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					Defense Forum:
Coalition and Joint
Interoperability
Solving the Policy, Technical,
Procedures and Operational
Issues
VADM Nancy Brown
The Joint Staff (J-6)
Moderator
Director, Command, Control,
Communications and Computer
(C-4)Systems Directorate
                          Globalization – Community Issue
                                           Headquarters                                              • Complexities of
             UK - PJHQ                                                                                  globalization
                           US Embassy                              US Embassy
                                                                                                         – Resources and
             US Embassy
                             Kuwait                                   Qatar
                                                                                  US Embassy
                                                                                                          infrastructure
                KSA                                                                  UAE                  required to
                                                                                                          manage and
US Embassy
   Egypt
                                                                                             US Embassy
                                                                                                Oman      maintain
                                                                                                         – Foreign
                                                                                                          disclosure
                                                SIPRNET
US Embassy                                                                                   US Embassy
                                                                                               Bahrain
                                                                                                         – COI information
  Jordan
                                                                                                          separation
                                                                                               • Current
                          CJTF-
                          Kuwait
                                                                        NAVCENT
                                                                         Bahrain                 architecture and
  Gateway
  Facilities
                                           JTF-SWA
                                             KSA
                                                       TCCC
                                                      Bahrain
                                                                                                 supporting
                                                                                                 requirements are
                                                                                                 currently being
         Kuwait           KSA      Egypt     Jordan   UAE       Oman      Qatar      Bahrain
                                                                                                 piece-mealed vice
                                                                                                 having a global
                                                                                                 perspective.
                                   Coalition Partner Facilities
                      EXAMPLE Of PROBLEM
           US to Coalition ATO/ACO/COP Data Flow
                                                                                   Shared to Command GCCS
US
 JOC                                            COP Data
           TBMCS                                                  GCCS

                                                        ATO/ACO


   SIPR


                                                   ATO/ACO
                                                   Plain Text
                                                                  Coalition GCCS




                      ATO/ACO
                                   US//Coalition-Exchange
                      Plain Text
                                    E-Mail Server


Via JOCS
to AOR


               Coalition - JOCS




Limited interoperability frustrates our ability to share information with
                            mission partners
                          Today’s Global Environment
                                                                                             • Organizing/integrating
                                                                                               construct for IT, NSS, and
                                                                                               IT Resource Management
                                                                                             • Includes the connected
                                                                                               people, processes, and
                                                                                               equipment to support DoD
                                                                                               and Warfighter mission
                                                                                             • All DoD Components are
                                                                                               entities within this
Capability   Capability   Capability   Capabilities   Capability   Capability   Capability     environment not pieces,
                                                                                               parts, connective tissue or
                                                                                               backbone but entities
  Portfolio Portfolio Portfolio        Portfolios     Portfolio Portfolio Portfolio

                                                                                             • DoD Components must
                                        DOTMLPF
                                                                                               exercise authorities and
   Program Program Program             Programs         Program Program Program
                                                                                               processes to ensure that
                                                                                               this environment is:
                          Connected IT/NSS                                                     – Interoperable,
                                                                                                 supportable, enabler of
                                                                                                 DoD and Warfighter
                                                                                                 mission success
             Coalition Information Exchange Vision
              Network Enterprise for Seamless Information Sharing




                        US-Mission Partner
                                Environment (SOAs)
                    -E-mail, Web, Service Oriented Architectures
                          - Enterprise Services, Tailorable/User
                                 – Defined/Shareable COP
                     -Comprehensive/Universal Data Standards/Tagging
                        -Event-, Role-, and Content-Based Sharing
                                  - Identity Management
                            -Combined Tactics and Procedures




Common Suite of Information Services to All Mission Partners with Controlled
  Access to C2/Intel Applications on a Common Network – Access is Based on
                          Country Trust and User Role
                            Panel Question?
      "What are your greatest barriers, challenges or
       impediments to delivering operational agility?"




