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					COST 531                                     1                                     GP4
Group Proposal GP4


                           EUROPEAN CONCERTED ACTION
                                      ON
                         “Lead-free Solder Materials”
                                        COST 531

1.     INFORMATION (SUMMARY) SHEET FOR A GROUP PROPOSAL

       Silver-Indium-Tin Alloys as Possible Lead-free Soldering
       Materials: Interaction with Nickel and Palladium as Substrates
       1.1 Co-ordinator:
           Prof. Dr. Herbert Ipser
           Institut für Anorganische Chemie
           Universität Wien
           Währingerstr. 42
           A-1090 Wien, Austria

       1.2 Information on participating members

       1.2.1 Participant 1:
                     1.2.1.1 Prof. Dr. Herbert Ipser
                            Institut für Anorganische Chemie
                            Universität Wien
                            Währingerstr. 42
                            A-1090 Wien, Austria
                            Tel. +43 1 4277 52606
                            Fax +43 1 4277 9526
                            herbert.ipser@univie.ac.at
                     1.2.1.2 as above
                     1.2.1.3 proposed effort in man/years per annum:
                             1.5 person years Scientist
                             2.5 person years PhD student
                             4 person years Master student
                     1.2.1.4 Funding required for total project:
                             Euro 200,000.- (about 50,000.- per annum)

                            Euro 121,150.- already awarded by the Austrian Science
                            Foundation, FWF, for a three year period from July 1, 2002
                            through June 30, 2005

                            Additional funding will be sought

            1.2.2 Participant 2:
                     1.2.2.1 Prof. Dr. Roland Stickler
                            Institut für Physikalische Chemie
                            Universität Wien
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                               Währingerstr. 42
                               A-1090 Wien, Austria
                               Tel. +43 1 4277 52430
                               Fax +43 1 4277 9524
                               roland.stickler@univie.ac.at
                     1.2.2.2 as above
                     1.2.2.3 1.5 person years Scientist
                     1.2.2.4 Funding required for total project:
                             Euro 60,000.- (about 15,000.- per annum)


            1.2.3 Participant 3:
                     1.2.3.1 Prof. Dr. Brigitte Weiss
                               Institut für Materialphysik
                               Universität Wien
                               Strudlhofgasase 4
                               A-1090 Wien, Austria
                               Tel. +43 1 4277 51308
                               Fax +43 1 4277 9513
                               Weissb@ap.univie.ac.at
                     1.2.3.2 as above
                     1.2.3.3 proposed effort in man/years per annum:
                             1.5 person years Scientist
                             1 person years PhD student
                             1.5 person years Technician
                     1.2.3.4 Funding required for total project:
                             Euro 300,000.- for a three year period
                             (about 100,000.- per annum)


            1.2.4 Participant 4:
                     1.2.4.1 Prof. Dr. Gabriella Borzone / Prof. Dr. Riccardo Ferro
                               Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale
                               Università di Genova
                               Via Dodecaneso,31
                               16146 Genova, Italy
                               Tel. +39 010 353- 6149/ 6153/ 6161
                               Fax +39 010 3625051
                               ferro@chimica.unige.it
                     1.2.4.2    Prof. Dr. Gabriella Borzone and Prof. Dr. Riccardo Ferro
                                Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale
                                Via Dodecaneso, 31
                                I-16146 Genova, Italy
                                Tel. +39 010 3536153/6149/6161
                                Fax +39 010 3625051
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                                borzone@chimica.unige.it
                                ferro@chimica.unige.it
                     1.2.4.3    proposed effort in man/years per annum:
                                1.0 person years per annum       Scientists
                                0.5 person years per annum       PhD student
                                0.3 person years per annum       Technicians


                     1.2.4.4 Funding required for project per annum:
                             € 10 000,00
                               Total required for the duration (4 years) of the project:
                               € 40 000,00


            1.2.5 Participant 5:
                     1.2.5.1 Prof. Dr. Leszek Zabdyr
                               Associate professor in the Institute of Metallurgy and
                               Materials Science,
                               Polish Academy of Sciences,
                               Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Metals
                               Reymonta Str.25,
                               PL-30-059 Krakow,
                               POLAND,
                               Tel. +48-12-6374200; ext.281
                               Fax +48-12-637-21-92
                               nmzabdyr@imim-pan.krakow.pl
                     1.2.5.2 as above
                     1.2.5.3    1 postdoctoral researcher per 18 months,
                                1 graduate student per 18 month,
                                1 technician per 18 month
                     1.2.5.4 Funding already awarded from national resources:
                             50000 Euro per annum;
                             total: 75000 Euro.
                             Funding required: 70000 Euro per annum;
                             total: 105000 Euro.

            1.2.6 Participant 6:
                     1.2.6.1 Prof. Dr. Jan Vrestal
                               Masaryk University Brno, Faculty of Science
                               Department of Theoretical and Physical Chemistry
                               Kotlářská 2
                               CZ-611 37 Brno, Czech Republic
                               Tel. + 420-5-41129 316
                               Fax + 420-5-41211214
                               E-mail: vrestal@chemi.muni.cz
                     1.2.6.2 as above
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                     1.2.6.3. 4 person.year Scientist (total sum for the whole project)
                              4 person.year PhD student
                              2 person.year Master student
                     1.2.6.4. € 90,000.-

                             € 10,000.- already planned by the Ministry of Education of
                             CR for first half year from July 1, 2002 through December
                             31, 2002, has to be newly approved for every year.
                             Institutional fundings (salaries, overheads) will be available
                             from Masaryk University.
                             Additional fundings will be sought.


         1.2.7 Participant 7:
                     1.2.7.1 Dr. Ales Kroupa
                             Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of
                             Czech Republic
                             Ţiţkova 22
                             616 62 Brno, Czech Republic
                             Tel. +420 5 32290467
                             Fax +420 5 41218657
                             kroupa@ipm.cz
                     1.2.1.2 as above
                     1.2.1.3 2.5 person years Scientist
                             1.5 person years Technicians and specialists
                             2 person years Ph.D.or Master Student
                     1.2.1.4 € 100,000.-

                             € 51000.- already promised by the Ministry of Education of
                             CR, for years from 2002 through 2006 - has to be newly
                             approved for every year.

                             Institutional fundings (salaries, overheads) will be available
                             from IPM, additional funding will be sought


       1.3     Probable duration of project: 4 years


       1.4     Starting date: July 1, 2002


       1.5     International co-operation with other Signatory States of the
               Memorandum of Understanding

       see above – Partners No. 4 (Italy), 5 (Poland), 6 and 7 (Czech Republic)
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2.     ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words please)

 The melting temperatures of the currently used lead-free solders (Sn+Ag,
 Sn+Ag+Cu) are considerably higher than of their traditional lead-tin counterparts
 (183°C) causing various problems. As a consequence, different additions have
 been proposed to lower the melting temperature, among them indium (mp =
 156.6°C).

 With nickel and palladium being used as metallization in the production of
 integrated circuits it is important to know which products are formed if Ag-In-Sn
 solders interact with Pd or Ni substrates. To reveal the possible reaction products,
 the phase diagrams of the quaternary alloy systems Ag-In-Pd-Sn and Ag-In-Ni-Sn
 will be investigated, together with some of the limiting ternary systems where the
 necessary information is missing or incomplete. Thermal analyses, X-ray powder
 diffraction and electron microprobe analyses will serve as experimental methods.
 All binary alloy systems will be accepted from literature.

 Furthermore, an optimization of the ternary and quaternary systems will be
 attempted using the well-established CALPHAD-method. This optimization
 provides the thermochemical properties in parametric form and permits a
 calculation of the relevant phase diagrams. Thermochemical data that might turn
 out useful or necessary for this optimization will be determined experimentally
 using different emf and calorimetric methods.

