Modern to Contemporary

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					Modern to Contemporary

Photography from World War II to
         the Present
    Art Photography- Modernism
          and Surrealism
                                         • Modernist artists tried to make
                                           an artistic statement, as well
                                           as a socio-political one.
                                         • Modernist photographers
                                           focused on detail, texture and
                                           the fascinating combinations of
                                           lines shapes and forms in the
                                           world around them.
                                         • Modernism not only influenced
                                           the aesthetics of photography,
                                           but also the craft of making
                                           photographs. Modernist
                                           photographers were excellent
                                           technicians and developed
                                           new techniques while
                                           mastering the old ones.

Alfred Stieglitz. Spring Showers, New York.
1911. Photogravure
                      Alfred Stieglitz

The Hand of Man. 1902, Photogravure

                                      Equivalent, 1925, Gelatin Silver Print
                     Edward Steichen

Self Portrait with Brush and Palette,   Sunday Night, 40th St. New York, 1925,
1902, gum print                         Silver Gelatin Print
                  Minor White

Rochester, 1954

                         Beginnings, 1962
                    Harry Callahan

Weeds Against the Sky, Detroit. 1948   Eleanor, 1951
               Frederick Sommer

Valise d‟Adam, 1949. Silver Gelatin   Virgin and Child with St. Anne
Print                                 and the Infant St. John, 1966. Silver
                                      Gelatin Print
                                   • Along with fine art
                                     movements in
                                     photojournalism has
                                     helped shape
                                     contemporary themes in
                                     photographic art. The
                                     concept of “reality” has
                                     become a key concept in
                                     the field of photography.
                                     What is real? Does the
                                     photographic artist have
                                     the same right to invent
                                     reality that a painter or
                                     sculptor does or should
                                     photography always be
Jacob Riis, Bandit‟s Roost, 1888     bound by what can be put
                                     in front of the camera?
                War Photography

                               Ron Haviv. Arkan‟s troops attacking Muslim
                               Civilians, Bijeljina, Bosnia, 31 March 1992

                                 •   Photojournalism‟s insistence on showing the
                                     dirty, ugly, evil and horrific aspects of life,
                                     gave contemporary photographers the
Don McCullen. Wounded Father         courage to present increasingly more
and Daughter. 1960s                  disturbing imagery.
                  Eugene Atget
                                     • Eugene Atget was the
                                       first person to make
                                       artistic use of the 35mm
                                       camera format. His
                                       photographs are not only
                                       a comprehensive
                                       documentation of French
                                       life, they are beautifully
                                       composed fine art
                                       photographs. Atget is
                                       often considered the
                                       father of photojournalism
                                       for his combination of
                                       documentary and fine art
Eugene Atget, Avenue des Gobelins.
Ca. 1926
               W. Eugene Smith
                                  • Photojournalism also
                                    introduced the “photo
                                    essay” format- a narrative
                                    in pictures that often
                                    speak much louder than
                                    words. W. Eugene Smith
Wounded Soldier, Okinawa. 1945      is generally credited with
                                    inventing this
                                    presentation format, but
                                    many famous
                                    photographers have
                                    worked in this way;
                                    particularly the FSA and
                                    war photographers.
The Wake, Spanish Village. 1951
Robert Frank- The Americans

     Street Car- New Orleans
      Robert Frank

Parade- Hoboken, New Jersey. 1955
                                 Robert Frank

Political Rally- Chicago. 1956           Political Rally- Chicago. 1956
                     Mary Ellen Mark

                                         Homeless Damm Family, Los Angeles
Tiny in Her Halloween Costume, Seattle   CA, USA. 1987
WA, 1983
                                    Sebastiao Salgado

Cast of Thousands in the Gold Mine of Serra Pelada, Serra Pelada in the Federal State of Para, Brazil, 1986
                 Sebastiao Salgado

