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					 CMWRC (Dulles Chapter)

         Chapter 4


        (c) Chinmaya Mission
             CMWRC – Dulles
         Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 4

–    Chapter 1 of Bhagavad Gita
set up the problem, challenge, situation, confusion, delusion,
dejection that Arjuna faced.

–    Chapter 2
outlined the solution to Arjuna's problem. Bhagavān said that the
main cause of Arjuna's delusion is the ignorance of his own self.
Only knowledge can remove ignorance.

–    Chapter 3
clarified the point that before one can gain this knowledge,
preparation is needed. That preparation is selfless action.
                         (c) Chinmaya Mission
        CMWRC – Dulles
    Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 4

This path of knowledge preceded by the
preparatory step of selfless action has the
valid authority of Veda-s. To emphasize
this authenticity and to show how this
knowledge is handed down from the
teacher to the student, Bhagavān begins
Chapter 4 talking about the lineage, Guru-
Śiṣya parampara.

                (c) Chinmaya Mission
               CMWRC – Dulles
           Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 4
Śrī Bhagavān Uvāca –
   Imam vivasvate yogam proktavān-aham-avyayam
   vivasvān-manave prāha manur-ikṣvākave-'bravīt --- (1)

The Blessed Lord said:
  I taught this Imperishable Yoga to Vivasvān; Vivasvān taught it to
  Manu; Manu taught it to ikṣvāku.

    –   First of all I taught this yoga
    –   Knowledge is indestructible
    –   Lineage is indicated
    –   Greatness of the Knowledge is established
    –   One should not have any hesitation in gaining this Knowledge

                             (c) Chinmaya Mission
              CMWRC – Dulles
          Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 4
Why are you telling me this now?

    Evam paramparā-prāptam-imam rāja-rṣayo viduḥ
    sa kāleneha mahatā yogo naṣṭaḥ parantapa --- (2)

   This knowledge, handed down thus in regular succession, the royal
   sages knew. This yoga, by long lapse of time, has been lost here,
   O Parantapa!

   –    Due to passage of a long period of time, this knowledge was
   –    How could the imperishable Knowledge be destroyed?
   –    Destroyed means the transfer of Knowledge from the teacher
        to the taught was disrupted.
   –    The consequential result is seen in your pitiable state of mind!
        You are trembling, shuddering, having a nervous background,
        all the result of not having that Knowledge!
                           (c) Chinmaya Mission
              CMWRC – Dulles
          Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 4
Now I am taking this opportunity to teach that knowledge to you again!

    Sa evāyam mayā te'dya yogah proktaḥ purātanaḥ
    bhakto'si me sakhā ceti rahasyam hy-etad-uttamam --- (3)

    That same ancient “yoga” has been today taught to you by Me,
    because you are My devotee and My friend. This is the Supreme

    –   The yoga that was taught to Arjuna is the same that was
        taught in ancient times
    –   Why this special grace to Arjuna? The reason is Arjuna is
        Bhagavān's devotee. He loved Bhagavān
    –   Arjuna was dear to Bhagavān also
    –   Know what is being taught is a great secret, a sublime secret!
    –   Result of this Knowledge is that you are liberated from this
        samsara. Understand that Bhagavad Gita is meant for
                            (c) Chinmaya Mission
        everyone of us!
              CMWRC – Dulles
          Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 4
To remove any doubt about of chronological inconsistency, Arjuna
asked a question.

  Arjuna Uvāca -
  Aparam bhavato janma param janma vivasvataḥ
  katham-etad-vijānīyām tvam-ādau proktavān-iti ---(4)

   Arjuna said:
   Later was Your birth, and prior was the birth of Vivasvān. How
   am I to understand that You taught this Yoga in the beginning?

   –    Vivasvān lived in ancient times.
   –    You are here now with me!
   –    How could you have given this teaching to Vivasvān and
                           (c) Chinmaya Mission
              CMWRC – Dulles
          Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 4
Now Bhagavān reveals the secret behind his incarnation!

   Śrī Bhagavān Uvāca -
   Bahūni me vyatītāni janmāni tava cārjuna
   tānyaham veda sarvāṇi na tvam vettha parantapa      --- (5)

   The Blessed Lord said:
   My many births have passed as well as yours, O Arjuna. I know
   them all, but you know them not, O Parantapa!

