Farm Sector In Uttar Pradesh
Agriculture is the most crucial sector for economic development of the state , the reason being that
it contributes the highest share of about 33% to the total income of the state . A vast majority of the
population in the State virtually relies on Agriculture for its livelihood . As high as 66% of the work force
in the state depend on agriculture. A higher growth in the State's total economy can not be achieved or
sustained on a long term basis, without good growth in Agriculture nor any significant reduction could
take place in poverty and employment without such growth. A higher growth in other sectors, howsoever
desirable, can also not be sustained without good growth in agriculture nor can it change the complexion of
the economy, from backwardness to prosparity or compensate for lower growth in agriculture.
2. The State has significant bearing on the Agricultural performance at the national level. It
contributes about one fifth of the total food grain production in the country which is the highest among all
states. About one third (34.71%) of all wheat produced in the country comes from Uttar Pradesh.
Similarly around 45% (44.62%) of the country's sugar cane is produced in Uttar Pradesh. Evidently the
State‟s agriculture has a paramount role to play in the food production and food security of the country.
The contribution of U.P. in the total production of the country in respect of major crops is given below:
Name of Crops Production in Lakh tons during 2005-06 Contribution of U.P. %
Total Food grain 2086.00 404.10 19.37
Rice 917.90 111.30 12.13
Wheat 693.50 240.70 34.71
Jowar 76.30 2.40 3.15
Bajra 76.80 12.50 16.28
Maize 147.10 10.50 7.14
Total Pulses 133.80 22.30 16.67
Gram 56.00 6.60 11.79
Arhar 27.40 3.80 13.87
Lentil 9.90 5.00 50.15
Total Oilseeds 252.90 9.40 3.72
Groundnut 79.90 0.90 1.13
Rapeseed/Mustard 81.30 9.10 11.19
Sunflower 14.40 0.20 8.39
Sugarcane 2811.70 1254.70 44.62
Potato 239.10 99.90 41.78
Agro Climatic Zone Wise Proportion of Districts
3. The state is divided into nine zones. The area of 13 districts fall in two agro-climatic zones and 57
districts are covered in single zones. The detailed coverage of districts is shown below:-
S.N. Agro Climatic Zone District
1 Tarai and Bhabar Saharanpur (58%), Muzaffarnagar Nagar (10%), Bijnor (79%),
Moradabad (21%), Rampur (40%), Bareilly (19%), Pilibihit (75%),
Shahjahanpur (6%), Khiri (39%), Bahraich (47%), Shravasti (71%)
2 Western Plain Zone Saharanpur (42%), Muzaffarnagar Nagar (90%), Meerut, Bag pat,
Gaziabad, Gautam Budha Nagar, Buland Shahar
3 Mid Western Plain Zone Bareilly(81%), Badaun, Pilibihit(25%), Moradabad (79%),
Jyotibaphule Nagar, Rampur (60%), Bijnor (21%),
4 South Western Zone Agra, Firozabad, Aligarh, Hathras, Mathura, Mainpuri, Etah
5 Central Zone Shahjahanpur (94%), Kanpur Nagar, Kanpur Dehat, Etawa,
Auraiya, Farrukhabad, Kannauj, Lucknow, Unnao, Raibareilly,
Sitapur, Hardoi, Khiri(61%), Fetehpur, Allahabad(58%), Kaushmbi
6 Bundelkhund Jhansi, Lalitpur, Jalaun, Hamirpur, Mahoba, Banda, Chitrkoot,
7 North East Zone Gorakhpur, Maharajganj, Deoria, Kushi Nagar, Basti, St. Kabir
Nagar, Siddhartha Nagar, Gonda, Baharaich(53%), Balrampur,
8 Eastern Zone Azamgarh, Mau, Balia, Pratapgarh, Faizabad, Ambedkar Nagar,
Barabanki, Sultanpur, Varanasi, Chandauli, Jaunpur, Gazipur,
St.Ravidas Nagar (86%)
9 Vindhyan Zone Allahabad(42%), St. Ravidas Nagar (14%), Mirzapur, Sonebadhra
Note: Percentage indicates the portion of district falling in respective agro-climatic zone.
Productivity Status of Agro-Climatic Zones (2006-07)
4. The average productivity of food grains is 20.77 Q/Ha and in case of cereals, it is 22.90 Q/Ha in
the state. The food grains productivity varies in different agro-climatic zones from 10.51 Q/Ha (in
Bundelkhand zone) to 30.49 Q/Ha (in western plain zone). Similarly in case of cereals it varies from 16.19
[ 2 ]
Q/Ha (in Bundelkhand zone) to 31.40 Q/Ha ( in western plain zone). The zone wise details are presented
S. Zones Food Total Rice Wheat Jowar Bajra Maize
N. grains Cereals (Kh)
1 Tarai & Bhabhar 23.76 24.82 20.82 30.12 10.87 11.06 10.02
2 Western Plain 30.49 31.40 22.36 35.61 8.08 12.43 18.58
3 Mid- Western Plain 23.73 24.65 19.98 30.26 10.73 13.44 14.97
4 South West.Semi- 23.54 24.30 22.98 28.57 11.37 15.70 19.10
5 Mid-Plain/ Central 22.23 24.00 19.52 29.10 12.08 14.92 13.03
6 Bundelkhand 10.51 16.19 8.20 19.11 8.41 13.61 9.19
7 North Eastern Plain 22.20 21.09 17.42 25.87 11.94 16.48 9.77
8 Eastern Plain 20.37 21.41 17.82 25.91 12.02 11.73
9 Vindhyan 16.22 17.64 18.27 19.94 11.71 9.30 6.30
10 Uttar Pradesh 20.77 22.90 18.78 27.66 10.29 14.55 13.26
5. The average productivity of pulses is 7.25 Q/Ha in the state. It varies in different agro-climatic
zones from 6.57 Q/Ha (in Bundelkhand zone) to 8.09 Q/Ha (in mid central plain). The zone wise details
are presented below:-
Sl. Zones Total Pulses Arhar Gram Pea Masoor Urd
1 Tarai & Bhabhar 7.18 6.70 7.44 9.67 7.22 7.38
2 Western Plain 7.91 9.55 7.30 9.67 5.66 5.61
3 Mid- Western Plain 7.61 6.92 7.30 9.67 7.68 6.63
4 South West.Semi- 7.45 8.31 8.31 9.67 9.05 5.61
5 Mid-Plain/ Central 8.09 8.22 10.66 12.13 7.68 5.17
6 Bundelkhand 6.57 6.40 6.22 9.36 5.52 5.40
7 North Eastern Plain 7.98 6.20 7.39 9.67 8.68 5.47
8 Eastern Plain 8.02 7.66 8.62 9.95 8.47 5.61
9 Vindhyan 7.94 6.90 9.59 10.38 6.88 4.89
10 Uttar Pradesh 7.25 7.49 7.42 9.67 7.05 5.61
[ 3 ]
6. The average productivity of Oil seeds is 8.36 Q/Ha. in the state. It varies in different agro-climatic
zones from 3.74 Q/Ha (in bundelkhand zone) to 13.03 Q/Ha ( in south-western semi dry zone). The zone
wise details are presented below:-
Zones Total Oilseeds Rapeseed/ Mustard
1 Tarai & Bhabhar 8.13 8.67
2 Western Plain 9.69 9.78
3 Mid- Western Plain 9.26 10.04
4 South West. Semi- 13.03 13.17
5 Mid-Plain/ Central 8.02 9.28
6 Bundelkhand 3.74 4.49
7 North Eastern Plain 8.26 8.42
8 Eastern Plain 10.39 11.68
9 Vindhyan 5.05 5.46
10 Uttar Pradesh 8.36 10.22
7. The plan outlay for Agriculture and Allied sectors since the First Five Year Plan is given in the
(Rs. In lakh)
Plan Total Outlay / Expenditure Agriculture & Allied Percentage
First Plan 15337 3787 24.69
Second Plan 23336 6742 28.89
Third Plan 56063 15608 27.84
Fourth Plan 115924 22066 19.03
Fifth Plan 287118 39310 13.69
Sixth Plan 645312 36081 5.59
Seventh Plan 1194872 100663 8.42
Eighth Plan 2164246 198963 9.19
Ninth Plan 2830918 272449 9.62
Tenth Plan 5511683 425274 7.70
[ 4 ]
Eleventh Plan 18000000 1903070 10.6
8. An analysis of the above table shows that the outlay for Agriculture and Allied sectors which stood
at 24.69 percent in the First Plan increased to 28.89 percent in the Second Plan, but thereafter it is
continuously declining. During Eleventh Five Year Plan it is expected to be 10.6 percent.
9. High growth in the agriculture sector is necessary for attaining higher growth in the overall
economy of the State, as also for reduction in the incidence of poverty. The target for average annual
growth rate of agriculture sector during the 10th Plan was 5.1 percent. However, the achievement was only
about 2 percent. A lower growth rate of this order is indicative of the fact that there was „something‟
missing in our efforts and strategies for agriculture development. If we look at the past growth rates in the
agriculture sector shows that the state achieved a growth rate of 5.7 percent during Fifth Plan. Thus, the
State has potential for achieving higher growth in this sector. It is in this background that a growth rate of
5.7 percent has been envisaged in agriculture sector during Eleventh Plan. The growth rate in the
Agriculture and Allied sector since First Five Year Plan is given in the following table:-
Agriculture and Allied Sectors Growth Rate During the Plan Periods
# Plan Agriculture & Allied Overall Economy
Sectors (percent) (percent)
U.P. India U.P. India
1. First Plan (1951-56) 1.7 2.7 2.0 3.6
2. Second Plan (1956-61) 1.4 3.2 1.9 4.0
3. Third Plan (1961-66) (-) 0.5 (-) 0.7 1.6 2.2
4. Three Annual Plans (1966- 0.6 4.2 0.3 4.0
5. Fourth Plan (1969-74) 0.8 2.6 2.3 3.3
6. Fifth Plan (1974-79) 5.7 6.3 5.7 5.3
7. Sixth Plan (1981-85) 9.7 2.5 8.7 5.3
8. Seventh Plan (1985-90) 2.7 3.5 5.7 5.8
9. Two Annual Plans (1990- 5.4 4.0 3.1 2.5
10. Eighth Plan (1992-97) 2.7 3.9 3.2 6.8
11. Ninth Plan (1997-02) 0.8 1.9 2.0 5.6
12. Tenth Plan (2002-07) 2.10 1.1 5.3 7.7
13. Eleventh Plan (2007-12) 5.70 4.1 10.0 9.0
[ 5 ]
10. 90% of the farmers in the state are small & marginal and their purchasing capacity is also
marginal. Credit is an important factor to the farmers for performing their farm activities. Traditionally,
rural society borrows for agriculture activities from their friends and Mahajans. Non Institutional Credit is
always painful for the farmers because of high rate of interest.
Target, distribution, and gap of the previous years in crop loan are shown as under:-
(Rs in Crore)
S.No. Year Target Distribution Gap
1 2001-02 4867.64 3446.88 -1420.76
2 2002-03 4513.22 3880.40 -632.78
3 2003-04 4675.59 4110.84 -564.75
4 2004-05 5375.48 5295.51 -79.97
5 2005-06 7023.00 7464.00 +441.00
6 2006-07 8640.00 8704.98 +64.98
7 2007-08 (Kharif) 3330.46 3518.39 +187.93
Crop Loan Distribution Per hectare
11. The per hectare distribution of crop loan has shown increasing trend during Xth Five Year Plan. It
has gone up from Rs. 2051 in 2001-02 to Rs 5182 in 2006-07. The year-wise details are shown below:-
(Rs in Crore)
S. Year Co-operative Commercial Distribution Average/ ha
banks Banks (in Rs)
1 2001-02 1082 2365 3447 2051
2 2002-03 1146 2734 3880 2309
3 2003-04 1221 2890 4111 2447
4 2004-05 1360 3936 5296 3152
5 2005-06 1472 5992 7464 4443
6 2006-07 1659.87 7045.11 8704.98 5182
7 2007-08 (Kharif) 1220.41 2297.96 3518.37 3742
[ 6 ]
Kisan Credit Card
12. In order to ensure hassle free and timely credit to the farmers, the Kisan Credit Card Scheme was
introduced in the State since December, 1999. Under the scheme Kisan Credit Card holders are allowed to
take loan within their credit limit as many times as they want and repay their loans as per their
convenience. As per the policy of G.O.I.all the farmers are to be covered under KCC Scheme. 195.01 lakh
cards were distributed among the farmers till Kharif 2007. Further Kisan Credit Card holders are also
provided insurance cover upto Rs. 50,000/- under Janta Personnel accident Insurance Scheme at a nominal
premium of Rs. 9.40 per year. For meeting the consumption needs of the farmers the KCC holders are also
allowed to avail 10% of their crop loan credit limits as consumption loan. Progress chart of KCC of the
previous years is given below:
(Unit in No.)
