Flood Crisi Management Plan by qex44806

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									                                          Developing Effective Disaster Risk Communication Strategies in Cambodia:
                                                                   Understanding People’s Perception and Behavior
Asian Disaster Preparedness Center                                                                       DRP-CLV


1. CAMBODIA CONTEXT

Summary of National Development Progress

Cambodia has made significant progress since the Paris Peace accord in 1991. Rice productivity has risen
and self-sufficiency was achieved in 1995. Industry has grown and the tourism and garment industries are
playing a crucial role in economic diversification and poverty reduction. The social and political situation has
remained relatively stable since July 1997 and the Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC) is undertaking a
decentralisation process following the Commune Council elections in 2002 (Hach & Acharaya 2002).

Despite progress, Cambodia remains poor. A socio economic survey of 1999 estimated that 36% of the
population were living in poverty, mostly engaged in agricultural production in rural areas. According to the
statistics of 1998 illiterate rate is 79.5% for men and 57% for women. The 1999 plan estimated that male
illiterate over the age of 15 is 47.6% compared to only 29.1% for women.

Health

46% of children under 5 years of age are moderately or severely underweight. Average life expectancy for
Cambodian people is 54 years old. The under-5 mortality rate is 47.3 per 1,000 live births. Diseases related
to AIDS have killed about 90,000 people in Cambodia. In the year 2000 the number of people infected by
HIV/AIDS is ¼ of million, but there is no accurate figure; in addition there is no regular report of the death to
the Ministry of Health.

Women

According to the second 5 year socio-economic development plan of 2001-2005, women make up 51.5% of
the population and 52.3% of the business work force and 25.7% of households. Cambodia is one of the
countries that have high rate of women’s participation totalling 73.5% of women from 15 years of age and
over. Women make up 54% of agricultural workers and fisheries, and a moderate number participated in
non-agricultural sector. On average, Cambodian women receive less pay than men. They have been
employed in unskilled work and therefore they are vulnerable according to the service sector. They tend to
engage in business work force in households; caring the children; to balance their income/expenditure.

Environment and Agriculture

The environment of Cambodia has been affected during the recent decade as a result of civil conflict. The
lack of interest and monitoring of means of exploitation contribute the decrease of natural resources and the
decline of quality of environment rendering the atmosphere polluted land erosion. From 1970 to 1997 about 2
million hectares of forest have been destroyed. So far there is no accurate data of lost forest coverage. (The
second 5 year socio economic development plan) .

Cambodia's fisheries are a rich common property resource and inland fish catches are estimated to be
potentially the most productive in the region (Van Zilinge et al 2000). However Reuters reported in October
2002 that rich fishing grounds could be threatened by existing and planned dam construction in Cambodia
and other countries in the region. Small-scale family fishing has declined from 1999 to 2001 due to previous
over exploitation. Logging and other human encroachment has drastically reduced the amount of flooded
forest, the main fish-breeding grounds of the Tonle Sap lake. A government decree on community fishery in
2001 reduced fishing lots under private concessions but local community management of village fisheries
needs to be enhanced (Hach & Acharaya 2002).

Cambodia's agricultural sector employs about 77 % of the population and contributes about 41.9% of the
gross domestic product (GDP). Most people are involved in rice production with vegetable crops
predominantly being produced for domestic consumption. Disease attacks, natural disasters and the second
5 year socio economic plan have inhibited increases in national vegetable production and average daily
vegetable consumption is only about 50% of the 200 grams recommended by the Food and Agriculture


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                                        Developing Effective Disaster Risk Communication Strategies in Cambodia:
                                                                 Understanding People’s Perception and Behavior
Asian Disaster Preparedness Center                                                                     DRP-CLV


Organisation (FAO). Poor quality production and weak infrastructure challenge local producers. Lack of land
tenure rights have continued deter investment in agricultural production and Cambodia imports 50% of the
vegetables it consumes.

Cambodia remains predominantly a rice growing culture and despite the increases in paddy productivity and
achievement of self-sufficiency in 1995, it still has the lowest productivity in Asia. Successive floods,
droughts and inadequate irrigation have hampered efforts to further improve farming techniques. In 2001
the ministry of Agriculture Fishery and Forestry (MAFF) indicated that only 10%, 2.5 million hectares of rice
fields, were irrigated. In 2001 serious flood damaged about 250,000 hectares of rice crop. Studies
conducted by the Cambodia Development Resource Institute suggest that extension of irrigation systems;
better distribution of new farming land; and improvement in marketing systems would significantly improve
rice production in Cambodia (Hach & Acharaya 2002).


2. PROJECT BACKGROUND

The National Committee for Disaster Management (NCDM)

The Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC) established the National Committee for Disaster Management
(NCDM) in 1994 as a result of recurring disasters. The RGC officially approved the five-year national
strategy on institutional development of the NCDM in 2001. The main purpose is to achieve an effective
RGC inter-ministerial coordination system in disaster management including prevention, mitigation,
preparedness, response and rehabilitation, and as a result reduce the impact of disasters on Cambodian
Communities. Three stages of implementation were proposed:

1. Lessons Learned, Awareness Building and Core Skill Development. A critical reflection of NCDM's
   performance during the 2000 floods; and funding and technical assistance for human resources training,
   development of disaster management planning setting up of information systems and awareness
   building among NCDM members.

2. National Strategy, Stakeholder's Commitment and Political Will. Further development and approval of
   national strategy and policy for disaster management; development of partnership agreement between
   NCDM, IOs and NGOs; continued programmes on information systems and human resource
   development; and technical assistance for public awareness.

3. Disaster Management Coordination and Implementation. Reach agreement on specific program plan of
   actions between NCDM and implementing organisations; and provide funding and technical assistance
   for the development and implementation of agreed priority programmes and their components
   (equipment, staffing, training, etc.).

Partnership Between NCDM, Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre (ADPC) and Danida

The Asia Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC) and NCDM had previously worked together in a project
funded by the Disaster Preparedness European Commission Humanitarian Office (DIPECHO). ADPC
submitted a one-year proposal entitled ‘Disaster Reduction Programme for Cambodia, Lao PDR and
Vietnam’ to Danida for financial support, which was approved in 2001. The proposed programme was
designed to meet the need to assist National Disaster Management Organizations (NDMOs) to address and
manage disasters more effectively and efficiently.

The NCDM in Cambodia had already made significant progress in the implementation of the first stage of
their national strategy. The proposed activities funded by DRP-CLV were in line with requests NCDM had
made in the final evaluation of the DIPECHO funded project and stage two of it's 5 year strategy: to further
contribute to human resource development plans; provide technical assistance for public awareness; and
enhance partnerships between NCDM, IOs and NGOs.



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                                        Developing Effective Disaster Risk Communication Strategies in Cambodia:
                                                                 Understanding People’s Perception and Behavior
Asian Disaster Preparedness Center                                                                     DRP-CLV


3. PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION

Preparation for Community Research

A major theme of the original Danida programme plan was to increase the abilities of National Disaster
Management Offices (NDMOs) in all three countries to adopt participatory processes in their work with civil
society organizations and people in communities. Thus methods used to develop detailed implementation
plans were to be exemplary: the intended process was to be highly participatory, emphasising the NDMOs’
roles as partners in the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation stages to encourage the
sustainability of results.

Two representatives from the Cambodia's NCDM attended an induction and planning meeting in Bangkok in
August 2002. It was decided to use the Danida project opportunity to increase NCDM, Provincial Committee
for Disaster Management (PCDM), District Committee for Disaster Management (DCDM) and Commune
Disaster Management Team (CDMT) capacities to use participatory approaches to develop public
awareness strategies and plans based on the needs of their constituents. The Danida project was to be
used specifically for the design and implementation of a pilot test public awareness campaign for poor
illiterate populations in one of the worst affected flood provinces in Cambodia, Prey Veng. It was intended
that experience in developing the community disaster management strategy and action plan; implementation
of the plan ; and monitoring and evaluating the results would equip them with the knowledge and skills
necessary to develop and successfully implement a five year public awareness plan.