   –    This is not my only birth! I have taken countless, many many
   –    You have also taken many births! This is not your first birth!
   –    I remember all my births, but you don't!
   –    Bhagavān reveals his Īśvartva (divinity) here.
                           (c) Chinmaya Mission
              CMWRC – Dulles
          Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 4
How is Bhagavān's birth different?

   Ajo'pi sann-avyayātmā bhūtānām-īśvaro'pi san
   prakṛtim svām-adhiṣṭhāya sambhavāmyātma-māyayaā --- (6)

   Though I am unborn and am of imperishable nature, and though I
   am the Lord of all beings, yet, ruling over My own Nature, I take
   birth by My own māyā.

    –   The Blessed Lord's birth is not because of any merits or sins,
        but ours is.
    –   The Blessed Lord does not come under the sway of prakṛti
        (nature), but we do.
    –   The Blessed Lord keeps the nature under His control, but
        nature controls us.
    –   The Blessed Lord chooses to be born, we don't choose.
    –   The Blessed Lord's(c) Chinmaya Mission birth, but only māyā.
                             birth is not real
              CMWRC – Dulles
          Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 4
If the Blessed Lord has no compulsion to be born, why does He choose
to be born?

   Yadā yadā hi dharmasya glānir-bhavati bhārata
   abh-utthānam-adharmasya tadātmanam sṛjāmyaham --- (7)

   Whenever there is a decay of righteousness, O Bhārata, and a rise
   of unrighteousness, then I manifest myself.

    Paritrāṇāya sādhūnām vināśāya ca duṣkṛtām
    dharma-samsthāpa-nārthāya sambhavāmi yuge yuge --- (8)

    For the protection of the good, for the destruction of the wicked,
    and for the establishment Chinmaya Mission
                               of righteousness, I am born in every age.
              CMWRC – Dulles
          Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 4

You cannot ask the Lord, why He takes birth? He wills, He comes!

   –    I choose to come to protect dharma (righteousness), and the
        righteous, noble virtuous people, to destroy the evil doers and
        to establish that righteousness again.
   –    What is dharma and what is adharma? Dharma is that which
   –    Supports, sustains, integrates;
   –    Is the nature of a thing – when everything follows its nature,
        the world is sustained;
   –    Integrates within and the outside world is held together
   –    Noble values, virtues etc. constitute dharma – humility,
        simplicity, honesty, steadfastness in performing one's duties,
        truthfulness, non-injury, forgiveness, control over senses etc.
   –    Opposite of what is dharma is adharma – so adharma divides,
                           (c) Chinmaya Mission
             CMWRC – Dulles
         Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 4
What is meant my decline in dharma and increase in adharma?

   – Decrease in the number of righteous people and increase in the
   – Love is gone, trust is gone, only quarrels, fights and terrorist
   – Dharma is that which leads you material prosperity and spiritual
   – Dharma is one of the subject matters in Vedas – when the
     respect for Vedas goes away, the knowledge given in Vedas
     goes away and there is a decline in dharma
   – The Blessed Lord taking birth is called avatāra (incarnation) and
     our birth is reincarnation!
   – There are many kinds of avatāras,and each one is for a very
     specific purpose, but the incarnation as Rama and Krishna is
     most meaningful and relevant for us!

                           (c) Chinmaya Mission
              CMWRC – Dulles
          Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 4
Now, why is the Blessed Lord giving his autobiography here?

    Janma karma ca me divyam-evam yo vetti tattvataḥ
    tyaktvā deham puranjanma naiti māmeti so'rjuna --- (9)

   He who thus knows, in true light, My divine birth and action, having
  abandoned the body, he is not born again; he comes to Me!

   –    My birth and actions are both divine!
   –    What is the divinity in His birth? See verse 6! He is unborn,
        deathless, yet through māyā, He appears to have taken birth!
   –    What is the divinity in His actions? This topic will be taken up
        in later verses. Suffice it to say here that even though He is
        non-doer and non-enjoyer, through māyā, He appears to be
        doing actions and enjoying the results of the actions!
   –    One who knows that divinity in essence, he reaches Me! He
        becomes one with Me!
   –    This is a mahāvākya!Chinmaya Mission of the Blessed Lord and
                             (c) The oneness
        you! Tat tvam asi!
              CMWRC – Dulles
          Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 4
Is there any authority to substantiate this statement of oneness?

