Graphing Traffic Math Worksheet by ltw78100

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Graphing Traffic Math Worksheet document sample

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									The student will compare possible solutions to best
address an identified need or problem. Design and
construct a solution to an identified need or problem
using simple classroom materials.
 Overview
 Building Bridges Scavenger Hunt
 Complete the Chart Comparison on bridges using the following website:
       http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/buildingbig/bridge/index.html
       From this site go to the links of individual bridges.
   Building Bridges Vocabulary Worksheets
   Access the following website to do the virtual experiments:
       http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/buildingbig/lab/forces.html
       Do the virtual experiments as well as see real life examples.
   Access the following virtual bridge-building site to construct the correct type of
    bridge for a specific area:
       http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/buildingbig/bridge/challenge/index.html
       Do the virtual activities as well as see the correct type bridge for certain areas.
   After you have worked through the worksheets and the websites, draw a
    diagram of your bridge on graphing paper prior to construction.
   The Cause… Way Essay
   Build your bridge.
   Turn in your Bridge with a paper that contains your actual costs.
   Have a contest to see which bridge holds the most weight.
Due Dates:
   January 7th
     Activities
   January 9th
     Diagram of bridge
   January 16th
     The Cause… Way! Essay
   January 28th
     Bridges with written paper and the
      Worksheet
   February 2nd-3rd
     Bridge Competition
IMPORTANT!
   This is done at home.
     There will be no class time available to work
     on it.
   Manage your time wisely!
     The due dates will come fast.
   DO NOT PAINT THE BRIDGES!
Activities
1. Building Bridges Scavenger Hunt
2. Building Bridges Comparison Sheet
3. Building Bridges Vocabulary
Activity 1
Building Bridges Scavenger Hunt
   Directions: Use the following websites to
    complete the information.
     www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/bridge/meetarch.html
     www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/bridge/meetbeam.html
     http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/bridge/meetsusp.
      html
      www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/bridge/meetcable.html
     www.tfhrc.gov/pubrds/summer95/p95su23.htm
     www.howstuffworks.com/bridge.htm
Activity 2
Building Bridges Comparison Sheet

   Use the following website to complete
    comparison:
     http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/buildingbig/bridge/i
     ndex.html
Activity 3
Building Bridges Vocabulary
   Use the following websites to define the
    vocabulary words.
     www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/bridge/meetarch.ht
      ml
     www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/bridge/meetbeam.h
      tml
     www.howstuffworks.com/bridge1.htm
Bridge Diagram
 Draw a picture of what you think your
  bridge is going to look like.
 Doesn’t have to be the end product.
     Can change as you find that it doesn’t work
     You find better ways
The Cause...Way Essay
   Scenario:
     You are the mayor of your town, My City, USA. The
     residents who elected you are angry because the
     town needs a new bridge to cross the Windy River.
     The town does not have the money from taxes to
     pay for the bridge, and attempts to raise the money
     from local businesses have failed. There is an
     upcoming election in the fall and you want very
     much to be reelected as mayor of My City. Your must
     find money to build the bridge My City so
     desperately needs. Your last chance is to lobby
     before your state government and convince them to
     allocate the funds for the bridge reconstruction. Write
     a persuasive and convincing proposal to accomplish
     the goal - My City will get its bridge and you will be
     reelected!
     The Cause… Way Essay
1.        Why the bridge is crucial to My City                 Writing Lengths
     a.            How the bridge is used most (‘real life’)    At least these lengths
2.        How long it will take to build (‘real life’)         1. ½ page
3.        What material you propose to build the               2. 1 Paragraph
          bridge from (‘real life’)                            3. ½ Page
4.        Budget Prediction (model)                            4. 1 Page Total
     a.            Man hours                                        a. 1 Paragraph
             i.         You
             ii.        Anyone that helps you out                   b. 1 Paragraph
     b.            Materials                                        c. ½ Page (See Worksheet)
     c.            Show the math (worksheet format)            5.   1 Page
5.        Design (model)                                       6.   1 Page
     a.            Written Description
             i.         What the bridge should look like            Formatting
     b.            Why the bridge appearance is important          Font
                   or unimportant (‘real life’)
                                                                       Arial
6.        What will happen if the bridge isn't rebuilt                 Size 12
          (‘real life’)
     a.            Economy                                         Double spaced
     b.            Social
     c.            Alternatives if the bridge isn't built
Worksheet
 Fill this out as you build the bridge.
 Keep track of:
     Time spent
     Glue
      ○ 4 fl oz bottle size
     Floss
      ○ in inches
     Popsicle stick
      ○ Used and wasted
Worksheet
             You                         Helpers
Start   Finish                Start   Finish
Time    Time     # of Hours   Time    Time     # of Hours