NCDM, ADPC and Cambodia Red Cross Society (CRC) representatives met in Phnom Penh to discuss the
                                                                                                    th
logistics and plan for the training and conduct of community situation analysis between September 11 and
   th
18 2002. The role of NCDM as managers of the process and decision makers was stressed at the
beginning of the project. CRC staff that had previously been trained by ADPC in a train the trainers
programme under the DIPECHO funded project to play a consultative training role along side a Khmer ADPC
staff. The ADPC staff member has considerable experience working with international NGOs engaged in
disaster management in Cambodia, and with good professional relationships with both NCDM officers and
CRC staff. ADPC was to play a facilitating role and be responsible for monitoring and evaluation and
documentation of the whole process and research results.

The research design was discussed and specific objectives agreed:
 To examine people’s behaviours related to hazards and risk.
 To determine behavioural changes that could prevent or mitigate disasters and/or their effects.
 To establish how can people’s behaviour be best be changed.

The fact that giving people access to information that leads to increased awareness and understanding does
not necessarily result in changes in behaviour was stressed. ADPC and NCDM were aware of cases of
increased information and awareness through media campaigns did not necessarily lead to changes in
behaviour. The fact that people like meetings and to be able to ask questions was also noted.

Although the primary objective of the Danida project was to come up with a public awareness strategy, the
research was not limited to that aspect. All parties were interested to study community perceptions to risks
and hazards and how they prioritised their problems, needs and solutions. The need to throw away
assumptions was stressed by ADPC.

The NCDM had chosen the Province of Prey Veng as the site for community research as it is one of the
poorest provinces in Cambodia and traditionally badly affected by disasters. The 2000 flood killed 347
people; affected over 544 thousand people; and damaged 100 thousand hectares of paddy. In 2001, 83% of
Prey Veng's paddy production plan was damaged by flood with over 40% destroyed; and over 60 thousand
people had to be evacuated and were short of food (NCDM 2001).




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                                                    Developing Effective Disaster Risk Communication Strategies in Cambodia:
                                                                             Understanding People’s Perception and Behavior
Asian Disaster Preparedness Center                                                                                 DRP-CLV


The timing of the research activity allowed investigations in 2 different locations in quite close proximity that
were simultaneously suffering from flood and drought. The 2002 Cambodia simultaneous flood and drought
disaster affected the economy and the property of the people.

History Of Disasters in Cambodia

Drought
Sporadic droughts and floods are regularly experienced in the region. Experts have attributed the severity of
recent years of drought to the ongoing problem of El Nino, a naturally occurring warming of the earth’s
oceans that has disrupted global weather patterns for the better part of a decade.



Disaster in Cambodia 1991-2000

              Year    1992           1993    1994       1995     1996    1997   1998          1999        2000     2001

  Disaster
  (Number)

  Flood                                      1                   1*                           2           1        1*

  Famine/Drought                                        1        1*                                                1

  Famine/Crop                                                                   1*
  Failure
                      2 Malaria                                                 2 Diarrhea/   1
  Epidemics
                      &                                                         Cholera &     Diarrhea/
                      Diarrhea/.                                                Dengue        Cholera
                      Cholera
                      Press                                      OCHA           WHO, WFP,     OCHA,
  Source                                     OCHA       IFRC                                              IFRC     CRED
                      OFDA,                                      FAO            IFRC          WHO

* Represents disasters that affected Prey Veng, the research site.                     Compiled Data Source: ADRC Website


Disaster Situation Reports 2002

Drought

The 2002 drought started as early as January in some places and by the end of July had spread to all 24
provinces, with the provinces of Kampong Speu, Takeo, Kampot, and Kampong Chhnang hardest-hit. Some
of the most-affected districts were in other provinces, namely Banteay Meanchey, Pursat, Prey Veng and
Battambang provinces. As a result of the drought, farmers were not able to plant wet season rice, or
transplant seedlings, which were damaged. Crop production was significantly affected, especially in Prey
Veng and Kampong Speu provinces. Subsidiary crops were also heavily damaged (IFRC 2002).

At the beginning of August 2002, His Excellency Nhim Vanda, Vice-President of the National Disaster
Committee, said a two-month long drought had damaged more than 50,000 hectares (124,000 acres) of rice
- around 10 percent of the country's crop planted so far.

        “The situation is very serious, because almost all the seedlings have died. The people have no more
rice seeds and no water,” said Nuth Sakhan, Director for Agronomy Department (World Vision 2002).

The NCDM led co-ordination drawing effectively on its newly established national network of provincial
offices. On 20 August 2002, NCDM chaired a second co-ordination meeting, which included line ministries,
provincial representatives as well as the UN Disaster Management Team (UNDMT), ECHO, international
organizations and non-governmental organizations. Steps taken to alleviate the impact of the drought include



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                                         Developing Effective Disaster Risk Communication Strategies in Cambodia:
                                                                  Understanding People’s Perception and Behavior
Asian Disaster Preparedness Center                                                                      DRP-CLV


the distribution of 3,000 mt of rice, as well as the distribution of water pumps, provision of diesel fuel, the
intervention of the Prime Minister Samdech HUN SEN’s bodyguards unit, the improvement of drainage
systems and the construction of deep wells. Measures to address the potential flooding include identifying
safe areas (as used in 2000/2001) and developing evacuation plans.

        "Priorities are food, rice seed and medicines and other materials,” appealed Prime Minister Hun Sen,
who is also the President of the National Committee for Disaster Management, in a statement of declaration
on the disaster.

The RGC was quick to respond with the distribution of food 1,000metric tons (mt) of rice by August to
drought-affected areas. The Humanitarian Office of the Royal Palace provided 400mt of rice and MAFF
distributed 1,600mt of rice seed in 11 provinces with plans for a further 1,400mt. MAFF estimated that a
further 5,000mt of rice seed was required.
The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) was to procure a further 400mt of rice seed and the World
Food Programme (WFP) and a number of other NGOs had committed their assistance for seeds and
distribution.

According to NCDM estimates, over 600,000 people faced food shortages due to the drought. Populations in
affected areas were highly vulnerable, as had been affected by natural disasters for three years in a row
(IFRC 2002).

Flood

Extensive flooding that had affected more than a million people was reported at the end of August. The worst
hit province was Prey Veng. An estimated 16,341 families and livestock nationwide were reported to be
living in safe areas (traditional places of refuge on higher ground such as pagodas, schools and roads) on
August 20. 87 of these areas had basic water and sanitation facilities established by the CRC and UNICEF
in 2000 and 2001. However, there was concern about risks of disease outbreaks such as diarrhoea and lack
of food if people were forced to remain in these areas for longer than 2 weeks (IFRC 2002).

The RGC was quick to respond with the provision of an enormous number of sandbags. The National
Committee for Disaster Management, the Royal Palace, CRC, WFP and donors all assisted in rice
distribution as reported under drought situation.

Water levels started to recede in most provinces the end of August. However, the Mekong River Commission
reported that the water depths in lower lying provinces of Prey Veng, Kampong Cham and Kandal, would
remain high for the first few weeks of September (IFRC 2002). The severity of flooding along the Mekong
River in Cambodia's eastern provinces followed record rainfall upriver in China, Laos and Vietnam.

The NCDM was reported to have continued to play a key role in co-ordinating the national level response to
the flood. Preparedness measures in Kratie were noted to have made a noticeable difference. The
cooperation of the PCDM working with the DCDM, CRC and NGOs, enabled people to move to the safe
areas. Additional co-ordination work by NCDM included information sharing and joint missions with the
United Nations Disaster Management Team (UNDMT), CRC to the provinces of Stung Treng, Kratie and
Prey Veng (IFRC 2002).