    Vīta-rāga-bhaya-krodhā manmayā mām-upāśrithāḥ
    bahavo jnāna-tapasā pūtā mad-bhāvam-āgatāḥ    --- (10)

    Freed from attachment, fear and anger, absorbed in Me, taking
    refuge in Me, purified the Fire-of-Knowledge, many have attained
    My Being!
    –   Has anybody reached Me free from birth and death? Yes, indeed! Many,
    –   How did they do it? They have purified themselves by the penance of
    –   What is that penance? The penance is the path of inquiry!
    –   To do that penance what are the qualifications?
    –   You must be free from attachment, fear and anger!
    –   What attachment? Attachment to body, to its pleasures, comforts and for its
    –   Free yourself from the attachment; that itself will free you from fear and anger!
                                (c) Chinmaya Mission
    –   Become one with Me; see no difference between you and Me!
    –   Be totally dependent on Me!
              CMWRC – Dulles
          Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 4
Does it mean only some get the Lord's blessings and others do not?

    Ye yathā mām prapadyante tāms-tathaiva bhajāmy-aham
    mama vartmānu-vartante manuṣyāḥ pārtha sarvaśaḥ --- (11)

    In whatever way men approach Me, I reward them accordingly;
    Men tread their path to Me in all different ways, O son of Pārtha!
   –    In whatever manner, in whichever form, for whatever purpose, they
        come to Me, I bless them in the same way. Devotees worship God
        as Rama, Krishna, Shiva … in different forms. To each one the
        Bleesed Lord appears in that form to them.
   –    People look to the Lord as son (Mother Yashoda), friend (Arjuna),
        beloved (Gopikas) etc.
   –    The Blessed Lord reciprocates in the same way
   –    To seekers of knowledge, He gives knowledge!
   –    In all ways, by all means, all men follow My path only! How so?
   –    Whatever be the means, everybody seeks happiness. That
        Happiness is the Lord! Chinmaya Mission
              CMWRC – Dulles
          Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 4
Then why do men ordinarily not desire to seek the Blessed Lord?

    Kāṅkṣantaḥ karmaṇām siddhim yajanta iha devatāḥ
    kṣipram hi mānuṣe loke siddhir-bhavati karmajā --- (12)

   Those who long for satisfaction from actions in this world, make
   sacrifices to the gods, because satisfaction is quickly obtained from
  actions in the world of objects.

   –    Simple answer to why people do not seek the Lord is people
        want quick result, instant gratification and that is available
        immediately from the world of objects and not from the spiritual
        world. In other words, people or extroverted.
   –    People see the results of their actions immediately.
        Experience the results to be satisfied!
   –    When senses are gratified, joy is immediate.
   –    When it comes to spirituality, how much sādhana you have to
        do to get liberation!(c) Chinmaya Mission
              CMWRC – Dulles
          Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 4
Extroverted men can be divided into four types on the basis of their
finer distinctions of their thought and action.

    Cātur-varṇyam mayā sṛṣṭam guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśaḥ
    tasya kartāram-api mām viddhya-kartārama-vyayam --- (13)

    The fourfold-caste has been created by Me according to the
    differentiation of Guṇa and Karma; though I am the author thereof,
    know Me as non-doer and immutable.

    –   I am the creator of the four castes, based on one's qualities
        (Guṇa) and action (Karma)
    –   Even though I am the creator, I am a non-doer. I am
        immutable => divayatā (divinity)
    –   Everything has properties, qualities and characteristics
    –   The caste system is the classification based on the
        observation of these differences.
    –   Guṇa is a technical(c) Chinmaya Missionrajas and tamas
                             word – sattva,
          CMWRC – Dulles
      Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 4
– 75% sattva, 15% rajas, 10% tamas = Brāhmaṇa => Thinker,
– 30% sattva, 60% rajas, 10% tamas = Kṣatriya => Administrator
– 20% sattva, 50% rajas, 20% tamas =Vaiśya => Resource
– 10% sattva, 40% rajas, 50% tamas =Śudra => Laborer
– For the society to be integrated and prosperous, all the 4 types
  are necessary.
– There is no superiority or inferiority among the types
– Everyone has each of these types in him and it changes over his
– One can change the varṇa dharma through his karma
– The Lord created the classification, but man created the caste
– The classes are there, but you choose into which class you fall

                       (c) Chinmaya Mission
              CMWRC – Dulles
          Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 4
What is the implication of the fact that the Blessed Lord is Changeless
and All-Pervading and is neither the Doer nor the Creator?