 Finally, the electrical properties of Ag-In-Sn alloys and of Ag-In-Pd-Sn and Ag-In-
 Ni-Sn alloys representing the actual solder joints will be studied, and the strength
 and reliability of model alloys as well as of actual solder joints will be tested.
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3.     INFORMATION EXPECTED IN EACH PROPOSAL


       3.1 Aim of the study

         The main goals of the proposed project will be:

        (a) to obtain the necessary experimental data in addition to available literature
            data in order to provide reliable phase diagrams for the seven ternary
            systems Ag-In-Ni(Pd), Ag-In-Sn, Ag-Ni(Pd)-Sn, and In-(Ni)Pd-Sn,
            concentrating primarily on the indium- and tin-rich parts of the respective
            diagrams;
        (b) to combine this information and complement it with further experimental
            results to obtain the corresponding quaternary Ag-In-Ni(Pd)-Sn phase
            diagrams, again concentrating first on the indium-tin-rich part of the
            systems;
        (c) to provide additional thermodynamic information for the ternary and
            quaternary systems that might be necessary for a thermodynamic
            optimization;
        (d) to attempt a thermodynamic optimization of the quaternary Ag-In-Ni(Pd)-
            Sn systems in order to provide reliable phase diagrams that allow to
            predict which intermetallic phases will be formed on the interaction of Ag-
            In-Sn solders with nickel or palladium;
        (e) to investigate various physical and mechanical properties (like electrical
            conductivity, hardness of individual phases, tensile/compression strength,
            fatigue behavior, microstructure) of the relevant ternary Ag-In-Sn alloys as
            well as of the quaternary Ag-In-Ni(Pd)-Sn alloys in order to obtain
            information on property/microstructure relationships related to functionality
            and reliability of possible solder joints.



       3.2 Background to the study

       Although it is now widely agreed that there is no drop-in replacement for the
standard lead-tin solders (mostly Sn37Pb and Sn40Pb) that are currently used
worldwide, a range of possible alternatives has been investigated. Some consensus
seems to have developed for using one family of alloys based on tin, silver, and
copper, especially by the telecommunications industry1,2: possible candidates are
alloys like Sn3.5Ag, Sn0.7Cu, or Sn3.8Ag0.7Cu with melting points (around 220°C)
more than 30 degrees higher than for their traditional lead-containing counterparts.
Nevertheless, the final choice of a solder material will still be product- or application-
dependent, i.e. factors like temperature compatibility and/or cost might make other

1
  See for example: B.P. Richards, C.V. Levoguer, C.P. Hunt, K. Nimmo, S. Peters,
   and P. Cusack, Eds., “Lead-free Soldering – An Analysis of the Current Status of
   Lead-free Soldering”, NPL and ITRI, Teddington and Uxbridge, U.K. (1999).
2
  B. Richards and K. Nimmo, “Update 2000: Lead-free Soldering – An Analysis of the
   Current Status of Lead-free Soldering – One Year on”, NPL and ITRI, Teddington
   and Uxbridge, U.K. (2000).
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alloys more attractive so that automotive, telecommunications, consumer, military
and aerospace industries might tend to different solutions. The current situation can
be described in such a way that it is generally acknowledged that lead-free soldering
is technologically possible, but many key issues have still to be solved, both
scientifically and industrially3.

       One of the drawbacks of the simple Sn-Ag, Sn-Cu, or Sn-Ag-Cu alloys
mentioned above is their higher melting point which creates some problems for the
electronics industry: not only would the soldering processes have to be adapted to
higher temperatures, but all electronic devices would also have to be manufactured
to withstand these higher soldering temperatures. Thus there are serious attempts to
reduce the melting temperature of the possible lead-free solder materials by alloying
with additional elements. One of the candidates with a lower melting point itself is the
soft and ductile metal indium (mp. 156.6°C) and, in fact, one commercial lead-free
solder has already been developed based on a particular Ag-In-Sn alloy with a
melting temperature range close to that of eutectic Pb-Sn alloys, and it is plausible to
expect that other alloy compositions from this ternary system (possibly with
quaternary alloying elements) could also be developed for soldering purposes4.

        The quality and reliability of a solder joint depends, of course, on the reaction
products that are formed between soldering material and substrate during the
soldering process itself. When soldering on copper or nickel, the formation of
intermetallic compounds within the interface will be necessary in order to achieve
good wetting properties and stable joints. If the corresponding layers are too thick or
if the intermetallic compounds that are formed are too brittle there will be problems
with thermomechanical fatigue. However, even at room temperature it is possible that
intermetallic layers may slowly grow and cause deterioration of the solder joints. The
lower the melting point of the intermetallic compounds the more pronounced will be
the potential to grow with all the negative implications. Therefore it is very important
to know the corresponding phase diagrams, i.e. not only the possibly forming
intermetallic compounds but also their corresponding melting and transformation
temperatures.

        One of the possible metallizations that are used in the production of integrated
circuits consists of thin layers of palladium5 or nickel/palladium alloys6 (as introduced
already in the late 1980s). In a recent kinetic investigation of the interfacial reaction of
lead-free eutectic solders with Cu/Ni/Pd metallizations it was discovered that the
reaction between palladium and liquid solder is extremely fast 7. One leading
electronics company performed a systematic study to investigate the interaction of




3
  M. Abtew and G. Selvaduray, Mater. Sci. Eng. R27 (2000), 95.
4
  T.-M. Korhonen and J.K. Kivilahti, J. Electron. Mater. 27 (1998), 149.
5
  “Bleifreies Löten: Materialien, Komponeneten, Prozesse – Technologische
   Bewertung des Umstellungsszenarios”, ZVEI-Schriftenreihe Pro Technik, Zentral-
   verband Elektrotechnik- und Elektronikindustrie e.V., Frankfurt am Main, Germany
   (1999), p.33.
6
  D.C. Abbott, R.M. Brook, N. McLelland, and J.S. Wiley, IEEE Trans. CHMT 14
   (1991), 567.
7
  G. Ghosh, J. Electron. Mater. 29 (2000), 1182.
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various lead-free solders with nickel/palladium metallizations8, however this was a
purely empirical investigation with no basic scientific information to be obtained from
it.

      Therefore it is proposed to investigate the interaction of ternary Ag-In-Sn
alloys (as a possible lead-free solder material) with nickel and palladium, i.e. to
study the quaternary Ag-In-Ni-Sn and Ag-In-Pd-Sn phase diagrams as well as
the corresponding limiting ternary diagrams (as far as necessary), to attempt
an optimization of the corresponding phase diagrams by means of the well-
established CALPHAD-methods, and to provide experimental thermodynamic
information as necessary for this optimization. Furthermore, various physical
properties of these Ag-In-Sn solders as well as of the contacts formed with
nickel and palladium shall be investigated.




8
    “Evaluation of Nickel/Palladium-Finished ICs with Lead-Free Solder Alloys”,
     Application Report, Texas Instruments Inc. (2001);
     (www.ti.com/sc/docs/psheet/abstract/apps/ szza024.htm).
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       3.3 Practical value of the project

               3.3.1 Indicate the practical problems which the study will
                     address.

The study will investigate the possibility of providing suitable lead-free solder
materials with melting temperatures which are closer to that of the traditional lead-
containing counterparts (183°C) than the Sn-Ag and Sn-Ag-Cu alloys currently used
as lead-free substitutes. Of course, this would have to be possible without
compromising the necessary electrical, thermal, mechanical, and thermomechanical
properties as well as the long-time reliability of the solder joints.

