was also the challenge of                                     (conCd on p.ll)

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