    Na mām karmāṇi limpanti na me karma-phale spṛhā
    iti mām yo'bhijānāti karmabhir-na sa badhyate --- (14)

    Actions do not taint Me, nor have I any desire for the fruits of
    actions. He who knows Me thus, is not bound by his actions.
    –   The Blessed Lord performs so many actions, and yet those
        actions do not bind Him, they do not contaminate Him!
    –   The Blessed Lord does not have any attachment to the result
        of these actions! Why?
    –   He does not have the sense of doership or enjoyership!
    –   Actions do not bind a person. It is only the sense of doership
        and consequential sense of enjoyership that binds the person.
    –   The one who knows the Blessed Lord in this way, is not bound
                             one who Mission
        by his actions! The (c) Chinmayaknows the Blessed Lord as his
        own self, he gets liberated!
             CMWRC – Dulles
         Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 4
Has anybody done that?

   Evam jňātvā kṛtam karma pūrvair-api mumukṣubhiḥ
   kuru karmaiva tasmāt-tvam pūrvaiḥ pūrvataram kṛtam --- (15)

   Having known this, the ancient seekers-after-freedom also
   performed action. Therefore, you too perform action, as did the
   ancients in the olden times.

   –   Those seekers of Liberation in the past, understood the secret of
       what binds and what liberates.
   –   They all performed their actions.
   –   Arjuna, you are seeking that liberation.
   –   So you also perform your actions.

                          (c) Chinmaya Mission
               CMWRC – Dulles
           Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 4
This topic of karma is really baffling, very subtle!

    kim karma kim-akarmeti kavayo'py-atra mohitāḥ
    tatte karma pravakṣyāmi yaj-jňātva mokkṣyse-' śubhāt --- (16)

    What is action? What is inaction? As to this, even the “wise” are
    deluded. Therefore, I shall teach you “action” (the nature of action
    and inaction), knowing which, you shall be liberated from the evil (of
    samsāra – the wheel of birth and death).

    –    Arjuna, you are confused as to what to do – even great
         learned people are confused when it comes to acting and not
    –    So, I am going to what is action and what is inaction.
    –    Knowing this, you will be freed from inauspiciousness!

                              (c) Chinmaya Mission
              CMWRC – Dulles
          Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 4
All know what is action! What is there to learn about action?

    Karmaṇo hy-api boddhavyam boddhavyam ca vikarmaṇaḥ
    akarmaṇaś-ca boddhavyam gahanā karmaṇo gatiḥ --- (17)

    One should know (the true nature) of “right action”; also one should
   know of “forbidden action” and of “inaction”; imponderable is the
    nature (path) of action.

    –   Action is movement; stillness is inaction. Why be confused?
    –   It cannot that simple. Nobody can even live without action. So
        the instruction to act, means perform your bounden duties, not
        criminal actions.
    –   So you should know what is your duty.
    –   You should also know what actions are forbidden, so you do
        not do them.
    –   One may not perform a prohibited action, but not do his duty
        either. That is inaction.
                             (c) Chinmaya Mission
    –   That is why this concept of action is so deep and subtle!
               CMWRC – Dulles
           Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 4
Here is the answer to the question, what is there to learn about action
and inaction?

    Karmaṇy-akarma yaḥ paśyed-akarmaṇi ca karma yaḥ
    sa buddhimān-manuṣyeṣu sa yuktaḥ kṛtsnakarmakṛt --- (18)

    He who recognizes inaction in action, and action in inaction is wise
   among men. He is a Yogī and a true performer of all actions.
    –    When an action is performed, if there is no effect on the performer, then the
         performer sees inaction in action – no doership, no enjoyership!
    –    A person may be sitting still, outwardly doing nothing, but his mind may be
         vigorously acting. That is action in inaction!
    –    That action in which there is no ego, no attachment to the fruit of action, that is
    –    One who knows this great secret of action is wise. This is karma yoga!
    –    From jňāna yoga standpoint, see in the vigorous action of upādhis, see the
         action-less Self!
    –    In that action-less Self, see all the actions!
    –    Such a person has performed all actions! His mind is purified! He is a yogī!
                                    (c) Chinmaya Mission
             CMWRC – Dulles
          Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 4
Please talk to me some more about this wise man.

    Yasya sarve samārambāḥ kāmasaṅkavarjitāḥ
    jňānāgni-dagdha-karmāṇam tamāhuḥ paṇḍitam budhāḥ --- (19)

   He who undertakes all action without desires and fanciful thoughts,
  and whose actions have been burnt by the Fire-of-Knowledge, the
   “wise” call him a Sage.

