Common plastics material introduction by mikesanye

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									Common plastics material introduction


Common plastics material introduction

This file offers basic physical/chemical performance and the applications of 17 different kinds of
common plastics material, which are widely used today.

Content:

   1. Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene ABS amorphous styrenic--- Page 2

   2. ASA Acrylic, styrene, acrylonitrile plastic                    --- Page 3

   3. Ethylene Vinyl Acetate EVA semi-crystalline polyolefin         --- Page 4

   4. Nylons (Polyamides) PA semi-crystalline                        --- Page 5, 6

   5. Polycarbonate PC, amorphous                                    --- Page 7, 8

   6. Polyethylene (Low Density) PELD, PELLD semi-crystalline polyolefin

                                                                     --- Page 9

   7. Polyethylene (High Density) PEHD semi-crystalline polyolefin
                                                             --- Page 10

   8. Polyesters (Thermoplastic) PETP, PBT, PET semi-crystalline
                                                            --- Page 11, 12

   9. Acrylics PMMA amorphous                                        --- Page 13

   10. Polyacetals POM highly crystalline                            --- Page 14

   11. Polypropylene PP semi-crystalline polyolefin                  --- Page 15, 16 ,17

   12. Polyphenylene Oxide PPO amorphous                             --- Page 18

   13. Polystyrene PS                                                --- Page 19, 20

   14. Styrene Acrylonitrile SAN amorphous styrenic                  --- Page 21

   15. Polyvinyl Chloride PVC rigid amorphous crystalline polyolefin

                                                                      -- Page 22, 23

   16. Thermisetting plastic                                         --- Page 24

   17. Cellulosics CA, CAB, CAP                                      --- Page 25


1|P age
Common plastics material introduction


1.Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene ABS amorphous styrenic

APPLICATIONS
Telephone handsets, rigid luggage, domestic appliance housings, electroplated parts, radiator
grills, handles, computer housings.

PROPERTIES
Rigid, opaque, glossy, tough, good low temperature properties, good dimensional stability, low
creep.



Psysical properties:
Tensile Strength                                                  35-50               MPa
E-modulus                                                         2300                MPa
Notched Impact Strength                                           12 - 30             kJ/m²
Thermal Coefficient of expansion                                  70 - 90             x 10-6
                                                                                      0
Max Cont Use Temp                                                 90 - 100              C
                                                                                      0
VicatB Temp                                                       80 - 95               C
Density                                                           1.04 - 1.07         g/cm³



Resistance to chemicals:
Dilute Acid                                                              Very good
Dilute Alkalis                                                           Very good
Oils and Greases                                                         Very good
Aliphatic Hydrocarbons                                                   Moderate
Aromatic Hydrocarbons                                                    Poor
Halogenerated Hydrocarbons                                               Poor
Density                                                                  Poor




2|P age
Common plastics material introduction


2.ASA Acrylic, styrene, acrylonitrile plastic

       Tensile Flexural   E-     Impact Vicat Stress Cracking Temp.
Density
      Strength Strength modulus Strength temp.    temp.      Tolerance
 1,04    32       40     1800       18     92       -40         70
g/cm3 MPa         %      MPa      kJ/m2 oC          o
                                                     C          o
                                                                 C


ASA is a copolymer acrylic, styrene, acrylonitrile thermoplast related to ABS but with improved
manufacturerathering, some lomanufacturerr chemical resistance and a lomanufacturerr impact
strength in cold conditions than ABS.




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Common plastics material introduction




3.Ethylene Vinyl Acetate EVA semi-crystalline polyolefin

APPLICATIONS
Teats, handle grips, flexible tubing, record turntable mats, vacuum, cleaner hosing.

PROPERTIES
Flexible (rubbery), transparent, good low temperature flexibility (-70 C), good chemical
resistance, high friction coefficient.

