National Parks by nyut545e2


   By Rachael Dean
What are they?
“A National Park is a reserve of land, usually
 owned by a national government, which is
 protected from most human development.”

The International Union for Conservation
of Nature (IUCN) is an international
organisation dedicated to natural resource
conservation and National Parks come
under category 2 of IUCN standards.
    What is Category II?
This category states that a National Park is a
natural area of land and/or sea, designated to:
 1. Protect the ecological integrity of one or
 more ecosystems for future generations

 2. Exclude exploitation or occupation inimical
 to the purposes of designation of the area

 3. Provide a foundation for spiritual, scientific,
 educational, recreational, and visitor
 opportunities, all of which must be
 environmentally and culturally compatible
Some countries also designate sites of
special cultural, scientific or historical
importance as national parks, or as
special entities within their national
park systems. Other countries use a
different scheme for historical site
preservation. Some of these sites are
awarded the title World Heritage Site
by the UNESCO.
  In the beginning…
It was the English poet William Wordsworth in
1810 who described the Lake District as…
 “a sort of national property in which every man
   has a right and interest who has an eye to
          perceive and a heart to enjoy”

However, is was the Scottish-American naturalist
John Muir who proved inspirational in the
foundation of national parks, anticipating many
ideas of conservationism, environmentalism, and
the animal rights movement.
  Where are they?
National parks are usually located in
places which have been largely
undeveloped, and often feature areas
with exceptional native animals,
plants and ecosystems (particularly
endangered examples of such),
biodiversity, or unusual geological
features. Occasionally, national parks
are declared in developed areas with
the goal of returning the area to
resemble its original state as closely
as possible.
Main Aims
Most National Parks have a dual role as
offering a refuge for wildlife as well as
being popular tourist destinations.

However…managing the conflict between
these two roles can become problematic...
Parks can be reserves for substantial natural
resources, such as timber and minerals. The
balance of the demand for extraction of
these resources, against the damage this
might cause, is often a very important
challenge in national park management.
Some National parks have been subject to
illegal logging and other
exploitation, sometimes
because of political corruption.
This threatens the integrity
of many valuable habitats.
Case Study:
 The Lake
The Lake District
National Park is one of
twelve National Parks in
the United Kingdom. As
you can see from the
map, The Lake District is
situated in North-West
In more detail…   The Lake
                  District lies
                  entirely within
                  Cumbria and is
                  one of
                  England’s few
                  regions as well
                  as including 15
                  lakes, which is
                  why it attracts
                  a large number
                  of visitors
The Lakes, as the region
  is also known, were
 made famous during
 the early 19th Century
   by the poetry and
  writings of William       The park covers
 Wordsworth and the          230,000 ha of
       Lake Poets.             land and is
                             dominated by
                           formations left by
                            the last Ice Age.
The Lake District hosts a very wide variety
of landscapes including…
Historically, farming, particularly
sheep farming was the major industry
in this region.
           Another major lakeland industry was
           the mining of copper, lead, barite,
           graphite and slate from the 16th to
           the 19th century.

However, tourism has now grown
rapidly and become the area’s
primary source of income.
Tourist Information
 Facts & Figures
The Lake District National Park was created by the
National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949
and came into being on 15 August 1951

There are over 200             The Lake District National
people who work for the           Park attracts over 12
Lake District National         million visitors every year.
Park Authority including
                               Britain’s National Parks are
rangers, advisors in visitor
                               funded directly from
centres, forestry & estate
                               government grants via
teams, ecologists,
                               DEFRA and don’t receive
archaeologists, admin
                               funding from council tax
staff and volunteers.
                               or other local taxes.
   The Lake District National Park Authority’s
overall spending for 2006/2007 is £7.4 million
- £176 for every person living in the region or 62
             pence for every visitor.
 £6.3 million of this comes from a grant from
DEFRA and about a third of income comes from
   trading activities like car parking, planning
application fees and sales at information centres.
Purposes of the Authority
The Lake District National Park Authority was
established in 1951.
As set out in the Environment Act 1995, it’s statutory
purposes are…
1. To conserve and enhance the natural beauty, wildlife and
cultural heritage of the Park

2. To promote opportunities for the understanding and
enjoyment of the special qualities of the Park by the public

3. To seek to foster the economic and social well being of
local communities within the park by working closely with
the agencies and local authorities.
 The Legal Bit
  Section 62 of the Environment Act 1995
     makes it clear that if National park
  purposes are in conflict the conservation
             must have priority
This is known as the…
  The Sandford Principle
This principle stems from the Sandford’s
Committee’s recommendation, in 1974 that…

   “Enjoyment of national Parks shall
   be in a manner and by such means
     as will leave their natural beauty
    unimpaired for the enjoyment of
       this and future generations”
As spring approaches the lake District comes alive
with a variety of flowering plants including…
For the children or young at heart there’s a
large adventure playground at Brockhole visitor

There’s also an eco centre where visitor s are
encourages to help the environment.

Coniston Boating Centre also proves to be a
popular visitor attraction with regular lake
cruises and other water sports on offer.
There are plenty of parking facilities available
around the park where you can leave your car
too explore the Park on foot, by bike or even
by boat.
        The park is also accessible to all and there
        are over 20 “Miles Without Stiles” routes
        for easy pushchair and wheelchair access.

Information centres are also a good source
to help you get around and enjoy your
stay as much as possible.
With over 12 million visitors attracted to the
area every year, there are obviously going to be
certain pressures.
People are the biggest threat to areas like the
Lake District as they can…
If these problems weren’t controlled, the area
would lose it’s natural beauty, so this is where
the work of the Lake District National Park
Authority comes in.
   They have to follow what is known at the
  National Park Management Plan which is a
 national strategy used in all UK national Parks
      and include rules and regulations on
    everything to do with the park from the
 Historic environment to traffic and transport.
Tree Preservation
     The Authority protects
  important trees through tree
preservation orders which make it
an offence to cut down, top, lop,
  uproot or wilfully damage or
    destroy any tree without
Sustainable Development
Sustainable development is based on the idea
that the quality of people’s lives and the state of
our communities is affected by a combination
of economic, social and environmental factors.

The sustainable development fund is a grant
scheme from DEFRA which helps towards any
ideas that increase the understanding and
enjoyment of the Lake District.
 How to help…
 Visitors can help the sustainable development
 fund by simply…
•Buying local produce and make use of local services
and shops
•Car share to work
•Use water sparingly
•Choose products with less packaging, therefore
creating less waste
•Re-use paper and plastic carrier bags where possible
•Use low-energy light bulbs which last longer
•Use recycled products wherever possible
•Use natural alternatives to artificial chemicals on
your garden, and don't use pesticides
The Ranger team provides a countryside
management service for the community by…
•Contact with residents, visitors, interest groups,
parish and district councils and other organisations
•Links between the community and other specialists
in the LDNPA
•Rights of Way monitoring, management and
•Implementation of conservation projects
•Practical land management
•Lake monitoring byelaw enforcement and
•Visitor and recreation management
•Work with the Lake District Volunteers Service
Fact & Figure Summary
There are a total         The Lake’s        The lake’s
   of 22,930            highest peak is   deepest lake is
 dwelling within        Scafell pike at   Wastwater at
the Lake District        978m (a.s.l.)        74m.

    89% of          There are 1740 listed buildings and
visitors to the     structures and
 Lakes arrive       21 Conservation Areas covering
     by car         historic towns and villages

There are over 6000 known            The Lake District is
  archaeological sites and            England's largest
 monuments dating from              National Park covering
prehistory to World War II.           885 square miles.

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