               3.3.2 Indicate, if possible, the economic benefit expected from the
                     research.

An estimate of the economic benefit in absolute numbers is extremely difficult.
However, one has to consider that a lead-free solder material with a melting point in
the vicinity of 183°C (corresponding to the standard lead-tin solders) and with
adequate properties would enable the industry to keep their soldering processes
(including the machinery) the same, saving in this way huge amounts of investment.
Furthermore, with lower soldering temperatures the thermal stress on the electronic
components would also be considerably reduced, thus decreasing the failure rate of
the finished boards, again saving large amounts of repair or exchange costs.
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       3.4 Plan of research

            Participant 1 (H. Ipser, Vienna, Austria)

               3.4.1.1.     Description of the approach applied in the study

An experimental investigation of the phase diagrams Ag-In-Pd, In-Pd-Sn, and In-Ni-
Sn by X-ray powder diffraction, thermal analysis and EPMA will be performed. From
the corresponding results, from the experimental results of the other participants, as
well as from available literature data, the quaternary phase diagrams Ag-In-Pd-Sn
and Ag-In-Ni-Sn will be constructed, with support from additional quaternary
experimental phase diagram data.
In order to supply the thermodynamic information for a CALPHAD optimization of the
ternary as well as the quaternary systems, an additional experimental investigation of
the thermodynamic properties will be performed as far as necessary and useful:
partial Gibbs energies (thermodynamic activities) will be obtained from emf-measure-
ments using solid or liquid electrolytes, and enthalpies of mixing of liquid alloys will be
determined by calorimetric methods; heat capacities of solid compounds can be
obtained from differential scanning calorimetry.
A CALPHAD-type optimization of the ternary In-Ni-Sn and of the quaternary Ag-In-Ni-
Sn will be attempted in close cooperation with the other participants

               3.4.1.2.     Outline of work plan and time schedule

The actual experimental work will probably be spread over a period of four years. A
diagram is supplied in Table 1.

               3.4.1.3.     Staff required (graduates and technicians only)

1.5 person years Scientist
2.5 person years PhD student
4 person years Master student
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                                         Table 1. Time Table for Participant 1 (H. Ipser, Vienna, Austria)


               1st year                                  2nd year                                  3rd year                              4th year

    literature search

                        Ag-In-Pd: PD (experimental)

                                        In-Pd-Sn: PD (experimental)

                                                                         Ag-In-Pd-Sn: PD (experimental)

                                                                     In-Ni-Sn: PD (experimental)

                                                                                                                    Ag-In-Ni-Sn: PD (experimental)

                                                      In-Pd-Sn: TD (emf measurements)                           Ag-In-Pd-Sn: TD (emf measurements)

                                                                                         Ag-In-Pd-Sn: TD (calorimetry)

                                                                     In-Pd-Sn: TD (calorimetry)

                                                                    In-Ni-Sn: TD Opt                                         Ag-In-Ni-Sn: TD Opt

                                                      Ag-In-Sn, Ag-In-Pd-Sn, Ag-In-Ni-Sn: Electrical conductivity (Leoben)


PD = Phase Diagram
TD = Thermodynamic Experiments
TD Opt = Thermodynamic Optimization
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            Participant 2 (R. Stickler, Vienna, Austria)

               3.4.2.1.      Description of the approach applied in the study

Selected samples of the ternary system Ag-In-Sn (as potential lead-free solder) and
of the quaternary systems Ag-In-Pd-Sn and Ag-In-Ni-Sn (as models for potential
solder joints with Pd or Ni as substrate) will be investigated by SEM (Scanning
Electron Microscopy). The evolution of the microstructure under different temperature
conditions as well as under various environmental conditions will be studied in order
to optimize the alloy composition.

Additionally, various samples of the ternary systems Ag-In-Pd, In-Pd-Sn, and In-Ni-
Sn will be investigated by SEM in order to support the phase diagram investigations.

               3.4.1.2.      Outline of work plan and time schedule

The actual experimental work will probably be spread over a period of four years. It
will be strongly coupled to the schedule of participant 1 (H. Ipser, Vienna).

               3.4.1.3.      Staff required (graduates and technicians only)

1.5 person years Scientist
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            Participant 3 (B. Weiss, Vienna, Austria)

               3.4.3.1      Description of the approach applied in the study

Samples of Ag-In-Sn (as possible lead-free solders) as well as of Ag-In-Pd-Sn (as
possible contacts with Pd as substrate) will be prepared in a particular shape. It will
be attempted to make the samples gradually smaller and smaller and to optimize
their geometry in order to simulate actual solder joints as far as possible. These
samples will be used to determine a number of physical and mechanical properties in
the temperature range between room temperature and 200°C:
    Thermal expansion (linear thermal expansion coefficient)
    Static properties
    Low cycle fatigue
    Wöhler curves
    Susceptibility to cracking
    Crack growth

An available Laser-Speckle-Method will be further developed to be applied for
expansion measurements in the micrometer range. This would allow to determine the
thermal expansion of solder joints in situ.

               3.4.3.2      Outline of work plan and time schedule

The work plan will be strictly related to that of the other participants.

The preparation of samples in the correct shape and size will take approximately half
a year, the development of the Laser-Speckle-Method will take another six to nine
months. The remaining time will be devoted to the actual measurements.

               3.4.3.3      Staff required (graduates and technicians only)

1.5 person years Scientist
1.0 person years PhD student
1.5 person years Technician
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            Participant 4 (G. Borzone / R. Ferro, Genova, Italy)

               3.4.4.1     Description of the approach applied in the study


In cooperation with the activity carried out by the other participants, experimental
techniques will be used to define phase equilibria in selected regions of In-Sn-Pd
system.
A critical evaluation of the literature data will be preliminary performed. On selected
alloys, conveniently heat treated, X-ray diffractometry, optical and electronic
microscopy and microprobe quantitative analyses will be used for phase identification
and determination of subsolidus equilibria.
Some investigations will also be carried out on some alloys, drop high temperature
direct calorimetry will be especially used.
This activity and its results will be continuously and systematically discussed with the
other participants of the "Group".

               3.4.4.2     Outline of work plan and time schedule

The work plan will be strictly related to that of the other participants. Firstly a
contribution will be given to the literature search and assessment and than to phase
diagram and thermodynamic measurements.

               3.4.4.3     Staff required (graduates and technicians only)

1 person    PhD student
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            Participant 5 (L. Zabdyr, Kraków, Poland)

               3.4.5.1     Description of the approach applied in this study

For the determination of thermodynamic properties of Ag-In-Pd ternary liquid alloys
an electromotive force measurement (emf) technique is to be employed with a solid
electrolyte galvanic cells according to the following scheme:

Ni, NiO | YSZ | Ag-In-Pd, In2O3                                                (2)

where:YSZ means yttria stabilized zirconia solid electrolyte.

The measured emf values will then be used to calculate indium activities in the
respective ternary alloys. Measurements will be performed over the whole
composition range, i.e. for Pd/In molar ratios: 1/3, 1 and 3, and for every 0.1 molar
fraction of Ag. It makes 27 different compositions for the entire ternary system; a
temperature interval as wide as possible is planned: from 7000C up to 11000C.

               3.4.5.2     Outline of work plan and time schedule

Duration of the study: 18 months.


               3.4.5.3     Staff required (graduates and technicians only)

1 graduate student
1 technician
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             Participant 6 (J. Vrestal, Brno, Czech Republic)

             3.4.1. Description of approach applied in this study

The systems for lead-free solder materials will be studied by CALPHAD method. The
main attention will be focused to the quaternary systems Ag-In-Sn-Ni and Ag-In-Sn-
Pd, as the prospective materials. For to be able to predict the phase equilibria in
these systems, all binaries (9) and ternaries (7) have to be studied and optimized.
The data from literature, completed by the data from partners (thermodynamic and
phase equilibrium data) and also our own data will be the source of information for
reliable data in respective databank. On the base of these results the optimization of
thermodynamics and phase equilibrium data by PARROT module of THERMOCALC
program will be performed. The systems Ag-In-Sn and Ag-In-Sn-Ni will be addressed
in cooperation with dr.Kroupa and other participants of this project.

3.4.1.     Outline of work plan and time schedule

1st year                    2nd year              3rd year             4th year

Literature search     In-Sn-Ni system-optimization     Ag-In-Sn-Ni system-optimization


3.4.2.     Staff required

4 person.year Scientist (total sum for the whole project)
5 person.year PhD student
2 person.year Master student
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            Participant 7 (A.Kroupa, Brno, Czech Republic)

            3.4.1. Description of approach applied in this study

The main topic will be the theoretical and experimental study of the phase diagrams
for the systems for lead-free solder materials, mainly the Ag-In-Sn-Ni and Ag-In-Sn-
Pd quaternary systems and relevant subsystems. The theoretical part of the project
will be carried out in close cooperation with Prof. Vrestal (participant 6), using the
CALPHAD method for the theoretical assessment of not yet existed relevant binaries,
ternaries and in the final stage the above mentioned quaternaries. The theoretical
and experimental data existing in the literature will be collected in the first stage of
the project and the possible phase diagrams will be calculated. The comparison with
existing experimental data allows us the selection of compositions and temperatures,
where new information is necessary and carefully aimed experiments will be realized
in cooperation with other participants to improve the background for further modeling.
Our own experimental program will be focused on the equilibrium experiments in
solid state, using furnaces with high temperature stability for a long time of annealing.
The aim of these experiments is to reach states close to the thermodynamic
equilibrium. These states will be analyzed by means of analytic electron microscopy.
The THERMOCALC program with the PARROT module will be used for the
theoretical part of the project.