Psysical properties:
Tensile Strength                                                0.05 - 0.2             MPa
E-modulus                                                       10 - 140               MPa
Notched Impact Strength                                         no break               kJ/m²
Thermal Coefficient of expansion                                160 - 200              x 10-6
                                                                                       0
Max Cont Use Temp                                               45 - 85                  C
                                                                                       0
VicatB Temp                                                     55 - 65                  C
Density                                                         0-926 - 0.950          g/cm³

Resistance to chemicals:
Dilute Acid                                                              Very good
Dilute Alkalis                                                           Very good
Oils and Greases                                                         Good
Aliphatic Hydrocarbons                                                   Very good
Aromatic Hydrocarbons                                                    Poor
Halogenerated Hydrocarbons                                               Poor
Density                                                                  Very good




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Common plastics material introduction




4.Nylons (Polyamides) PA semi-crystalline

INTRODUCTION
The name "nylons" refers to the group of plastics known as polyamides. Nylons are typified by
amide groups (CONH) and encompass a range of material types (e.g. Nylon 6,6; Nylon 6,12;
Nylon 4,6; Nylon 6; Nylon 12 etc.), providing an extremely broad range of available properties.
Nylon is used in the production of film and fibre, but is also available as a moulding compound.

PROPERTIES
The majority of nylons tend to be semi-crystalline and are generally very tough materials with
good thermal and chemical resistance. The different types give a wide range of properties with
specific gravity, melting point and moisture content tending to reduce as the nylon number
increases.

Nylons tend to absorb moisture from their surroundings. This absorption continues until
equilibrium is reached and can have a negative effect on dimensional stability. In general, the
impact resistance and flexibility of nylon tends to increase with moisture content, while the
strength and stiffness below the glass transition temperature (< 50-80 oC) decrease.

Grades Available
There are many types of nylon available (e.g. Nylon 6 nylon 66, nylon 6/6-6, nylon 6/9, nylon
6/10, nylon 6/12, nylon 11, nylon 12). The material is available as a homopolymer, co-polymer
or reinforced. Nylons may also be blended with other engineering plastics to improve certain
aspects of performance.

Psysical properties:
Tensile Strength                                               56 - 90                  MPa
E-modulus                                                      1000 - 2600              MPa
Notched Impact Strength                                        5.0 - no break           kJ/m²
Thermal Coefficient of expansion                               90                       x 10-6
                                                                                        0
Max Cont Use Temp                                              168 - 250                  C
                                                                                        0
VicatB Temp                                                    80 - 150                   C
Density                                                        1.02 - 1.13              g/cm³
Resistance to chemicals:
Dilute Acid                                                               Poor
Dilute Alkalis                                                            Good
Oils and Greases                                                          Very good
Aliphatic Hydrocarbons                                                    Very good
Aromatic Hydrocarbons                                                     Very good
Halogenerated Hydrocarbons                                                Good
Density                                                                   Poor




5|P age
Common plastics material introduction




APPLICATIONS
Nylon fibres are used in textiles, fishing line and carpets. Nylon films is used for food
packaging, offering toughness and low gas permeability, and coupled with its temperature
resistance, for boil-in-the-bag food packaging.

Mouldings and profiles find many applications as replacements for metal parts, for instance in
car engine components. Intake manifolds in nylon are tough, corrosion resistant, lighter and
cheaper than aluminium. Its self-lubricating properties make it useful for gears and bearings.

Electrical insulation, corrosion resistance and toughness make nylon a good choice for high load
parts in electrical applications as insulators, switch housings and cable ties. Another major
application is for pomanufacturerr tool housings.




6|P age
Common plastics material introduction


5.Polycarbonate PC, amorphous

INTRODUCTION
Transparency, excellent toughness, thermal stability and a very good dimensional stability make
Polycarbonate (PC) a widely used engineering thermoplastics. Compact discs, riot shields,
vandal proof glazing, baby feeding bottles, electrical components, safety helmets and headlamp
lenses are all typical applications for PC.

PROPERTIES
Polycarbonates are strong, stiff, hard, tough, transparent engineering thermoplastics that can
maintain rigidity up to 140 C and toughness down to -20°C or special grades even
lomanufacturerr. The material is thermally resistant up to 135 C and rated as slow burning.
Sensible to ESC.
Constraints to the use of PC include limited chemical and scratch resistance and it's tendency to
yellow upon long term exposure to UV light.

Blends and alloys with PC are available with e.g. ABS, ASA or Polyesters, widely used in
automotive industry.

