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Francis Bacon_ Galileo_ and Isaac Newton promoted the idea that

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Francis Bacon_ Galileo_ and Isaac Newton promoted the idea that Powered By Docstoc
					Pascack Valley High School
CP World History

Francis Bacon, Galileo, and Isaac Newton promoted the idea that knowledge should be based on

experimentation and observation.


The desire for wealth, fame, glory, or to spread religious beliefs led European explorers to
discover previously unknown lands.
True


During the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment, one similarity in the work of many
scientists and philosophers was that they

examined natural laws governing the universe.

Which statement best describes the effects of the works of Nicolas Copernicus, Galileo Galilei,
Sir Isaac Newton, and René Descartes?

The scientific method was used to solve problems.

A major result of the Age of Exploration was

the end of regional isolation and the beginning of a period of European global domination.


Europeans could not have made their voyages of discovery without certain key advances in
technology, such as the development of the caravel and the use of an astrolabe.
True


Spain was the first country to launch large-scale voyages of exploration, thanks to the pioneering
efforts of Henry the Navigator.
        False

Ferdinand Magellan was the first explorer to circumnavigate the globe.
      True




                                                                                                1
Which European country conquered the Aztecs and the Incas, the Americas’ two greatest native
empires?
       Spain


Due to the Treaty of Tordesillas, Portugal’s only colony in the Americas was
      Brazil


Under the __________________ system, a colonist was given land and a number of Native
Americans to work the land for him. In return, the colonist was required to teach the native
workers about Christianity.
        encomienda




                                                                                               2
the following is NOT a basic principal of mercantilism?
         Countries do not need their own source of raw materials and precious metals.




The Native American population of Mexico in 1492 has been estimated at 25 million; the
  population in 1608 has been estimated at 1.7 million. This decrease in population was mainly
  a result of

diseases introduced by the Spanish.




Which explanation for the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire is best supported by this
illustration?

Spanish technology was a major factor in the defeat of the Aztecs.

Which was a characteristic of the policy of mercantilism followed by Spanish colonial rulers in
Latin America?



                                                                                              3
A.               the colonies were required to provide raw materials to Spain and to purchase
     Spanish manufactured goods.
B.

      Before the rise of the Atlantic slave trade, slavery was unknown in Africa.

             False



     The triangular trade took place between Europe, Africa, and the Americas.
             True


     In colonial Latin America, the main purpose of the encomienda system was to

     provide a steady labor supply for early colonists.




     ―He once sent fifty horsemen with pikes (spears) to destroy an entire province. Not a single
     human being survived that massacre, neither women nor children nor aged infirm…This terrible
     massacre was punishment for a trifling offense: some Indians had not responded to a summons
     promptly enough when the tyrant had commanded that they bring him a load of maize (corn)…,
     or else had asked for more Indians to be assigned to serve him or his comrades. And there was no
     place where the Indians could take refuge…‖



      The purpose of the author was most likely to
     encourage the colonial government to change its policies toward native peoples.




     The Treaty of Tordesillas (1494), concerning Latin America, and the Berlin Conference (1884-
     1885), concerning Africa, were similar in that each agreement

           divided each area into European-controlled segments.


     The African slave trade across the Atlantic between 1450 and 1800

     was part of a larger triangular trade pattern.



                                                                                                    4
The printing press, the astrolabe, and the Mercator projection were technological advances that
    contributed to the
exploration and overseas expansion of the colonial empires.


Speaker A         ―Good government stresses the importance of the nation and accepts the
                  rights of the individual only if the interests of the individual are the same as
                  those of the nation.‖

Speaker B         ―The person of the king is sacred and to attack him in any way is to attack
                  religion itself. The respect given to a king is religious in nature.‖

Speaker C         ―All human beings are born free and equal with a right to life and liberty. It
                  is the duty of government to protect these natural rights of its citizens.‖

Speaker D         ―Our goal will not be achieved by democracy or liberal reforms, but by
                  blood and iron. Only then will we be successful. No nation achieves
                  greatness or unity without the traumatic experiences of war.‖



Which speaker’s statement best reflects the ideas of the Enlightenment?