Conclusions on Longer Term Impact and Effects on Communities

The National Committee for Disaster Management (NCDM), Non Governmental Organisations (NGOs) and
the CRC, indicated that displaced families could cope for a couple of weeks but that cumulative effects of
three years of consecutive floods and the 2002 drought which had once again destroyed or damaged crops,
productive land, roads and drainage systems, would have disastrous impacts on household economies and
the rice supplies. There were indications that in efforts to cope, people had gone increasingly into debt. A
number of people were estimated moving into the city for food and work to survive and that rice seed was



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                                          Developing Effective Disaster Risk Communication Strategies in Cambodia:
                                                                   Understanding People’s Perception and Behavior
Asian Disaster Preparedness Center                                                                       DRP-CLV


being consumed as food. There were anecdotal reports of individuals going hungry or migrating into forests
in search of food, increasing the risk of malaria (IFRC 2002).

A number of NGOs, such as CONCERN and ZOA, CARE and World Vision were procuring rice seed,
supporting home gardening or setting up credit schemes. Other organisations, such as Oxfam, placed
resources, financial and human, on standby (IFRC 2002).

NCDM Officials recently warned that a combination of drought and flood, which affected some 3.4 million
people in 2002 are unlikely to create a famine, but they do fear that people might have met food shortages
(NCDM 2002).

Community Research

Community research preparations began with a 3-day training course for members of the 9 staff from NCDM,
PCDM and DCDM on how to use participatory rural appraisal (PRA) tools to collect data and information
from communities.

The training activities began by familiarising participants with the research design and specific objectives:
 To examine people’s behaviours related to hazards and risk.
 To determine behavioural changes that could prevent or mitigate disasters and/or their effects.
 To establish how can people’s behaviour be best be changed.

A research framework that had been translated into Khmer was given to participants as a guide. It focused
on hazards, risk, behaviour, public awareness, authority, problems, needs and recommendations. (See
Annex 1)

Participants worked in groups to clarify and come to a common understanding on the definitions of hazard,
vulnerability, risk, capacity and resources within the context of disaster management. The disaster
management cycle was also explained. They identified use of terminology that could not be translated
directly into Khmer as a potential source of confusion.

CRC then shared some of its experiences in community based disaster preparedness with the government
participants.

The principles of participatory rural appraisal (PRA) were introduced and examples of several tools:
mapping, seasonality, ranking, venn diagrams and historical transects were shared with participants. The
following two days were spent enabling participants to develop their skills to use PRA tools using a 'learning
by doing' approach. This also allowed the research team to gather one district level data set for triangulation
with national data and community responses. Findings from district level research are included with
community level findings.

All of the participants actively participated in all training sessions. There were many questions and much
debate, which seemed to contribute to the success of the training. The dedication and interest of the
government officers deserves special mention as they were prepared to work unreasonable hours, staying
until 9 o'clock at night on one occasion.

On the 15th September the research team divided into 2 groups and went to two villages in Toul Chrey and
Kong Sre Village in Ampil Krov Commune, Sithor Kandal District that were still badly affected by flood. Boats
had to be used as transport to get to and move around villages. Community members were grouped by
gender with PCDM and DCDM Officers facilitating research with the help of the CRC and ADPC. It should be
stressed that doing this type of community work was a new experience for the NCDM, PCDM and DCDM
participants. The large groups of community members gathered posed great challenges particularly as the
PRA tools and research processes were so new to facilitators. NCDM officers interviewed commune and
village leaders using PRA tools as they thought appropriate.



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                                         Developing Effective Disaster Risk Communication Strategies in Cambodia:
                                                                  Understanding People’s Perception and Behavior
Asian Disaster Preparedness Center                                                                      DRP-CLV


NCDM, CRC and ADPC team members used the evening to reflect on the strengths and weaknesses of the
first day's research and amended some of the data requirements and tools to simplify and shorten the
process.

On September 16th the team again split into two groups and went to Trapaing and Tra Leuk communes that
were affected by drought. The increased confidence of the researchers and improved tools meant that the
second day's data set was more complete and consistent. The team work amongst the facilitators was
incredible and they managed a truly "rankless" approach that allowed senior ministers from NCDM to interact
with communities without ceremony, something that its quite remarkable given the importance of formal
protocol in Cambodian society.

On the final day of the fieldwork, participants were asked to compile data gathered during field research in
flood communities using a framework that would help them devise a public awareness strategy. The
perspectives of leaders (all men), women and men were grouped together to highlight possible differences in
gender perspectives.

The collation and analysis of data was quite hard work for the group who had no experience doing such an
exercise. However, at the end of the process a good effort had been made to establish a basis for the
development of a strategy. The results are included later in this report. The data gathered from communities
affected by drought has since been compiled by the report author and is still to be analysed by NCDM. The
findings from the flood communities are more complete and include notes of discussions during the
compilation process.

In a final exercise the NCDM, PCDM and DCDM members were asked to design a small project with a ripple
effect that they thought would answer the needs of communities. It was interesting to note that the proposed
projects focused on infrastructure needs rather than public awareness.

Evaluation of Training and Research Process

At the end of the 10 day training and research, a participatory evaluation process was undertaken which
focused on participants' feelings about:

   Training Process. Participants generally found the training content and methodology good. They
    particularly valued the opportunity to ask questions. They had learned new things and found the content
    relevant. They understood how to use tools to collect information from communities. One criticism was
    that the training course was too short and they could not develop expertise in using all tools, another was
    that the training team should have had demonstrated better time management.
   Research Process. Participants felt that the process was useful and helped collect important data
    necessary to understand these risks and difficulties facing communities during disasters. They felt better
    able to understand how to reduce risks at community level, found it interesting and were grateful that
    community members gave their time without expectations of reward. There was some confusion about
    use of some tools because of short preparation time.
   Success in Reaching Research Goal: Given the time constraints, it was not possible to achieve 100%,
    but it was a positive first step.
   Analysis Process: This was found to be important for learning and a good process for thinking about the
    effects of disaster. It helped to summarise information; analyse and make conclusions about importance
    of needs; and develop a strategy to provide communities with knowledge that will help them reduce risks
    based on their priorities.
   Opportunities to Use Experience and Knowledge Gained in Future Work. PCDM and DCDM participants
    felt they had gained better understanding that would help them give advice. They had gained knowledge
    that had given ideas that would enable preparation of plans when they returned to offices. They thought
    they would be able to use the compiled historical information and hazard maps to good effect.
   Usefulness of Spending Time with Colleagues from Different Levels of the CDM. Participants felt that
    this had provided an unusual opportunity to get to know each other better and share ideas. Learning



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                                          Developing Effective Disaster Risk Communication Strategies in Cambodia:
                                                                   Understanding People’s Perception and Behavior
Asian Disaster Preparedness Center                                                                       DRP-CLV


    theory together as equals enabled learning from each other, which had contributed to the success. They
    stressed the importance of good communication channels from field to national level.

At the end of the evaluation the ADPC Team Leader emphasised the fact that the team had not spent long
enough in the village to really conduct a true participatory rural appraisal, and that the approach is about
more than just collecting information. PRA is about empowering people and requires a much more in depth
knowledge of their circumstances. That takes much longer. However, the training and trial of use of tools by
participants was a useful first step. It was hoped the experience could be further enhanced by PCDM and
DCDM officers working with ADPC, CRC and other organisations in the future.

The research process contributed to the capacity building of nine people working in the government. It also
helped build and strengthen the relationship between NCDM and CRC; and NCDM and its provincial and
District Level Offices.

Compilation of Research Findings

What Makes Flood A Disaster?

PCDM and DCDM Definition: Water rising unusually. The water level has traditionally risen in this area
every year. Before the year 1998 it used to gradually rise in July and August. It is considered a flood if water:
 enters homes;
 affects/ damages crops;
 causes damage to infrastructure and schools;
 makes communication difficult;
 causes sickness in animals and humans; and/or
 causes migration and people to move to other areas.