S.No. Year Target Distribution Gap
1 1999-2000 300737 225461 -75276
2 2000-2001 1658447 1690006 +31559
3 2001-2002 3000000 3016952 +16952
4 2002-2003 3500000 3200479 -299521
5 2003-2004 3500000 2722660 -777340
6 2004-2005 2500000 2362389 -137611
7 2005-2006 2800000 2576588 -223412
8 2006-2007 2300000 2212571 -87429
9 2007-2008 2300000 1494314 -805686*
Total 21859184 19501420 -2357764
* Progress up to Dec.2007
13. As per 2000-01 Agriculture Census there is a predominance of marginal and small farmers in the
State, small farmers and marginal farmers account for 76.9 % and 14.6% of the total holdings respectively.
However, this group of small and marginal farmers own only 61.2% of the total land area. Average size of
holding is only 0.83 ha. per farmer. However, the average size of holding of marginal farmers is only 0.40
14. The trend of number of holdings in Uttar Pradesh from 1970-71 to 2000-01 is given in the
Trend of Land Holding
Year Marginal Small Semi Medium Medium Large Holding
(Below 1 ha) (1-2 ha) (2-4 ha) (4-10 ha) (10 ha & above)
[ 7 ]
1970-71 10453 2689 1652 733 112
1980-81 12582 2898 1614 661 72
1985-86 13702 2964 1582 602 55
1990-91 14819 3118 1543 549 45
1995-96 16237 3136 1585 532 39
2000-01 16659 3087 1427 463 32
Area under Various Land Holding Groups
Category 1970-71 1980-81 1985-86 1990-91 1995-96 2000-01
Marginal 21.1 25.7 28.29 31.43 33.75 36.97
Small 20.8 22.6 23.32 24.41 23.85 24.28
Semi-Medium 25.0 24.6 24.44 23.38 23.27 21.71
Medium 23.2 21.0 19.14 16.92 15.87 14.35
Large 9.9 6.1 4.81 3.86 3.26 2.69
15. As a matter of fact there is an increase in the number of marginal farmers by 59% during the above
period. Incidentally the percentage of marginal holdings in the state is 76.9 which is highest in the country.
16. The total reported area of the state for the purpose of land utilization is 242.01 lakh ha. Around
79% is being irrigated against Net area sown (166.83 lakh ha.). Details of land use are given below:-
S.N. Item 2005-06
1. Total Cropped Area ( 000 ha)
a. Kharif 11857
b. Rabi 12839
c. Zaid 791
2. Cropping Intensity % 153.03
Land Use Pattern
17. The land use pattern (2005-06) in the State has been indicated in the table below.
(in lakh ha.)
S. N. Particulars Uttar Pradesh
[ 8 ]
S. N. Particulars Uttar Pradesh
1 Reporting Area 242.01
2 Forest 16.88
3 Barren Land 5.30
4 Non Agri. Use 6.49
5 Culturable Waste 4.54
6 Pastures 0.64
7 Misc. Trees etc. 0.44
8 Current Follow 12.17
9 Other Follow 5.74
10 Net Area Sown 166.83
11 Area Sown more than Once 88.41
12 Gross Cropped Area 255.24
13 Cropping Intensity 153.00
14 Kharif 118.57
15 Rabi 128.39
16 Zaid 7.91
17 Area Under Sugarcane 0.38
18 Gross Cropped Area 255.24
18. Data from above table show that barren land cover is 5.30 lakh hectare, culturable waste land is
4.54 lakh hectare and fallow lands about 17.91 lakh hectare.
19. The trend of seed distribution shows that it has increased year after year. The details are shown
(in lakh qtls)
Sl. No. Name of 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08
1. Paddy 3.26 3.54 3.68 4.17 4.86 5.95
2. Maize 0.14 0.20 0.26 0.23 0.37 0.43
3. Bajra 0.07 0.15 0.17 0.21 0.22 0.23
4. Jowar 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.07
5. Urd 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.18
6. Moong 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.057
[ 9 ]
Sl. No. Name of 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08
7. Arhar 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1 0.1 0.13
8. Groundnut 0.01 0.03 0.04 0.004 0.05 0.07
9. Til 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.005 0.001
10. Soyabean 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.083
11. Sunflower 0.01 0.01 0.008 0.002 0.009 0.012
12. Cotton 0.009 0.007 0.004 0.008 0.008 0.009
Kharif 3.62 4.16 4.40 4.91 5.87 7.24
13. Wheat 14.93 15.33 17.23 19.43 22.24 23.16
14. Barley 0.28 0.30 0.35 0.47 0.53 0.531
15. Gram 0.56 0.63 0.77 0.80 0.86 0.83
16. Pea 0.26 0.36 0.40 0.67 0.70 0.77
17 Lentil 0.20 0.25 0.32 0.36 0.38 0.43
18. Rai/Sarson 0.11 0.12 0.15 0.15 0.17 0.173
19. Toria 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.078
20. Linseed 0.002 0.005 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.001
21. Rabi Maize 0.05
Rabi 16.39 17.05 19.24 22.49 24.99 26.02*
Annual 20.01 21.20 23.63 27.40 30.87 33.26*
*Progress up to Dec. 2007
Seed Replacement Rate
20. Seed is one of the most vital inputs responsible for higher production under specific agro-climatic
conditions and can contribute 10 to 15 percent increase in production. The seed scenario in U.P. during
Tenth Five Year Plan Period has been highly encouraging in the case of cereal seeds especially paddy and
wheat. An encouraging trend has been noticed in the Seed Replacement Rate during the Tenth Five Year
Plan which is evident from the following table:-
Crop-Wise Seed Replacement Rate during 2002-03 to 2007-08 (upto Kharif)
Sl. Name of X Plan 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08*
No. Crop Target of
1. Paddy 21.83 15.90 17.25 17.90 20.29 20.54 25.00
2. Maize 19.46 7.80 10.90 14.03 12.28 18.67 19.51
3. Bajra 51.25 17.70 35.90 41.78 50.54 53.47 57.30
4. Jowar 11.36 4.90 5.60 8.28 10.57 14.95 17.13
5. Urd 12.40 8.80 10.90 11.45 11.20 9.86 16.21
[ 10 ]
Sl. Name of Xth Plan 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08*
No. Crop Target of
6. Moong 20.00 16.20 15.30 18.99 23.06 56.83 84.98
7. Arhar 18.89 13.20 13.50 15.06 18.23 17.62 19.20
8. Groundnut 4.17 1.50 2.60 3.57 3.96 3.08 4.36
9. Til 9.80 2.50 2.90 5.32 8.84 10.46 13.56
10. Soyabean 34.05 13.10 23.90 32.27 31.68 15.18 33.00
11. Sunflower 73.33 100 72.60 51.73 14.13 61.93 71.80
12. Cotton 72.00 73.80 60.60 39.36 64.00 66.16 70.71
Kharif 16.00 17.03 17.09 19.06 19.48 23.66*
13. Wheat 23.82 16.42 16.88 18.97 21.40 24.14
14. Barley 20.00 11.03 12.09 13.93 18.78 24.60
15. Gram 12.50 8.16 9.14 11.07 11.50 14.36
16. Pea 23.98 9.49 12.90 14.12 23.91 20.96
17 Lentil 12.50 7.08 11.25 0.73 12.42 12.12
18. Rai/Sarson 53.00 38.18 52.87 85.00 52.00 58.38
19. Toria 100 64.96 91.48 23.92 103.00 86.48
20. Linseed 7.50 2.28 4.77 0.44 6.65 8.64
Rabi 16.5 18.14 18.14 20.67 23.29
Annual 15.06 17.91 17.58 18.86 22.46
* Up to kharif 07.
21. Another remarkable aspect of seed sector is the enhanced participation of private sector in the
entrepreneurial development programme. The private sector is now contributing around 25% of the total
certified seeds distributed in the State. The State Seed Certification Agency is now devoting more time in
the certification of seeds grown by the private producers.
22. Despite all these efforts the State is still facing the problem of shortage of seeds of various crops
which are grown in drought prone areas. The availability of good quality seeds of pulses, groundnut and
sunflower has also been a chronic problem which needs greater attention.
Soil Health, Consumption of Fertilizers
23. It has been observed that soil health has deteriorated sharply during the last few years.
Indiscriminate and imbalanced use of chemical fertilizers, especially urea along with other harmful
chemical pesticides and unavailability of organic manures has led to considerable reduction in soil health.
Hence restoring soil health has emerged as a major challenge before the farmers and the State. The State
Government is taking steps to check the rapid deterioration in soil health in several areas.
[ 11 ]
24. Use of chemical fertilizers is very low in comparison to agriculturally advanced neighbouring
states like Hariyana and Punjab and it is below national average. Consumption of chemical fertilizers is
increasing but there is imbalance in their usage which has caused the detoriation in soil health.
25. State. In the previous years the Department of Agriculture has been testing around 11 lakh samples
unit in 2003-04 there after the number of samples has been going up steadily. During 2006-07 the soil
testing has touched the magical number of 15.33 lakh. The year-wise details are shown below:-
S.N. Year Target Achievement
1 2002-2003 15.00 11.18
2 2003-2004 15.00 11.81
3 2004-2005 15.00 13.23
4 2005-2006 15.00 12.06
5 2006-2007 15.00 15.33
6 2007-2008 15.00 15.00
26. Soil testing is very important for improving soil health. U.P. is a vast State and the small size of
land holding makes it a challenging task to cover the every farm for soil testing. Soil testing also
minimizes the cost of cultivation by way of use of balanced fertilizers. Hence strengthening of
infrastructure for soil testing is important initiative taken by the state government. The government is
ptoposed to have at least one soil testing lab in each district in the state by the end of the 11th plan.
27. At all India level, fertilizers are used by 76 percent farmers households during Kharif and by 54
percent farmers house holds during Rabi season. 27 percent households, use fertilizers available within the
village. In the case of U.P, fertilizers are used by 78 percent farmer households during Kharif and 88
percent during Rabi season and 23 percent house-holds use fertilizers available within the village.
Pesticides are used by 39 percent farmer households during Kharif and 35 percent during Rabi whereas at
all India level, pesticides are used by 46 percent farmer households during Kharif and 31 percent during
28. Consumption of N, P, K in Uttar Pradesh as compared to other major States is given in the
State-wise consumption of Fertilizers in 2004-05
(In kg. per hactare)
[ 12 ]
Item India U.P. Punjab Haryana Maharashtra Tamil
1 N 61.00 92.60 150.60 124.90 42.60 77.50
2 P 24.30 28.60 39.70 38.10 23.50 33.90
3 K 10.80 7.00 5.40 3.10 11.50 41.40
Total 96.70 128.20 195.70 166.20 77.70 152.90
29. Data from the above table shows that consumption of nitrogen in the state is much more in
comparison to use of phosphatic and potassic fertilizers, and the imbalance is seriously affecting soil
fertility. The reason behind this is the enormous cast of phosphatic and potassic fertilizers. During the
period 2002-05, per hectare consumption of chemical fertilizers has marginally increased from 126.72 kg
to 128.20 kg. Season wise fertilizer distribution status for the year 2007-08 is given below:-
Sl.No. Season N P K Total
1 Kharif 1064350 244990 74870 1384210
2 Rabi*( Upto 781140 518800 97410 1397350
Total 1845490 763790 172280 2781560
Balanced Fertilizer Use
30. The recommended fertilizer use in terms of NPK ratio is 4:2:1 when the nutrients are supplied to
the field in the ratio of 4:2:1, maximum productivity is obtained. The pattern of fertilizer consumption in
the state shows that the NPK ratio is gradually narrowing. During 2001-02 the ratio was 25.2: 7.6: 1. It has
tapered down to 10.7: 4.0: 1.0 indicating the efforts for balanced use of fertilizer.
(Per ha. In kg.)
Year Consumption NPK Ratio
N P K
2001-02 98.40 29.50 3.90 25.2 : 7.6 : 1.0
2002-03 93.10 28.60 5.60 16.6 : 5.1 : 1.0
2003-04 93.10 30.10 6.00 15.5 : 5.0 : 1.0
2004-05 104.00 32.00 8.00 13.0 : 4.0 : 1.0
2005-06 107.00 34.00 8.00 12.5 : 4.25 : 1.0
2006-07 107.00 40.00 10.00 10.7:4.0:1.0
2007-08*(up to Dec.07) 110.51 45.74 10.32 10.71:4.40:1.0
[ 13 ]
31. Bio-fertilizers are now being promoted in the state in a big way. The progress during the 10th Five
Year Plan and during 2007-08 is shown below:-
(Unit in lakh No.)
S.N. Year Target Achievement
1 2002-2003 9.95 10.08
2 2003-2004 5.63 5.80
3 2004-2005 6.07 6.07
4 2005-2006 6.27 6.28
5 2006-2007 6.41 6.41
6 2007-2008 *(up to Dec.2007) 15.81 14.35
32. The irrigation potential created in the state is approximately 324.26 lakh ha. A major portion of the
potential (241.84 lakh ha.) has been created through minor irrigation projects and only 82.42 lakh ha. Area
is irrigated through large and medium irrigation projects. However only 64.55% of the gross irrigated
potential is being utilized, 60.72% during the Kharif and 85.08% during the Rabi.