Our collective efforts are essential to this nation’s ability to enable net-
                   centric forces today and tomorrow
Maj Gen Alan Cowles
National Guard Bureau (J-6)
Director, Command, Control,
Communications and Computer
(C-4)Systems Division
                          Homeland Defense in Depth
                                An Operational Force—A National Asset

                      Regional                Critical          Theater
                                           Infrastructure       Security                      Overseas
                    Consequence                                                               Conflict
   Law                                       Protection       Cooperation
                    Management
Enforcement                                    (CIP)                        Preemptive and
                      (EMAC)                              Physical
(MSCLEA)                          National                                Retaliatory Strikes
            Local & State         Security                or Cyber
            Consequence                                  Attack on      Missile
                                   Special
            Management                                   Homeland      Defense/
                                   Events
                                                     Border              Air                   1
     Local & State          Counter     Airport     Security         Sovereignty
        Crisis
                                                                                               Win
                             Narco-     Security
      Management           Terrorism                                                        decisively
                                                                                   2        in one
                                                                            Swiftly         region
                                                                  4          defeat
                  Governor/State Equities                       Deter      efforts in
                          1                                   forward in two regions
                  Defense of the Homeland                    four critical
                                                                regions
                            Operational Title 32                                   Military
 Civil
                 National Interest/Control, Decentralized Execution
                                    A Joint Operational View of all NG IT Attributes
TACTICAL OPERATIONAL STATEGIC



                                  AOR-Level                             NGB
                                                           ARNG                  ANG
                                                           Operatio    JOC/                       GAP              Combatant Commanders
                                                                                 Operati
                                                           ns          JCCC      ons                                      (JOC/TNCC)
                                                           Center                Center                             & Interagency Partners


                                                                                            GAP
                                State/Territory-Level
                                                                                      JFHQ-State
                                                                                        JOC/C4                                            Other Stakeholders
                                                                                      Management
                                                                                                                                             Other JFHQ-State
                                                                           GAP                     State/Territory
                                                                                                                                           FEMA Regional Opns Ctr
                                                                                                    Emergency                                 FBI—State-Level
                                                                                                  Operations Center                            State Agencies
                                                                                                       (EOC)                                       Others
                                                                         Joint Task Force
                                                                           (Title 10/32)                                    GAP
                                Incident-Level                                                      Other Stakeholders
                                                                                                       Local EOCs
                                                                 GAP                                  Coord Officers
                                                                                                     (SCO/FCO/DCO)
                                                                        HLD/DSCA                                             INCIDENT
                                                                                                  FEMA/FBI—Incident Area
                                                                                                                               AREA
                                                                     Military Response                    Others
                                 C2, Info Sharing,                   • National Guard
                                Collaboration, and/or                                                         GAP
                                                                     • Active Component
                                    Coordination                                                                             Incident Command System
                                   Requirements                      • Other RCs                                           Mobile Incident Command Post
                                                                                                                           Civilian Emergency Responders

                                                                                                    GAP       Operational Process and Supporting IT Requirements
                                          Federal Response Request


                                                                               Active Duty
                                                                               Other RCs
NG JIEE                                                                                                             NG JIEE Full
Limited                                                       COCOM JOCs          NGB JOC and
                                                                                                                      Access
Access                                                          & TNCCs              JCCC

                                         FBI SIOC                                                  DHS HSOC




                      State JFHQ
                                                                                                                   State EOC
                      JOC & NOC




           JTF Comms
             Support
                                                        Multi-agency Horizontal                                             Local
                                                                                                                           EOC(s)
            Element(s)                                   Information Sharing
                                                       Content Delivery Network
                                                                                                                       Incident
                                                                                                                         Site
              JTF JOC (T32)                                                                                           Command
                                                               Identification and Authentication
                                                                                                                        Post(s)




                                   JTF JOC (T10)                                                    NG Armories


                                                              JTF (T10/32)         NG Air Bases

                                                                                                                  Shape and Color Legend


   CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ENVIRONMENT                                                                                      Federal Military

   -
   -
       Parallel
       Redundant
                                                                    JCCSE
                                                                                                                           State Military
   -
   -
       Seamless Connectivity
       24x7 Situational Awareness                                Information
   -   Adaptive Routing as opposed to Deterministic Routing
   -
   -
       Multiple Levels of Classification
       Multiple Levels of Trust                                    Sharing                                                 Federal Civilian



                                                                 Environment                                               State Civilian
                      Proposed Capability Delivery Phases

             June 2007                        TBD                  TBD                      TBD            TBD

                                               JIEE                  JIEE                    JIEE          JIEE
                JIEE 4.0
                                               V4.1                  V4.X                    V5.0           V6?