The flood is positive if it comes at right time and is not too strong. Historically bad floods with the water not
receding after July rains used to happen once every five years. However, in the last three years floods have
happened every year. While the local population could cope with a bad harvest and other damage once
every five years, the cumulative effect of 3 years of bad flood in a row, is having a significant impact on their
lives and livelihoods particularly, traditional rice production.

What Causes Flood?

PCDM and DCDM:
 Climate change.
 Low lying land close to the Mekong, which is more vulnerable than it used to be due to increased siltation.
 Forest loss in villages.

General Information about Seasonality and Recent Incidence and Effects of Flood

District Perspective (100% men)
 The map drawn by PCDM and DCDM participants described an area bordered by a tributary of the
    Mekong in the northwest, which floods due to high rains from China taking floods into a large area of the
    district. Water exits from the southeast. Route 11 to Kampong Cham passes through the area, which
    contains 11 communes.
 Flood usually occurs July to September and has been getting worse in the last few years. An increased
    incidence of illness amongst the communities seems to be related with an increased frequency of flood.
 The incidence of livestock disease has increased over the last three years.
 Most people are farmers growing corn and beans by the river and rice elsewhere. The worse affected
    communities were identified as living in the northwest area. People lack rice seeds and the standard of
    living has dropped since 2000. Bean production takes place April to June with harvest in July. Short
    term rice production: May to June with harvest in July. Long-term rice production: April to September



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                                          Developing Effective Disaster Risk Communication Strategies in Cambodia:
                                                                   Understanding People’s Perception and Behavior
Asian Disaster Preparedness Center                                                                       DRP-CLV


    with harvest in October. Receding rice is planted in September and harvested in January. The impact of
    the flood on harvest has been particularly severe in the last three years.
   The main road to the district office has been affected twice. Earth dykes usually need repair on a yearly
    basis. People request sandbags from the government every year.

Family and Community Behaviour:
 Communities make safe areas for evacuation purposes in April.
 Information about flood is disseminated and dikes built from May to June.
 Commune leaders coordinate evacuation efforts and provide information to authorities when there is a
   problem from July to September.
 Families prepare boats, food and safe areas May to June.

Men:
 Rain usually occurs May to October, but it has been late in recent years causing drought May to August.
   Flood is experienced in July to December and has been particularly bad in the last three years, with
   2001 being reported as worse than 2000 in this area.
 An increase in illness is reported over the last few years with diarrhoea during the flood period and fever
   afterwards. The numbers of people migrating are reported to have increased though men report that
   people migrate during the dry months December to March. This is different migration seasonality than
   that reported by women.
 Long-term rice is usually planted June to November with harvest January to May; short-term rice is
   planted November to January.
 Roads are damaged every year by flooded water.

Women:
 Rain usually occurs May to October but in recent years there has been less rain than usual causing
  meteorological drought, which has occurred June to October in recent years. At the same time the area
  has experienced floods July to October due to the river flooding as a result of heavy rain in China. These
  floods have been particularly bad in the last three years though with one village appearing to be worse
  hit in 2001 than 2000.
 The most difficult months for people are September to December. There has been an increase in
  disease, particularly diarrhoea during flood months in the last few years as well as migration in the
  months April to December.
 Some people report an increase in animal sickness in the last few years with livestock being vulnerable
  during flood months.
 Long term-rice is traditionally produced May to December but in recent years crops have been damaged
  because of floods. Short-term rice is usually planted November to February with harvest March to May
  the harvest was badly affected in 2000 and 2001 and is anticipated to be poor this year. Beans are
  planted in May before the rains.

Please refer to Annex 2 pages i) to vi) for remainder of compiled findings on flood.

General Information about Seasonality and Recent Incidence and Effects of Drought

District Perspective (100% men)
 The map drawn by the DCDM described an area with simultaneous flood and drought. The west area
    floods due to a river overflow while the area on the east is higher and has been experiencing
    increasingly severe droughts over the last three years due to lack of rain. Drought occurs in May to
    September.
 In some places people do not have enough water to cook rice. The majority of the population is farmers
    and they have experienced increased pressure to migrate for work since the harvest deteriorated in
    2000. 20% of men between 16-25 are estimated to be seasonally migrating and 10% of women for jobs
    in garment factories and beer promotion.
 Long-term rice is traditionally planted in June with short-term rice planted September to November. The
    impact of drought on agriculture and harvests has got worse over the period.


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                                        Developing Effective Disaster Risk Communication Strategies in Cambodia:
                                                                 Understanding People’s Perception and Behavior
Asian Disaster Preparedness Center                                                                     DRP-CLV


   The incidence of animal sickness has increased over the last few years. Lack of water has in some
    cases threatened livestock survival.
   There are not enough pumps available nationally to take water from flooded areas over to the east, 5-
    10kms away.

Family and Community Behaviour:
 Economic Diversification into fish farming; home garden; sugar cane and selling labour from January to
   April.
 Families participate in community projects like repairing roads in months when agricultural labour is not
   required.

Men:
 Rain usually occurs May to October. Drought occurs June to October and has been bad 2000 to 2002.
   This year is the worst with the biggest impact on human and animal health. The negative impact on
   agricultural production has increased dramatically in the last three years due to successive years of
   drought.
 Long-term rice is planted June to November; harvested in November and December. Medium term rice
   is harvested October - December. Short-term rice is planted June to December and harvested August to
   September.
 The hardest months for people are August, September and October and this also when livestock are
   vulnerable to disease.
 Migration takes place from January to April and in November and December, when traditionally there is
   less demand for agricultural labour. Migration has increased over the last few years with an increasing
   impact on children dropping out of school.

Women:
 Rains usually occur July to October. Drought occurs May to October and has been worse in the last few
  years with an increasingly negative effect on agricultural production; and human and animal health,
  which is worst during drought months.
 Long-term rice production occurs June to December with harvest in December. Medium-term rice is
  planted September and October. Short-term rice production takes place June to September; harvest
  from August to September. Subsidiary crops are planted February to May.
 The most difficult months for people are drought months: July, August and September.
 Migration takes place from January to April and in November and December. Numbers migrating have
  increased over the last few years with an increasing impact on children dropping out of school.

Please refer to Annex 3 pages vii) to x) for remainder of compiled findings on drought. Please note data
from leaders still missing.

IV. General Research Conclusions

   Quality and Validity of Data Gathered From Communities. Although in some cases there are
    discrepancies in data concerning seasonality, the majority of the data on hazards and effects matches
    district and national level sources.
   Hazards and Effects. In both areas visited the frequency of occurrence of severe flood and drought has
    increased in recent years with the impact on peoples' lives getting worse due to the accumulated effect.
    National economic surveys suggest that an irrigation system could help mitigate effects of drought and
    increase productivity in the longer term, however this is tempered by reports of dam building in
    Cambodia and other countries in the region leading to water shortages in Cambodia in the long term.
   People's Behaviour Related to Hazards and Risks. The level of awareness about hazards and risks and
    preparedness is high. People are keen to follow protection measures if they can afford to. They know
    that the RGC has inadequate resources to pay for compensation for damage and rehabilitation. It
    appears that a small percentage of people, presumably the most marginalized, cannot afford such
    preparedness measures. The impact on children's education deserves more study.