S.N. Crop Season Gross Sown Area Gross Irrigated Area Percentage (%)
1 Kharif 11857 7199 60.72
2 Rabi 12839 11067 86.20
3 Zaid 791 673 85.08
Total 25524 18939 74.20
33. Crop Season-wise Irrigation Status
34. The development of irrigation resources in the state has been comparatively slower compared to the
adjoining state such as Bihar, Madhya Pradesh etc. The trend of growth of irrigation in U.P. and other states of the
country is shown in the table below :-
Comparative Growth of Irrigation Facilities
Name of State Year Growth
(% per annum)
[ 14 ]
1. India 33.3 40.01 1.54
2. Uttar Pradesh 60.9 73.70 1.60
3. Tamil Nadu 42.5 50.33 1.41
4. Punjab 92.7 95.01 0.21
5. Harayana 72.7 85.77 1.39
6.Maharashtra 11.3 16.90 3.41
7. Madhya Pradesh 22.1 30.95 2.86
8. Bihar 44.5 60.47 2.59
35. The above table shows that during the period from 1990-91 to 2002-03, the Irrigation facilities
have grown at the rate of 1.54 % annually on all India basis. In Uttar Pradesh, the pace of growth has been
higher than the national average which is 1.60% annually.
Net Irrigated Area versus Net Area Sown
36. The total irrigated area of state is 131.19 Lakh Hectares. The source wise Irrigation status, as
indicated in the table below, shows that canal irrigation is 20.52%, irrigation through state tube wells is
2.92% and Private tube wells have the maximum share of irrigation that is 68.57%.
(In th. ha.)
S. N. Irrigation Source Area Percentage Percentage
Net Area Sown 16683
1 Canal 2692 16.13 20.52
2 State Tube-wells 383 2.30 2.92
3 Private Tube-wells 8996 53.92 68.57
4 Other Sources 1048 6.28 7.99
Net Irrigated Area 13119 78.63
District wise Status of Irrigation
37. The state average of irrigated area is 79% but there is a wide variation in districts. The district wise
irrigated area varies from 29% to 100%.The districts have been categorized in different slabs indicating the
extent of irrigation as under :-
S. Slab N0. Name of Districts
[ 15 ]
1 90 % 22 Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Meerut, Bag pat, Gaziabad, Aligarh,
and above Hathrus (100%) , Mathura, Firozabad, Mainpuri, Etah, Bareilly,
Badaun, Shahjahanpur, Pilibihit, Moradabad, Kannauj, Ajamgarh,
Lucknow, Faizabad, Ambedkernagar, Chandauli.
2 80-90 % 23 Bulandsahar, Bijnor, J.B. Fulenagar, Rampur, Farrukhabad, Etawa,
Auraiya, Pratapgarh, Varanasi, Gazipur, Jaunpur, S. Rabidasnagar,
Mau, Gorakhpur, Maharajganj, Deoria, S. Kabirnagar, Unnao,
Raibareilly, Sitapur, Hardoi, Sultanpur, Barabanki.
3 70-80 % 9 G.Budhnagar, Kanpur Dehat, Allahabad, Lalitpur, Balia,
Khushinagar, Khiri, Gonda.
4 60-70 % 6 Kanpur Nagar, Fetehpur, Kaushmbi, Jhansi, Basti, Siddharthnagar.
5 50-60 % 2 Jalaun, Mirzapur,
6 Less 8 Mahoba, Banda, Chitrkoot (29%), Hamirpur, Sonbhadra, Balrampur,
than Baharaich, Shravasti.
38. Farm mechanization helps in increasing production, productivity and profitability in agriculture by
achieving timeliness in farm operations, bringing precision in metering and placement of inputs, reducing
available input losses, increasing efficiency of costly inputs, reducing unit cost of produce, enhancing
profitability and competitiveness in the cost of operation. The average size of operational land holding in
the state is less than one ha. which is lower than the national average of 1.5 ha. The fragmentation of land
holdings has resulted in small plot sizes and has reduced the scope for large scale farm mechanization in
39. Dissemination of technical knowledge is a difficult task but very important all the same.
Agriculture Universities and other agencies are involved in the development of new techniques for the
benefit of farmers in improving in crop production. The knowledge of such techniques has to be passed on
to the farmers who are the ultimate user. Through agriculture extension, this information is being passed on
to the farmers. Some of the important components of agricultural extension are given below:-
40. Agriculture Technology Management Agency has been set up in 32 districts of U.P. and it is
proposed to cover the entire state in the near future. The activities of ATMA are related to agriculture
[ 16 ]
extension. This provides a strong platform for extension activities. The targets & anti. ach. for 2007-08 are
indicated in the table below:-
Item 2007-08 2007-08
Exposure Visit 350 350
Training 1470 1470
Kisan Mela 70 70
Demonstration 10500 10500
Reward and Incentive 350 350
Gap in Productivity and Potential
41. There is a marked gap between productivity and potential for various crops grown in U.P.
compared to other States and countries, There is wide variation from one zone and region to other. On the
basis of an analysis of crop cutting experiments this gap has clearly been identified, A large number of
farmers could get significantly very high yield of crops, which can be termed as workable potential and can
be compared with any other State. The gap between potential and actual yield is depicted below:-
Sl Particulars Tarai WP MWP SWSDP MP BUND NEP EP VIN U.P.
a. Potential 95 62 53 65 47 25 43 49 33 47
b. Present yield 22 23 20 23 20 8 19 20 15 20
c. Gap (a-b) 73 39 33 42 27 17 24 29 18 27
a. Potential 65 68 54 57 73 41 52 57 38 57
b. Present yield 28 33 28 31 26 20 22 24 16 26
c. Gap (a-b) 37 35 26 26 47 21 30 33 22 31
a. Potential 45 52 30 52 54 50 55 42 55 45
b. Present yield 11 16 14 18 13 7 10 12 8 13
c. Gap (a-b) 34 36 16 34 41 43 45 30 47 32
a. Potential 20 20 20 20 20 20 22 22 20 20
b. Present yield 7 5 7 11 8 7 7 7 6 7
[ 17 ]
c. Gap (a-b) 13 15 13 9 12 13 15 15 14 13
a. Potential 30 30 30 25 25 25 30 29 30 30
b. Present yield 10 14 13 16 13 10 16 12 12 14
c. Gap (a-b) 20 16 17 9 12 15 14 17 18 16
a. Potential 30 30 30 30 31 23 18 34 18 26
b. Present yield 9 9 9 12 12 8 9 9 8 9
c. Gap (a-b) 21 21 21 18 19 15 9 25 10 17
a. Potential 45 42 42 67 42 42 45 42 19 42
b. Present yield 8 9 9 12 9 12 11 12 11
c. Gap (a-b) 34 33 58 30 33 33 31 7 31
1-(WP=Western Plain, MWP= Mid Western Plain, SWSDP= South Western Semi Dry Plain, MP= Mid
Plain, BUND= Bundelkhand, NEP= North-Eastern Plain, EP= Eastern Plain, VIN= Vindhyan)
2- The potential yield of various crops indicated in the table is actually the highest potential yield of varieties
recommended for corresponding agro climatic zone.
3- Base year 2005-06.
42. The compound growth rate of various crops in terms of Area, Production & Productivity up to
2004-05 is given in the following table:-
Compound Growth Rate during 1999-2000 to 2004-2005
(% per annum)
Sl.No. Name of Crop Area Production Productivity
1 Rice -1.02 -3.15 -2.15
2 Jowar -7.05 -5.00 2.20
3 Bajra 1.07 1.63 0.56
4 Maize -2.76 -4.24 -1.53
5 Kharif Pulses 13.25 6.49 -5.95
6 Others (-)NA (-)NA NA
7 Kharif Food grains -0.94 -3.12 -2.15
8 Wheat -0.04 -1.48 -1.44
9 Barley -7.35 -8.61 -1.36
10 Rabi Pulses -0.73 3.65 0.54
11 Rabi Food grains -0.33 -1.51 -1.19
12 Total Food grains -0.63 -2.06 -1.44
13 Total Oilseeds -2.31 -2.92 -0.61
14 Total Pulses 0.91 0.00 -0.89
Objectives of the Annual Plan 2008-09
[ 18 ]
To achieve a growth rate of about 5.1 percent in agriculture production essentially by raising
productivity, cropping intensity and to some extent by also increasing the cropped area.
To encourage globally recognised standards in agriculture in the state.
To develop appropriate eco-friendly farming systems which would improve soil health.
To develop and conserve natural resources for maintaining ecological balance.
In order to substantially increase the income of farmers, production diversification towards
high value activities, while retaining core-competence in the area of food/nutritional security.
Strategy of Annual Plan 2008-09
Improving Soil Health
43. Improving soil health will be the highest concern. Following activities are proposed in this
In order to improve balanced use of fertilizers, based on soil testing, strengthening of soil
testing laboratories will be essential. In addition to the existing 48 Soil Testing Laboratories,
additional 22 have been sanctioned in 2006-07 with the aim of raising existing soil testing
capacity from 15 lacs to 22 lacs. At present, only 12 Labs are equipped to handle analysis of
soil samples for micronutrients. It is proposed to develop facility of micronutrient testing in all
the Soil Testing Labs of the state.
Providing congenial atmosphere to fertilizer companies /suppliers, input providers and other
agencies involved in marketing of agriculture produce to further enlarge their existing soil
testing activities, extensively. Provision of additional soil testing facilities with the help of the
private sector which will act as a booster dose towards improving soil health in a big way. It
will also strengthen public Private Partnership (PPP) in the field of agriculture. Presently, these
agencies are engaged in testing, mainly Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potash. To give a thrust to
soil testing for micro nutrients, these agencies can be permitted to send their soil sample to
State Governments Labs on cost sharing basis.
Balanced use of fertilizers based on soil testing has to be given the highest priority. Extensive
use of micronutrients, mainly Zinc, Iron and Sulphur has to be encouraged. For this Crop and
varietal demonstrations coupled with the principles of Integrated Plant Nutrient Management
(IPMN) have to be, extensively, organized in each agro-climatic zone with finances from
Macro-mode and ISOPOM. Present NPK ratio of 13:5:1 has to be improved to 4:2:1.
In addition to existing use of available farm yard manures and other traditional composts, large
scale adoption of improved manuring technologies such as NADEP, Vermi-composting has to
be ensured at village level. Financial assistance can be availed from Rural Development
Department for the construction of NADEP and Vermi Pits in large numbers. This activity
can be one of the major activities of Gram Panchayats. It will not only help in restoring
[ 19 ]
microbial population and improve soil health but will also provide an alternate source of
income to educated rural youths at local level.
Use of bio-fertilizers has to be increased substantially. At present the state government owned
labs and other Private agencies such as IFFCO, Kribhco, Chambal, Fertilizers NAFED and
NFL etc. are engaged in production and distribution of bio-fertilizers such as Rhizobium, PSB
culture, Azetobacter etc. Last year almost 50 lac packets of above mentioned bio-fertilizers
were distributed. It is, extremely, essential to encourage these private agencies to enhance
production and distribution of bio-fertilizers by several fold. So that each farming family starts
using bio-fertilizers in his or her field. Awareness campaigns have to be organized at village,
Nyaya Panchayat and Block level. Regular availability of this important component in
sufficient quantity has to be ensured. This will not only increase micro flora and fauna in the
soil but will also ensure better utilization of chemical fertilizers, especially phosphatic,
fertilizers. It will be a welcome a step towards reducing cost of cultivation, considerably.
Cultivation of Dhaincha, Sanai and Moong as green manure during Zaid must to be given very
high priority. Green Manuring helps in improving soil health tremendously and also reduces
cost of cultivation, substantially.
Accelerating the Pace of Land Development Programmes
Out of the 120.44 lac hectares of problematic land, 64.71 lac hectare area has already been
treated. Out of the remaining 55.73 lac hectares of untreated land, 32.02 lac hectare land is
reclaimable. Programmes have been proposed for reclamation of this degraded land. Keeping
in mind, the working capacity of the department of agriculture and U P Bhoomi Sudhar
Nigam, following programmes are being proposed.
"Kisan Hit Yojna” the most ambitious, multifaceted, employment generating scheme has been
proposed in 11th Five Year Plan. Under this programme small & marginal farmers & land
allotees are groomed technically trained and given the responsibility for improving their own
lands. By March 2008, it is proposed to bring about 1.75 lac ha degraded area to productive
use. The scheme has successfully, provided employment to these land owners and land less
It is proposed to develop 1.40 lac ha. degraded land each year and cumulatively around 7 lac
ha. land at the cost of Rs. 588.80 crores in XIth Five Year Plan.
To accelerate the pace of land development in Rainfed areas, it is essential to double the target
of land development in "National Watershed Development Programme" from 2 lac hectare
envisaged in Xth Five Year Plan to 4 lac hectare in XIth Five Year Plan. It is worth mentioning
here that cost norms of this scheme require a re-look from successful project implementation
angle. In addition, this scheme too requires a complete package on the lines of World Bank
supported "UP Sodic Land Reclamation Project. To encourage cultivation of millets like
Jowar, Bajra in these areas with increased higher productivity, use of hybrid seeds will be
essential. Since the paying capacity of landholders of these areas is very poor, use of good
[ 20 ]
quality seeds can also be encouraged through the provision of one complete package that
includes crop production for one full year.