            3.4.2. Outline of work plan and time schedule

Following schedule is planned:

1st year    Literature search, basic modeling of subsystems, planning of necessary
            experiments
2nd year    Optimisation of In-Sn-Ni system, including experimental studies
2nd year    Optimisation of other subsystem, including             experimental   studies,
            necessary for the further assessments
4th year    Quaternary systems optimisation

            3.4.3. Staff required

                     2.5 person years Scientist
                     1.5 person years Technicians and specialists
                     2 person years   Ph.D.or Master Student
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      3.5. Experience and Resources of the Institutions

            3.5.1. Participant 1 (H. Ipser, Vienna, Austria)

3.5.1.1 Research Interests and Experience

    Thermodynamics of solid and liquid metallic and semiconducting systems
     (emf-measurements, vapor pressure measurements, DSC, calorimetry)

    Statistical thermodynamics

    Phase Diagrams

    Diffusion in metallic systems

    Optimization of binary and higher-order systems by means of CALPHAD
     methods


3.5.1.2. Publications since 2000

See Appendix, Part A


3.5.1.3 Staff and Equipment

3.5.1.3.1 Staff

 Glass Blower
 Mechanic
 Secretary

3.5.1.3.2 Equipment

 Thermochemistry
     calorimetry
            calorimeter (RT – 1000°C)
            calorimeter (RT – 1600°C)
            DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter; RT – 1600°C)
     vapor pressure measurements (isopiestic method)
     emf-measurements
            with liquid electrolytes
            with solid electrolytes
     TG thermogravimetry

 Phase diagrams
    DTA (Differential-Thermal-Analysis; RT – 1600°C) 2x
COST 531                                19             GP4
Group Proposal GP4

 X-ray-Powder-Methods
     Debye-Scherrer
     Guinier
     Guinier-Simon (high temperature Guinier)

 Metallography
    metallographic microscope

 Physical Properties
    magnetic properties (magnetic susceptibility)
    thermoelectric properties (Seebeck-coefficient )

 Single Crystal Growth
     Czochralski-method

    Sample preparation
     various resistance furnaces (RT – 1100°C)
     arc furnace
     (induction furnace)

       vacuum system (to 10-4 mbar)
COST 531                                  20                      GP4
Group Proposal GP4


            3.5.2. Participant 2 (R. Stickler, Vienna, Austria)


3.5.2.1 Research Interests and Experience

 Microstructure of industrial alloys

 Mechanical properties


3.5.1.2. Publications since 2000

See Appendix, Part B

3.5.1.3 Staff and Equipment

3.5.1.3.1 Staff

 Mechanic
 Secretary

3.5.1.3.2 Equipment

 Scanning Electron Microscope

 Equipment for mechanical testing
COST 531                                   21                                    GP4
Group Proposal GP4


            3.5.3. Participant 3 (B. Weiss, Vienna, Austria)

3.5.3.1. Research Interests and Experience

    Development of basic testing methods for micrometer samples

    Thermomechanical properties

    Fatigue behavior (cyclic plasticity, fatigue life)

    Crack propagation and failure analysis


3.5.3.2. Publications since 2000

See Appendix, Part C


3.5.3.3. Staff and Equipment

3.5.3.3.1. Staff

2 professors, 2 Post doc, 3 PhD, 2 MS candidates, 1 Part Time scientist1 part time
technician, metallographer, secretary

3.5.3.3.2. Equipment

Standard tensile Testing Machine 50kN

Microtesting devices with load capacities between 1 N and 1000 N equipped with a
heating chamber (up to 300°C).

Laser Speckle Extensometers for non-contacting strain measurements with
displacement resolution of 100 nm, using variable base lengths of several mm. Strain
resolution of 10-4 to 10-5, time resolution of 10 ms up to 30000s.

Laser-Interferometer with nanometer resolution

Fatigue testing devices:
      Servohydraulic fatigue testing system, load capacity (100 N – 10000 N), with
      heating facilities;
      Resonance machines for high frequency fatigue testing

Laser Speckle Based Dilatometer for thermal strain determination of various
materials under protective atmosphere from room temperature up to 300°C using
non-standardized specimens.

Standard facilities for the characterization of microstructures;
Electron channeling contrast technique in combination with a scanning electron
microscope for determination of global dislocation structure.
COST 531                                   22                                 GP4
Group Proposal GP4


            3.5.4. Participant 4 (G. Borzone / R. Ferro, Genova, Italy)


3.5.4.1 Research Interests and Experience

      -Intermetallic chemistry, preparation of alloys
      Binary and ternary phase diagrams investigation
      Thermodynamics of formation of solid alloys



3.5.4.2. Publications since 2000

See Appendix Part D


3.5.4.3 Staff and Equipment

3.5.4.3.1 Staff

 Chemist
 Mechanic
 Secretary

3.5.4.3.2 Equipment

 Thermochemistry
     Calorimetric equipments
           - home made isoperibolic calorimeter
           - high temperature direct drop calorimeters

 Phase diagrams
    Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC 111 SETARAM),
    Differential Thermal Analysis Netsch 404 S

 X-ray-Powder-Methods
     Debye-Scherrer
     Powder diffractometer and other X-ray diffraction equipments operating
     between 300 and 1000K

 Metallography
    metallographic microscope
    Scanning electon microscope equipped with energy dispersive microprobe
    analysis.

 Sample preparation
    Induction furnace (RT-2200°C)
    various resistance furnaces (RT – 1100°C)
    arc furnace
COST 531                                 23                                        GP4
Group Proposal GP4


            3.5.5. Participant 5 (L. Zabdyr, Kraków, Poland)

3.5.5.1 Research Interests and Experience

37 years of experience in emf technique for the liquid multicomponent alloys. Over 40
papers on the thermodynamics of molten alloys by emf, and a number of contributing
works to Massalski’s monograph “Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams”.

3.5.5.2. The most recent publications

See Appendix Part E

3.5.5.3. Staff and Equipment

3.5.5.3.1. Staff

Staff required:
1 postdoctorals, 1 graduate students and 1technicians will be involved in this work.

3.5.5.3.2. Equpment

       Our laboratory is equipped with two mid-temperature (up to 11500C) vertical
       furnaces and one high temperature (up to 16500C) molybdenum furnace; all
       with the required atmosphere supply. Temperature controller EUROTHERM
       2404 and Keithley 2000 Multimeter are the measurements devices, and the
       whole experiment is controlled by our ows software.
COST 531                                      24                                        GP4
Group Proposal GP4


            3.5.6. Participant 6 (J. Vrestal, Brno, Czech Republic)


3.5.6.1       Research interest and experience

              -      Optimisation of thermodynamic and phase equilibrium data of binary
                     and higher order systems by means of CALPHAD technique
              -      Phase diagram construction in metallic systems
              -      Thermodynamics of metallic systems
              -      First principles calculations of lattice stabilities of intermetallics
              -      Mass spectrometry

3.5.6.2.     Publications since 2000

See Appendix Part F

3.5.6.3.       Staff and equipment for disposal

               Mechanic-technician and secretary – part time for project

               Equipment for disposal for project:

               Sample preparation – furnace with controlled atmosphere (1000 C)

               Optical metallography – polishing machine, optical miocroscopy

               (Structural studies in cooperation with dr.Kroupa – TEM, SEM.)