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                                                                 Understanding People’s Perception and Behavior
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   Behavioural Changes that Could Prevent or Mitigate Disasters and their Effects. Women could benefit
    from training on human and animal healthcare. There is also a need to provide information and training
    relevant to diversification of economic activities including crop production. There is evidence that some
    families are diversifying crops and changing farming techniques. If successful, they could provide
    demonstration models for other community members to adopt using a farmer-to-farmer training approach
    similar to the one being used by the Integrated Pest Management Programme, supported by Danida.
   Information Required to Facilitate Behavioural Change that will Result in Reduced Risks of Damage to
    Lives, Livelihoods and Property. Communities need information about:
        risks, transmission mechanisms, preventative measures, symptoms, and cures for waterborne
         diseases. One example is how to access and properly use water purification tablets;
        risks, transmission mechanisms, preventative measures, symptoms, and cures for diseases
         affecting livestock;
        crop cycle adjustment and diversification;
        climate change and accurate local forecasts, especially about the nature and degree of anticipated
         flood in specific areas;
        flood proofing of houses, schools, roads and other community infrastructure; and
        consequences of failing to follow public awareness information, e.g. not evacuating as instructed.
   Preferred Sources and Mechanisms for Disaster Preparedness Information. People seem to follow
    advice as long they believe it is accurate. There is a great deal of faith in information from local
    authorities, elders and monks who can conduct face-to-face interactive discussions. TV and radio is
    popular although more expensive. There are some suspicions about the political motives and accuracy
    of information broadcast by certain stations.
   Infrastructure and Basic Services Required to Reduce Risks of Disasters and their Effects. These
    include latrines, wells, health centres, irrigation systems, improved bridges and roads.


References:

Asian Disaster Reduction Centre (ADRC), undated www.adrc.or.jp/databook_20th/KHM.pdf, ADRC

Communities Out of Crisis, 2002, http://www.cambcomm.org.uk/, Communities out of Crisis

FAO, 2002 Flood Management and Mitigation in the Mekong River Basin, FAO Website

Godfrey, M. So Sovannarith, Tep Saravy, Pon Dorina, Claude Katz, Sarthi Acharya, Sisowath D. Chanto and
Hing Thoraxy (2001),
Working Paper 18: A study of the Cambodian Labour Market: Reference to Poverty Reduction, Growth and
Adjustment to Crisis, CDRI

Hach, S. & Archaya, S. 2002, Cambodia's Economic Review - 2002, CDRI

International Fedration of the Red Cross (IFRC), 2002 http://wwww.reliefweb.int/w/rwb.nsf, Relief Web

NCDM, 2001, www.adrc.or.jp/counterpart_report/Cambodia010825_01.htm ADRC

NCDM, 2002 http://voa-7.chntva1-dc1.genuity.net/Khmer/ , Voice of America

The Straits Times 2002 http://www.cambcomm.org.uk/ Communities out of Crisis

World Vision 2002 http://www.reliefweb.int/w/rwb.nsf Relief Web




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                                                                                              Developing Effective Disaster Risk Communication Strategies in Cambodia:
                                                                                                                       Understanding People’s Perception and Behavior
Asian Disaster Preparedness Center                                                                   DRP-CLV


                                                                                                                                     ANNEX 1 – Research Design



                                                                       RESEARCH DESIGN



We need to find answers to the following questions:

             What are the behaviors related to hazards and risks?
             What are the behaviors related to hazards and risks that need to be changed to prevent disasters or help mitigate disasters?
             How can we best change people’s behaviors?


Key Areas of Inquiry

             Hazards/Risks
             People’s perception of risks
             People’s knowledge about hazards and where they get them
             People’s behavior at the family and community level: reaction to warning, preparedness activities, activities during emergency (identify indigenous
              ways or activities)
             People’s information about the preparedness and emergency and where they get them
             Authority to issue warning and evacuation at the family and community level
             People’s indigenous mechanisms of information sharing, early warning, etc. at the family and community level
             People’s coping mechanisms at the family and community level (identify indigenous ways or activities)




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                                                                                                                        Understanding People’s Perception and Behavior
Asian Disaster Preparedness Center                                                                    DRP-CLV



                        Key Area of Inquiry                       PRA Tools                                                       Respondents
      Hazards                                                     Timeline – history of disaster              Men
       What are the hazards in the community?                    Hazard map of community                     Women
       When do they happen? How often? How long?                 Seasonality                                 Children
       What are the causes?                                      Ranking
       Who are affected? Who are the most seriously
         affected and why?
       What are the most serious hazards in the
         community using these criteria: death, illness/injury,
         loss or injury of livestock, damage to property,
         damage to infrastructure
      Risks                                                       Ranking                                     According to age but grouped as:
       What are the risks or dangers brought about by            Venn diagram
         these hazards?                                                                                       Men – children, young adults, adults, elderly

          To life of men, women, children, disabled, elderly                                                 Women - children, young adults, adults, elderly
          To livestock
          To property like houses
          To infrastructure like bridges, schools

          What risks are considered most serious?

      For example: Flood is a hazard. But drowning is a risk
      that flood can bring. Or diarrhea is a risk that people
      face when they evacuate since there is no clean water
      in evacuation centers.
      People’s Behavior
       What do they do before and during a disaster at the       Listing down of activities                  Mix group of men and women
           family and community level.
       Focus on Public Awareness
       Where do you get information about the hazard?            Ranking                                     According to age but grouped as:
           Which source or mechanism do they often use?           Venn diagram
           Why?                                                                                               Men – children, young adults, adults, elderly
       What do you hear or read about these hazards?
       What information do you receive about how to                                                          Women - children, young adults, adults, elderly
           protect yourself from these hazards?
       What of the information to protect yourself do you
           follow? What of the information to protect yourself


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                                                                                                      Understanding People’s Perception and Behavior
Asian Disaster Preparedness Center                                                  DRP-CLV



           don’t you follow? Why or why not?

      Authority to Issue Warning or order evacuation
       Who are the most reliable sources of information in                                 According to age but grouped as:
         the community?                                       Ranking
       Who do you think should have the authority to giver                                 Men – children, young adults, adults, elderly
         orders to evacuate?
                                                                                            Women - children, young adults, adults, elderly

      Common Problems                                         Ranking
       What are the most common problems encountered                                       According to age but grouped as:
         by the community and the family to reduce disaster
         risks?                                                                             Men – children, young adults, adults, elderly

                                                                                            Women - children, young adults, adults, elderly

      Priority Needs
       What are the needs of the family and the              Ranking                       According to age but grouped as:
          community to reduce disaster risks?
                                                                                            Men – children, young adults, adults, elderly

                                                                                            Women - children, young adults, adults, elderly

      Recommendations
       What are the people’s recommendations to reduce       Ranking                       According to age but grouped as:
         disaster risks at the family and community level –
         recommendations directed to government and non                                     Men – children, young adults, adults, elderly
         government agencies
                                                                                            Women - children, young adults, adults, elderly




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                                                                                                      Developing Effective Disaster Risk Communication Strategies in Cambodia:
                                                                                                                               Understanding People’s Perception and Behavior
Asian Disaster Preparedness Center                                                                           DRP-CLV


                                                                                                                                                  ANNEX 2 – Flood Findings


                                     FLOOD DATA COLLATED BY NCDM, PCDM AND DCDM AFTER THE COMMUNITY RESEARCH



                  Problems/ Effects of Danger/hazard                    Current Behaviour                Information Received/            Conclusions and Recommendations
                                                                                                          Sources/ Credibility               from Communities and through
                                                                                                                                                  CDM Group Analysis
                    1
People         Men :                                              Men:                                 Men:                              Men:
               -- incidence of dengue typhoid, diarhrea           Before:                              -- 50% information related        -- need information from TV and radio;
               and fever;                                         -- prepare safe area;                to health boil water from         -- need information on flood height;
                                                   2
               -- lack of food for work & money 1/6 ;             -- prepare food;                     radio and TV followed;            -- need food 1/6 & 1/10.
               -- lack of communications 5/6;                     -- prepare house/ property;          -- go to safe area;
               -- lack of clean water & medicine 6/6;             -- prepare boat cart, engine         -- take care of children to
               -- lack of water source 3/6;                       for boat.                            avoid drowning;
               -- food shortage 1/5;                              During:                              -- drink clean water, boil
               -- lack of health centre 3/5;                      -- protect themselves.               water;
               -- lack of transport 4/5;                                                               -- 30% follow advice on
               -- lack of pump 5/5.                                                                    mosquito nets 70% cannot
                                                                                                       afford to;
                                                                                                       -- 33% follow information
                                                                                                       from authorities to use
                                                                                                       chloramine;
                                                                                                       --think TV and radio most
                                                                                                       reliable then meetings then
                                                                                                       word of mouth;
                                                                                                       -- information from
                                                                                                       neighbours or authorities
                                                                                                       on thunder in the east

1
 Headings denote who made the response. They not necessarily relate to reported action.
2
 Number in brackets indicate relative priority ranking of response e.g.2/8 refers to second priority of 8 responses. Tools and ranking was not used consistently across all
groups. Ranking only used to give idea or relative priority when given.