Psysical properties:
Tensile Strength                                                     70 - 80           MPa
E-modulus                                                            2200              MPa
Notched Impact Strength                                              60 80             kJ/m²
Thermal Coefficient of expansion                                     65                x 10-6
                                                                                       0
Max Cont Use Temp                                                    140 - 150           C
                                                                                       0
VicatB Temp                                                          100 - 130           C
Density                                                              1.20              g/cm³
Resistance to chemicals:
Dilute Acid                                                                Good
Dilute Alkalis                                                             Poor
Oils and Greases                                                           Moderate
Aliphatic Hydrocarbons                                                     Good
Aromatic Hydrocarbons                                                      Poor
Halogenerated Hydrocarbons                                                 Poor
Alcohols                                                                   Good




7|P age
Common plastics material introduction
APPLICATIONS
PC finds usage in a host of markets, notably in the automotive, glazing, electronic, business
machine, optical media, medical, lighting and appliance markets

Electrical & Electronics (E&E)
pomanufacturerr distribution (covers and housings), connectors, electrical household appliances,
mobile phones, electrical chargers. lighting, battery boxes

Automotive
automotive lighting, head lamp lenses, dashboards, interior cladding, exterior parts (bumpers,
bodypanels)

General Industries / Packaging
pomanufacturerr tools, baby bottles, water dispensers, garden equipment, furniture (office &
institutional) sporting goods, medical applications




8|P age
Common plastics material introduction


6.Polyethylene (Low Density) PELD, PELLD semi-crystalline polyolefin

APPLICATIONS
Squeeze bottles, toys, carrier bags, high frequency insulation, chemical tank linings, heavy duty
sacks, general packaging, gas and water pipes.

PROPERTIES
Semi-rigid, translucent, very tough, manufactureratherproof, good chemical resistance, low
water absorption, easily processed by most methods, low cost. Some ESC sensitivity.

Psysical properties:
Tensile Strength                                                10 - 15                 MPa
E-modulus                                                       600 - 1000              MPa
Notched Impact Strength                                         No break                kJ/m²
Thermal Coefficient of expansion                                100 - 220               x 10-6
                                                                                        0
Max Cont Use Temp                                               50                        C
                                                                                        0
VicatB Temp                                                     65                        C
Density                                                         0.917 - 0.930           g/cm³
Resistance to chemicals:
Dilute Acid                                                Very good
Dilute Alkalis                                             Very good
Oils and Greases                                           Moderate (Variable)
Aliphatic Hydrocarbons                                     Poor
Aromatic Hydrocarbons                                      Poor
Halogenerated Hydrocarbons                                 Poor
Alcohols                                                   Very good




9|P age
Common plastics material introduction


7.Polyethylene (High Density) PEHD semi-crystalline polyolefin

APPLICATIONS
Chemical drums, jerricans, carboys, toys, picnic ware, household and kitchenware, cable
insulation, carrier bags, food wrapping material.

PROPERTIES
Flexible, translucent/waxy, manufactureratherproof, good low temperature toughness (to -60'C),
easy to process by most methods, low cost, good chemical resistance. Some ECR sensitivity.

Psysical properties:
Tensile Strength                                              15 - 30                MPa
E-modulus                                                     600 - 1000             MPa
Notched Impact Strength                                       No break               kJ/m²
Thermal Coefficient of expansion                              100 - 220              x 10-6
                                                                                     0
Max Cont Use Temp                                             60 - 80                  C
                                                                                     0
VicatB Temp                                                   <80                      C
Density                                                       0.944 - 0.965          g/cm³
Resistance to chemicals:
Dilute Acid                                               Very good
Dilute Alkalis                                            Very good
Oils and Greases                                          Moderate (Variable)
Aliphatic Hydrocarbons                                    Poor
Aromatic Hydrocarbons                                     Poor
Halogenerated Hydrocarbons                                Poor
Alcohols                                                  Very good




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8.Polyesters (Thermoplastic) PETP, PBT, PET semi-crystalline

INTRODUCTION
Engineering polyesters are engineering thermoplastics based on PBT (Polybutylene
terephthalate) and PET (Polyethylene terephthalate).

Polyester resins combine excellent mechanical, electrical and thermal properties with very good
chemical resistance.