                  THERMOCALC ver.M with user database for In-Sn-Zn system.
                  DICTRA software for the modeling of diffusion processes in
                  multicomponent systems
COST 531                                      25                                      GP4
Group Proposal GP4


             3.5.7.     Participant 7 (A. Kroupa, Brno, Czech Republic)


3.5.7.1.       Research interest and experience

               Thermodynamics of metals and alloys
                     phase diagrams of multicomponent systems
                     CALPHAD technique for modeling of phase diagrams
                     Coupling of CALPHAD and ab-initio method
               Microstructures of systems close to the thermodynamic equilibria
                     TEM and SEM electron microscopy
                     EDX, WDX analysis

3.5.7.2.       Publications since 2000

See Appendix Part H


3.5.7.3.       Staff and equipment

3.5.7.3.1.     Staff
                  Technicians for alloy and sample preparation for heat treatment
                  Technician for SEM, TEM analysis and sample preparation

3.5.7.3.2.     Equipment available for project:

                     Sample preparation – Spill-furnace with controlled atmosphere for
                      preparation of mother alloys
                     Furnaces with high temperature stability for long term heat
                      treatment

               Following equipment for microstructure investigation is available at the
               Institute of Physics of Materials:
                scanning electron microscope SEM 505 Philips with EDAX 9900
                    analyser for EDX-microanalysis and Microspec WDX-2A for wave
                    dispersive X-ray microanalysis
                transmission electron microscope CM12 STEM Philips with ultrathin
                    window EDAX Phoenix.
                light metallography microscope, equipment for microhardness
                    measurements
               All necessary equipment for the sample preparation is also available at
               the IPM.

               THERMOCALC ver.M with user database for In-Sn-Zn system.

               DICTRA software for the modeling of diffusion processes in
               multicomponent systems
COST 531                                  26                                      GP4
Group Proposal GP4


3.6.        Co-operation (minimum of 3 partners in at least 2 countries)

               As given above, there are seven partners from four COST countries
               (Austria, Czech Republic, Italy and Poland) fulfilling the requirements
               for a Group Project.

               The various details, as
               - name of partners and group project leader
               - division of work among partners
               - which information they will exchange
               are listed above

               The confirmation of the partnership will be sent to the Scientific
               Secretary by mail as separate letters.
COST 531                                  27                                         GP4
Group Proposal GP4

       APPENDIX

A. Publications of Participant 1 since 2000

(1) O.P. Semenova, W. Yuan, R. Krachler, and H. Ipser: Estimation of Point Defect
   Formation Energies in the L12-type Intermetallic Compound Ni3Ga; Scripta Mater.
   42 (2000), 567.

(2) S.L. Markovski, K. Micke, K.W. Richter, F.J.J. van Loo, and H. Ipser: Phase
   Relationships in the Ternary Ga-Ni-Sb System; J. Alloys Comp. 302 (2000), 128.

(3) J. Cermak, J. Ruzickova, M. Konecny, and H. Ipser: Short-Circuit Diffusion of
   Nickel in the Intermetallic Compound Ni3Ga; Scripta Mater. 43 (2000), 227.

(4) K.W. Richter and H. Ipser: The Al-V Phase Diagram between 0 and 50 Atomic
   Percent Vanadium, Z. Metallkde. 91 (2000), 383.

(5) W. Yuan, O. Diwald, A. Mikula, and H. Ipser: Thermodynamic Properties and
   Nonstoichiometry in the Intermetallic Compound Ni3Ga; Z. Metallkde. 91 (2000),
   448.

(6) M. Kaisermayr, J. Combet, H. Ipser, H. Schicketanz, B. Sepiol, and G. Vogl:
   Nickel diffusion in B2-NiGa studied with quasielastic neutron scattering, Phys.
   Rev. B 61 (2000), 12038.

(7) W. Yuan, O. Semenova, H. Ipser, and Z. Qiao: Thermodynamics and Statistical-
   Thermodynamics of the Ni3Ga Intermetallic Compound, J. Univ. Sci. Technol.
   Beijing 22 (3) (2000), 202.

(8) M. Kaisermayr, J. Combet, H. Ipser, H. Schicketanz, B. Sepiol, and G. Vogl:
   Determination of elementary jump of Co in CoGa by quasielastic neutron
   scattering, Phys. Rev. B 63 (2001), 054303/1.

(9) K. Micke, K.W. Richter, and H. Ipser: The Ternary Ga-Ni-Sb System: Invariant
   Reactions and Liquidus Surface, Z. Metallkd. 92 (2001), 14.

(10) J.C. Schuster, L. Perring, K.W. Richter, H. Ipser, Y. Grin, and F. Weitzer: The
   Binary System Re-Al, J. Alloys Comp. 320 (2001), 224.

(11) Hans Flandorfer, Klaus W. Richter, Gerald Giester, and H. Ipser :The Ternary
   Compounds In5.25Pd13Sb3.75 and In1.26PdSb0.74: Crystal Structure and Electronic
   Structure Calculations; J. Solid State Chem. 164 (2002), 110.

(12) Hannes Schweiger, Olga Semenova, Walter Wolf, Wolfgang Püschl, Wolfgang
   Pfeiler, Raimund Podloucky, and Herbert Ipser: Energetics of point defect
   formation in Ni3Al; Scripta Mater. 46 (2002), 37.

(13) H. Ipser, O.Semenova, and R. Krachler: Intermetallic Phases with D0 3-
   Structure: A Statistical-thermodynamic Model; J. Alloys Comp. 338 (2002), 20.
COST 531                                 28                                         GP4
Group Proposal GP4

(14) P. Waldner and H. Ipser: The Nonstoichiometric -Ni2In Phase with B82-
   Structure: Thermodynamic Modeling; Intermetallics 10 (2002), 485.

(15) H. Flandorfer, K.W. Richter, E. Hayer, H. Ipser, G. Borzone, and J.-P. Bros:
   The Binary System In-Ir: A New Investigation of Phase Relationships, Crystal
   Structures, and Enthalpies of Mixing; J. Alloys Comp. .

(16) Ch. Luef, H. Flandorfer, K.W. Richter, and H. Ipser: Pd as a Contact Material
   for InSb Semiconductors – The In-Pd-Sb Phase Diagram; J. Electronic Mater.,
   submitted for publication.

(17) K.W. Richter and H. Ipser: The Al-Ni-Si Phase Diagram between 0 and 33
   at.% Ni; Intermetallics, accepted for publication.

(18) P. Waldner and H. Ipser: Thermodynamic Modeling of the System Ni-In; Z.
   Metallkd., accepted for publication.

(19) R. Krachler and H. Ipser: Correlations in the Arrangement of Anti-Structure
   Point Defects in Intermetallic Phases with B2-(CsCl)-Structure; Phil. Mag. A,
   submitted for publication.

(20) O. Semenova, R. Krachler, and H. Ipser: Estimation of Defect Formation
   Energies in the D019-Type Intermetallic Compound Ti3Al; Solid State Sciences,
   submitted for publication.

(21) K.W. Richter and H. Ipser: Contact Materials for GaSb and InSb: A Phase
   Diagram Approach; Acta Metal. Sinica (English Letters) 15 (2002), 143-8.