   –    What do you mean by 'without desires and fanciful thoughts'?
   –    Recall all actions are expressions of our desires. Desires
        originate from fanciful imaginations that happiness is there in
        the objects, in the outside world – ignorance!
   –    The wise perform actions FROM happiness, NOT FOR
   –    So his actions are devoid of desires and fanciful thoughts!
   –    Fire-of-Knowledge means the vision of inaction in action and
        action in inaction! (c) Chinmaya Mission
   –    This characteristic of the wise man is a guideline for us!
              CMWRC – Dulles
          Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 4
When a Sage performs actions, He really does no action!

    Tyaktvā karma-phalā-saṅgam nitya-tṛpto nir-āśrayaḥ
    karmaṇyabhi-pravṛtto-'pi naiva kiňcit-karoti saḥ   --- (20)

   Having abandoned attachment to the fruits-of-action, ever-content,
   depending on nothing, he does not do anything, though engaged in

   –    The sage has given up the notion 'I am the doer' and the
        extreme attachment to the results of action.
   –    There is no dependence on that object or results for his
        happiness. But, how does he do it?
   –    Because he is ever content – I don't want any more – I don't
        want anything!
   –    Instead of searching for infinite happiness in finite things, he is
        content in the eternal!
   –                        anything!
        No dependence on (c) Chinmaya Mission
   –    So he does not do anything!
              CMWRC – Dulles
          Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 4
To remove any doubts such as any action has to have an effect and as
such even a Sage's action must have a reaction …

    Nirāśīr-yata-cittātmā tyakta-sarva-parigrahaḥ
    śārīrm kevalam karma kurvann-āpnoti kilbiṣam --- (21)

   Without hope (expectation), with his mind and self controlled,
   having abandoned all sense of accumulations, doing merely bodily
  action, he incurs no sin.

   –    Nirāśīḥ – from one whose mind all hopes and expectations are
        gone away completely
   –    Yata-cittātmā – one whose mind and self are controlled
   –    Tyakta-sarva-parigrahaḥ – having given up all accumulation,
   –    Śārīrm kevalam karma kurvan – performing only bodily
   –                       (c) the Sage incurs no sin
        Acting in this manner,Chinmaya Mission
              CMWRC – Dulles
          Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 4
Equipoise of mind -

   Yadṛcchā-lābha-santuṣṭo dvandvātīto vimatsaraḥ
   samaḥ siddhāv-asiddhau ca kṛtvāpi na nibadhyate ---(22)

   Content with what comes to him without effort, free from the
   pairs-of-opposites and envy, even-minded in success and
   failure, though acting, he is not bound.

    –   Totally content with whatever results that may come
    –   Good or bad, nice or ugly – go past all these opposites
    –   Not given to any envy, greed, jealousy
    –   In success or failure remaining the same
    –   Acting in this manner, the Sage is never bound
                           (c) Chinmaya Mission
             CMWRC – Dulles
         Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 4
How is this even-mindedness possible? Why the karmas do not bind

   Gata-saṅgasya muktasya jňānā-vasthita-cetasaḥ
   yajňāyā-carataḥ karma samagram pravilīyate --- (23)

   One who does not have attachment, who is liberated, whose mind
   is established in Knowledge, who acts for the sake of sacrifice, all
   his actions are dissolved.

   –    He is not bound because all bondages are only mental.
   –    His mind is free of attachments
   –    His mind is established in the Knowledge
   –    His actions are for the sake of sacrifices
   –    Action is not a means to gain a certain result, but action itself
        is the end!
   –                         (c) any action is
        The ultimate result forChinmaya Mission happiness. Since He is
        established in Happiness, His actions are not for Happiness,
              CMWRC – Dulles
          Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 4
Which actions and how do such actions dissolve in the actions only
without producing their natural results?

    Brahmārpanam brahma haviḥ brahmāgnau brahmaṇā hutam
    bramaiva tena gantavyam brahma-karma-samadhinā   --- (24)

    Brahman is the oblation; Brahman is the offering; by Brahman is
    the oblation poured into the fire of Brahman; Brahman verily shall
    be reached by him who always sees Brahman in all actions.
    –   This is the yajňa of the wise man. His vision of the world itself
        is yajňa.
    –   He sees the Blessed Lord in his heart; He is the Self of all
    –   He is the substratum of everything. So He has divinized His
    –   The metaphor here is yajňa. The oblation, offering, the
                              the offerer and
        offering instrument,(c) Chinmaya Mission the offeree, everything is
             CMWRC – Dulles
         Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 4
You have spoken about the yajňa of the wise man. How about the

   Daivam-evā-pare yajňam yoginaḥ paryu-pāsate
   brahmāgnāva-pare yajňam yajňe-naivopa-juhvati --- (25)

   Some Yogī-s perform sacrifices to Devā-s alone; while others offer
   the Self as oblation by the Self, in the Fire of Brahman.