 Event-Driven Database                   Phase I              Phase II             Phase III          Future
Enhancements                          Enhancements         Enhancements           Enhancements       TBD
Event Driven Data Architecture        Implement formal     Critical State level   Additional State
                                      Configuration        data integration       Interoperability
Mission Data linked to Events         Management           and interoperability
Situation Reporting                   processes for JIEE                          NG COP
                                      and plan for         Initial Integrated     Integration
Standardized Battle Update Brief      upcoming releases    Portal and GIS         •Critical asset
                                                           Capability based on    tracking
AKO Single Sign On / CAC - enabled                         Requirements           •Layer
                                      Discover State                              management
Web Services Enabled (.NET            Interoperability     Additional Discovery
 Platform)                            Functional           and Analysis of        DHS Common
                                      Requirements and     potential              Operational
Available to Federal and State        Validate             requirements           Database Initial
  Mission Partners over AKO.                                                      data sharing
                                      Provide
                                      enhancements
                                                                                  TBD
                                      approved by
                                      Stakeholders



                                     Increasing Capabilities
        Strategic Information Sharing Challenges
                   Military – Civilian Mission Integration


• Coalition Policy / Governance
   – Enabling a Military-Civilian netcentric environment (coordinate
     JCCSE Initiative, DoD ISE, PM ISE, DHS HSIN initiatives)
   – Ensure mission information sharing environment is fully validated
     from ―end to end‖ and adjust policies as necessary to enable agile
     coalition environment
   – Interagency coordination around capability management, leveraging
     capabilities (e.g., FEMA State Interop Initiative or JIEE use by
     USNORTHCOM)
• Operational Issues
   – Interagency Information Management (DHS, DOD, NGB) Planning
     Underway and Draft IM Plan developed
   – Exercise the IM Plan / Information Sharing Environment and provide
     feedback to improve IM and synchronize mission essential
     processes
   – Operation Control Group (OCG) as interagency group supporting IM
     evolution
      Strategic Information Sharing Challenges
                  Military – Civilian Mission Integration

• Developing an HLD/DSCA ―Enterprise‖ Architecture
   – State and Federal Information Sharing infrastructure to enable
     interoperability
   – Coordinate network / IA policies and provisioning of capabilities
     to support mission integration
We have made great
             advancements…




     but we have not reached
             the end-state…yet.
RDML Kendall Card
US Northern Command (J-6)
Director,
Command Control Systems
                        Dimensions of Information Sharing



              National Guard                                      DHS                                          NORAD-USNORTHCOM
                                                                             Data
                                                                            Tagged
   Secret                                                                                           Secret
 NOFORN                                          Secret                                           NOFORN
                                               NOFORN
    Secret                                                                                          Secret
Releasable                                        Secret                                        Releasable
                                              Releasable

   Unclas                             Medical Sensitive                                             Unclas                            Medical Sensitive
                                                  Unclas                             Medical Sensitive
                                FBI                                                                                             FBI
   Internet                                                                    FBI                  Internet
                                              Internet
                             Law Enforcement Sensitive                                                                     Law Enforcement Sensitive
                                                                            Law Enforcement Sensitive




              TX   LA   FL                                 FEMA DHS   NCS                                ARNORTH JTF-N JTF-CS


                                                               Users
                                                           Registered and
                                                             Authorized
       What I REALLY need is a ….

Centrally managed and funded,
redundant, GIG-centric, protected,
endurable, survivable system of
systems which enables optimal
Multinational Information Sharing and
cross domain execution, providing
enterprise secure access to the edge.

….and World Peace
BG Mark Bowman
US Central Command (J-6)
Director, Command, Control,
Communications and Computer
(C-4)Systems




―It takes a Network to defeat a
Network‖
   Challenge

• Current multinational information exchange
  frameworks are cumbersome for the user and
  increasingly unsupportable for the maintainer

• Why?
   – Current policy requires physically separated networks for
     each community of interest (COI) and classification domain
   – Information exchange between these multiple networks
     induces the requirement for multiple Cross Domain Solutions
     (CDS)
       Impact of Multiple Networks




USCENTCOM HQ: 10 different networks   Affordable separation technologies are
                                            evolving, yet still immature
Cross Domain Solution
Process/Standardization