Strengtheneing Technology Dissemination System
To achieve agriculture growth rate of 5.7 percent it is imperative to experiment and avail every
single opportunity and all kinds of means to take the new technology to the door steps of
farmers. In this context, Public Private Partnership will, obviously, draw special attention.
Right from use of information technology (IT) to farmer-led extension, it will be crucial to
upgrade the skill and knowledge of farmers.
Agriculture extension network of the department of Agriculture has been revitalized after the
return of Kisan Sahayaks, the grass root extension workers from the Panchayat Raj
department. And now after re-organization of the department, highest priority will be given to
coverage of every single Nyaya Panchayat by Kisan Sahayak for the purpose of dissemination
of new technology to the farmers.
It is proposed to establish Common Service Centers under National Information Technology
Policy. These centers are to be linked with SAUs and other extension agencies. In addition to
the above, establishment of centers like E-Choupal of ITC etc have to be encouraged to
streamline marketing of agriculture produce along with IT based new technology.
Uttar Pradesh has four Universities, 30 Agricultural colleges which produce around 5200
agriculture graduates and 1400 post graduates each year. A sizable number of well trained
energetic youths can be linked to the Central Government sponsored Agri-clinic scheme. It
will not only provide employment opportunities to rural youth but will also ensure
dissemination of new knowledge and availability of quality inputs at village level from single
During 10th Five Year Plan Agriculture Technology Management Agency (ATMA) were
established in 32 selected districts of UP under World Bank supported “Diversified
Agriculture Support Project (DASP)” ATMA composed of leading farmers of the districts
NGOs and technical experts from SAUs/KVKs research agencies apart from officials of
agriculture and allied sectors. In all 32 SREPs were prepared based on identified researchable
and extension issues; Agriculture, Horticulture, Animal Husbandry, Dairy, Sericulture deptts.
along with research agencies under guidance from UP Council of Agriculture Research
(UPCAR) prepared Annual Action Plan and finally implemented diversification activities in
the field and got extremely encouraging results in the field. During 11th Five Year Plan,
establishment of ATMA and preparation of SREP is proposed in each district in order to
identify researchable and extension issues. On the issues identified in SREP of the district,
implementation of developmental activities is to be carried out to achieve desirable level of
production and productivity, accordingly.
Farmer Schools for strengthening farmer to farmer extension approach
[ 21 ]
In order to strengthen farmer-led extension approach, agriculture department has decided to
establish 813 farmer's field schools (FFS) consisting of the best practices farmers adopting for
the purpose of disseminating and sharing new knowledge with the fellow farmers of the block.
In the Eleventh Five Year Plan it is proposed to develop one FFS in each Nyaya Panchayat.
Proper linkage with departments, KVKs, Research Organizations Banks etc. would also be
ensured. This step would help in arranging quality inputs as well as marketing of agri-produce
at appropriate price apart from dissemination of new technology.
It is proposed to train unemployed agriculture graduates or post graduates at each Nyaya
Panchayat level and engage them for dissemination of technology. This trained workforce can
be linked with SAUs/KVKs/ Research Institutions/Agri-clinics/ Farmer's Field Schools etc. for
continuous Updation of knowledge. This step would provide an alternate source of income to
the unemployed graduates.
There are more than one lac registered fertilizer, seed and pesticide dealers who are providing
important inputs to the farmers on a regular basis. If these dealers are trained, periodically in
important technologies, the message will travel must faster to the farmers than by any other
means. Therefore, it is proposed to convert these 1 lac traders from dealers to technical
experts. This step may prove to be a milestone in the field of Agriculture Extension in the
Involving women farmers in the implementation of Agriculture schemes is very important. It
is a well known fact that most of the agricultural activities are performed by women farmers.
Therefore, more and more women have been encouraged to participate in Kisan Melas/Gosthis
to be organized at Nyaya Panchayat, Block & District levels. Development Departments have
to involve SHGs already functional at village level. Some of the activities mentioned for this
purpose are crop demonstration, IPM demonstration, Seed Processing etc.
Increasing Seed Replacement Rate
Though seed replacement rate (SRR) has increased from 13.52 percent in 2001-02 to 20.13
percent in 2005-06. Department of Agriculture is preparing a seed policy as envisaged in the
new agriculture policy of the State to achieve the SRR of 29 percent in the Eleventh Five Year
Plan. For this the following quantity of seeds would be required annually.
Sl.No. Year Seed Replacement Distribution Target
Rate (%) (Lac Qtls.)
1 2007-08 23.47 31.17
2 2008-09 24.88 33.04
3 2009-2010 26.27 34.90
4 2010-2011 27.69 36.78
5 2011-2012 29.14 38.71
[ 22 ]
In order to achieve appreciable enhancement in agricultural growth rate, availability of hybrid
seeds and parent lines has to be ensured. Financial provisions have to be made in Macro-
Management and ISOPOM for providing subsidy on hybrid seeds.
It is also proposed to launch State Sponsored "Seed Village Scheme", on the lines of centrally
sponsored scheme of similar nature.
Keeping in mind the fact that a large area consists of fragmented and small holdings,
diversification from wheat-paddy crop rotation to other remunerative cash crops will have to
be given considerable priority in the Eleventh Five Year Plan.
Implementation of World Bank assisted "Diversified Agriculture Support Project (DASP)" is
an initiation in this direction. As per the external evaluation report provided by Indian Institute
of Management, Lucknow, cropping intensity in selected 157 blocks of 32 districts when
DASP was implemented increased from 169 percent to 203 percent.
It will be vital to promote need based diversification collectively by department of Agriculture,
Horticulture, Animal Husbandry, Dairy, Fisheries etc through Agriculture Technology
Management Agency in order to achieve the agriculture growth rate of 5.7 percent.
Priority has to be given to the cultivation of Pulses and Oilseeds in the State.
Majority of Paddy growing areas where medium and coarse varieties of paddy are grown will
have to be replaced with hybrid varieties, suitable to agro-eco-situation of the area.
Likewise, in 14 identified districts of the state where Basmati Rice is grown, stress is to be
given for raising qualitative as well as quantitative production. Concrete efforts have to be
made to encourage Basmati Rice export with the help of private sector.
Integrated Pest Management
44. In the Eleventh Five Year Plan, the concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) will be adopted,
practiced and disseminated in all cereals, oilseeds and pulse crops. At the same time, use of bio-pesticides
and bio-agents will to be promoted and use of banned or prohibited chemical pesticides needs to be
discouraged. Fortunately, IPM modules for almost all the crops including vegetables and other horticulture
crops are available either at U.P Council of Agriculture Research (UPKAR) or at GOI level. This
knowledge has to be disseminated through awareness campaigns and large scale demonstrations of IPM
modules in different crops through financial assistance under Centrally Sponsored Macro mode and
ISOPOM Schemes. Large scale demonstration is required in horticulture crops along with agriculture
crops. Financial assistance can come from National Horticulture Mission.
Public Private Partnership in Agriculture
[ 23 ]
45. Contribution of private agencies in agriculture has been increasing. Presently, input providing
companies as well as those involved in marketing of agriculture produce are engaged in agriculture
extension, soil testing and several other agriculture oriented activities according to their business
46. During the Eleventh Five Year Plan there is a need to establish an extensive network between
development departments, SAUs/KVKs, other Research Institutions, Private Agencies, Agri-policlinics,
Farmers Field- Schools, Agri-clubs and other Trained Agriculture Graduates in such a way that all the
Nyaya Panchayats (8135) and 52027 Gram Panchayats are covered and new technologies as well as quality
inputs at appropriate price are available at farmers doorstep. Effort would be made to ensure that farmers
start getting appropriate price for their agri produce. Public Private Partnership can be ensured in the
New technology through agriculture demonstration.
Organizing Kisan Melas, farmers meets, Gosthis, Crop seminars etc.
Soil testing and promotion of balanced use of fertilizers based on soil testing.
Use of IT for dissemination of technology (Network of Common service centres, E-Chou pals
Large scale availability of bio-agents and bio-pesticides such as Tricoderma, Bavaria,
Tricocard, Neem oil etc.
Sale of agricultural produce at appropriate price.
Availability of other quality inputs at appropriate price.
Training of farmers and extension workers.
Development and establishment of Agri-marts on lines of Khushhali and Arial etc.
Annual Plan 2008-09
47. It is proposed to enhance Seed Replacement Rate to 24.88% by the end of Annual Plan 2008-09.
The quantity of seed required to achieve the targeted SRR is estimated at 33.04 lakh Qtls. This would
inande the seeds of Kharif and Rabi crops. The year wise targets and achievements of SRR for each crop
are shown below:-
Name of Crop 2007-08 2007-08 2008-09
Target Anti.Ach. Target
[ 24 ]
1. Paddy 23 25.00 24
2. Maize 20 19.51 21.50
3. Bajra 52 57.30 52.50
4. Jowar 12 17.13 13
5. Urd 13 16.28 14
6. Moong 21 84.98 22
7. Arhar 19.50 19.20 20
8. Groundnut 4.50 4.36 5
9. Til 9.80 13.56 10
10. Soyabean 35.50 33.00 36.50
11. Sunflower 74 71.80 76
12. Cotton 72 70.71 75
Kharif 24.49 23.66 25.60
13. Wheat 24 24 25.50
14. Barley 21.50 21.50 22.50
15. Gram 14 14 15.50
16. Pea 25 25 26
17 Lentil 14.50 14.50 16.50
18. Rai/Sarson 55 55 56
19. Toria 100 100 100
20. Linseed 9 9 11
Rabi 23.22 23.22 23.22
Annual 23.47 23.47 23.47
Soil Health and Consumption of Fertilizers
48. Fertilizers are one of the most important components which provide plant nutrition for growth and
production. To achieve the maximum growth and production, fertilizers should be used in recommended
proportion. The ideal proportion for NPK is 4:2:1. and all our efforts should be made to train the farmers
regarding balanced use of fertilizers. During 2007-08 it is estimated that the NPK ratio will be 8.52:3.80:1.
Still we have to go a long way to achieve the standard ratio. Targets of fertilizer distribution in Annual
Plan 2008-09 are focused on achieveming the desired ratio in the following manner.
49. The distribution of fertilizers in the form of element is indicated in the table below:-
S.N. Year N P K Total
1 2007-08 Target 2774.41 1089.95 325.74 4190.10
[ 25 ]
Anti.Ach. 2774.41 1089.95 325.74 4190.10
2 2008-09 2885.38 1198.94 407.17 4491.49
50. The plan nutrients are shown as N.P and K but their application to the soil is done as Urea, DAP,
Potash and NPK mixture. The distribution of these fertilizers will be ensured during the year as indicated
in the table below:-
Sl.No. Year Urea DAP MOP NPK Total
1 2007-08 Target 5118.99 1798.41 272.11 1043.61 8233.12
Anti.Ach. 5118.99 1798.41 272.11 1043.61 8233.12
2 2008-09 Target 5263.76 1978.25 382.39 1138.97 8763.37
Balanced Fertilizer Use
51. It is proposed that by 2008-09 the NPK ratio should be brought to 7.09:2.94:1. The Year wise
targets for using fertilizers in balanced form are shown below:-
S.N. Year N P K
1 2007-08 Target 8.52 3.35 1
Anti.Ach. 8.52 3.35 1
2 2008-09 Target 7.09 2.94 1
52. The plant nutrients are also supplied through bio fertilizers. These fertilizers do not have any
negative impact on the soil structure/properties. Therefore, the use of bio fertilizers is now being promoted.
The year wise target and achievement of the distribution of bio fertilizers is shown below:-
(Packets in lakh)
S. N. Year Target Anti. Ach.
[ 26 ]
1 2007-08 6.00 6.00
2 2008-09 7.00 -
53. Plant protection chemicals are considered a major input in cultivation. Various types of chemicals
are used for various purposes. Weedicides are used to weeds, remove fungicides are used for remove
fungus and like wise other chemicals are used to weed out pests and insects for the protection of crops.Use
of pesticides in a huge quantity can adversely impact on quality of crop produce and soil health. It can also
cantominate water. Bio-pesticides and IPM techniques are being popularized for the past several years.
Plant Protection. targets and achievement for the Year 2007-08 and 2008-09 are as follows:-
Sl. Particulars 2007-08 2007-08 2008-09
No Target Anti. Achieve. Target
1. Insecticides/Dust/Granules 7000 7000 7100
2. Insecticides Liquid 360 360 380
3. Fungicides 720 720 740
4. Weedicides 1780 1780 1800
5. Rodenticides/ Fumigants 108 108 114
TOTAL 9968 9968 10134
54. Since bio pesticides don‟t have any chemicals in their compositions they are not hazardous to
human life. The use of bio pesticides has to be encouraged to save the biotic life within the soil. The year
wise target and achievement of distributing bio pesticides are as under:-
(Unit in M.T./K.L)
S.N. Year Target Anti. Achieve.