   –    Some Yogī-s, spiritual seekers perform the sacrifices through
        worship of gods
   –    Such worship performed by those seekers may be vaidik, or
        as prescribed in purāṇā-s etc.
   –    Others offer the yajňa in the fire of Brahman – brahma yajňa –
        the person offers himself!
   –    This brahma yajňa is nothing but meditation! They meditate
        on the identity with Brahman!
                           (c) Chinmaya Mission
             CMWRC – Dulles
         Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 4
Two more yajňa-s.

   Śrotrā-dīnīndriyā-ṇyanye samyam-āgniṣu juhvati
   śabdhādīnīn-viṣayān-anya indriy-āgniṣu juhvati --- (26)

   Some again offer hearing and other senses as sacrifice in the fire-
   of-restraint; others offer sound and other objects of senses as
   sacrifice in the fire-of-the-senses.

   –    Offer sense objects in the fire of sense organs; offer those
        sense organs in the fire of self- control – what does it mean?
   –    That means you carry on your normal life, but with restraint,
        not any licentious lifestyle
   –    In other words control of sense organs

                           (c) Chinmaya Mission
              CMWRC – Dulles
          Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 4
Not only control with respect to sense control, but also with
respect to organs of action!

   Sarvāṇ-īnīndriya-karmāṇi prāṇa-karmāṇi cāpare
   ātma-samyama-yog-āgnau juhvati jňānā-dīpite --- (27)

   Others again sacrifice all the functions of the senses and the
   functions of the breath (vital energy) in the fire of the Yoga of self-
   restraint, kindled by Knowledge.

    –    Control of the organs of action and prāṇa-s
    –    This is not a foolish suppression, but
    –    Brought about with the correct knowledge that licentious,
         uncontrolled living takes us away from our goal – Have some
    –    Divinize the activities of organs of action
                             (c) Chinmaya Mission
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Five more methods of sacrifice to indicate that there are many more -

    Dravya-yajňās-tapo-yajňā yoga-yajňās-tathā pare
    svādhyāya-jňāna-yajňās-ca yatayaḥ samśita-vratāḥ --- (28)

    Others again offer wealth, austerity and Yoga as sacrifice, while
    the ascetics of self-restraint and rigid vows offer study of scriptures
    and knowledge as sacrifice.

    –   Others do charity by offering wealth, food, clothing, place to
        stay etc. as sacrifice
    –   Penance, austerities, vows as sacrifice
    –   Prāṇāyāma, hata yoga as sacrifice
    –   Recitation of scriptures again can be the sacrifice of some
        others; not mere recitation, but understanding the meaning of
        the verses is also a sacrifice
    –   Other seekers observe strict rigid vows
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A little bit more about Prāṇāyāma -

   Apāne juhvati prāṇam prāṇe-'pāṇam tathā pare
   prāṇā-pāṇa-gatī ruddhvā prāṇāyāma-parāyaṇāḥ --- (29)

   Others offer as sacrifice, the out-going breath in the incoming, and
   the incoming in the outgoing, restraining the courses of the outgoing
   and incoming breaths, solely absorbed in the restraint of breath.

    –   For others Prāṇāyāma is the highest sacrifice
    –   The process of Prāṇāyāma is described in this verse
    –   Inhalation, exhalation and retention of breath (in and out)

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If the above described sacrifices are difficult, is there some
other easier alternative?

   Apare niyatā-hārāḥ prāṇān-prāṇeṣu juhvati
   sarve-'pyete yajňa-vido yajňa-kṣapita-kalmaṣāḥ --- (30)

   Others, with well-regulated diet, offer vital-airs in the vital-air. All
   these are knowers of sacrifice whose sins are destroyed by

    –    Control your eating! Take food in measured quantity
    –    Gain mastery over prāṇā-s
    –    With such control, gain mastery over your mind
    –    Anybody who starts with any of these sacrifices destroys his

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So just start doing it, then you will find that you slowly rise higher and
higher. The importance of self-effort is pointed out now.