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                                                                                                                          Understanding People’s Perception and Behavior
Asian Disaster Preparedness Center                                                                      DRP-CLV




                  Problems/ Effects of Danger/hazard                Current Behaviour              Information Received/          Conclusions and Recommendations
                                                                                                    Sources/ Credibility           from Communities and through
                                                                                                                                         CDM Group Analysis
                                                                                                 water going down and
                                                                                                 water in the east going up      Women:
               Women:                                          Women:                            is followed.                    -- need health worker and midwife in
               -- incidence of dengue, typhoid, diarhea        Before:                           After:                          community to disseminate health
               and hepatitis : water related. Causes: no       -- prepare to evacuate,           -- information on water         information;
               clean water because of lack of sanitation       -- reserve food;                  receding from radio and         Community needs:
               and latrines;                                   -- dry paddy;                     TV to go back home              -- information system to provide timely
               -- climate change;                              -- cut wood;                      followed.                       information 2/4;
               -- mix of human and animal defecation.          -- block holes in boat;                                           -- education 3/4;
                                                               -- raise house and                Women:
                                                               possessions.                      Information Sources:            --clean water well 4/4.
                                                               During:                           -- radio & TV;
                                                               -- stay in the house;             -- elders;                      Recommendations to Government ;
                                                               -- weave krama;                   -- following information        -- want seed and food 1/7;
                                                               -- men go fishing and cut         from local authority and        -- want medicine 3/7;
                                                               grass for animals;                neighbours to prepare           -- dining house for monks 5/7.
                                                               -- women cook and look after      food, etc for evacuation;       Recommendations to NGOS: co-
                                                               children.                         -- follow TV and radio          ordinate with government and directly
                                                               -- health care;                   information about               implement village level projects.
                                                               -- drink boiled water;            stockpiling food 2/3;
                                                               After:                            -- follow advice from
                                                               -- plant dry season rice          monks , elders and
               Leaders:                                                                          authorities about taking
               --no health worker in commune; people           Leaders:                          care during storms;
               have to travel to a private clinic in Kampong   -- people hire out labour;        -- follow advice about
               Cham using their own transport which is         -- get information from           where to get chloramine
               expensive if they contract a water borne        government and send to            tablets from.
               illness;                                        people:
               -- debt: people borrow money from rich, at       * tell them to prepare shelter
               excessive rates of interest borrow 30kg rice    and monitor preparation;
               give back 100kg paddy.                            * assure security
                                                               preparedness before;
                                                                 * about infectious disease
                                                                 * distribution of rice seed;



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                                                                                                                      Understanding People’s Perception and Behavior
Asian Disaster Preparedness Center                                                                  DRP-CLV




                  Problems/ Effects of Danger/hazard            Current Behaviour              Information Received/          Conclusions and Recommendations
                                                                                                Sources/ Credibility           from Communities and through
                                                                                                                                     CDM Group Analysis
               District:                                   -- do as instructed by local
               -- lack of clean water 1/7;                 authority inform people about
               -- lack of water resources during drought   haven.
               2/7;
               -- lack of transport 3/5;                   Leaders have weak capacity.
               of villages 6/7;                            Can only inform people.                                           District:
               -- not enough access to safe areas with     Community has to evacuate                                         -- Need information
               shelters and latrines 7/7.                  themselves.                                                          * from national level about level of
                                                                                                                             floods 2/5;
                                                           District:                                                            * from commune: indigenous
                                                           Before:                                                           knowledge 3/5;
                                                           -- disseminate information to                                        * from NGOs 4/5.
                                                           people about preparing to                                         -- need to identify most vulnerable
                                                           evacuate;                                                         areas and probability maps 1/5;
                                                           -- help in preparation of safe                                    -- want to build automatic water control
                                                           area;                                                             lever 5/5.
                                                           -- request the government for
                                                           sand bags.                        District:
                                                           During:                           Receive information before
                                                            -- participate in evacuation;    on:
                                                           -- report to higher authorities   -- preparedness                 Group Analysis:
                                                           in the event of calamities.       -- evacuation,                  -- sickness is related to water fever,
                                                                                             -- medicine;                    dengue, typhoid.
                                                                                             -- rice seeds.
                                                                                             Receive           information   If they receive information why are
                                                                                             during:                         people still sick?
                                                                                             -- from authorities to move     -- not enough chloramine tablets;
                                                                                             to safe area;                   -- people drink flood water;
                                                                                             -- about food distribution      -- not able to buy mosquito nets!
                                                                                             from authorities;               -- no health centre;
                                                                                             -- about visits of leaders      -- no proper latrine;
                                                                                             and evacuation.                 -- little health information about
                                                                                             -- People follow                cleaning to prevent dengue.
                                                                                             information on health           -- national programme to combat



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                                                                                                    Understanding People’s Perception and Behavior
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                  Problems/ Effects of Danger/hazard   Current Behaviour     Information Received/          Conclusions and Recommendations
                                                                              Sources/ Credibility             from Communities and through
                                                                                                                     CDM Group Analysis
                                                                           protection water and            typhoid already in place.
                                                                           latrines, how to use            Solution:
                                                                           medicine;                       -- clean water through use of
                                                                           --People do not follow          chloramine and boiling. (Chloramine
                                                                           information if they think       will not kill 100% of germs)
                                                                           that the water is not going     -- raise hand pump, dig deep wells,
                                                                           to rise.                        build water tanks




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                                                                                                                         Understanding People’s Perception and Behavior
Asian Disaster Preparedness Center                                                                     DRP-CLV




                  Problems/ Effects of Danger/hazard               Current Behaviour              Information Received/          Conclusions and Recommendations
                                                                                                   Sources/ Credibility           from Communities and through
                                                                                                                                        CDM Group Analysis
Livestock      Men:                                           Men:                              Men:
               -- black blood;                                Before:                           -- follow information on
               -- foot and mouth (new 2002).                  -- prepare a safe area for        protection from authorities
                                                              animals before the flood and      ;
                                                              this is a high priority;          --follow information on
               Women :                                        -- prepare livestock.             preparing animal food;.
               -- foot and mouth disease especially           During:                           -- follow information on
               because of climate change;                     -- -- build animal shelter;       safe area and vaccination
               -- lack of medicine;                           -- collect animal food, grass     from authorities;
               -- bad insects in food;                        and herbs.                        -- if animals get sick,
                                                                                                district report to commune;
               Leaders:                                                                         -- some very poor do not
               -- big stomach because of contaminated                                           treat animals because
               grass and herbs;                               Women:                            they cannot afford the          Women:
               -- death not such a problem as people are      Before:                           opportunity costs of taking     -- need information to prepare livestock;
               careful about animals due to their value;      -- evacuate ox and buffalo to     them out of work.
                -- no local vet: have to get a vet from       haven;
               another community at cost of 10$ per visit.    -- reserve animal food.
               One vaccination 500 riel. Difficult to get     During:                                                           Group Analysis:
               assigned vets to stay in villages because of   -- evacuate animals;                                              Problems:
               living conditions. Tend to be found in         -- look after buffalo while men                                   -- there is enough information but not
               business centres where they can make           go out and collect grass and                                      enough people, transport or resources
               money through private practice.                hay for animal food animals ;                                     to disseminate.
               Government tries to train people to            -- get vaccinations.
               undertake own livestock care.                                                                                    Solutions:
                                                              Leaders:                                                          -- need to improve information
                                                                  st
                                                              -- 1 thing people think about                                     channels. If an animal is ill, information
                                                              is animals. No animal: no                                         should go up from commune to district
                                                              production.                                                       level. District information about
                                                                                                                                prevention and treatment should flow
                                                                                                                                downwards;
                                                                                                                                -- need to ask assistance from
                                                                                                                                government or NGO to provide staff to
                                                                                                                                disseminate.