1 2007-08 680 680
2 2008-09 720 -
Integrated Pest Management
55. Pests and insects cause major losses in production. Normally pesticides are used to control the
attack of pests and insects, but the use of pesticides is harmful to human life. Therefore, integrated pest
management is the only solution to safeguard human life and enviournment. The targets and achievements
for IPM are given below:-
[ 27 ]
(Unit in 000)
Sl. Name Unit 2007-08 2008-09
No. Target Anti. Ach. Target
1 Tricoderma Kg. 76 76 110
2 Bueberia/vasiyana Kg. 32 32 55
3 Pseudonymous Kg. 12 12 30
4 Metaraizium Kg. 10 10 15
5 Vertiginous Kg. 10 10 15
6 Trichogama Card No. 33.90 33.90 110
7 NPV Le. 340 340 400
56. Composition of the farmers of the State shows that 90% of the farmers are hailing from marginal
and small category. Hence, a large section of farmers are economically marginal and their purchasing
power is very poor. Now-a-days, cultivation is means-based and it is not possible to manage every input of
agriculture without loan. Non institutional credit (Mahajan Pratha etc.) is always painful and makes the
loan taker get in to debt trap. Year-wise target and achievements are as given below.
Crop loan distribution target and anti. achievement for the year 2007-08 and 2008-09
(Rs in Crore)
S.N. Year Cooperative Commercial Total Average/ ha in
banks banks Rs.
1 2007 Kharif 907.50 2464 3371.50
2007-08 Rabi 1072.50 5060 6132.50
Total 1980 7524 9504 5657
Anti. Achiev. 2007 Kharif 907.50 2464 3371.50
2007-08 Rabi 1072.50 5060 6132.50
Total 1980 7524 9504 5657
2 2008 Kharif 998.25 2710.40 3708.65
2008-09 Rabi 1179.75 5566 6745.75
Total 2178 8276.40 10454.40 6223
Natural Resource Management
57. The state has 55.73 lakh ha. problematic area at present. By the end of Annual Plan 2008-09, it is
planned to reclaim 5.72 lakh ha. through various schemes. It is estimated that 25 to 35 thousand hectare
[ 28 ]
agricultural land shifted to non agricultural purpose every year. Through the natural resource management
we will be able to create 35 to 40 thousand hectares land for agricultural coverage. Implementation of the
various scheme of N.R.M. is helpful in the enhancement of production and productivity and along with the
maintenance of ecological balance. Scheme-wise physical target and achievement for the years 2007-08
and 2008-09 are as follows:-
(Area in Ha.)
S.N. Name of scheme 2007-08 2007-08 2008-09
Target Anti. Ach. Target
1. Macro Management of agriculture 60658 60658 87750
2. Bhoom Seena Yojna 0 0 0
3. Sub Scheme for Tharu Tribe 2500 2500 2500
4. Kissan Hit Yojna 140000 140000 140000
5. Mitigation of Drought through 22000 22000 2200
Rain water harvesting and better
6. Efficient Water management 32800 32800 32800
7. RIDF 11-12-13 112694 112694 230238
8. Water Shed Development Fund 0 0 3000
9. UP Land reclamation Project 0 0 67500
10. Reclamation of flush floods 0 0 6000
affected area in Katri region
(JICA/ Japan Aided)
TOTAL 370607 370607 571988
Agricultural Technology Management Agency (ATMA)
58. The details of the physical targets for 2008-09 are indicated in the table below:-
Exposure Visits 420
Kisan Melas 140
Reward and Incentive 420
Production and Productivity
[ 29 ]
59. The envisaged growth rate for Agriculture sector during Eleventh Five Year Plan Period is 5.7%
which will be reflected in terms of increase the food grain production and productivity. Considering the
food grain production of 2005-2006 as a base year the year wise and crop wise targets of food grain
production is estimated as under-
( In Lakh M/T)
Season Crops 2007-08 2007-08 2008-09 Target
Kharif Rice 135.04 115.03 138.65
Jwar 2.79 2.23 2.90
Bajra 13.42 12.27 14.20
Maize 13.58 11.90 13.82
Coarse Cereal 0.15 0.31 0.16
Kharif Cereals 164.98 141.74 169.97
Urd 2.22 1.57 2.26
Moong 0.09 0.13 0.09
Kharif Pulses 2.31 5.39 2.36
Kharif Food Grains 167.29 147.13 172.33
Til (Pure) 0.18 0.29 0.19
Til (Mixed) 0.09 0.10
Total Til 0.27 0.29
Ground Nut 0.109 0.83 1.12
Soyabean 0.03 0.80 0.03
Kharif Oilseed 1.39 1.20 1.44
Rabi Wheat 285.00 260.41 292.85
Barley 4.43 4.58 4.44
Maize 0.15 0.15 0.16
Rabi Cereal 289.58 265.12 297.43
Gram 8.98 7.30 9.00
Pea 6.44 5.34 6.46
Lentil 6.07 4.81 6.09
Pigeon pea 5.69 4.18 5.71
Rabi Pulses 27.18 21.63 27.26
Rabi Food Grains 316.76 286.75 324.69
R/Mustard (Pure) 6.87 7.14 7.29
R/Mustard (Mixed) 2.78 2.89 2.95
Total 9.65 10.03 10.24
Linseed (Pure) 0.17 0.17 0.18
[ 30 ]
Season Crops 2007-08 2007-08 2008-09 Target
Linseed (Mixed) 0.07 0.07 0.08
Total 0.24 0.24 0.26
Rabi Oilseed 10.05 10.27 10.67
G. Total Cereals 454.56 416.48 467.41
Pulses 29.49 24.65 29.64
Food Grains 484.05 441.13 497.07
Oilseed (Pure) 8.50 8.70 8.99
Oilseed (Mixed) 2.94 3.07 3.12
Total 11.44 11.77 12.11
Note: - 1- Base year 2005-06 for the production estimation @ 5.1% growth rate.
Crop-wise Food Grains Productivity
60. The productivity of various crops has to be raised in order to achieve the targets of food grain
production. Considering the growth rate of 5.1% the target for the productivity of various crops should be
enhanced to the level as shown in the table below:-
Season Crops 2007-08 2007-08 2008-09
Target Anti.Ach. Target
Kharif Rice 22.25 22.25 22.85
Jowar 8.64 8.64 8.98
Bajra 15.77 15.77 16.68
Maize 14.86 14.86 15.12
Coarse cereal 5.52 5.52 0.16
Kharif Cereals 20.16 20.16 20.77
Urd 6.12 6.12 6.23
Moong 3.21 3.21 3.38
Kharif Pulses 5.91 5.91 6.03
Kharif Food Grains 19.51 19.51 20.10
Til (Pure) 1.75 1.75 1.88
Ground Nut 10.19 10.19 10.46
Soyabean 2.73 2.73 2.93
Kharif Oilseed 6.29 6.29 6.52
Rabi Wheat 30.79 30.79 31.64
Barley 17.44 17.44 17.48
[ 31 ]
Season Crops 2007-08 2007-08 2008-09
Target Anti.Ach. Target
Rabi Cereal 30.42 30.42 31.25
Gram 10.68 10.68 10.71
Pea 19.63 19.63 19.71
Lentil 9.71 9.71 9.75
Pigeon pea 14.44 14.44 14.50
Rabi Pulses 12.42 12.42 12.46
R/ Mustard (Pure) 12.14 12.14 18.88
Linseed (Pure) 4.15 4.15 4.32
G.Total Cereals 25.66 25.66 26.38
Pulses 10.99 10.99 11.05
Food Grains 23.85 23.85 24.49
Oilseed (Pure) 10.19 10.19 10.78
Macro Management of Agriculture
61. Keeping in view the need based and location specific nature of agriculture production system,
Govt. of India initiated Macro management of Agriculture through amalgamating 27 centrally
sponsored/central sector schemes in the year 2001. In this system, the central assistance is earmarked by
the GOI with the freedom to choose, formulate and decide the constraints and their redressal within the
frame-work of guide lines issued by G.O.I. The different schemes/components can be addressed for
The main emphasis is on the following areas-
Focus on organic farming to protect environment and ensure sustainable food production.
Mechanization for timely operations, boosting use efficiency and reducing cost of production.
Bio agent production and quality control.
Demonstrations in Nyaya Panchayats having lowest productivity.
Demonstration of IPM techniques in each block.
Development of MIS software for improved monitoring
Extensive use of print and electronic media.
Seed Replacement Rate is being accelerated.
[ 32 ]
62. The NRM is utilizing approx.40% of the total allocation. Keeping in view the enormity of
problematic lands, this sector deserves more attention.
Technology Mission on Oilseeds, Pulses & Maize
ISOPOM (Integrated Schemes of Oilseeds, Pulses, Oil palm &Maize)
63. For increasing the production of oilseeds, pulses and maize, centrally sponsored schemes, namely
Oilseeds Production Programme (OPP), National Pulses Development Project (NPDP) and Accelerated
Maize Development Programme (AMDP), were being implemented in the state till 2003-2004. To provide
flexibility in implementation of these programmes, based on regionally differentiated approach to promote
crop diversification and to provide focused approach to the programmes, the schemes of Oilseed
Production Programme (OPP), National Pulses Development Project (NPDP) and Accelerated Maize
Development Programme (AMDP) have been modified and merged into the centrally sponsored
“Integrated Scheme of Oilseeds, Pulses, Oil palm and Maize” (ISOPOM) during the 10 th five year plan.
The ISOPOM is being implemented since 2004-2005 in the state. This project will continue in Annual Plan
Kisan Mitra/ Farmer Friends Scheme
64. This scheme is being implemented in the state since 1998-99. The purpose of this scheme is to
establish effective agricultural extension mechanism. Agriculture statistics show that about 90% of the
farmers are small & marginal and their land holding sizes are also not viable, hence, it is necessary to
adopt advanced agricultural technology and practices to over come these problems. At village level,
agriculture graduates, intermediates and experienced persons in the field of agriculture will be selected as
Kisan Mitra. These Kisan Mitra will be the major tools of the agriculture extension programme.
Support to Extension Programme for Extension Reforms (ATMA)
65. The aim of this scheme is to take innovative action in extension services of public sector.
Participation of private sector in extension services is also promoted. Agriculture extension services will
also be promoted through the media and information technology. Participation of women has to be ensured
in agriculture and there is a need to enhance their capacity. Major programmes of this scheme are exposure
visits, training, demonstration, Kisan Mela and Kisan Gosthis etc.
Scheme for Strengthening of Soil Health
66. Intensive agriculture coupled with imbalanced use of chemical fertilizers and low addition of
organic matter in the soil have led to deteriorating soil health. This has caused stagnation in production of
major crops. Soil health can be maintained by incorporating organic matter in the soil and promoting use of
[ 33 ]
bio fertilizers. Keeping in view the need for improvement in soil health, this scheme will be confirmed
during the Annual Plan 2008-09 .
67. Soil Testing is recognized as one of the scientific means for quick characterization of the fertility
status of soil and predicting nutrients requirement of crops. It is an important tool in profitable farming and
in monitoring soil fertility changes throughout the world. It is the only way through which actual dose of
specific nutrients could be assessed correctly for balanced use of fertilizers. Soil testing has an important
role and significance with regard to crop production.
Development of Extension Services in Private Sector
68. The motto of this scheme is to make plan and effective mechanism for transfer of technology and
agri. extension from farmer to farmer. Problems of the farmers will be solved by progressive and
experienced companion farmers at a definite platform and also plan for the use of local option. Farmers
community should be joined on farming system and integrated training i.e. agriculture, horticulture, animal
husbandry, dairy and fisheries will be made available. Farmer‟s participation in technical development
works with research institutes/ KVK/ agriculture school at Gram Panchayat Level. It is also aimed that
latest and traditional technical knowledge is made a variable at local level.
National Project for Organic Farming
69. It is necessary to promote organic farming keeping in view the decreasing status of Soil Health. It
is experienced that, there is stagnation in foodgrain production. Deteriorating soil health is a major reason
for stagnation in food grain production. Imbalance in the use of chemical fertilizers and negligible use of
organic fertilizers is a major reason to the weakness of soil health. The shortcomings in soil are as under:-
Decreasing Macro nutrients like Zinc, Copper manganese and iron and secondary nutrients
Imbalance in the use of fertilizers also disturbs physical characteristics of soil and the doses
not providing appropriate level of nutrient potential.
To tackle the aforesaid problem, this scheme is being implemented from the year 2005-06 and
it is proving fruitful for the farmers.
70. The aim of this scheme is to stabilize farmer‟s income in the period of natural calamities as well as
farm epidemic conditions. In every Kharif and Rabi season, this scheme is implemented in the state after
the administrative approval of GOI in the notified areas. At present this scheme is implemented on regional
basis exclusing sugarcane. Insured crop is standard guaranteed yield. If actual yields are below the
guaranteed yield the less yield difference is paid by the insurance company.
Multiplication, Storage & Distribution of quality Seeds
[ 34 ]
71. There are 160 Govt. Agricultural farms with a total area of 7084 ha. Out of which 710 ha is under
infrastructural use and the remaining 6383 ha is available for cultivation. Presently, only 4000 ha is under
seed production. In order to bring the unutilized land under productive use and raise the SRR to the level of
24.88 %, during Annual Plan 2008-09, following activities are proposed under this scheme:-
To achieve 24.88 % SRR, productivity needs to be raised.
Use of breeder seeds which are 25% costlier than foundation seed.