PROPERTIES
PBT, PET and PBT Blends are engineering plastics with excellent processing characteristics and
high strength and rigidity for a broad range of applications. Typically properties in which they
differentiate themselves from other engineering plastics are:

Extreme low water absorption, Exceptional dimensional stability, Excellent electrical properties,
Excellent resistance to chemical attack and high environmental stress crack resistance (due to the
semi-crystalline nature of polyesters), Very good heat and heat ageing resistance, Very low
creep, even at elevated temperatures. Very good colmanufacturer stability. Excellent
manufacturerar properties

The property profile of PBT and EPET plastics is wide and varied. It would be difficult to
provide one set of figures which encompass the range. Additionally the wide use of glass fillers
further exasperates this position.

Psysical properties:
Tensile Strength                                                 50 - 55               MPa
E-modulus                                                        2300 - 3000           MPa
Notched Impact Strength                                          1.5 - 4               kJ/m²
Thermal Coefficient of expansion                                 70 - 120              x 10-6
                                                                                       0
Max Cont Use Temp                                                175 - 200               C
                                                                                       0
VicatB Temp                                                      70                      C
Density                                                          1.37                  g/cm³
Resistance to chemicals:
Dilute Acid                                                              Very good
Dilute Alkalis                                                           Moderate
Oils and Greases                                                         Very good
Aliphatic Hydrocarbons                                                   Very good
Aromatic Hydrocarbons                                                    Moderate
Halogenerated Hydrocarbons                                               Moderate
Alcohols                                                                 Very good




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The chemical resistance of polyesters is in general very good, mainly due to their robust
chemical nature, but also because they are a crystalline engineering plastic.

APPLICATIONS
Engineering Polyesters can be found in the following markets: Transportation, Automotive,
Electronical/Electronic, Appliances, Industrial and consumer.

Engineering polymers are used in the manufacture of a wide range of components, including
under bonnet parts, exterior parts (window wiper holders and exterior mirror housing). The
largest increase in usage over recent years is in the rapidly developing sector of automotive
electronics,

The next largest is Electrical/Electronics, making use of high heat distortion temperatures and
electrical insulation inherent in PBT i.e. connectors, circuit breakers, switches and housing for
the home appliance. The Telecommunications and IT sector has similar uses in mobile phone
casings, through the desire for light durable phones. Other applications: building, textile bobbins,
meter housings.




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9.Acrylics PMMA amorphous

APPLICATIONS
Signs, inspection windows, tail light lenses, lighting diffusers, leaflet dispensers and hi-fi dust
covers

PROPERTIES
Hard, rigid, glass-clear, glossy, good manufacturerather resistance, excellent for thermoforming,
casting and fabrication.



Psysical properties:
Tensile Strength                                                         40-65            MPa
E-modulus                                                                3000             MPa
Notched Impact Strength                                                  1.5 - 3.0        kJ/m²
Thermal Coefficient of expansion                                         60 - 90          x 10-6
                                                                                          0
Max Cont Use Temp                                                        70 - 90            C
                                                                                          0
VicatB Temp                                                              90 - 110           C
Density                                                                  1.19             g/cm³



Resistance to chemicals:
Dilute Acid                                                                 Very good
Dilute Alkalis                                                              Very good
Oils and Greases                                                            Very good
Aliphatic Hydrocarbons                                                      Moderate
Aromatic Hydrocarbons                                                       Poor
Halogenerated Hydrocarbons                                                  Poor
Density                                                                     Very good




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10.Polyacetals POM highly crystalline

APPLICATIONS
Business m/c parts, small pressure vessels, aerosol valves, coil formers, clock and watch parts,
plumbing systems, shoe components.

PROPERTIES
Rigid, translucent, tough, spring-like qualities, good stress relaxation resistance, good
manufacturerar and electrical properties, resistant to creep and organic solvents.

Psysical properties:
Tensile Strength                                                    50 - 70            N/mm²
E-modulus                                                           2500               MPa
Notched Impact Strength                                             5.5 - 12           kJ/m²
Thermal Coefficient of expansion                                    110                x 10-6
                                                                                       0
Max Cont Use Temp                                                   150 - 160            C
                                                                                       0
VicatB Temp                                                         80 - 100             C
Density                                                             1.41               g/cm³

Resistance to chemicals:
Dilute Acid                                                       Poor
Dilute Alkalis                                                    Very good
Oils and Greases                                                  Good (Variable)
Aliphatic Hydrocarbons                                            Very good
Aromatic Hydrocarbons                                             Good (Variable)
Halogenerated Hydrocarbons                                        Poor
Alcohols                                                          Very Good




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11.Polypropylene PP semi-crystalline polyolefin

INTRODUCTION
Polypropylene (PP) is a linear hydrocarbon polymer (a polyolefin).