Firefighters at Work             Refugee camp at Benako, Tanzania,
Sabotaged Oil Wells in Kuwait,   1994.
       Commercial Photography
                                       • Using themes present in
                                         journalistic imagery as
                                         well as the techniques
                                         and aesthetics of fine art
                                         photography, commercial
                                         photography played a
                                         great role in defining
                                         cultural and societal
                                         identities during the early
                                         20th Century. This kind of
                                         idealization of the
                                         “American Dream” and
Ed Steichen. 1932, Steinway and Sons     American identity plays
Piano Advertisement (Mother and Son)     prominently in
                                         contemporary views on
                                         cultural and societal
     Hollywood and Fashion
                                   • The concept of “celebrity”
                                     really took off in the age
                                     of motion pictures and
                                     glamour photography.
                                   • Many contemporary
                                     artists play with the idea
                                     of cultural identity, which
                                     is very much molded by
                                     both advertisement and
                                     the behavior of
                                     celebrities, both of which
                                     simultaneously reflect
                                     and dictate contemporary
                                     behavior and norms.
Nickolas Muray, Elizabeth Taylor
                    Cecil Beaton
                                       • Cecil Beaton was one
                                         of the most popular
                                         and influential
                                         photographers. His
                                         style almost single-
                                         handedly defined
                                         Hollywood glamour.

Cecil Beaton. Marlene Dietrich. 1935
                      George Hurrell

Norma Shearer, 1932
                              Jean Harlow, 1930s
  Nickolas Muray and Victor Keppler

Nickolas Muray. Woman in Cell Playing
Solitaire. 1950

In addition to style, commercial photography   Victor Keppler. Housewife in Kitchen.
helped define gender roles and other “types”   1940
In American culture.
                    Richard Avedon
                                         • Avedon worked from the
                                           1950 to the 1980s as one
                                           of the top commercial
                                           photographers in the
                                         • He was an advisor for the
                                           film Funny Face, starring
                                           Fred Astaire and Audrey
                                           Hepburn, which is based
                                           on his work and the
                                           fashion industry.
Richard Avedon. Dovima with Elephants,
Evening Dress by Dior, Cirque d'Hiver,
Paris 1955
                       Irving Penn
                                      • Inspired by both
                                        Beaton and Avedon,
                                        Irving Penn was the
                                        art director for Vogue
                                        magazine, shooting
                                        over 100 covers

Harlequin Dress (Lisa Fonssagrives-
Penn), New York, 1950
Sarah Moon
Deborah Turbeville

   Modny Dom Gallery, Omsk
Guy Bourdin
                 Bettina Rheims

Madonna - Lying on the Floor of a Red Room, September 1994
              David LaChapelle

Mike Myers. Vanity Fair. 1999   Husqvarna Chainsaw Ad. 1999
           Steven Meisel

Both images from Four Days in L.A. the Versace Pictures. 2001
    Contemporary Art Photography-
           After the 60s
                                       • Photographers in the 1960s,
                                         inspired by the social change
                                         of the time, created artwork
                                         that was based more on a
                                         concept than on beauty. The
                                         60s began what we call the
                                         “post-modern” age.
                                         Postmodernism is an attempt
                                         to subvert and destroy
                                         boundaries based on style,
                                         medium, politics and other
                                         social constructs. The post-
                                         modernists were concerned
                                         with questioning those
                                       • The major themes in
                                         contemporary art are Identity,
                                         Time, Place, and
                                         contemporary society.
“Blaze Starr At Home”, 1964, Diane Arbus
                                        • The social constructs that
                                          define both personal and
                                          group identities- gender,
                                          ethnicity, class and
                                          economic status- are a
                                          rich source of material for
                                          postmodern artists. Most
                                          explore what social
                                          definitions of identity
                                          mean, both
                                          psychologically and
“King and Queen of a Senior Citizens‟     sociologically.
Dance”, 1970, Diane Arbus
           Diane Arbus
                 • Arbus is arguably the
                   most influential female
                   photographer after World
                   War II. After studying with
                   another famous
                   photographer, Lisette
                   Model, Arbus made
                   photographs that called
                   into question the creative
                   rights of a photographer
                   as well as the sheer
                   ability of a photograph to
                   reveal something
Diane Arbus

Both images, Untitled
                 Lee Friedlander
                         • Friedlander‟s street
                           photographs and self
                           portraits explore the
                           theme of identity from a
                           personal standpoint in
New York City, 1966        relationship to one‟s
                           physical place in the
                           world. He is also
                           interested in breaking up
                           surfaces and creating a
                           confusing sense of depth
                           and space.
New Orleans, 1968
                 Gary Winogrand
                                        • Winogrand was a
                                          pioneer of the “shoot
                                          from the hip” style of
                                          photography also
                                          used by Friedlander.
                                          Winogrand‟s series
                                          “Women are
                                          Beautiful”, published
                                          in1975, is both an
                                          homage and a
                                          critique of feminine
                                          beauty and cultural
Both images untitled from the series,     standards of
“Women Are Beautiful”, 1975               femininity.
               Cindy Sherman
                                • Sherman‟s “Untitled Film
                                  Stills” cast the artist
                                  herself as a solitary
                                  heroine in a cultural
                                  drama. By playing various
                                  stereotypical roles,
                                  Sherman explores the
                                  meaning of identity in
                                  culture. The title of the
                                  series encourages
                                  viewers to complete the
                                  rest of the “film” on their
Untitled Film Still #14. 1971
                Lorna Simpson