Bringing unutilized land to the productive fold.
Three big farms, proposed under the scheme, are affected with sodicity so, the reclamation of
soil on the farms will also be proposed.
Scheme for Subsidy on Hybrid/Certified Seed
72. Govt. of India is providing subsidy on certified seeds of varieties notified within 10 years. The rate
of subsidy is Rs. 200/- per q. of which 80% is provided by GOI and 20% by state Govt. Presently, the cost
of certified seeds has gone up mantfold so, in order to make the cost of seeds affordable to farmers, It is
proposed that the state Govt. should also raise its share equal to GOI making the subsidy on certified seeds
Rs. 320/- per q. This scheme is proposed in 11th Five Year Plan. For this purpose qualitative seed
production enhancement will be compulsory." At present a number of hybrid rice type seeds have been
developed for different agro climatic zone. Productivity of these hybrid seeds varies from 60-80 Qtls per
hectare. Propagation of the use of these types of hybrid seeds is very useful in achieving targeted
production and reducing the cost of rice cultivation. Keeping in view the popularity and use of these types
of hybrid seeds, a scheme has been proposed which will provide subsidy to the farmers @ 25% or Rs. 4000
per Qtl which ever is less.
Seed Village Scheme
73. This 100% centrally sponsored scheme is being implemented in the state since 2006-07. The aim
of this scheme is to train the farmer for quality seed production at their own level for the purpose of
enhancement in Seed Replacement Rate (SRR). State seed statistics shows that the ratio of certified and
quality seed is 3:1. Seed Replacement target at the end of Eleventh Five Year Plan is 29.14%. To achieve
this target there is a requirement of scheme 40.06 lakh Qtls. Of quality seed. This will help in achieving the
74. This course is 100% funded by the Central Government for the purpose of Integrated Computer
Technology Use for the Farming Community to provide them advance information, technology and other
services about agriculture and allied sectors. In the Ist phase it will be implemented in 32 districts of the
State which have been already covered by the ATMA.
[ 35 ]
Enhancing Rabi Pulses Production in U.P.
75. At present the availability of pulses is around 35gm per capita per day in the State which is below
the recommended level. Efforts are being made to boost up pulses production to the desired requirement in
future. U.P. is one of the major pulse producing states of the country. In India the total area under pulses is
234 lakh hectares where as in U.P.total area under pulses is 27.51 lakh hectare, which is about 12% of total
area under pulses at national level. During 2005-06, pulse production was 22.32 lakh MT with an average
yield of 8.11 qtls/ha which is higher than national and international level. In the other words, the state has
the highest pulses productivity in the world.
Hybrid Rice Seed Production Scheme
76. The productivity of rice per hectare in the state at present is 21.87 qtls. Coverage of paddy in the
state in Kharif season is nearly 70%. Demand of popular hybrid rice seed is also increasing at a rapid pace.
Keeping in mind the future situation and demand of the farmers this scheme is going to be implemented in
the Annual Plan 2008-09.
Seed Production through Farmers Participation
77. The aim of this scheme is to train the farmer for quality seed production at their own level for the
purpose of enhancement in Seed Replacement Rate (SRR). State seed statistics show that the ratio of
certified and quality seed is 3:1. Seed Replacement target at the end of 11th Five Year Plan is 29.14%, to
achieve this target there is a need of 40.06 lakh Qtls. quality seed. To cater to the need of seed requirement
this scheme has been again proposed for the aforesaid purpose.
Food Security Mission
78. The aforesaid mission will have three components namely; Wheat, Rice and Pulses. As per the
resolution of 53rd meeting of NDC, an additional production of Rice, Wheat and Pulses of 10 million tons,
8 million tons and 2 million tons respectively is being planned at National level by the end of 11th Five
Year Plan. In U.P. 38 districts have been identified for wheat production, 19 districts for pulses production
and 26 districts for production of rice.
Objectives of the scheme
Increasing production of rice, wheat and pulses through area expansion and productivity
enhancement in a sustainable manner in the identified districts of the country.
Restoring soil fertility and productivity at the individual farm level.
Creation of employment opportunities.
Enhancing farm level economy (i.e. farm profit) to restore confidence amongst the farmers.
[ 36 ]
Implementation Features of the Scheme
Implementation in a mission mode through active engagement of all the stakeholders at
Promotion and extension of improved technologies i.e., Seed, Integrated Nutrient Management
including micronutrients, soil amendments, IPM and resource conservation technologies along
with capacity building of farmers.
Flow of fund would be closely monitored to ensure that interventions reach the target
beneficiaries on time.
Various interventions proposed would be integrated with the district plan and targets for each
identified district would be fixed.
Constant monitoring and concurrent evaluation for assessing the impact of the intervention for
a result oriented approach by the implementing agencies.
79. For the year 2007-08 under this mission Rs. 65.44 crores for wheat production enhancement and
Rs. 8.41 crores for pulse production strategy mode has been formulated and as per the guidelines of the
Government of India Rs. 100.00 crores is being estimated for implementation the programme for the year
Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojna
80. The aim of this national scheme is to incentivise states to draw plans for the agriculture sector
more comprehensively, taking agro climatic conditions, natural resources issues and technology in to
account, and integrating livestock's, poultry and fisheries more fully. Basic features of this scheme are as
To incentivise states so as to increase public investment in Agriculture and allied sectors.
To provide flexibility and autonomy to states in the process of planning and executing
Agriculture and allied sector schemes.
To ensure the preparation of agriculture plans for the districts and the states based on agro
climatic conditions, availability of technology and natural resources.
To ensure that the local needs/crops/priorities are better reflected in the agricultural plans of
To achieve the goal of reducing the yield gaps in important crops, through focused
To maximize returns to the farmers in agriculture and allied sectors.
To bring about quantifiable changes in the production and productivity of various components
of agricultural and allied sectors by addressing them in a holistic manner.
[ 37 ]
Focus areas of the RKVY in agriculture sector are as under:-
Integrated development of major food crops such as Wheat, Paddy, Coarse cereal, Millets,
Pulses and oil seeds through making available certified/hybrid seeds to farmers, farmers field
schools at demonstration sights and training of farmers.
Specific agriculture mechanization projects oriented towards enhancing farm productivity will
be taken up.
Activities for enhancement of soil health shall be covered under this scheme.
Development of rain fed farming systems in and out side water shed areas, as also integrated
development of water shed areas, waste land and river valleys projects shall also be assisted
through this scheme.
Support to the state seed farms that are used for both research and seed purposes shall be
provided fund in a project mode.
Integrated pest management techniques will also be promoted with the help of this scheme.
Strengthening of infrastructure to promote extension services for skill development and
training of the farming community for revamping the existing state agricultural extension
Study tours of farmers to create interest in them, especially to research institutions.
Support to decentralized production at the village level and marketing of organic and bio
fertilizer will be provided by this scheme.
81. Agriculture Finance Corporation has been engaged for the preparation of District Agriculture Plan
and State level Committee SLSC has also been constituted. For the year 2007-08 following proposal is
under consideration. Details are as follows:
1. Agriculture 72.58
2. Agriculture Universities 5.54
3. U.P. Seed Development Corp. 9.11
4. Animal Husbandry 10.00
5. Fisheries 4.25
6. Dairy Development 10.80
82. A sum of Rs. 600.00 crores is being proposed for the year 2008-09.
[ 38 ]
Soil and Water Conservation
Status of Land Resource
83. The major rivers of the state are Ganga, Yamuna, Ghaghra and Sone. Problematic areas of
watershed are situated along these rivers.
Total Reported Area (Lakh ha.) 242.01
Total Problematic Areas (Lakh ha.) 120.44
Classification of Present Problematic Area (Lakh ha.)
Sl. Type of Problem Total Treated Area Balance Area
No. Area (Up to March, 06)
Degraded and Problematic land
A Agriculture Land 60.66 44.53 16.13
B Non Agriculture Land 12.87 5.29 7.58
Total 73.53 49.82 23.71
Special Problematic Land
A Ravine Land 12.30 5.68 6.62
B Usar and Alkaline Land 11.51 6.08 5.43
C Diara and Khadar Land 15.00 1.59 13.41
D Water Logged Land 8.10 1.54 6.54
Total 46.91 12.70 32.02
Grand Total 120.44 64.71 55.73
84. Schemes and their scope are as under:-
Sl.No. Name of scheme 2008-09 2008-09
(Physical Target Financial Target
in ha.) in lakh Rs.
1. Macro Management of agriculture 87750
2. Bhoom Sena Yojna 0 0
3. Sub Scheme for Tharu Tribe 2500 205.00
4. Kissan Hit Yojna 140000 17100.00
5. Mitigation of Drought through Rain 2200 2200.00
water harvesting and better water
6. Efficient Water management 32800 3280.00
7. RIDF 11-12-13 230238 19398.26
8. Water Shed Development Fund 3000 300.00
[ 39 ]
9. UP Land reclamation Project 0.00 0.00
10. Reclamation of flash floods 6000 0.00
affected area in Katri region (JICA/
TOTAL 571988 51424.08
Aims of the Soil and Water Conservation Programme
Treatment through engineering and botanic method in Rainfed watershed areas to conserve
moisture and water harvesting. Cropping intensity and productivity enhancement are the major
issues of these areas.
To check flood through appropriate measures of soil and water conservation techniques to
tackle up the problem of land degradation, silting and minimization of moisture.
Development and treatment of USAR, ravine and water logged areas.
Implementation of schemes for social upliftment of small, marginal and SC/ST farmers in
Implementation of schemes for employment generation for landless agricultural laborers and
small and marginal farmers for their socio economic upliftment..
To maintain the ecological balance through soil and water conservation programmes.
Renovation of rural ponds through different schemes for aquaculture and fisheries. It is also
helpful in raising the water table.
Agriculture Education and Research
85. The responsibility of carrying out agriculture education, research and extension in the fields of
Agricultural Science, Horticulture, Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Agricultural Engineering,
Fisheries and Agro-forestry is a major mandate of State Agricultural Universities. These State Agricultural
Universities have their network of Zonal and Regional Research Stations and Krishi Vigyan
Kendras/Krishi Gyan Kendras for conducting research as well as extension of technologies on local
specific problems. Presently the following four State Agricultural Universities are established in the state.
1. Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur
2- Narendra Dev University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad.
3. Sardar Ballabh Bhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Modipuram, Meerut.
4. Allahabad Agriculture Deemed University, Naini, Allahabad.
86. The Allahabad Agriculture Deemed University is established as a minority institution and does not
come under the perview of Krishi Evam Prodyogik Vishwavidyalaya Adhiniyam 1958.
[ 40 ]
Achievements during the Year 2007-08
C.S. Azad University Of Agriculture And Technology, Kanpur
The University's area of jurisdiction is Central Uttar Pradesh, which comprises three agro-
climatic zones viz., Southwest semi arid zone, Bundelkhand and Central Plain Zone. The
region's percentage share of all major crop commodities in terms of area and production is
quite sizeable. During last plan period following varieties developed by university have been
identified for release:
Wheat- K-9851, K-0402, Barley- K-791,Maize- Chandramani(R-9903), Bajra- CSBV-5,
CSBV-6, Tomato-KS-17, Okra-Azad Bhindi-3(Red), Bean-KDV-403, KDV-405.
The important work of extension was carried out through Krishak Help Line Sewa, Krishi
Melas, Conduct of Training and Demonstration and Organization of Farmers Day. The bio-
agents of various pest and diseases were also produced and distributed to farmers.
N.D. University Of Agriculture And Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad
The University carried out research to develop high yielding disease resistant varieties of
various crops which made significant contribution in raising the production of different crops
in the region. During 2007-2008 the university developed following new varieties :
Rice - Narendra Dhan-K5050, Narendra Shushka Samrat (NDR-1045-2), Pigeonpea- Narendra
Arhar-3, Colocasia-PKS-1, Banda-Narendra Banda-3, Bottle Gourd-NDBG-132, Ber-
Narendra Ber Selection1 and 2.
The university has carried out trainings, front line demonstrations, farmers fairs, farm gosthis,
farmers-scientists interaction programmes and farmers technical trainings.Queries of the
farmers have been answered through Farmers Help Line.
Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel University Of Agriculture And Technology, Modipuram, Meerut
The university has developed following new varieties of important crops during last plan
Rice-Ballabh Basmati-21, Urd-Ballabh Urd, Turmeric-Ballabh Priya, Arbi-Ballabh Nikki.
The university has conducted trainings, demonstrations, adaptable trials, field advisory service
and miscellaneous activities (kisan melas, gosthi, krishak help line). The queries of the
farmers have been answered through Farmers Help Line.
Allahabad Agriculture Institute (Deemed University), Naini, Allahabad
The university has developed technologies for management of Guava Wilt. The University has
also developed facilities for production of bio-agents for management of various pest and
diseases. The university has developed a new hybrid variety of scented rice.
[ 41 ]
The important work of extension was carried out through Krishak Help Line Sewa, Krishi
Melas, Conduct of Training and Demonstration and Organization of Farmers Day. In 2008-
09, 8 Gosthis, 8 Demonstrations, 07 seasonal workshops were organized by Directorate of
Extension in which 292, 176 and 250 farmers participated, respectively.