(22) L. Shcherbak, P. Feychuk, O. Kopach, O. Panchuk, E. Hayer, and H. Ipser:
   Fine Structure of the Melting Process in Pure CdTe and in CdTe with 2 mol% of
   Ge or Sn; J. Alloys Comp., submitted for publication.
COST 531                               29     GP4
Group Proposal GP4


B. Publications of Participant 2 since 2000
COST 531                                    30                                         GP4
Group Proposal GP4


C Publications of Participant 3 since 2000

M. Anwander, B. Zagar, B. Weiss and H. Weiss,
Non-contacting Strain Measurements at high temperatures by the Digital Laser
Speckle Technique,
Experimental Mechanics, Vol. 40, No. 1, March 2000, p.1-8

M.Anwander, G.Kaindl, M.Klein and B. Weiss
Noncontacting laser based techniques for the determination of elastic constants of
thin foils,
Micromat 2000, Berlin, 2000, p.1100 - 1103

B.Zagar, B.Trummer,H.Weiss, M. Anwander and B.Weiss,
Ein schnell messendes Laser-Speckle Extensometer zur Bestimmung von statischen
und dynamischen Materialparametern,
E & I Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik 4/ 2000 ,p 273-278

M.Anwander, B. Weiss, C.Kargel, B.Trummer, H.Weiss, B.Zagar,
Laser optical strain sensors for material testing,
IMEKO 2000, Topic 20, Vienna, Austria, p 305 ff

A.Hadrboletz, B. Weiss and G. Khatibi,
Fatigue and fracture properties of thin metallic foils,
Int. J. of Fracture 109, 2001, p.69-89

B.Weiss, M. Klein, E. Sossna, B. Volland, I.W. Rangelow,
Noncontacting laser-based techniques for the determination of elastic constants of
thin silicon membranes,
Microelectronic Engineering 2001, 57-58, 2001, p. 475-479

M. Klein, A. Hadrboletz, B. Weiss, G Khatibi
The „Size effect“ on the stress strain, fatigue and fracture properties of thin metallic
foils,
Material Science and Engineering A 319-321, 2001, p. 924-928

G. Khatibi, M. Klein, E. El-Magd, H.D. Merchant, B.Weiss, R. Wiechmann, P.
Zimprich
Thermoelastic performance of copper foils and Cu/Fr-4 and Cu/PI laminates
Proc. IPC (Int. Packaging Conference) EXPO 2001, Anaheim, CA, USA, 2001

B.Weiss and A. Hadrboletz,
Fatigue of Micromaterials , Keynote paper
Proc. On the 8th Int.Conf.on Fatigue, Fat.2002, Stockholm,Sweden, EMAS,
Ed.A.Blom, June 2002, p.2233-2244

A.Kotas, A.Hadrboletz, G.Khatibi and B.Weiss
Low cycle fatigue of thin copper foils
Proc. On the 8th Int.Conf.on Fatigue, Fat.2002, Stockholm,Sweden, EMAS,
Ed.A.Blom, June 2002, p.859 - 866
COST 531                                    31                                         GP4
Group Proposal GP4

Conference Contributions and Seminars

A.Hadrboletz,B.Weiss and G.Khatibi
The size effect on the fatigue and fracture properties of thin metallic foils and wires,
Micromat 2000, April, 2000,p.558-559

V.Gröger et.al.,
Größeneinfluß auf mechanische Eigenschaften von Folien und Drähten,
Mechanische Werkstoffcharakterisierung in der Mikrosystemtechnik,
DVM, Hueckelhoven, BRD, November 2000

B.Weiss ,M.Klein, E.Sossna, B.Volland and I.W.Rangelow
Noncontacting laser based techniques for the determination of elastic constants of
thin silicon membranes,
MNE, Jena, Sept. 2000, Poster

B.Zagar, M.Anwander,C.Kargel,B.Trummer,H.Weiss,B.Weiss
Laser optical strain sensors for material testing
IMEKO, Vienna, Oct. 2000

V. Gröger et al.
Measurement of tensile and fracture properties of thin foils and wires
Institute of Structure and mechanics of Solids, University of Mining and Metallurgy,
Krakow, 19.2.2001

B. Weiss et.al
Characterization of mechanical and thermal properties of thin Cu-foils and wires
J. of sensors and actuators , A 3287 , p.1-11, 2002

P. Zimprich I. Wottle und B. Weiss
Thermomechanisches Verhalten von Metall- und Kunststoff-Folien für Mikrosysteme
Mechanische Werkstoffcharakterisierung in der Mikrosystemtechnik,
TU Chemnitz Sept. 2001

V. Gröger et. al
Positron annihilation spectroscopy of vacancy-type lattice defects at severe plastic
deformation of Fcc metals
Proc. from the Review Seminar on Scientific Cooperation between Austria and
Poland, Vienna, May 2001

Kotaś, A. Hadrboletz, G. Khatibi, B.Weiss, R. Stickler
Low cycle fatigue of copper foils
11th Symposium on Fundamental Fatigue, Prag, März 2001

B.Weiss , V. Gröger, G. Khatibi, H. Merchant and R. Wiechmann
Thermal mechanical response of copper foils for microsystems
Werkstoffwoche, Oktober, München 2001

P. Zimprich, I. Wottle, H. Merchant, R. Wiechmann, B. Zagar und B. Weiss
Coefficient of thermal expansion of thin copper foils for electronic laminates
Werkstoffwoche, Oktober, München 2001
COST 531                                   32                                    GP4
Group Proposal GP4


P. Zimprich, I. Wottle, H. Merchant, R. Wiechmann, B. Zagar and B. Weiss
Laser Speckle-based Dilatometer for determination of coefficient of thermal extension
of thin foils
Werkstoffwoche München Okt. 2001, Poster

M. Klein, G. Khatibi, A. Kotaś, V. Gröger, B. Weiss, B. Zagar, B. Trummer
Application of non-contacting laser optical strain sensors for micromaterials,
Werkstoffwoche 2000, München Okt. 2000, Poster

H. Merchant, G. Khatibi, M. Klein, E.L. Magd, B. Weiss, R. Wiechmann, P. Zimprich,
Thermoelastic performance of Cu foilsand CU-FR4 and Cu-PI laminates
IPC, Expo, Annaheim Ca,USA, April 2001

V.Gröger, G.Khatibi, M.Klein, B.Weiss,
Non-contacting laser optical methods for the determination of mechanical properties
of micromaterials
Werkstoffwoche, München, Okt.2000
COST 531                                  33                                         GP4
Group Proposal GP4

D. Publications of Participant 4 since 2000

G. Borzone, M.L. Fornasini, N. Parodi, R. Ferro; Gd-Sb system: standard enthalpies
of formation of solid alloys and crystal structure of Gd16Sb39;
Intermetallics 8 (2000) 189-194.

G. Borzone, A. Ciccioli, P.L. Cignini, M. Ferrini, D. Gozzi; Thermodynamics of the
YAl-YAl2 system;
Intermetallics 8 (2000) 203-212.

G. Cacciamani, R. Ferro, I. Ansara, N. Dupin; Thermodynamic modelling of the Co-Ti
system;
Intermetallics 8 (2000) 213-222.

Saccone, D. Macciò, S. Delfino, R. Ferro; The phase diagram of the terbium-gold
alloy system;
Intermetallics 8 (2000) 229-237.

R. Raggio, G. Borzone, R. Ferro; The Al-rich region in the Y-Ni-Al system:
microstructures and phase equilibria;
Intermetallics 8 (2000) 247-257.

P. Riani, D. Mazzone, R. Marazza, G. Zanicchi, R. Ferro; Contribution to the
investigation of ternary Pr-Cu-Sn alloys;
Intermetallics 8 (2000) 259-266.

D. Rossi, R. Ferro; Ternary rare earth (R) alloys occurring in RAu2-RGa2 sections;
Intermetallics 8 (2000) 877-880.

M. Giovannini, H. Michor, E. Bauer, G. Hilscher, P. Rogl, T. Bonelli, F. Fauth, P.
Fischer, T. Herrmannsdörfer, L. Keller, W. Sikora, A. Saccone, R. Ferro; Effect of
nonstoichiometry on the transition from ferromagnetism to antiferromagnetism in the
ternary indides Ce1.95Pd2+2xIn1-x and Ce2+xPd1.85In1-x;
Physical Review B 61 (2000) 4044- 4053.

Saccone, A.M. Cardinale, S. Delfino, R. Ferro; Gd-Al and Dy-Al systems: phase
equilibria in the 0 to 66.7 at.% Al composition range;
Z. Metallkd. 91(2000) 17-23.

R. Ferro, G. Borzone, G. Cacciamani, R. Raggio; Calorimetric measurements in
metallurgy: remarks on calibration and some specific problems;
Thermochimica Acta 347 (2000) 103-122.