   Waterbearer. 1986         Coiffure. 1991
• Lorna Simpson‟s work explores the meaning of
  being a woman and an African- American by
  examining how history, words and images define
  identity and social roles.
                     Nan Goldin
                                         • Nan Golden‟s
                                           sometimes disturbing
                                           images of her friends
                                           and lovers offers an
                                           extremely intimate
                                           portrait of her own
                                           life. Most of her work
                                           deals very intimately
Nan Goldin, Rise and Monty on the
lounge chair, NYC, 1988. From the series   with relationships and
Ballad of Sexual Dependency                personal struggle.
            Yasumasa Morimura
                                      • Morimura uses digital
                                        enhancement and
                                        elaborate costumes and
                                        sets to explore Western
                                        culture through the eyes
                                        of an Easterner who was
                                        brought up on Western
                                        art. His work explores
                                        how identity changes or is
                                        influenced by other

"An Inner Dialogue With Frida Kahlo
(Collar of Thorns"
                        Nikki S. Lee

The Hip Hop Project, 2001

                              Parts [6], 2002- 2003
                                  • The concept of time is
                                    dealt with through the
                                    exploration of history and
                                    the nature of time itself.
                                    Photography is a time-
                                    based medium. Time
                                    itself is used by the
                                    photographer to capture
                                    the image. Contemporary
                                    photographers have dealt
                                    with this by examining
                                    what a camera can
                                    capture over a period of
                                    time. Many artists who
Custom House. Abelardo Morell       deal with time do so by
                                    exploring older
                                    photographic processes
                                    as well.
Abelardo Morell
        • Morell uses the old
          camera obscura
          technique to create
          dreamlike interiors.
          His combination of old
          and new techniques
          represents a trend in
          photography to
          examine the roots of
          the medium.
             Hiroshi Sugimoto
                                 • Much of Sugimoto‟s work
                                   explores the meaning and
                                   function of time. His shots
                                   of exhibits at Natural
                                   History and wax
Earliest Human Relatives, 1994     museums examine how
                                   we redefine things over
                                 • Many of his works are a
                                   meditation on time and

Union City Drive- In 1978
    Anna And Bernhard Blume
                                     • The Blumes use
                                       motion and a
                                       Surrealist aesthetic to
                                       explore the effects of
                                       time and events on a
                                       psychological state.

From the series, Trautes Heim, 1985-86
                               • The concept of exploring
                                 a place can involve
                                 exposing it‟s past as well
                                 as it‟s present state.
                                 Many artists who use this
                                 concept are interested in
                                 the way events build
                                 hidden meaning into a
                                 place or in the ways in
                                 which human beings use
                                 or misuse resources.

Beate Gutschow. LS #13, 2001
                                  New Topographics

                                                       The New Topographics
                                                       Photographers tried to show
                                                       how human interaction has
                                                       Impacted the once wild and
                                                       untamable American west.

 John Pfahl
 Wave, Lave, Lace, Pescadero Beach, California, 1978

Lewis Baltz                                             Robert Adams
#40 South Wall, Mazda Motors, 2121 East Main            Clear Cutting- Oregon
Street, Irvine, 1974
         Stephen Shore

Both Images from the series, Uncommon Places. 1970s
                   William Eggleston
                                            • William Eggleston‟s work
                                              used color as a
                                              compositional element at
                                              a time when “true” art
                                              photographers mostly
            Memphis. 1975
                                              worked in black and
                                            • His work seeks to
                                              redefine ordinary objects
                                              and places from boring
                                              clichés into idyllic
                                              reminiscences and
                                              studies in color.
Untitled (field of yellow and purple flowers).
                      Joel Sternfeld

McLean, Virginia, Dec 1978 1978   After a Flash Flood, Rancho Mirage,
                                  California. July 1979
                           Jeff Wall
                                • Wall is one of
                                  photography‟s biggest
                                  stars. He uses
                                  elaborate set- ups,
                                  multiple exposures
                                  and digital
                                  enhancement to
                                  create epic scenes
                                  that look
The Destroyed Room. 1978          spontaneous.
                              Jeff Wall

 After, „Invisible Man”, The Prologue         Milk

A Sudden Gust of Wind, after Hokusai    Picture For Women, 1979
    Historical, or “Alternative”
                                  • Many contemporary
                                    photographers are
                                    now using older
                                    processes in new
                                    ways or combining
                                    old processes with
                                    new ones.