U.P. Council of Agricultural Research, Lucknow
The council organizes workshop, seminars, brain storming sessions to identify various
problems in agriculture and allied fields. The council is also engaged in developing database
on agricultural education, research and extension in the state.
In order to prepare contingent plan and suggest various measures which may be adopted by the
farmers during adverse weather conditions, the council constituted Crop Weather Forecast
Group. The group meets regularly to discuss and recommended action plan for farmers for
adverse weather conditions. The recommendation of the group are publicized through print
and other media.
The council has established a WTO Cell to develop database on WTO related issues and to
conduct studies, suggest measures enhancing exports from the state. The WTO Cell publishes
WTO Newsletter and keeps track of WTO negotiations and their impact on state agriculture.
The cell has also initiated study on impact of WTO provisions on U.P. agriculture. The cell
also organizes seminars/workshops to sensitize the policy makers and other concerned on
latest developments about WTO‟s matters.
87. Uttar Pradesh has diverse agro-climatic conditions and with its vast agricultural & natural
resources, it is facilitating production of various food crops like fruits, vegetables, spices, medicinal and
aromatic plants etc. In terms of geographical area the state is fourth in the country with a cultivated area of
15.91 Lac hectares in vegetables. The state accounts for 16% of India's total population and produces 15%
the country's vegetables production i.e. 266.06 Lac ton. UP ranks second among all states in vegetable
production. Major vegetables are potato and peas (leading state), sweet potato (second among states),
cabbage (sixth among states). U.P. contributes 40-45% of the potato production of the country.
88. Similarly, UP ranks third production of fruits among all states. Major fruits grown in the state are
Mango (leading state in India in terms of production), Guava (ranked fourth in India), Banana and Litchi.
The overall productivity of fruits in the state is 10.79 tons/ha against national average of 11.9 tons per
hectares. The important spices produced in Uttar Pradesh are onion (sixth among states), turmeric, chili,
Garlic, fennel, fenugreek and coriander.
89. Nearly 72% of the total population of the state is engaged in cultivation, out of which
approximately 80% farmers are small and marginal category. To boost up the required horticultural
[ 42 ]
development in the state different schemes / programmes under state / centrally sponsored schemes are
90. During the Eleventh Five Year Plan period (2007-12), the growth rate of this sector has been fixed
at 10%. To achieve this growth rate the department is implementing various developmental schemes i.e.
production new varieties of fruits, adoption of hybrid varieties of vegetables and spices of high quality and
production, adoption of new horticultural techniques, production of European vegetables, adoption of new
techniques to increase production of flowers and medicinal plants, establishment of high-tech model
nurseries, apiculture, mushroom cultivation, establishment of distillation units for flowers and medicinal &
aromatic plants, onion storage units and the establishment of semi-processing and processing units in the
Achievements and Present Status
91. Horticulture development received focused attention in the Tenth Plan period which resulted in
spectacular growth in the horticultural crops leading U.P. to become the second largest producer of fruits
and vegetables in the country.
92. The main emphasis during the Eleventh Five Year Plan is to change the conventional practices of
farming communities through transfer of new technologies and varieties. Area expansion programme is
being taken up through varietal diffusion for increasing the production and productivity of horticultural
crops while demonstrations are being conducted for filling up the gaps in latest technical know-how.
93. To achieve desired growth in the horticultural development of the state various programmes are
being implemented under the central and state schemes. The farmers are being trained in the newly
developed horticultural techniques. They have been encouraged to adopt traditional and newly developed
varieties of different horticultural crops to increase the production and productivity. The farmers are being
provided with technical and financial assistance. There has been a remarkable achievement in expansion
of the area under horticultural crops and production due to successful implementation of different
horticulture developmental schemes/programmes in the last few years in the state.
94. Year wise proposed target of area, production and growth rate for the Eleventh Five Year Plan and
the achievement of Tenth Five Year Plan are as under:-
Area in Lac Ha. & Prod. in Lac M.T.
S. Item Achievement Proposed target Proposed Anti. Achi. Proposed
N. of Xth Five of Eleventh growth rate of in the Year Target in
Year Plan Five Year Plan Eleventh Five 2007-08 the Year
Year Plan 2008-09
[ 43 ]
Area 8.24 13.21 8.19 9.77 10.53
Prod. 88.87 164.37 10.46 112.27 123.50
Area 15.91 24.10 8.67 17.81 19.21
Prod. 266.06 441.90 11.11 301.82 332.00
Area 5.07 6.81 8.35 5.03 5.43
Prod. 122.30 166.93 10.41 114.01 125.42
Area 29.22 44.12 8.47 32.61 35.17
Prod. 477.23 773.20 10.87 528.1 580.92
95. Horticultural crops are well suited to the agro-ecological conditions of Uttar Pradesh and have
considerable scope for further expansion. Being a densely populated state, most of the farmers are small
and marginal and they practice farming of vegetables, spices, floriculture and early fruiting crops like
banana & papaya, where on one hand labour is optimally used and on the other continued annual income
can also be earned. The potential are the important aspects of horticultural scenario in U.P..
96. U.P. is a major producer of fruits & vegetables, accounting for 20% to 25% of total production in
India. U.P has considerable potential to increase the productivity and production of fruits, vegetables,
spices and flowers on account of the varied agro climatic conditions, abundance of natural resources and
introduction of technological changes.
97. Horticulture sector may prove to be an important sector of the state‟s economy, with its highest
shares both in terms of state income as well as employment. Its share in total work force is higher than its
share in state income. Cultivation of vegetables & fruits creates two to three times more employment than
cultivation of cereal crops. Employment in this sector can be increased by improving cropping intensity.
Horticultural crops create 860 mandays per hectare.
98. There is a prime need to bring more area under highly productive horticultural crops both for table
as well as processing purpose as per national and international demand so as to establish these varieties in
the market on competitive basis.
Production of seeds of new varieties and planting material in private sector.
Crop diversification of Horticultural crops.
Marketing and Export promotion of different horticultural produce so as to exploit competitive
advantage for the export of horticultural crops.
[ 44 ]
Promotion of horticultural processing industries.
Horticulture provides opportunity for nutritional security and also food security through better
Vast opportunity to attract youth towards horticulture which creates two to three times more
employment than in with return of cereal crops.
There exists great scope of utilizing waste and ravine lands for horticultural crops.
To disseminate improved horticultural technology with area expansion in respect of fruits,
vegetable, potato, flowers, spices and aromatic plants.
To increase the availability of improved seeds and elite planting material with high
productivity and suitability to Indian and Export Market.
To improve productivity with export quality production.
To provide Post harvest infrastructure and give priority to food processing industry.
To encourage and motivate the growers to organize themselves and arrange their input supply
as well as marketing of the produce through formation of Farmers Interest Groups (FIGs) and
Horticultural Co-operative societies.
To enhance and strengthen the technology base particularly up gradation of the technical
knowledge of the staff and farmers in respect of production, post harvest techniques and
marketing of the produce.
Adoption of Hi-Tech horticulture is imperative for competing in international market. The
technologies include genetically modified varieties, micro-propagation, integrated nutrient,
water and pest management, fertilization, protected cultivation, organic farming, bio-
pesticides, bio-fertilizers and hi-tech post harvest technologies as-ionizing radiation,
microwave and infra-red processing, membrane filtration, cold chain and controlled
atmospheric storage, is to be introduced.
Annual Plan, 2008-09
99. The congenial agro-climatic conditions prevalent in the state viz; which are suitable for production
of many horticultural crops, availability of plenty of sun shine, cheap skilled labour, improved variety of
seeds, etc. offer good opportunities of horticultural development. It is proposed to optimally utilize the
existing strengths and opportunities.
Production Of Ornamental and Elite Fruit Planting Material, Vegetable & Spices Seed
Production and Seed Processing
100. For implementing various horticultural schemes viz. plantation of orchards, expansion of area and
enhancement of production of vegetables, spices, flowers, potato, medicinal and aromatic plants, good
[ 45 ]
quality planting material and seed are required. Although, several nurseries and seed production farms
have been established in private sector, the good quality planting material and foundation seeds of
vegetables and potato have been produced in Government nurseries / farms under the scheme.
Commercial Horticulture Development in Extensive Areas
101. The scheme will specially focus on increasing the production and productivity through adoption of
improved technologies duly ensuring quality of all horticultural crops and creation of markets at the block
and district level. Special emphasis will be given for adopting cluster approach for developing regionally
differentiated crops, which are most suitable for the district/region. Availability of good quality planting
material being a key area for the development of horticulture, efforts will be made to create necessary
infrastructure in the form of nurseries. This will be supplemented with plantation development
programmes by adding new areas under improved varieties to meet the demand of the market in fresh as
well as processed form.
102. The low productivity of the perennial fruits like mango, peach, guava, aonla, ber, citrus etc. is
mainly due to small size of holdings. the preponderance of old and senile trees and poor management.
Under the scheme, it is proposed to take up productivity improvement programmes in such old and thickly
shaded mango and guava orchards through rejuvenation.
103. For enabling growth through increased productivity, it is proposed to take up activities like-
protected cultivation such as poly houses, plastic tunnel, shed-net, mulching, promotion of Integrated
Nutrient Management (INM), Integrated Pest Management (IPM), training and demonstrations for
imparting the latest technical know-how to the farmers, awareness regarding high technology, etc.
104. Post harvest management would aim creating suitable infrastructure like pack-houses for efficient
post harvest management and establishment of rural markets for marketing of horticulture produce.
Marketing promotional activities such as dissemination of market information to the farmers, processors,
traders, and consumers would also covered. Farmers will also be encouraged to involve the Corporate
houses for ensuring supply of quality inputs and buy back arrangement for remuneration on investments.
Horticulture Development Programme For SC/ST beneficiaries
105. As the state has varied agro-climate conditions entensive areas for different fruits, vegetables,
flowers, spices etc. are being developed in suitable agro-climatic zones. The state is thickly populated and
so the number of small and marginal farmers are growing continuously. A sizeable number of farmers
belong to scheduled caste. Normally these farmers are involved in raising other agricultural crops which
give them lesser return and so their living standard is not rising proportionately. So this scheme aims at
promoting the farmers of scheduled caste/scheduled tribes to grow more of horticultural crops like
vegetables, spices, flowers etc. and fruit crops like Guava, Aonla, Papaya etc. by which they can get
continuous a better return. This would certainly help in raising their level of living standard.
[ 46 ]
106. The main objectives of Scheme are as follows:-
Transfer of technology of new and improved horticulture practices through demonstration and
training to the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes farmers.
Economic improvement of schedule caste/scheduled tribes by encouraging them to grow
horticulture cash crops.
To generate employment opportunities for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes farmers
through farming of horticultural crops.
Improvement of production and productivity of horticulture crops by creating more area under
Awareness Programme For Jetropha Cultivation
107. Under the scheme, awareness would be created for cultivation of jetropha in the state. Awareness
camps will be organized for Jetropha cultivation in 30 districts namely Aligarh, Hathras, Mathura, Agra,
Firozabad, Etah, Mainpuri, Lakhimpur-kheeri, Hardoi, Unnao, Kannauj, Etawah, Auraiya, Kanpur Dehat,
Kanpur Nagar, Jalaun, Jhansi, Lalitpur, Hamirpur, Mahoba, Chitrakoot, Fatehpur, Pratapgarh, Kaushambi,
Ballia, Chandauli, Mirzapur, Sonbhadra and Ghazipur. One day training programmes are proposed to be
conducted at district/block level where information regarding Jetropha cultivation, planting material, post
harvest management and crop management techniques would be imparted to farmers.
Crop Insurance for Horticultural Crops
108. The objectives of National Agriculture Insurance Scheme are as follows:-
To Provide financial assistance and insurance coverage to notified crops to compensate for
crop failure due to natural calamities, diseases etc.
To promote financial assistance to adopt progressive agriculture techniques and hi-tech
109. Under the scheme the sum insured/limit of coverage may extend to the value of threshold yield of
the insured crops at the option of insured farmers. However, the farmers may also insure his crops beyond
the value of threshold yield level up to 150 percent of the average yield of the notified area on payment of
premium at commercial rates.
110. In case of loaner farmers, the insured sum will at least be equal to the loan taken by the farmer.
This would be in addition to insured charge. It would be necessary to follow the guidelines issued by
Indian Reserve Bank/ NABARD in case of crop loan distribution process. For small and marginal farmers,
there is provision for 50% state assistance. This will be borne equally by the centre and State/Union
State Horticulture Mission
[ 47 ]
111. Fifteen percent of the AAP is borne by the State Government during 2007-08. and the remaining
years of the Eleventh Five Year Plan.
Micro Irrigation Project
112. A centrally sponsored scheme Micro Irrigation has been started in 2006-07, with 80% central
share and 20% state share. Under the pattern of assistance under the scheme, 50% of the cost ( 40% central
share and 10% state share) to the farmers, is provided as subsidy.