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                                                                                                                           Understanding People’s Perception and Behavior
Asian Disaster Preparedness Center                                                                       DRP-CLV




                  Problems/ Effects of Danger/hazard                 Current Behaviour              Information Received/          Conclusions and Recommendations
                                                                                                     Sources/ Credibility             from Communities and through
                                                                                                                                            CDM Group Analysis
Agricultur     Men:                                             Men:                                                              Men:
e              -- in 98, 99 and 2000, 50% of harvest was        -- prepare to plant receding                                      -- need rice seeds 2/10 &2/6.
               affected. 2001 and 2002 100% long and            rice;
               short rice affected.                             -- plant subsidiary crops but
               -- seedlings ruined 2/6;                         have a lack of seeds 2/3;
               -- lack of rice seeds 2/5.                       --plant but no rain, lost seed.
               Women:
               -- production of all varieties a problem;        Women:                                                            Women
               -- damaged rice and secondary crops;             Before:                                                           Recommendations to Government;
                                                                -- plant dry season rice.                                         -- want rice seeds 1/7.
               Leaders:                                         After:
               -- long term rice production 10%. People         -- plant other secondary crops
               have stopped planting because of last five       2/3.
               years weather.
               -- rainy season rice broadcast 1 month,          Leaders:                                                          Group Analysis:
               transplant one month, 4 month until              -- people have changed                                            Solutions:
               harvest.                                         indigenous planting system to                                     -- plant short term rice;
               -- dry season rice start planting from           early rice production because                                     -- construct water control system to
               October:                                         of flood: twice a year in                                         store flood water for irrigation;
               * RI66: 3 months 15 days,                        December and May.                                                 -- plant high producing varieties;
               * RI42: 4 months 5 days                                                                                            -- access to credit to diversify
               If water recedes it is possible to plant, long                                                                     livelihoods.
               rice variety. If water stays 4 months, it is
               not. Have to plant dry season rice.
               -- corn starts in April harvest July
               -- beans start April harvests July
               -- tobbaco starts November end April
               Delay of rain means that corn and beans
               planted late and it is not possible to prepare
               land. Not planted this year because flood
               came and no rain. Just domestic
               production.
               -- people have gone to early rice
               production.



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                                                                                                                         Understanding People’s Perception and Behavior
Asian Disaster Preparedness Center                                                                     DRP-CLV




                  Problems/ Effects of Danger/hazard                Current Behaviour             Information Received/          Conclusions and Recommendations
                                                                                                   Sources/ Credibility             from Communities and through
                                                                                                                                         CDM Group Analysis
School         Men:                                                                                                             Men:
               -- say no effect as flood occurs during                                                                          -- need school 4/6.
               school holiday.
               Women:                                                                                                           Women:
               -- teachers do not go to school and children                                                                     Recommendations to Government;
               drop out if families are poor and flood lasts                                                                    -- want school 2/7.
               4 months. Parents may send children to
               work to supplement income because of the                                                                         Group Analysis:
               longer term effects of flood.                                                                                    Solutions:
                                                                                                                                -- build schools up high;
               Leaders:                                                                                                         -- build a school in village;
               --floods reduced enrolment by 40%.                                                                               -- more teachers in village with DSA
                                                                                                                                and house to encourage attendance.

Infra-         Men:                                            Men:                                                             Men:
structure      -- road and canals affected;                    After:                                                           Needs:
               -- lack of irrigation system 4/6.               -- repair farming and drainage                                   -- irrigation system 3/6;
                                                               system 1/3;                                                      -- school (above) 4/6;
                                                               -- prepare roads and small                                       -- secondary road 6/6;
                                                               dikes 3/3.                                                       -- hospital 3/10;
                                                                                                                                -- road 4/10;
                                                                                                                                -- pump machine 5/10.

               Women:                                          Women:                           Women:                          Women;
               -- house collapse;                              Before:                          -- received information         -- community needs irrigation 1/4;
               -- secondary road damage;                       -- repair road and dike;         from local authorities to       Recommendations to Government ;
               -- road flooded;                                After:                           repair roads and dikes.         -- want school 2/7;
               -- damage to school and flooded;                -- repair dike and canals;                                       -- want road 4/7;
               -- pagoda compound flooded.                     -- repair school pagoda and                                      -- canal 6/7;
                                                               houses.                                                          -- pump 7/7.

               Leader:                                                                                                          Group Analysis:
               -- 1500 metres secondary rd broken;
               -- 10% houses flooded;                                                                                           Solutions:



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                                                                                                                               Understanding People’s Perception and Behavior
Asian Disaster Preparedness Center                                                                           DRP-CLV




                  Problems/ Effects of Danger/hazard                    Current Behaviour                Information Received/            Conclusions and Recommendations
                                                                                                          Sources/ Credibility               from Communities and through
                                                                                                                                                   CDM Group Analysis
               -- 2 bridges broken;                                                                                                      -- construct water catchment system
               -- infrastructure badly affected every three                                                                              /reservoir for clean water (see above);
               years 5/7.                                                                                                                -- strengthen and raise the road;
                                                                                                                                         -- get sand bags before flood.




                                                                                                                                                ANNEX 3 – Drought Findings


                                                                 DROUGHT FINDINGS CONSOLIDATION

                Problems/Effects                                                         Information: Currently received              Community and District Conclusion
                  associated with                 Current Behaviour                    credibility, requests and preferred             and Recommendation (Raw Data)
                   danger/hazard                                                                     mediums
                      1
People         Men :                     Men:                                       Men:                                              Men:
                               2
               -- no food 2/8 ;          Before:                                    -- disease, injury ,death healthcare              -- want health centre 6/9;
               -- illness 5/8;           -- prepare food 1/3;                       information received in meetings and              -- want latrines and clean water 9/9;
               -- people hire labour     -- prepare rice 2/ 3;                      believed;                                         -- want to receive information about

1
 Headings denote who made the response. They not necessarily relate to reported action.
2
 Number in brackets indicate relative priority ranking of response e.g.2/8 refers to second priority of 8 responses. Tools and ranking was not used consistently across all
groups. Ranking only used to give idea or relative priority when given.


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                                                                                                Developing Effective Disaster Risk Communication Strategies in Cambodia:
                                                                                                                         Understanding People’s Perception and Behavior
Asian Disaster Preparedness Center                                                                     DRP-CLV