H. Flandorfer, J. Gröbner, A. Kostikas, C. Godart, P. Rogl, V. Psicharis, A. Saccone,
R. Ferro, G. Effenberg; The ternary system Ce-Si-Y. Phase relations, crystallographic
and magnetic properties;
J. Alloys Comp. 297 (2000) 129-136

T. Herrmannsdörfer, P. Fischer, G. Böttger, L. Keller, M. Giovannini, E. Bauer;
Magnetic ordering in the rare-earth intermetallic compounds Tb2Pd2In an Ho2Pd2In;
Physica B 276-278 (2000) 702-703.
COST 531                                  34                                         GP4
Group Proposal GP4


P. Fischer, T. Herrmannsdörfer, T. Bonelli, F. Fauth, L. Keller, E. Bauer, M.
Giovannini; Antiferromagnetic rare-earth ordering in the intermetallic compounds
R2Pd2In (R = Pr, Nd);
J. Phys. Condens. Matter 12 (2000) 7089-7098.

V. Contardi, E. Franceschi, S. Bosio, G. Zanicchi, D. Palazzi, L. Cortesogno, L.
Gaggero; On the conservation of architectural artistic handwork of the “Pietra di
Finale”
J. Cult. Heritage 1 (2000) 83-90

R. Ferro, A. Saccone, D. Macciò, S. Delfino; Gold alloys of the rare earth metals;
Visnyk Lviv Univ., Ser. Khim. 39 (2000) 30-34.

M. Giovannini, E. Bauer, H. Michor, G. Hilscher, A. Galatanu, A. Saccone, P. Rogl;
Characterization and physical properties of the indides Yb2T2In (T = Cu, Pd, Au);
Intermetallics 9 (2001) 481-485.

P. Boulet, D. Mazzone, H. Noël, P. Rogl, R. Ferro; Phase equilibria and magnetic
studies in the ternary system Ce-Au-Sn;
J. of Alloys and Compounds 317-318 (2001) 350-356.

G. Borzone, N. Parodi, R. Raggio, R. Ferro; Thermodynamic investigation of
samarium-nickel alloys;
J. of Alloys and Compounds 317-318 (2001) 532-536.

Saccone, A.M. Cardinale, S. Delfino, G. Cacciamani, R. Ferro; Effect of Cu and Zn
on the melting and transformation temperatures of Pr and Gd;
J. of Alloys and Compounds 317-318 (2001) 503-512.

Saccone, D. Macciò, J.A.J. Robinson, F.H. Hayes, R. Ferro; Smith thermal analysis
of selected Pr-Mg alloys;
J. of Alloys and Compounds 317-318 (2001) 497-502.

G. Zanicchi, D. Mazzone, P. Riani, R. Marazza, R. Ferro; The isothermal section at
400°C of the Yb-Ag-Sn ternary system;
J. of Alloys and Compounds 317-318 (2001) 513-520.

D. Rossi, R. Ferro; Ternary intermetallic RAgGa, RAuGa alloys (R=light rare earth
and Yb);
J. of Alloys and Compounds 317-318 (2001) 521-524.

F. Rosalbino, E. Angelini, S. Spriano, C. Antonione, S. Delfino, D. Macciò, A.
Saccone; Electrochemical behaviour of Au-Gd alloys;
J. of Alloys and Compounds 317-318 (2001) 603-606.

G. Borzone, N. Parodi, R. Ferro, J.P. Bros, J.P. Dubés, M. Gambino; Heat capacity
and phase equilibria in rare earth alloy systems. R-rich R-Al alloys (R = La, Pr and
Nd);
J. of Alloys and Compounds 320 (2001) 242-250.
COST 531                                  35                                       GP4
Group Proposal GP4

E. Cordruwisch, D. Kaczorowski, P. Rogl, A. Saccone, R. Ferro; Constitution,
structural chemistry and magnetism in the ternary system Ce-Ag-Si;
J. of Alloys and Compounds 320 (2001) 308-319.

R. Ferro, G. Cacciamani, A. Saccone, G. Borzone;
Systematics of lanthanide and actinide compound formation: remarks on the
americium alloying behaviour;
J. of Alloys and Compounds 320 (2001) 326-340.

R. Ferro, G. Borzone, N. Parodi; Comments on the formation thermodynamics of
selected groups of rare earth compounds;
J. of Alloys and Compounds 321 (2001) 248-260.

E. Bauer, Ch. Paul, St. Berger, S. Majumdar, H. Michor, M. Giovannini, A. Saccone,
A. Bianconi; Thermal conductivity of superconducting MgB2;
J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 13 (2001) L487-L493.

A.Bianconi, D. Di Castro, S. Agrestini, G. Campi, N.L. Saini, A. Saccone, S. De Negri,
M. Giovannini; A superconductor made by a metal heterostructure at the atomic limit
tuned at the shape resonance: MgB2;
J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 13 (2001) 7383-7390.

S. Agrestini, D. Di Castro, M. Sansone, N.L. Saini, A. Saccone, S. De Negri, M.
Giovannini, M. Colapietro, A.Bianconi; High Tc superconductivity in a critical range of
micro-strain and charge density in diborides;
J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 13 (2001) 11689-11695.

A.Saccone, D. Macciò, S. Delfino, F.H. Hayes, R. Ferro; Mg-Ce alloys. Experimental
investigation by Smith thermal analysis;
J. Therm. Anal. Cal. 66 (2001) 47-57

P. Pastorino, A. Congeduti, P. Dore, A. Nucara, A. Bianconi, D. Di Castro, S. De
Negri, A. Saccone; Effect of the Al content on the optical phonon spectrum in Mg1-
xAlxB2;
Physical Review B 65 (2001) 020507-1

M.L. Fornasini, G. Zanicchi, D. Mazzone, P. Riani; Crystal structure of ytterbium
copper stannide, Yb4Cu2Sn5;
Z. Kristallogr. 216 (2001) 21-22.

A.Saccone, A.M. Cardinale, S. Delfino, R. Ferro; Phase Relationships of the Gd-Zn
system;
Z. Metallkd. 92 (2001) 959-965.

G. Cacciamani, R. Ferro; Thermodynamic modeling of some aluminium-rare earth
binary systems: Al-La, Al-Ce and Al-Nd;
Calphad 25 (2001) 583-597.

M. Palumbo, G. Cacciamani, E. Bosco, M. Baricco; Thermodynamic analysis of glass
formation in Fe-B system;
Calphad 25 (2001) 625-637.
COST 531                                  36                                       GP4
Group Proposal GP4


A. Bianconi, A. Saccone; Tc amplification in a superconductor made by a metal
heterostructure at the atomic limit tuned at the “shape resonance”: MgB2;
“Studies of high temperature superconductors” 38 (MgB2) (2001) 153-178.

P. Riani, D. Mazzone, G. Zanicchi, R. Marazza, R. Ferro; Ternary rare earth
germanium systems with Cu and Ag- A review and a contribution to their
assessment;
J. Phase Equilibria 23 (2002) 7-28

A. Saccone, G. Cacciamani, S. De Negri, R. Ferro; The Al-Er-Mg ternary system.
Part I: Experimental investigation;
J. Phase Equilibria 23 (2002) 29-37

G. Cacciamani, A. Saccone, S. De Negri, R. Ferro; The Al-Er-Mg ternary system.
Part II: Thermodynamic modeling;
J. Phase Equilibria 23 (2002) 38-50

S. Brutti, A. Ciccioli, G. Balducci, G. Gigli, G. Borzone, R. Raggio, R. Ferro;
Thermodynamics of the Ni-Yb system;
J. Phase Equilibria 23 (2002) 51-56

F. Di Pascasio, D. Gozzi, N. Parodi, G. Borzone; Thermodynamic properties of
Me2Ni17(Me = Sm, Dy, Yb) intermetallics by solid electrolyte cells under effusion
conditions;
J. Phys. Chem. B 106 (2002) 4284-4293

A. Sabbar, A. Zrineh, J.P. Dubès, M. Gambino, J.P. Bros, G. Borzone; The Ag-Bi-In
system: enthalpy of formation;
Termochimica Acta (2002) in press.

D. Mazzone, P. Riani, G. Zanicchi, M. Napoletano, F. Canepa; Magnetic properties of
the new rare earth intermetallic compound Pr5AgSn3;
Intermetallics 10 (2002) 323-327.