                        3-13 months
         33 Guards in
        USCENTCOM
             AOR




   Bridging the Information Sharing Gap
     Information Sharing Architect

• DoD needs a dedicated Information Sharing Architect
  – The UCDMO construct for information protection is a good start,
    however….
  – A similar organization is required to develop key multinational
    information exchange requirements and operational
    architectures
    • Establish best-of-breed process to ―down select‖ from existing
      solutions (close fight)
    • Determine which capabilities are
      ready for programmatic insertion
      (near term fight)
    • Identify capability gaps for the science
      and technology community to research
      (deep fight)
  Single Policy Framework for Information
  Separation


                             EAL/SML




                               UCDMO




• PL – Protection Level                • SABI – Secret and Below Interoperability
• EAL – Evaluation Assurance Level     • TSABI – Top Secret and Below Interoperability
• SML – Strength of Mechanism Level    • CDS – Cross Domain Solutions
       Funding




                            =

SIPRNET/
REL DMZ


                 CENTRIXS
                                =
                                    ?
Summary




  Policy     Technology



 Architect


             Incentivized
 Funding       Industry
               Partners
Brig Gen Dave Warner
Defense Information Systems
Agency (DISA)
Director of C2 Programs,
PEO C2C
                              Unclassified

               Tenets of Net-Centric Warfare




                                      C2 Apps
               Core Enterprise
                  Services
                   (NCES)

                                   Information
          DoD                       Assurance
       Net-Centric                   Strategy
      Data Strategy
                        Global
                      Connectivity
                      (Transformational
                      Communications)




Global connectivity, real-time collaboration, and rapid
       and continuous information exchange
                              Unclassified                29
                             Unclassified

                       Capabilities Required


1.   Ability to share, collaborate, and synchronize information with
     mission partners

2.   Ability to interoperate with and leverage mission partners

3.   Ability to extend MNIS capabilities to mission partners


4.   Resolving non-materiel information sharing approaches is
     essential regardless of the material approach chosen


                                                  Observe
                                                                     Orient

                 Compress and facilitate!
                                                     Act

                                                                  Decide


                              Unclassified
                                 Unclassified
                Coalition Information Sharing (CIS) Problem
                               (Today – Stove-piped)




• Timelines to establish domains are
  long

• Neither Standard nor Transparent

• Drives ―swivel chair‖ Gymnastics

• Dis-connected National C2 networks

• Need to know vs. Obligation to share




                           Physical Netting
                                  Unclassified
                                           Unclassified

                       Shifting From Regional to Enterprise Focus

Then …December 2004
• DISA assume lead for CENTRIXS
• Began centralizing PACOM and CENTCOM CENTRIXS and Global Griffin
     Now …Since September 2006
     • Griffin develops new services to support allied operations
        – Bi-Lateral CHAT / Web Services
     • CENTRIXS remains regionally focused, but…
        –   Re-Engineering the larger CENTRIXS networks
        –   Transitioning additional CENTCOM, PACOM and National Enclave services
        –   Mapping regional CENTRIXS networks for the first time
        –   QDR footprint Expansion in five COCOM AORs

                 Next …not your current MNIS PMO
                 • MNIS Objective Capability AoA kick-off September 2007
                     – Draft AoA to influence POM 10
                     – JROC submission by Spring 2008
                 • MNIS Objective Capability ICD expected in December 2007
                 • CCER Funding Proposal submitted for FY09-11
                 • Transferring network services to GIG Enterprise Services FY08
                 • Planning future coalition enterprise services & capabilities
                                           Unclassified
                                                             Unclassified
                                                  CCER Overview
                                                               Spiral 1


Current                  COCOM
                                                                                Convergence:
                                                                             GCTF & MCFI (Spiral 1)
                                                 COALITION

                        GCTF                     PARTNERS




                                   EMBASSIES




                                                                                         COCOMs
               Global Counterterrorism Task Force                                                             Coalition

                                                                                     CMIL.MIL                 Partners


                         COCOM
                                                                                                  Embassies
                                                COALITION

                       MCFI                     PARTNERS




                                  EMBASSIES



                                                                  What CCER Brings:

          Multinational Coalition Forces - Iraq                   - Net-Centric approach (Global Enterprise)
                                                                  - Single common coalition network environment (CMIL)
                                                                  - Centralized network management
                          COCOM