Polypropylene is one of those most versatile polymers available with applications, both as a
plastic and as a fiber, in virtually all of the plastics end-use markets.

PROPERTIES
Semi-rigid, translucent, good chemical resistance, tough, good fatigue resistance and good heat
resistance.

PP does not present stress-cracking problems and offers excellent electrical and chemical
resistance at higher temperatures. While the properties of PP are similar to those of Polyethylene,
there are specific differences. These include a lomanufacturerr density, higher softening point
(PP doesn't melt below 160 C; polyethylene, anneal at around 100 C) and higher rigidity and
hardness. Additives are applied to all commercially produced polypropylene resins to protect the
polymer during processing and to enhance end-use performance.

Homopolymers - A General Purpose Grade that can be used in a variety of different
applications.

Block copolymers - incorporating 5-15% ethylene, have much improved impact resistance
extending to temperatures below -20oC. Their toughness can be further enhanced by the addition
of impact modifiers in a blending process.

Random copolymers - incorporate co-monomer units arranged randomly (as distinct from
discrete blocks) along the polypropylene long chain molecule. Such polymers typically
containing 1-7% ethylene are selected where a lomanufacturerr melting point, more flexibility
and enhanced clarity are advantageous.

Psysical properties:
Tensile Strength                                                   30 - 40              MPa
E-modulus                                                          700 - 2300           MPa
Notched Impact Strength                                            3.0 - 30.0           kJ/m²
Thermal Coefficient of expansion                                   100 - 150            x 10-6
                                                                                        0
VicatB Temp                                                        125 - 130              C
                                                                                        0
Max Cont Use Temp                                                  80 - 100               C
Density                                                            0.905                g/cm³

Resistance to chemicals:
Dilute Acid                                                  Very good
Dilute Alkalis                                               Very good
Oils and Greases                                             Moderat (Variable)
Aliphatic Hydrocarbons                                       Poor
Aromatic Hydrocarbons                                        Poor
Halogenerated Hydrocarbons                                   Poor
Alcohols                                                     Very Good
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APPLICATIONS

Flexible Packaging
PP is one of the leading materials used for film extrusion and has in recent years benefited versus
cellophane, metals and paper on account of its superior puncture resistance, low sealing
threshold and competitive price.

Food and Confectioneries Tobacco Clothing

Rigid Packaging
Reusable and collapsible/stackable crates are a great application for PP.

Caps and Closures manufactured of PP have benefited from growth in the PET bottle market,
particularly for mineral water containment and that of edible oil.

PP is used to produce bottles for the packaging of a range of products including condiments,
detergent and toiletries markets.

PP thin-walled containers are also common. PP competes with PS in this field, offering a cheaper
material option.

Automotive
In the automotive sector PP is utilised as material solution for automotive interiors. Dashboard is
becoming increasingly achievable, PP film cushioning, film skins, and powder slush moulding
and even blow moulded parts with integral PP textile covers.

Bumpers, cladding, and exterior trim are also available manufactured from polypropylene.
Polypropylene developed for such applications provides good manufactureratherability,
processability and impact/stiffness balance.

Consumer Products
Products classified in this sector are Housewares, Furniture, Appliances, Luggage, Toys, Battery
Cases and other "durable" items for home.

Fiber
PP Fiber is utilised in a host of applications including tape, strapping, bulk continuous filament,
staple fibers, spunbound, and continuous filament.

Industrial
PP is used to manufacture a range of Sheet, Pipe, Compounding and Transport Packaging.

Building&construktion
Some PP is utilised by the construction sector, most notable domestic drainage pipes.




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12.Polyphenylene Oxide PPO amorphous

APPLICATIONS
Coffee pot and washing m/c parts (where high temperature and moisture are critical),
replacement for die castings, drink vending machines, microwave components.

PROPERTIES
Rigid, opaque, good dimensional stability at high temperature and humidity conditions, difficult
to process (blended to ease injection moulding), tough.