A. Bianconi, S. Agrestini, D. Di Castro, G. Campi, G. Zangari, N.L. Saini, A. Saccone,
S. De Negri, M. Giovannini, G. Profeta, A. Continenza, G. Satta, S. Massidda, A.
Cassetta, A. Pifferi, M. Colapietro; Scaling of the critical temperature with the Fermi
temperature in diborides;
Phys. Review B, 65 (2002) 174515

D. Di Castro, S. Agrestini, G. Campi, A. Cassetta, M. Colapietro, A. Congeduti, A.
Continenza, S. De Negri, M. Giovannini, S. Massidda, M. Nardone, A. Pifferi, P.
Postorino, G. Profeta, A. Saccone, N.L. Saini, G. Satta, A. Bianconi; The
amplification of the superconducting Tc by combined effect of tuning of the Fermi
level and the tensile micro-strain in Al1-xMgxB2;
Europhys. Lett., 58 (2002) 278-284.

F. Aldinger, J. Agren, R. Ferro, G. Effenberg; Thermochemistry of materials;
European White Book on Fundamental Research in Materials Science, 2001, 153-
158.
COST 531                                37                                     GP4
Group Proposal GP4


E. Most recent publications of Participant 5

   B.Onderka, L.A.Zabdyr: “A New Critical assessment of the Copper-Lead System”,
    Scandinavian Journal of Metallurgy 30(5), 320(2001);
   M.Kopyto, L.A.Zabdyr, K.Fitzner:”Thermodynamic Properties of Cobalt
    Orthosilicate”, Archives of Metallurgy 46(4), 447(2001);
   L.A.Zabdyr, O.B.Fabrichnaya:”Phase Equilibria in the Cobalt Oxide-Copper Oxide
    System”, CALPHAD XXX, 27 May-1 June 2001, York, UK.
    also published in the April 2002 issue of Journal of Phase Equilibria.
COST 531                                 38                                     GP4
Group Proposal GP4


F. Publications of Participant 6 since 2000

1. Kubišta J., Vřešťál J.: Thermodynamics of the Liquid Co-Cu System
   and Calculation of Phase Diagram. Journal of Phase Equilibria 21
   (2000), 125-129
2. Sopoušek J., Vřešťál J., Broţ P., Svoboda M.: Experimental and
   Predicted Phase Equilibria in Fe-Cr-Mn-Ni-N Alloys. Z.Metallkde. 91
   (7) (2000), 607-612
3. Foret R., Krumpos J., Sopoušek J., Svoboda M., Vřešťál J.:Phase
   Analysis of Creep-Resistant Fe-C-Cr-Mo-V(W) Steels after Long-
   Time Service Exposure. Z.Metallkde. 92 (3), 307-310 (2001),
4. Kroupa A., Havránková J., Coufalová M., Svoboda J., Vřešťál J.:
   Phase Diagram in Iron-Rich Corner of Fe-Cr-Mo-V-C System
   Below 1000 K. J. of Phase Equilib. 22, (2001), 312-323
5. Havránková J., Vřešťál J., Wang L.G., Šob M.: Ab initio analysis of
   energetics of sigma-phase formation in Cr-based systems.
   Phys.Rev.B63 174104, (2001)
6. Vřešťál J.: Recent Progress in Modelling of Sigma-phase.
   Archives of Metallurgy 46, 239-247, (2001)
7. Vřešťál J.: First Principles Calculations Results in Phase Diagram
   Construction. J. of Mining and Metallurgy 37 (3-4) 29-40 (2001)
8. Houserová J., Friák M., Vřešťál J., Šob M.: Ab initio calculations
   of lattice stability of sigma-phase and phase diagram in the Cr-Fe system.
   Comp.Mat.Sci.- accepted in Feb.(2002)
9. Houserová J., Vřešťál J., Friák M., Šob M.: Phase diagram
   calculation using ab initio determined lattice instability of sigma-
   phase in the Co-Cr system. Submitted for publication in Calphad.
COST 531                                   39                                       GP4
Group Proposal GP4


G. Publications of Participant 7 since 2000

1. V. Homolova, J. Janovec, A. Kroupa: “Experimental and thermodynamic studies
   of phase transformations in Cr-V low alloy steels”, Materials Science &
   Engineering A, Scheduled publication date: OCT/2002, vol 335/1-2, pp. 279-286
2. J. Svoboda, F. D. Fischer, P. Fratzl, A. Kroupa: “Diffusion in multi-component
   systems with no or dense sources and sinks for vacancies”, Accepted for
   publication
3. A. Kroupa, L. Korcakova, J. Houserova, J. Hald: The improved model for the Mo-
   rich Laves phase and its application for modern high Cr steels, presented at
   CALPHAD XXXI, Stockholm, May 2002
4. P. Broţ, M. Svoboda, J. Buršík, A. Kroupa, J. Havránková: Theoretical and
   experimental study of the influence of Cr on the  + ’ phase field boundary in Ni-
   Al-Cr system, Mat.Sci.Eng, A325(2002), 59-65
5. P. Broţ, J. Buršík, M. Svoboda, A. Kroupa: Theoretical and experimental study of
   the  and ’ equilibrium in Ni-based superalloys, Mat.Sci.Eng, A324(2002), 28-33
6. A. Kroupa, J. Buršík, M. Svoboda, J.K. Chen, G.S. Weatherly, „Phase
   transformation and phases coexisting in states close to phase equilibria in Ti-V-N
   system at 1473K“, Mat. Sci. Technol., 2002/1, pp. 13-20
7. V.Foldyna, A.Jakobová, V.Vodárek, Z.Kuboň , A.Kroupa: The influence of
   chemical composition on the microstructure and properties of modified 3% Cr
   steel, 24.Vortragsveranstaltung "Langzeitverhalten warmfester Stahle und
   Hochtemperaturwerkstoffe", VDEh, Dusseldorf 2001, s.112
8. A. Kroupa, “The CALPHAD approach to the calculation of ternary and quaternary
   diagrams, its strength and weakness; application to Ti-V-C, Ti-V-N and Ti-V-C-N
   systems”, Seminar on Thermodynamics of Materials, Brno, Nov 2001, pp.37-42
9. A. Kroupa, P. Unucka, M. Coufalová, M. Svoboda: „Application of thermodynamic
   calculations for the prediction of phase composition of various Cr-Mo steels,
   CALPHAD XXX, York, May 2001, Book of abstracts, p. 89
10. P. Broţ, J. Buršík, R. Picha, A. Kroupa, „Theoretical and experimental study of the
    gamma and gamma´ equilibrium in Ni-Al-Cr-Co and Ni-Al-Cr-W systems,
    CALPHAD XXX, York, May 2001, Book of abstracts, p. 73
11. Coufalová M., Kroupa A. Picha R., „Experimental and theoretical study of Ti-V-C-
    (N) phase diagram, CALPHAD XXX, York, May 2001, Book of abstracts, p. 122
12. J. Havránková, J. Buršík, A. Kroupa, P. Broţ, „Experimental study and
    thermodynamic assessment of the Ni-Al-Cr-Mo systém at 1173 K“, Scripta Mater
    45(2001), pp. 121-126,
13. M.Svoboda, I. Podstranská, A. Kroupa, V. Sklenička, K.-H. Mayer, „Creep
    resistance and microstructural stability of TAF650 steel, in Proceedings of the 10th
    Joint International Conference on Creep & fracture of engineering materials and
    structures, Prague, April 2001, 196-203
COST 531                                 40                                         GP4
Group Proposal GP4

14. A. Kroupa, J. Havránková, M. Coufalová, M. Svoboda, J. Vřešťál: Phase diagram
    in iron-rich corner of the Fe-Cr-Mo-V-C system below 1000 K, Journal of Phase
    Diagrams, 22(2001)/3, pp. 312-323
15. R. Picha, A. Kroupa, P. Broţ: Phase Equilibria in the Ti-V-C System at 1000C
    and 1200C, Archives of Metallurgy 46(2001)/2, pages not available
16. P. Broţ, J. Buršík, M. Svoboda, A. Kroupa: Theoretical and experimental study of
    the  and  equilibrium in Ni-based superalloys, 8th International Symposium on
    Physics of Materials, book of abstracts, Praha, September 2000

				
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