                           CFE                                    - Common core applications (NCES and NECC)
                             EMBASSIES
                                                                  - Ability to quickly build / scale COIs

                   Coalition ―Four-eyes‖                          - Ability to seamlessly expand network
                                                                  - Reduces cross domain requirements
                                                                  - Reduces O&M

                                               Logical vs. Physical                                                       6
                                                             Unclassified
                                  Unclassified
                       Coalition Info Sharing Roadmap

        Physical                   Hybrid                   Logical
       Separation                Separation                Separation
      Current - 2009             2010-2012                 2013-2016




                                                                        OBJECTIVE SYSTEM
    COCOM/COI CENTRIC        PARTIAL ENTERPRISE            ENTERPRISE
                                   CENTRIC                   CENTRIC
   ExtraNet – Unclass
                             DOD ExtraNet Portal
     Std, Dev, Test
                                                             AIS
    CFE, ISAF, CNFC,                                       Enables:
CENTRIXS- J / K, Bi-lats…
 CENTRIXS Consolidate/              CCER                    NECC
Standardize svcs @ DECCs                                    NCES
          CCER                                              DISN
  Assess Tech, Dev, Test
        Griffin                    Griffin                 Enterprise
      CDS Baseline             Enterprise CDS              Gateways

                  MNIS/AIS AOA
    Info Sharing I-Plan                       PK Enabled
   Coalition IS CONOPS
      CCER CONOPS
   CCER Migration Plan            Unclassified
                          Unclassified

                        Conclusion


• What we need help with from Industry!
  – Standardized Open Architecture
  – Data Tagged
  – IA Built In
  – Common Solutions




                          Unclassified
Brig Gen Bradley Butler
HQ Air Force Space Command
Director, Logistics and
Warfighting Integration
Chief Information Officer
          Expeditionary Air and Space Force


                 Light




     Lean                   Lethal

Information is a KEY part of the equation
               AFSPC A4/6 Focus Areas


JOB #1:

Ensure Availability, Sustainability &
Integration of ICBM & Space C2 & ISR
Systems


CIO
Better IT Tools (Information/Knowledge)
for AFSPC Airmen and Their Families
-- Wherever They Live and Work!
                JFCC SPACE


Integrating and Delivering
Space Capabilities and
Effects for the Joint and
Coalition Warfighters
                                   Joint Space Operations Center



         CDRUSSTRATCOM

                                 Coordination & Direct Support    THEATER JFACC &
          CDR JFCC SPACE
                                                                    DIRSPACEFOR

              JSpOC Director


   Strategy         Combat Ops   Combat Plans          ISR

- Define          - Produce      - Monitor &     - Target &
  Objectives         JSTO          Redirect         Assess

 Optimizes Assigned/Attached Space Forces
Through the Joint Space Tasking Order (JSTO)                      Integrated Space
                                                                 Effects Supporting
                                                                   JFC Objectives
                                                                                               JFCC SPACE
                                                                                      Presentation of Forces


                                                                              Thule



                                   Clear
                                                                                          Fylingdales
                                                                                            Oakhanger       Landstuhl
                                                            Colorado        Prospect Harbor                  Stuttgart
                                                            Springs
                                            Camp Roberts
          Osan
                                                                Schriever     Fort Meade        Moron
                                                                                                                    Qatar
                 Fort Buckner                  Point Mugu                   Fort Detrick
                                Kaena Pt                               Stennis Space Center
                 Guam                          Maui

                                Kwajalein                                             Antigua

                            Cavalier
                                                                                                Ascension                   Diego Garcia
  Cheyenne Mtn   Peterson
                                                            New Boston
  Beale               Buckley                                 Cape Cod
                       Schriever
Onizuka                                                Dahlgren
                    Socorro
                    Socorro
Vandenberg
                                    Eglin          AF Fence                                                       NAVY
                     Holloman
                                                   Cape Canaveral                                                 ARMY
                                                   Patrick
                                                                                                                  AIR FORCE
                                    On Any Given Day…



                                                USEUCOM
                                             Exercises




                    USNORTHCOM
Nuclear Posturing
                                               USCENTCOM
                    Hurricane                      OIF/OEF

      USPACOM




                                USSOUTHCOM
                                      Space Capabilities: Critical to Military
                                                                 Operations