    Total                         Total
Sign-Off
 Bring this to class.
 Teacher will sign it so that you can keep
  track of what you have done.
Sign-Off
                     Teacher Initial
     Activity 1
     Activity 2
     Activity 3
     Diagram
      Essay
 Bridge with paper
Rubric

                              5                         10                          15                           20
                   Bridge is unattractive,                                 The bridge is structurally The bridge is structurally
                                              Bridge appears to be a
                   weak, inappropriate or                                  sound and attractive, but sound and attractive. It
Layout/ Design     basically an unsound
                                              structure that doesn't fit
                                                                           may not hold the weight of supports weight and fits
                                              specifications.
                   structure.                                              others.                    specifications.




Following Bridge   Few of the bridge         Some of the bridge        Most of the bridge               All the bridge guidelines
   Guidelines      guidelines were followed. guidelines were followed. guidelines were follwed.         were followed.




                   Information researched                                                               Information is accurate
                                              Some information is
  Information/     and written about bridges
                                              provided, but is limited or
                                                                          Information is well written   and complete, is
     Essay         is poorly written,                                     and interesting to read.      creatively written, and is
                                              inaccurate.
                   inaccurate, or incomplete.                                                           cleverly presented.



                   The activities poorly      Some of the activities are Most of the activities are
                                                                                                        Activities are accurate
   Activities      written, inaccurate, or    done, but is limited or    done, but some
                                                                                                        and complete.
                   incomplete                 inaccurate.                inaccuracies.
Bridge Guidelines
 Materials
   Popsicle sticks
      ○ Regular size
      ○ No Jumbo sizes
     Dental floss
     White glue
      ○ Water soluble white Elmer’s glue. Yellow wood
        glue or glues containing resin additives or
        other cement binder is not allowed.
   DO NOT PAINT THE BRIDGES!
Bridge Guidelines
   Weight
     The bridge must weigh 400 grams (approx 1
     lbs) or less.
Bridge Guidelines
   Dimensions
     The clear span (distance between supports)
      of the bridge must be 18 inches in length.
      (18.5 in. ≤ 24 in)
     No part of the bridge may exceed 8-inches
      above the end supports or 3-inches below
      the end supports.
     The bridge must have a 4-inch wide
      roadway.
     No part of the roadway may exceed 1-inch
      above the end supports.
Bridge Guidelines
   Roadway
     The roadway must be constructed as if wheeled
        traffic were to cross over its span.
       The roadway must be continuous along its width
        over the entire distance between the supports.
       No gaps shall exist in the roadway except where
        natural warping has occurred after construction of
        the bridge.
       The roadway at the midspan is the portion of bridge
        to be loaded. If you have bridge structure over the
        roadway, at least a 3-inch square opening must be
        maintained above the midspan loading area on the
        roadway to allow the bridge to be loaded.
       The roadway must be constructed such that a truck
        4-inch wide and 4-inch tall could pass over it.
Final Write Up
 When  you turn in your bridge, you will
 turn in a ½ page paper with the
 following:
   Budget
    ○ Meet or Exceed?
    ○ Man hours
       You
       Anyone that helps you out
    ○ Materials
   Worksheet
Helpful Hints
 Why   Popsicle Sticks?
Why Popsicle Sticks?
 Popsicle sticks are imperfect. Some may be bent,
 warped, or knotty; while others may be brittle, thin, or
 cracked. Visual inspection will weed out grossly
 deformed sticks, but students must deal with the slight
 imperfections present in all sticks. This is true in the
 real world where perfect materials are not available
 and careful thought must be given to the reliability of