Speaker C


Which quotation was most likely made from an absolute monarch?

     “I am the state.”




                                                                                                     5
 Speaker A        ―The state of monarchy is supreme on earth: for kings are not only God’s
                  lieutenant upon Earth and sit upon God’s throne, but even by God himself
                  are called gods.‖

 Speaker B        ―If government fails to fulfill the end for which it was established – the
                  preservation of the individual’s right to life, liberty, and property – the
                  people have the right to dissolve government.‖

 Speaker C        ―But if the contract between the ruler and rule is violated by the ruler? He
                  thus becomes a tyrant, a criminal who forfeits his rights to the obedience of
                  his subjects, who may now exercise their right to rebel and form a new
                  compact.‖

 Speaker D        ―The ruling authority in the state, the sovereign, must have supreme power,
                  or society will collapse and the anarchy of the state of nature will return.‖


Which two speakers would support absolutism?
A and D

 One similarity between the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment is that both

        Emphasized the value of human reasoning.


―We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by
their creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of
happiness.‖


The ideas expressed in the quotation are based primarily on the writings of

John Locke.

 Writers of the Enlightenment were primarily interested in
changing the relationship between people and their government.




The writings of the Enlightenment philosophers in Europe encouraged later political revolution
    with their support of

.

                                                                                                    6
the natural rights of man.


 John Locke and Jean Jacques Rousseau would be most likely to support

    the right of citizens to decide the best form of government.


―If man in the state of nature is free, if he is absolute lord of his own person and possessions,
why will he give up his freedom? Why will he put himself under the control of any person or
institution? The obvious answer is that rights in the state of nature are constantly exposed to the
attack of others. Since every man is equal and since most men do not concern themselves with
equity and justice, the enjoyment of rights in the state of nature is unsafe and insecure. Hence
each man joins in society with others to preserve his life, liberty, and property.‖

                                               —John Locke, Two Treatise of Government (1690)



 This statement supports the right for the

formation of government based on a social contract.



 During the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment, one similarity in the work of many
    scientists and philosophers was that they

examined natural laws governing the universe.


 One important result of the French Revolution was that

France lost its spirit of nationalism.


"We hold these truths to be self-evident: That all men are created equal; that they are endowed by
their creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of
happiness."



 This quotation is evidence that some of the basic ideas in the Declaration of Independence were

reflections of the philosophies of the European Enlightenment.

In the Old Regime in France, which two estates held all of the power?

                                                                                                   7
The clergy and the nobility.



One important result of the French Revolution was that
      France enjoyed a lengthy period of peace and prosperity.


What was the important 18th century technology that served to catalyze the Industrial
    Revolution?
The internal combustion engine.



―It was a town of red brick, or of brick that would have been red if the smoke and ashes had
allowed it; but as matters stood it was a town of unnatural red and black like the painted face of a
savage. It was a town of machinery and tall chimneys, out of which interminable serpents of
smoke trailed themselves forever and ever, and never got uncoiled. It had a black canal in it,
and a river that ran purple with ill smelling die.‖
                                                                    - Charles Dickens, Hard Times



 Charles Dickens is describing conditions caused by the

Industrial Revolution

 Which problem is the subject of the passage?

Urban pollution




 Who invented the cotton gin?

    Eli Whitney




                                                                                                  8
Who brought textile machinery plans from Great Britain to America?

Samuel Slater




In many developing nations, rising levels of pollution and continued housing shortages are a
   direct result of
   increased urbanization.


Workers in the 19th and 20th centuries fought for all the following labor reforms except
medicine.

A major result of the Industrial Revolution was the
concentration of workers in urban areas.