                Problems/Effects                                                     Information: Currently received          Community and District Conclusion
                  associated with              Current Behaviour                    credibility, requests and preferred        and Recommendation (Raw Data)
                   danger/hazard                                                                  mediums
               out as a coping         -- action to prevent negative health     -- prepare rice from local leaders most      food distribution from village or
               mechanism 6/8;          impact: medicine, drink potable          trusted then TV, then monks;                 commune 1/4;
               -- people are forced    water, sleep under mosquito nets,        -- chloramines;                              -- want to received information on
               to migrate.             pay attention to food;                   -- information received from meetings,       health and sanitation from NGOs 2/4;
               -- lack of food         -- migrate/ look for additional work .   local word of mouth, monks and TV            -- want TV to provide general
               because of drought      After:                                   listened to and followed.                    metrological information about drought,
               1/10;                   -- look for food 1/5;                                                                 flood etc.
               -- no medicine from     -- look for medicine 4/5.                                                             Women:
               health centre 5/10.                                              Women:                                       -- want health centre;
                                       Women:                                   -- general information about protecting      -- preferred info sources: leaders 1/4; .
                                       During:                                  life from radio and TV followed and          NGO 2/4; TV3/4; radio 4/4.
                                       -- hire out labour locally or in         trusted 4/6;
               Women:                  extreme cases migrate;                   -- health care information from
               -- lack of food: 1/9,   -- carry soil;                           public dissemination, radio and TV
               -- lack of budget:      -- look after children.                  followed and trusted;
               9/9.                    After:                                   -- health care and disease prevention
                                       -- report to higher authorities;         information from organisations 90%
                                       -- formulate projects;                   understood and trusted;
                                       -- get wage labour in Thailand or        -- from authorities and word of mouth
                                       garment factories, some in               95% listen to what leaders say and trust
                                       construction.                            5% others too busy.
                                                                                                                             District:
                                                                                                                             -- want information from national
                                                                                                                             government about rainfall 2/4;
                                                                                                                             -- want information on underground
                                                                                                                             water level sources 3/4;
                                                                                                                             -- want information about disease
               District:                                                                                                     prevention 4/4.
               -- lack of; and                                                                                               -- Feel they need to:
               distance from of                                                                                                 * disseminate information on flood
               water sources 3/7;                                                                                            and drought;
               -- lack of resources                                                                                           * health protection and hygiene
               to dig wells; 6/7                                                                                             using clean water;
               -- no alternative                                                                                               * flood preparedness.
               livelihoods for



                                                                                  23
                                                                       Developing Effective Disaster Risk Communication Strategies in Cambodia:
                                                                                                Understanding People’s Perception and Behavior
Asian Disaster Preparedness Center                                            DRP-CLV



                Problems/Effects                           Information: Currently received           Community and District Conclusion
                  associated with     Current Behaviour   credibility, requests and preferred         and Recommendation (Raw Data)
                   danger/hazard                                        mediums
               people suffering
               simultaneously
               effects of flood and
               drought 5/7;
               -- limited community
               knowledge on what
               to do 4/7;
               -- no health center
               local doctors and
               nurses 7/7;
               -- no food.




                                                          24
                                                                                                  Developing Effective Disaster Risk Communication Strategies in Cambodia:
                                                                                                                           Understanding People’s Perception and Behavior
Asian Disaster Preparedness Center                                                                       DRP-CLV



                Problems/Effects                                                       Information: Currently received          Community and District Conclusion
                  associated with                Current Behaviour                    credibility, requests and preferred        and Recommendation (Raw Data)
                   danger/hazard                                                                    mediums
Livestock      Men:                      Men:                                     Men:
               During:                   Before:                                  -- from word of mouth, meetings, radio,
               -- animal sickness:       -- action to prevent impact: report to   followed if instruction can be afforded;
               4 /9,                     authorities for preventative             -- animal protection information at local
               -- lack of draft          vaccination.                             meetings trusted 3/9;
               animal 8/9 and 4/9        After:
               (different groups);       -- look for draft animals: 3/5.          Women:
               -- lack of medicine                                                --animal protection advice from radio TV,
               for animals: 9/9.                                                  followed and trusted 3/5;
                                                                                  -- information from authorities and word
                                                                                  of mouth about vaccination understood,
                                                                                  trusted and followed by 80%. 20% that
                                                                                  do not follow are worried that their animal
                                                                                  will not be able to work and think cannot
                                                                                  afford the loss of production..

Agri-          Men:                      Men:                                     Men:                                          Men:
culture        During drought :          Before:                                  -- information about rice preparation         -- seed 2/9
               -- no rice seed 1/8;      -- action to prevent impact: produce     most important ;                              -- info from village or commune info
               -- damage to              rice;                                    -- information from local meetings            about preparing land from monks or
               seedlings 3/8;            -- additional work for alternative       trusted and followed;                         elders 4/4;
               --damage to               livelihoods such as animal raising,      -- weather information from TV followed       -- want information info on agricultural
               agricultural              fish raising, planting subsidiary        if there is rain!                             production;
               production 7/8;           crops like water melon using well        -- all sources trusted important for          -- want general information about
               -- lack of seed 2/10;     water                                    production 3/8.                               drought, flood etc
               -- lack of technology     -- prepare agriculture 3/3.                                                             from TV.
               for fish raising and      After:
               agriculture 6/10,         -- look for rice seed 2/5;
               -- lack of fish raising   -- look for seeds for secondary
               pond 10/10.               crops.                                   Women:                                        Women:
                                                                                  -- extent of rainfall from TV and Radio       -- want info on solution to water for rice
                                         Women:                                   trusted and followed                          production;
                                         Before:                                                                                -- want education / information on high
               Women:                    -- plant subsidiary crops such as                                                      yield low capital input rice production.
               -- lack of water          vegetables for eating and selling;



                                                                                    25
                                                                                      Developing Effective Disaster Risk Communication Strategies in Cambodia:
                                                                                                               Understanding People’s Perception and Behavior
Asian Disaster Preparedness Center                                                           DRP-CLV



                Problems/Effects                                          Information: Currently received           Community and District Conclusion
                  associated with             Current Behaviour          credibility, requests and preferred         and Recommendation (Raw Data)
                   danger/hazard                                                       mediums
               resource 2/9;          -- prepare seeds;
               -- lack of seed 4/9.   -- prepare fertilizer.
               District               During:
               -- lack of seed.       -- draw water from wells.
                                      District:
                                      -- disseminate info about water
                                      sources 1/4;
                                      - disseminate information to
                                      encourage home gardening 3/4;
                                      and ---planting of receding rice
                                      during rain 2/4




                                                                         26
                                                                                                Developing Effective Disaster Risk Communication Strategies in Cambodia:
                                                                                                                         Understanding People’s Perception and Behavior
Asian Disaster Preparedness Center                                                                     DRP-CLV



                Problems/Effects                                                  Information: Currently received             Community and District Conclusion
                  associated with               Current Behaviour                credibility, requests and preferred           and Recommendation (Raw Data)
                   danger/hazard                                                               mediums
Education      Men:
               During and after:
               -- children can be
               forced to abandon
               school
               accompanying
               parents when they
               migrate, or having
               work to earn money
               for food.
Infrastruct    Men:                     Men:                                   Men:                                           Men:
ure            -- lack of water         Before:                                -- meetings trusted followed.                  -- water canal from water pump station
               source 3/10;             -- action to prevent impact: dig                                                      5 kms, food for work project;
               -- lack of pump well     wells, and ponds, rebuild drainage                                                    -- want irrigation and communications.
               8/10;                    system,
               -- lack of irrigation,                                                                                         Women:
               lack of wells;                                                                                                 -- want irrigation system.
               -- lack of                                                      Women:
               communications.          Women                                  -- infrastructure protection about building
                                        Before:                                water irrigation , water culverts and repair
                                        -- repair roads and water culverts;    roads from meetings and local
               Women:                   dig pond and use water for             authorities, elders and monks 90% of
               -- lack of irrigation    transplanting.                         community follow because of mutual
               2/9;                     After:                                 benefit, 10% too busy with other work;
               -- lack of pumps 5/9;    -- dig/repair canals, wells, pumping   -- from meetings, followed and trusted.
               -- lack of wells 6/9;    machine.                               2/5.
               -- damaged road                                                                                                District:
               9/9.                                                                                                           --want better information on lowland
                                                                                                                              water sources near rice fields so canal
                                                                                                                              and dike digging can be requested 1/4.




                                                                                 27
                                                                      Developing Effective Disaster Risk Communication Strategies in Cambodia:
                                                                                               Understanding People’s Perception and Behavior
Asian Disaster Preparedness Center                                           DRP-CLV



                Problems/Effects                          Information: Currently received           Community and District Conclusion
                  associated with    Current Behaviour   credibility, requests and preferred         and Recommendation (Raw Data)
                   danger/hazard                                       mediums
               District:
               -- lack of
               communications;
               -- lack of water
               sources/irrigation;
               -- not possible to
               build drainage
               system.




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