 the construction materials. Engineers must attempt to
 quantify and account for deficiencies in both initial and
 post-construction material properties.
 Popsicle sticks are limited to a standard size which falls
 short of the overall bridge dimensions. In order to span
 a distance of 24 inches, a minimum of six sticks must
 somehow be connected together in a straight line.
 Again, this reflects real design problems where
 materials are finite in dimension and must be
 assembled in some manner to meet the engineer’s
 needs.
 By being limited to only two allowable materials - wood
 popsicle sticks and white glue - students will need to
 use creativity, ingenuity, and resourcefulness in order
 to maximize the strengths and minimize the inherent
 shortcomings of each material.
Tips for Bridge Building
   Definitions: A member is any portion of a
   wooden popsicle stick used in the
   construction of the bridge. A whole stick, half
   a stick, or even a segment of a toothpick-
   sized stick are all considered members.
1. Always start with paper and pencil first.
   Sketch out your ideas. Draw your bridge in at
   least two views - looking at it from the side
   and looking at it from the end so you get a
   good idea of what you’re building.
2. Choose the design you are sure you can
   build. Are you confident your bridge will meet
   all the rules? Try using the West Point Bridge
   Designer at http://bridgecontest.usma.edu/
3.   Think about how the load will transfer from the
     3" x 3" area in the middle of the bridge, through
     the structure and out to the supports at each
     end of the bridge. Not all parts of your bridge
     will have the same load running through them.
     What bridge members do you think will take the
     greatest load? Make those members stronger.
4.   Which members do you think will be in
     compression? Which ones will be in tension? A
     single popsicle stick in tension can hold more
     weight than one in compression which will
     buckle and snap. Make sure your compression
     members are strong.
5.   Your bridge members are only as strong as
     your connections, so pay special attention to
     the connections! How can you construct strong
     connections? Drilling or notching the end of
     bridge members is allowed.
6.   If your bridge has similar patterns that
     are repeated throughout your design,
     construct modules so the pattern is
     accurately constructed each time. If
     your pattern is not dimensionally
     consistent or each side of your overall
     bridge is not symmetrical, some parts
     of your bridge will take more load than
     you originally planned.
7.   Before you build your entire bridge you
     may want to test small parts of your
     bridge and compare one design to
     another to see which is stronger. You
     can even test your stick connections.
     How can you make a stronger stick
     connection?
8.   If you design a truss, be sure it extends all the
     way to the ends where it will be supported.
     Don’t put a truss just in the center section.
9.   If you use several rows of sticks to make up a
     member, don’t leave any sticks out or the
     member probably will fail at that point.
10.Lateral supports (members that are
   perpendicular to the direction of traffic on
   the bridge) are important, but the
   majority of the strength is need in the
   main members spanning the 18 inch gap
   (members that are parallel to the
   direction of bridge traffic).
11.Your bridge is loaded on a 3-inch by 3-
   inch square on the roadway. Be sure to
   reinforce that square and allow for the
   load to reach the rest of the bridge.
12.Be sure to make strong connections
   between the roadway and the main
   members spanning the 18 inch gap. You
   don’t want your roadway to fail before
   your main members are loaded up.
10.How    does your bridge look? If this were
   a real bridge, do you think the public
   would find it pleasing to the eye? Can
   you make your bridge attractive and
   strong at the same time?
11.Construct a bridge on a surface that
   glue will not stick to! Try to work in an
   area you don’t mind getting messed up.
12.Plan ahead!!! Don’t wait until the night
   before the contest to finish the bridge!
   (Wet or damp glue doesn’t work very
   well.)
Tools to help you with your
bridge construction
 pencil
 paper
 wire cutters for cutting sticks
 Exacto knife
 clips, rubber bands, and weights to
  clamp pieces together when the glue is
  drying
 and finally, ........ PATIENCE !!! (Good
  bridges take time to build.)
IMPORTANT!
   This is done at home.
     There will be no class time available to work
     on it.
   Manage your time wisely!
     The due dates will come fast.
   DO NOT PAINT THE BRIDGES!

								
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