Adam Fuss, “My Ghost”, 1999.
Unique Silver Gelatin Photogram
              Irving Pobboravsky

Japanese garden. Daguerreotype   Pool GEH garden. Daguerreotype
1975 (ca).                       1994
          Jerry Spagnoli

Obama Inauguration (Swearing In), 2009/2009
                   Sally Mann
                               • Sally Mann uses the wet plate
                                 collodion process used during
                                 the Civil War. Her images of
                                 death and the ghosts of the
                                 Deep South are deeply
                                 haunting. By using a process
                                 used during the time of the
                                 Civil War, she makes a deeper
                                 connection to the ghosts of
                                 suffering, guilt, resentment and
                                 defiance that still linger from
                                 the war and still permeate the
                                 southern United States
                                 geographically and

Sally Mann, Deep South, 2005
                   Mark Osterman
                                         • Mark Osterman
                                           taught Sally Mann the
                                           art of wet plate
                                           photography. He is
                                           considered by many
                                           to be America‟s
                                           leading authority on
                                           old processes-
                                           particularly wet plate.
Mark Osterman, Two-headed Boy
[Amnesia Curiosa]
2006 (ca) Salt print from a collodion negative
                     Mike Robinson
                                        • As president of the
                                          Historical Society of
                                          Canada, Mike
                                          Robinson still
                                          practices and teaches
                                          photography at
                                          Ryerson university in
Mike Robinson, “Valentine”, Daguerreotype Double Exposure. 2006
                    Dan Estabrook

Little Devils, no. 3        Message in a Bottle
Pencil on Salted Print      Watercolor and Gouache on Salted Print
                Social Statements
                                       • Another popular theme
                                         for contemporary
                                         photographers is the
                                         critique of consumer
                                         society. Inspired by
                                         documentary and
                                         journalistic photography,
                                         artists who critique
                                         society are interested in
                                         the ways that society
                                         pressures us to conform
                                         by consumption and the
                                         ways in which
“Oppenheimer‟s Garden”, 1999. Robert     contemporary humans
And Shana ParkeHarrison                  interact with ecology.
Robert and Shana ParkeHarrison
                 • Husband and wife,
                   the ParkeHarrisons‟
                   work casts Robert as
                   a kind of post-
                   “everyman” in search
                   of new ways of
                   communicating in a
                   strange new world.
   Tree Sonata
                        Binh Danh

Ancestral Altar, no. 11                Study for Transmission, no. 3
Chlorophyll Print preserved in Resin   Chlorophyll Print preserved in Resin
                        Binh Danh

Ancestral altar, no. 14                Ghost of Tuol Sleng
Chlorophyll Print preserved in Resin   Daguerreotype
                Sandy Skoglund
                           • Skogland‟s work
                             combines installation art
                             with photography. Her
                             colorful rooms populated
                             by teeming animals are
                             part sculpture, part
                             installation and part
                             photography. They
                             present a comment on
                             nature‟s place in a
                             human- dominated world
                             and seem to suggest
                             what might happen if
Gathering Paradise. 1991
                             animals overran our lives.
C- Print
Sandy Skoglund, “Revenge of the Goldfish”, 1981.
C- print
                       Teun Hocks
                            • Like the
                              ParkeHarrisons, Teun
                              Hocks presents an
                              “everyman” character
                              trying to make his
                              way in a strange,
                              sparsely populated
                              world. Hocks‟ work
Untitled (Drummer), 2005      also uses humor as a
Acrylic on Silver Gelatin     way to engage the
            Andreas Gursky

• Gursky‟s highly composed images of factories
  and huge Wal-Mart- type stores convey a sense
  of repetitiveness in modern life.
                “99 cent II Dyptichon”
              Andreas Gursky

“Mayday V”, 2006       "Pyongyang I,“2007
          Gregory Crewdson

                From the series, “Twilight”

• Crewdson‟s elaborate sets create a sense of
  unease as he comments about suburban life.
Gregory Crewdson

All images Untitled from the series, “Twilight”
What is the future of photography?
Go Watanabe
Mariko Mori
Nancy Burson