Speaker A        ―Human labor is nothing more than a commodity, which is offered for sale
                 in the market place. It is governed by the laws of supply and demand. If the
                 wages are increased for one generation when the supply of workers is low,
                 people will have more children and there will be an oversupply in the next.
                 To prevent this, wages should not be increased in the first place.‖

Speaker B        ―Government should end its ideas of mercantilism. Prices should be
                 determined by the laws of supply and demand, not by government
                 regulation. Free trade and competition are necessary to encourage the
                 production of goods that are of good quality and low in price.‖

Speaker C        ―The capitalist class will never give up the ownership of the means of
                 production peacefully. Workers should band together and overthrow the
                 owners and secure for themselves the right to ownership. Inevitably, the
                 workers will win.‖

Speaker D        ―Economic equality can be achieved by everyone cooperating in
                 communities established to relieve the horrible conditions in the factories.
                 Human nature can be adapted so that people can live in harmony.‖


Which speaker most closely supports the ideas of Karl Marx?

                                                                                                9
Speaker C


Which speaker represents laissez-faire economics?

Speaker B


 Nationalism is best defined as

the loyalty of a people to their values, traditions, and a geographic region.

According to the theories of Karl Marx, history can be viewed as a

continuous struggle between economic classes.

― … you, African, suffered like a beast
Your ashes strewn to the wind that roams the desert,
Your tyrants built the lustrous, magic temples
To preserve your soul, preserve your suffering.
Barbaric right of fist and the white rights to whip,
You had the right to die, you could also weep.‖

                                               - Patrice Lumumba, ―Dawn in the Heart of Africa‖


This African poem is discussing the evils of
Imperialism.


 The tyrants referred to in the poem were

The Europeans governments that had divided the continent of Africa into colonies.



A primary purpose for building the Suez Canal was to

increase trade between the Middle East, Europe and Asia.




                                                                                            1
                                                                                            0
 The process of one people ruling or controlling another is called

imperialism.
.

 Which is an accurate statement about the creation of new nations in Africa by European
    imperialist nations during the 1800’s?

the continent was divided equally among the colonial powers.


 After 1880, European nations sought colonies in Africa primarily because the Europeans were

competing of raw materials and markets.


 The 19th century term ―White Man’s Burden‖ reflects the idea that

imperialism was opposed by most Europeans.


 In the 19th century, the independence movements in Latin America were greatly influenced by
     the

    American Revolution.


In the past, European nations have conquered other lands, made them into colonies, and
controlled their economies.



This statement describes a situation that resulted from the
industrialization of Europe and the need for raw materials.




                                                                                               11
―Take up the White Man’s burden—
Send forth the best ye breed
Go bind your sons to exile
To serve your captives’ need;
To wait, in heavy harness,
On fluttered folk and wild—
Your new-caught, sullen peoples,
Half-devil and half-child.‖
                                               - Rudyard Kipling, ―The White Man’s Burden‖



The phrase ―White Man’s burden‖ in this excerpt refers to the
negative attitude of Europeans toward peoples of the non-Western world.


       On the eve of the French Revolution, France was the wealthiest, most influential, and
most populous nation in Europe. Its population was approximately

      24 million.

       The immediate cause of the outbreak of revolution in 1789 was

   the government’s financial crisis.




58. creoles                       A. Colonists who had been born in Spain.

59. peninsulares                  B. Colonists of European descent who were born in the
                                  colonies.

60. Miguel Hidalgo                C. Creole priest who encouraged the Mexican peasants to
                                  revolt against those in rule and became known as the Father of
                                  Mexican Independence.

A primary purpose for building the Suez Canal was to

increase trade between the Middle East, Europe and Asia.




                                                                                               1
                                                                                               2
The process of one people ruling or controlling another is called

imperialism.


Which is an accurate statement about the creation of new nations in Africa by European
   imperialist nations during the 1800’s?

the continent was divided equally among the colonial powers.


After 1880, European nations sought colonies in Africa primarily because the Europeans were

competing of raw materials and markets.


The 19th century term ―White Man’s Burden‖ reflects the idea that

Europeans had a responsibility to improve the lives of the colonial peoples.

In the 19th century, the independence movements in Latin America were greatly influenced by
    the

   American Revolution.




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