    Position, Navigation &                                        Satellite
        Timing (PNT)                                           Communications
• Enroute navigation for all forces
                                                        •    Land, sea & air forces comm
• Precision-guided munitions
                                                        •    Emergency Action Messages
• Personnel & aircraft tracking in
                                                        •    Unmanned Aerial System Ops
  support of Combat Search &
                                                        •    C2 dissemination (CTO)
  Rescue (CSAR)
                                                        •    Theater broadcast
• Network timing source
• Launch vehicle tracking

                                                                  Environmental
                                                                   Monitoring
 Missile Warning (MW)                                    • Mission Planning
• Force protection posturing                             • Munitions loading decisions
• Geolocate for attack ops                               • MW conditions assessment
• Cueing data for missile                                • CONUS weather monitoring &
  defense                                                  forecasting
• Cueing for CSAR                                        • Solar activity impacts to space
                                                           operations & communications
                                                                                           43
                                           Focus Areas/Challenges
                                             “Where we need to Improve”

               Schriever IV Wargame – “Big Ten”
Objective 1 (Defend/Augment/Replace)              We need to shift from:
    1. Defensive Counterspace Ops Planning
    2. Space Situational Awareness
    3. Required SpaceArchitecture
                                                  “Force Enhancement”
    4. Operationally Responsive Space                       to
Objective 2 (C2 Relationships)
    5. Decide – Observe – Act Construct
                                                    “Responsive Force
    6. Global / Regional Aspect of Space             Enhancement”
Objective 3 (Integrated Operations)                        in a
    7. Evolution from Big 2 to Big 4
    8. Coalition Operations
                                                 “Contested Environment”
Objective 4 (Homeland Defense)                                    Gen Bob Kehler
    9. Space Support to Homeland Defense
                                                                     AFSPC/CC
Space Policy & Rules of Engagement (ROE)
    10. Sufficiency of Space Policy & ROE
        Space Situation Awareness (SSA)

 Spacecraft  are now threatened in every orbit, at
 all altitudes by both Directed Energy and Kinetic
 Energy weapon systems

 Current
        systems are taxed to keep up with space
 awareness demands
     Ground-based space surveillance systems


 Space is no longer a sanctuary; National Space Policy
         mandates protection of space assets


                     Fly – Fight – Win
          Space Situation Awareness (SSA)
           SSA is knowledge of all aspects of space.
                            Achieving it requires:

Monitoring U.S. space                          Detailed
assets, capabilities, and                 reconnaissance of
      operations                        space objects of interest



    Intelligence on                     Monitoring and analyzing
    adversary space                      conditions in the space
        activities                           environment



Surveillance of all space               Conducting integrated
   objects and space                      tasking, processing,
        activities                          fusion, analysis,
                                        dissemination, archiving

                             Fly – Fight – Win
                        Interoperability--Enablers & Solutions
•   Architectures – Know Roles & Players
     • SOA Framework is key – Universal Core Services
•   Data – Leverage COIs (e.g. SSA COI)
     • What do I need?
     • Who has it?
     • How do I get it?
•   Cross-Domain Sharing
     • Fusion Tools
     • Collaboration Tools
•   Wargaming & Experimentation
     • Integrated space, air & ground capabilities & support for COCOMS
     • Explore Title 50, 10 & 32 policy seams
     • Explore & Tighten Relationships/TTPs
         • JSpOC & NROC
         • JFCC Space & JTF-GNO—e.g. Leverage Transformational Comm

           Warfighter Focus Always !!!
                               DIRSPACEFOR in COCOMS
                             Space Impact to Theater
                                     “Improving Interoperability”



• Increased dependence on space demands increased
space integration
   • More calls for space pros in theater
   • Tightly integrated day-to-day reachback support
   • Effects focused operations at tactical space units




 Detailed, real-time collaboration must occur to
ensure dependable and continuous space effects
     Space Capabilities/Effects
               and
      Warfighting Integration

      “Critical Enablers for Joint
             Warfighting”


―There’s no GIG (Global Information Grid)
            Without Space!!‖
                                      49
Space-enabled Warfighter




                           50
Questions
   ?
 Defense Forum:
 Coalition and Joint
 Interoperability
  Solving the Policy, Technical,
  Procedures and Operational
  Issues
Defense Forum:
Coalition and Joint
Interoperability
Solving the Policy, Technical,
Procedures and Operational
Issues

				
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