Psysical properties:
Tensile Strength                                                    50 - 55            MPa
E-modulus                                                           2500               MPa
Notched Impact Strength                                             20                 kJ/m²
Thermal Coefficient of expansion                                    70                 x 10-6
                                                                                       0
Max Cont Use Temp                                                   110 - 140            C
                                                                                       0
VicatB Temp                                                         80 - 95              C
Density                                                             1.06               g/cm³
Resistance to chemicals:
Dilute Acid                                                                        Very good
Dilute Alkalis                                                                     Very good
Oils and Greases                                                                   Very good
Aliphatic Hydrocarbons                                                             Moderate
Aromatic Hydrocarbons                                                              Poor
Halogenerated Hydrocarbons                                                         Poor
                                                                                   Moderate
Alcohols
                                                                                   (Variable)




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13.Polystyrene PS

a) General Purpose gpPS amorphous styrenic

APPLICATIONS
Toys and novelties, rigid packaging, refrigerator trays and boxes, cosmetic packs
and costume jemanufacturerllery, lighting diffusers, audio cassette and CD cases.

PROPERTIES
Brittle, rigid, transparent, low shrinkage, low cost, excellent X-ray resistance, free
from odmanufacturer and taste

Psysical properties:
Tensile Strength                                              40 - 55        MPa
E-modulus                                                     3200           MPa
Notched Impact Strength                                       2.0 - 2.5      kJ/m²
Thermal Coefficient of expansion                              80             x 10-6
                                                                             0
Max Cont Use Temp                                             70 - 85          C
                                                                             0
VicatB Temp                                                   70 - 85          C
Density                                                       1.05           g/cm³

Resistance to chemicals:
Dilute Acid                                          Good (Variable)
Dilute Alkalis                                       Very good
Oils and Greases                                     Good (Variable)
Aliphatic Hydrocarbons                               Very good
Aromatic Hydrocarbons                                Poor
Halogenerated Hydrocarbons                           Poor
Alcohols                                             Moderate (Variable)


b)High Impact, hiPS amorphous styrenic

APPLICATIONS
Yoghurt pots, refrigerator linings, vending cups, bathroom cabinets, toilet seats and
tanks, closures, instrument control knobs.

PROPERTIES
Hard, rigid, translucent, impact strength up to 7 x gpPS, other properties similar.

Psysical properties:
Tensile Strength                                           35 - 45            MPa
Notched Impact Strength                                    10.0 - 20.0        kJ/m²
Thermal Coefficient of expansion                           80                 x 10-6
                                                                              0
Max Cont Use Temp                                          60 - 80              C
Density                                                    1.03 - 1.06        g/cm³
Resistance to chemicals:
Dilute Acid                                               Moderate
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Dilute Alkalis                          Very good
Oils and Greases                        Moderate
Aliphatic Hydrocarbons                  Very good
Aromatic Hydrocarbons                   Poor
Halogenerated Hydrocarbons              Poor
Alcohols                                Poor (Variable)




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14.Styrene Acrylonitrile SAN amorphous styrenic

APPLICATIONS
Drinking tumblers, hi-fi covers, lenses, water jugs and toothbrush handles, kitchen and picnic
ware, radio dials, TV set screens, washing machine trims.

PROPERTIES
Rigid, transparent, tough, resistant to greases, stress cracking and crazing, easily processed,
resistant to food stains.

Psysical properties:
Tensile Strength                                                 32 - 42                  MPa
E-modulus                                                        1800 - 2000              MPa
Notched Impact Strength                                          18 - no break            kJ/m²
Thermal Coefficient of expansion                                 80                       x 10-6
                                                                                          0
Max Cont Use Temp                                                65 - 75                    C
                                                                                          0
VicatB Temp                                                      85 - 75                    C
Density                                                          1.08 - 1.04              g/cm³



Resistance to chemicals:
Dilute Acid                                                  Very good
Dilute Alkalis                                               Very good
Oils and Greases                                             Very good
Aliphatic Hydrocarbons                                       Moderate
Aromatic Hydrocarbons                                        Poor
Halogenerated Hydrocarbons                                   Poor
Alcohols                                                     Moderate (Variable)




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Common plastics material introduction


15.Polyvinyl Chloride PVC rigid amorphous crystalline polyolefin

 INTRODUCTION
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is a major thermoplastic material finding use in a very wide variety of
applications and products.