    Yajňa-śiṣṭāmṛta-bhujo yānti brahma sanātanam
    nāyam loko-'stya-yajňaya kuto-'nyaḥ kuru-sattam --- (31)

    The eaters of the nectar-remnant of the sacrifice go to the Eternal
    Brahman. The non-performer of sacrifice does not enjoy even this
    world; how then the other (world)? O best of the Kurū-s?

    –    What does 'eaters of the nectar-remnant of the sacrifice'
    –    That means those who partake the results after sharing them
         with others
    –    Such people get to realize Brahman.
    –    The rest of the people do not enjoy the happiness, peace or
         the joy of this world, what to talk about the world hereafter.
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Do all these different paths lead us to the same goal or to different

    Evam bahu vidhā yajňā vitatā brahmaṇo mukhe
    karmajān-viddhi tān-sarvān-evam jňātva vimokṣyase --- (32)

    Thus innumerable sacrifices lie spread out in Vedās (as paths to
    Brahman, literally at the mouth or face of Brahman). Know them
    all as born of action, and thus knowing, you shall be liberated.

    –    Many different paths have been prescribed. All of them come
         from Vedās.
    –    All of them are born out of karma.
    –    What kind of karma? Karma emanating from the Knowledge
         what is karma and what is akarma and the full implication of
         that Knowledge (see verse 16)
    –    Naturally such a person will be liberated.
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Okay, all these different path take us to the same destination, but which
is the best?

    Śreyān-dravya-mayād-yajňāj-jňāna-yajňaḥ parantapa
    sarvam karmākhilam pārtha jňāne parisamāpyate --- (33)

    Superior is “knowledge of sacrifice” to “sacrifice with objects”,
    O Prantapa. All actions in their entirety, O Pārtha, culminate in

    –    Glory of Knowledge is emphasized in this verse. All actions,
         sacrifices end in Knowledge!
    –    All other spiritual practices purify the seeker. The seeker then
         gains the Knowledge which immediately liberates the seeker.
    –    In this manner, “Knowledge of sacrifice” (jňāna-yajňa) is
         superior to all others.
    –    When one gains the Knowledge (of the Self), there are no
                               (c) Chinmaya
         more actions to be done! So MissionKnowledge is the culmination of
         all actions!
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How to gain this Knowledge?

   Tad-viddhi praṇi-pātena pari-praśnena sevayā
   upadekṣyanti te jňānam jňāninas-tattva-darśinaḥ --- (34)

   Know that by long prostration, by question and service; the “wise”
   who have realized the Truth will instruct you in (that) Knowledge.

   –    This verse describes how one should approach a Guru and
        gain this Knowledge.
   –    Approach the Guru in all humility and completely surrender at
        his feet.
   –    Serve that Guru so that you can tune your mind to his
   –    Then when the Guru gives you permission ask his questions
        about this Knowledge.
   –    That Guru who knows the scriptures and who is established in
                              (c) Chinmaya Mission
        that Truth will instruct you in that Knowledge.
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What will happen when you gain this Knowledge? The beautiful vision
you gain from that Guru is given here. Very powerful!

    Yaj-jňātvā na punar-moham-evam yāsyasi pāṇḍava
    yena bhūtānya-śeṣeṇa drakṣya-syāt-manyatho mayi --- (35)

    O Pāṇḍava, knowing that, you shall not get deluded like this; and
    by that, you shall see all beings in your Self, and also in Me.

   –    What happens when you gain this Knowledge is that you don't
        get deluded like you are now, ever again!
   –    The Knowledge will be bright and brilliant! Ever available!
   –    You will come to realize all beings exist in you only! Without
        any doubt!
   –    Your sorrow, delusion and fear – everything is gone.
   –    When all beings are in you, how can anything frighten you?
   –    So this Knowledge makes you fearless, totally fulfilled, puts an
        end to your search!(c) Chinmaya Mission
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Can any one gain this Knowledge? I am such a sinner! Can I do it?

    Api cedasi pāpebhyaḥ sarvebhyaḥ pāpa-kṛttamaḥ
    sarvam jňāna-plavenaiva vṛjinam sam-tariṣyasi --- (36)

    Even if you are the most sinful of all sinners, yet you shall verily
    cross all sins by the raft of Knowledge.

   –    The source of all sins is the original sin – ignorance –
        ignorance of your own nature!
   –    That ignorance creates all wrong notions, fanciful desires, and
        sinful actions.
   –    Once you gain this Knowledge, the ignorance is removed and
        consequent problems!
   –    Don't worry if your are the worst sinner. You need this
        Knowledge the most!
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How does this Knowledge destroy sin?

   Yathai-dhāmsi samiddho-'gnir-bhasmasāt-kurute-'rjuna
   jňānāgniḥ sarva-karmāṇi bhasmasāt-kurute tathā --- (37)

   As the blazing fire reduces fuel to ashes, O Arujuna, so does the
   Fire-of-Knowledge reduces all actions to ashes.

   –    A well lit fire, huge conflagration burns all fuel to ashes in no
   –    Likewise, the Fire-of-Knowledge reduces all actions to ashes.
   –    The outside fire literally reduces everything to ashes.
   –    Fire-of-Knowledge renders all actions impotent – actions do
        not germinate into other actions like a roasted seed does not
        sprout forth.
   –    Actions are expressions of ignorance. Knowledge destroys
                                  all actions.
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Knowledge the ultimate purifier!

    Na hi jňānena sadṛśam pavitram-iha vidyate
    tat-svayam yoga-samsiddhaḥ kālen-ātmani vindati --- (38)

    Verily, there is no purifier in this world like 'knowledge'. He
    who is himself perfected in Yoga finds it in himself in course
    of time.

    –   All other spiritual practices removes the sins.
    –   Knowledge purifies the sinner.
    –   All the time that is required is for preparation only.
    –   A well prepared, purified mind is ready for Knowledge.
    –   Knowledge purifies the individual instantaneously.
    –   That is why Knowledge is the ultimate purifier!

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What qualities should one have to gain this Knowledge?

       Śraddhāvān-labhate jňānam tatparaḥ samyatendriyaḥ
       jňānam labhdvā parām śāntim-acireṇā-dhigacchati --- (39)

       The man endowed with faith, with utmost devotion to It, and with
       senses controlled, gains (this) Knowledge. Having obtained the
       Knowledge, without further delay, attains the Supreme Peace.
   – The requisite qualities are:– Faith in:
   – a) the Existence of the Reality
   – b) the scriptures (Vedās) as the valid means of Knowledge
   – c) the Guru's wisdom to impart that Knowledge
   – d) oneself to gain that Knowledge
   – Next to hold the Knowledge of the Reality to be the ultimate goal!
   – Finally having the discipline so as not to be distracted in the pursuit of
     the goal
   – Upon gaining this Knowledge, simultaneously Supreme Peace is
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Do not doubt this! Doubt is disastrous!

    Ajňaś-cāśradda-dhānaś-ca samśay-ātmā vinaśyati
    nāyam loko-'sti na paro na sukham samśay-ātmānaḥ --- (40)

    The ignorant, the faithless, the doubter goes to destruction. There
    is neither this world, nor the other, nor happiness for the doubter.

    – Obstacles to gaining the Knowledge of the Self are ignorance,
      faithlessness and doubt.
    – Among these, doubt is the worst.
    – Even if one is ignorant, with faith, the Knowledge may be gained.
    – If the path to gaining the Knowledge is compromised with
      doubts, no further progress is possible.
    – A doubter does not enjoy this life nor the life hereafter.
    – He becomes unfit to realize the supreme goal of human life.
    – Therefore he perishes! Chinmaya Mission
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How not be come under the sway of doubts and what is the benefit if

   Yoga-sannyasta-karmāṇam jňāna-samchinna-samśayam
   ātma-vantam na karmāṇi nibadhnanti dhanaňjaya --- (41)

   He who has renounced actions by Yoga, whose doubts are
   cut asunder by Knowledge, who is established in the Self,
   actions do not bind him, O Dhanaňjaya!

   –    Through the practice of karma yoga, purify your mind, and
        through practice of jňāna yoga remove all your doubts
   –    Having done that, be established in the Self!
   –    And actions do not bind such a Yogi.

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After elaborating the supreme benefits of Knowledge, the
Blessed Lord exhorts Arjuna.

   Tamād-ajňāna-sambhūtam hṛtstham jňānāsinātmanaḥ
   chitt-vainam samśayam yogam-ātiṣṭh-ottiṣṭha bhārata --- (42)

   Therefore, with the sword-of-Knowledge cut asunder the doubt-of-
   the-Self, born out of ignorance residing in your heart and take
   refuge in Yoga. Arise, O Bhārata!

    –   The doubts in your mind arise from ignorance of the Self.
    –   Remove such doubts with the Knowledge of the Self.
    –   Get up and act!

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       Hari OM!

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