The essential raw materials for PVC are derived from salt and oil. The electrolysis of salt water
produces chlorine, which is combined with ethylene, obtained from oil, to form vinyl chloride
monomer (VCM). These are polymerised to form PVC resin, to which appropriate additives are
incorporated to make a customised PVC compound

PROPERTIES
PVC's major benefit is its compatibility with many different kinds of additives, making it a
highly versatile polymer. PVC can be plasticised to make it flexible for use in flooring and
medical products. Rigid PVC, also known as PVC-U (The U stands for "unplasticised") is used
extensively in building applications such as window frames.

Its compatibility with additives allows for the possible addition of flame retardants although
PVC is intrinsically fire retardant because of the presence of chlorine in the polymer matrix.

PVC has excellent electrical insulation properties, making it ideal for cabling applications. Its
good impact strength and manufactureratherproof attributes make it ideal for construction
products.

PVC can be clear or colmanufacturered, formulation of the compound is key to PVC's "added
value".

Psysical properties:
Tensile Strength                                                    50 - 75              MPa
E-modulus                                                           3000                 MPa
Notched Impact Strength                                             2.0 - 15             kJ/m²
Thermal Coefficient of expansion                                    80                   x 10-6
                                                                                         0
Max Cont Use Temp                                                   55 - 80                C
                                                                                         0
VicatB Temp                                                         55 - 70                C
Density                                                             1.38 - 1.45          g/cm³
Resistance to chemicals:
Dilute Acid                                                  Very good
Dilute Alkalis                                               Very good
Oils and Greases                                             Good (Variable)
Aliphatic Hydrocarbons                                       Very good
Aromatic Hydrocarbons                                        Poor
Halogenerated Hydrocarbons                                   Moderate (Variable)
Alcohols                                                     Good (Variable)




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APPLICATIONS
Window frames, drainage pipe, water service pipe, medical devices, blood storage bags, cable
and wire insulation, resilient flooring, roofing membranes, stationary, automotive interiors and
seat coverings, fashion and footmanufacturerar, packaging, cling film, credit cards, synthetic
leather and other coated fabrics.

Construction
PVC has been used extensively in a wide range of construction products for over half a century.
PVC's strong, lightmanufactureright, durable and versatile characteristics make it ideal for
window profiles. PVC's inherent flame retardant and excellent electrical insulation properties
make it ideal for cabling applications. Typical example of PVC construction products include:

Window and door profiles ,Architectual glazing systems ,Pipes and fittings ,Cable and services
ducting ,Internal and external cladding ,Rainwater, soil and waste systems ,Flooring

Automotive
PVC brings both high performance qualities and important cost benefits to the automotive
industry. Independent research by Mavel Consultants has shown that the typical cost of using
alternative materials is in a range 20-100% higher per component. Typical examples of PVC
automotive components include:

Instrument panels and associated mouldings ,Interior Door Panels and Pockets ,Sun Visors ,Floor
Coverings




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16.Thermisetting plastic

UP Unsaturated polyester

         Tensile Flexural   E-     Impact Vicat Stress Cracking Temp.
Density
        Strength Strength modulus Strength temp.    temp.      Tolerance
  1,09 300-700 4-5 4000-40000         1        1        -         180
      3                                  2   o        o           o
 g/cm     MPa       %      MPa      kJ/m      C        C           C



Rigid, hard material that is usually reinforced with 40-70% glass fibre. Reinforcing is finally
shaped for specific purposes. Compensating often for steel in construction which require
electrical insulation properties. Can also be found in non combustible qualities.




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17.Cellulosics CA, CAB, CAP

APPLICATIONS
Spectacle frames, toothbrushes, tool handles, transparent wrapping, metallised parts (reflectors
etc), pen barrels.

PROPERTIES
Rigid, transparent, tough (also low temperatures) low electrostatic pick up

Psysical properties:
Tensile Strength                                               10 - 80                  MPa
Notched Impact Strength                                        2.0 - no brake           kJ/m²
Thermal Coefficient of expansion                               80 - 180                 x 10-6
                                                                                        0
Max Cont Use Temp                                              50 - 80                    C
                                                                                        0
VicatB Temp                                                    45 - 70                    C
Density                                                        1.15 - 1.35              g/cm³




25 | P a g e

								
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