Distribution of Soil Testing Kit
113. It has been planned to distribute 8,000 soil testing kits at subsidized rates in all the 820 blocks in
the state. Selection of beneficiaries will be done on the basis of first come first serve basis from amongst
the interested unemployed educated youth. Selected beneficiaries will be given two days training in groups
of 25-25 in co-operation with Agriculture Universities/ Agriculture Farmer Centres / Agriculture Research
Institutes situated in the districts. Subsequently, they will be given soil testing kits at 75% subsidized rates.
The kits will be used by the beneficiaries to conduct test of soil specimen of farmers & earn some income.
Micro Irrigation in Bundelkhand and Sonbhadra Regions
114. The scheme will facilitate increase in coverage of area under drip as well as sprinkler irrigation
systems for enhancing crop productivity. Initially the focus will be on covering the areas under
horticultural crops promoted under National Horticulture Mission (NHM), which are conducive to drip
irrigation or sprinkler irrigation. For other crops, it will be restricted to potential belts/regions in the water
deficit, arid and semi-arid areas. A cluster approach will be adopted in implementing the Scheme.
115. Under the Scheme, financial assistance to the beneficiary for sprinkler irrigation will be limited to
30 percent of the system cost subject to a maximum of Rs.4500/- per ha. Since sprinkler systems are
moveable, the cost of the system will be governed by the actual quantity of material used.
116. The sprinkler systems sets, unlike drip system, are moveable. Hence one sprinkler set could cover
more than one ha. by shifting it from one place to another. Assistance for sprinkler irrigation will be
limited only to those crops for which drip irrigation is uneconomical. Depending upon the type of crop a
farmer can avail assistance for sprinkler as well as drip irrigation, the combined area of which should not
exceed five ha. per beneficiary. However, assistance for both sprinkler and drip irrigation will not be
available for a crop on the same plot/field being cultivated by the farmer. Moreover, assistance for
sprinkler irrigation alone, which is less efficient than drip irrigation, should be discouraged.
[ 48 ]
117. The cost for installation of the system will be borne by the beneficiary. The beneficiary will also
be responsible for all electrical mechanical works such as pumps, panels, electrification works, etc; at his
own cost. The manufacturer will be responsible for repair or replacement of the system components
against manufacturing defects. Since the manufactures are supplying a tailor made system to the farmers,
the transportation and installation charges of the system will be borne by the farmers.
118. A farmer will be eligible for assistance only if adequate water is available in the area proposed to
be brought under Drip/Sprinkler irrigation.
119. Food processing encompasses a vast area. It includes grains, oil seeds, pulses, spices, fruits,
vegetables, mushroom, fish, poultry, meat based industries. Uttar Pradesh produces about 22% of the total
food products produced by India. U.P is the foremost state in the production of fruits & vegetables in the
120. There are about 34,000 food processing units established in U.P in which about Rs. 2600.00 crore
has been invested. At present about 2.68 lakh people are employed in these units. The farmers can get
remunerative price if their produce is sold in & out of the country after processing .
121. A large quantity of fruits & vegetables is lost due to the lack of processing facilities. Only 2% of
the total production is commercially processed, where as in the developed countries more than 50% of the
fresh fruits & vegetables is processed. Although some success has bean achieved in pre harvest
management of crops, in the field of post harvest management e.g.-grading, sorting, packing, processing,
transport & marketing etc., much needs to be done.
122. According to the market estimates a sizable portion of produce after meeting local consumption
csn be used for the processing units in the state.
Status Of Farm Commodities And Market Surplus Ratio (MSR)
Item Unit India U.P. Share % Rank Market Surplus
S. of UP to Ratio (MSR)
1. Wheat Million 72.06 22.51 31.23 I 74.40 74.40
2. Sugar Cane Million 236.18 118.71 50.26 I 98.30 100.00
3. Maize Million 14.72 1.21 8.22 I 66.00 61.40
[ 49 ]
4. Rice Million 87.00 11.12 12.78 II 73.60 79.20
5. Oil Seeds Million 25.14 0.95 3.78 V 76.50 38.80
6. Vegetables Million 61.65 22.69 36.74 II N.A. 74.00
7. Fruits Million 45.20 8.52 10.48 III N.A. 75.00
8. Potato Million 23.16 10.22 44.13 I 91.10 97.80
9. Livestock Million 396.00 58.53 15.00 I N.A. 82.00
(excluding nos. (assum
10 Milk Million 88.08 15.94 18.00 I N.A. 82.00
. Production liters.) (assum
(Source: SNAC.UP./ MFPI, Figure in million tons, except sr. no .9 & sr. no. 10 in million liters)
123. The number of different food processing units in Uttar Pradesh is shown in the table given below:-
Status of Food Processing Industries at a Glance
Sectors Name of Industry India U.P. Total
Investment in the
state (in crores)
Organized Sector Flour Mills 820 193 2600
Pulse Processing 602
Oil Seed Processing 2153
Rice Mills 671
Fruits/Vegetables 5198 589
[ 50 ]
Milk Processing 213
Fish Processing 418 N.A.
Meat 171 35
Sugar Mills 114
Unorganized Flour/Rice/Pulses/Oils Mills More than lac More than
Primary processing Units 30000
Bakeries/Fruits/Vegetables More than
/Spices Processing Units several
(Source: mfpi/ nabard/ snac)
124. In the organized sector, there are 5225 processing units in which more than Rs. one lakh has been
invested. Apart from that, there are 30,000 units in the unorganized sector and about Rs. 2600 crores has
been invested in them.
125. Sugarcane is an another important crop in the State. Almost half of the total sugarcane area in the
country is in Uttar Pradesh. About 30 percent sugar production in the country is contributed by the State.
Besides U.P. other prominent sugarcane producing states are Maharastra, Tamilnadu, Karnataka, Andhra
Pradesh and Gujrat in the tropical region and Punjab, Haryana and Bihar in the subtropical region. Inter
state comparison on various parameters is presented below:-
Inter State Comparison of Sugarcane Statistics (Year 2005-06)
S. State Cane Area AV.Yield Cane Crushed Sugar Sugar
N. (Thousand (Tonnes per (Lac Production Recover
Ha.) Ha.) (Lac y%
A Tropical regions
1 Maharastra 501 77.6 445.78 51.97 11.66
[ 51 ]
2 Tamilnadu 335 104.7 231.85 21.42 9.24
3 Karnataka 219 83.4 179.53 19.43 10.83
4 Andhra Pradesh 230 76.8 103.03 12.36 10.05
5 Gujrat 197 74.0 107.87 11.68 10.82
B Subtropical Region
1 U.P 2156 58.2 608.09 57.84 9.47
2 Haryana 127 64.4 41.88 4.09 9.78
3 Punjab 84 57.9 36.76 3.38 9.19
4 Bihar 101 42.8 44.55 4.22 9.48
C All India 4202 66.9 1886.72 192.67 10.22
Source: Indian Sugar–October 2007 Vol. No.(v) No. 7
126. From the perusal of the table the following inferences can be drawn:-
Average yield per hectare is the highest in Uttar Pradesh after amongst Haryana states grouped
in sub tropical region.
At 58.2 tonnes per hectare, productivity is much below than all India average of 66.9 tonnes.
Average sugar recovery is lower than Haryana but at par with Punjab. It is almost 0.75 percent
lower than the all India average.
U.P. accounts for the largest production of sugar cane in the Country.
127. The following table gives inter-state sugar production since 1996-97:-
State wise Sugar Production For last ten years
( lakh tones)
S STATES 1996- 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
. 1997 - - - - - - - - -
N 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
1 Andra 7.72 7.82 11.13 11.82 10.22 10.48 12.10 8.86 9.82 12.36
2 Karnatka 8.71 9.59 13.72 15.77 16.13 15.50 18.68 11.16 10.40 19.43
3 Tamil 10.50 12.29 17.30 17.20 17.81 18.39 16.44 9.21 11.08 21.42
4 Maharashtr 34.45 38.47 53.37 65.03 67.05 56.13 62.13 31.75 22.17 51.97
[ 52 ]
5 Uttar 40.83 39.22 37.29 45.56 43.94 52.60 56.51 45.51 50.37 57.84
6 Bihar 3.62 2.99 2.58 3.68 2.88 3.42 4.08 2.74 2.54 4.22
7 Hariyana 4.90 3.82 4.04 4.77 5.86 6.24 6.36 5.82 4.00 4.09
All India 129.05 128.5 155.3 182.0 185.1 185.2 201.4 135.4 126.9 192.6
5 9 0 9 7 0 6 1 7
Source: Indian sugar-Oct 07 Vol. No (vi) No. 7
128. From the perusal of the above table it is evident that U.P. had occupied the top position in sugar
production during the years 2003-04 to 2005-06 while Maharastra was the leading state during 1998-99 to
2002-03. The fluctuation in sugar production was a prominent factor during the period under review
varying from 201.40 lakh tonne in 2002-03 to 192.67 in the year 2005-06.
129. The following table indicates the achievement in production and growth since First Five Year
Plan wise Achievement regarding Important Indicators
S. The final year of Cane Average Cane Sugar No of Crushing Suga
N. the plan area yield Prodct. Prodct. Mills capecity r
(Lac. (M.t./ (L.t.) (L.t.) (Tcd) recov
ha.) ha.) ery%
1 1st Five Year 7.97 40.10 319.34 10.98 68 72,327 9.69
2 2nd Five Year 9.84 37.72 371.10 12.04 71 84,859 9.32
3 3rd Five Year 8.26 36.43 300.88 7.11 71 1,02,059 9.58
4 4th Five Year 12.09 44.12 533.28 12.97 74 1,13,218 8.99
5 5th Five Year 14.69 39.40 578.78 14.63 88 1,31,535 9.28
6 6th Five Year 14.70 46.13 678.05 14.77 99 1,61,439 9.56
7 7th Five Year 18.55 57.51 1066.77 36.51 106 2,14,991 9.18
8 8th Five Year 21.96 60.76 1334.21 39.22 122 3,51,318 9.59
9 9th Five Year 20.54 54.40 1117.38 43.87 110/ 3,58,804 9.73
10 10th Five Year 26.61 60.00 1590.6 73.00 133 610000 9.65
[ 53 ]
130. Above table reveals that there has been more than three fold increase in the cane area of the state
during the span of the last ten five year plans. Average yield per hectare varied from 36.43 M.T. to 60.76
131. The overall impact of increase in Area, Productivity, Number of mills and subsequent increase in
Crushing Capacity resulted in more than five fold increase in sugar production during the span of First to
Tenth Five Year Plan period.
132. Major challenges facing the sugarcane sector in U.P are as under:-
Limited availability of per unit area of water for irrigation.
Depletion of soil fertility.
Increase in the prices of fertilizer germicide and pesticide chemical.
Price escalation of petroleum products.
Limited availability of farm labor.
Reduction in cane area due to price increase of other competitive crops.
Besides manufacturing of sugar, diversion of cane crop is likely towards other by products like
Improvement in lasting production Technology of sugar cane.
133. In the changed scenario efforts are to be made to obtain maximum out put per unit of area,
irrigation water and other inputs. It is expected that there will be increase in cane productivity and sugar
recovery in the state during Eleventh Five Year Plan. Diversion of sugar cane towards gur and khandsaree
will be minimized.
Issues & Strategy
134. Major issues confronting this sector in Uttar Pradesh are as under:-
To raise the crushing capacity of sugar mills from 7.09 lakh T.C.D. to 7.25 lakh T.C.D.
To make efforts in increasing the productivity of sugar cane instead of allowing the sugar cane
area to expand is the target. For this the programs relating to the development of high yielding
varieties of sugar cane and modern scientific techniques of sugar cane cultivation would have
to be given importance. Arrangement for agricultural inputs for giving effect to increase in
sugar cane production will be beneficial. The productivity level is proposed to be raised from
almost 56.3 Tons in 2006-07 to 62.00 tons in 2008-09.
Giving priority to sugar cane research programs to cater to the need of total seed required for
seed replacement program. It is proposed that 20 % plant cane area by improved seeds will be
replaced every year. Total plant cane area will be replaced in five years. To meet this target a
rolling plan of nucleus seed required will be prepared.
[ 54 ]
Development of area specific sugar cane verities which are high yielding and rich in sugar.
Development of sugarcane development of action plan for each sugar mill. Intensive cane
developmental programs will be carried out with the help of sugar mills in their respective
Optimized use of scarce irrigation water and productivity.
Reallocation of sugar mills zone areas and providing stability to such reallocated zones will be
A sizable chunk of sugar cane is diverted towards gur and khandsary. To minimize its
diversion drawl percentage is proposed to be raised from 45.15 % to 55.00%. This will enable
the growers to get maximum price of the maximum quantity produce.
By strengthening cane union and making them more useful to the grower and also streamlining
the activities of cane development council, a sound institutional base will be prepared to
impart knowledge input along with physical purchased inputs.
Promote for mechanization to save labour costs.
By introducing integrated pest management including biological method and by introducing
integrated nutrient management effort will be made to obtain state average of 65 tones as
envisaged at the terminal year of the plan.
Ratoon management is very much neglected in central eastern U.P.. Management of second
and third ratoon will get special attention in Eleventh Five Year Plan period.
Heat therapy will be popularized amongst the growers to eradicate the menace of grassy shout
and other disease.
Targets for the Year 2008-09
135. The proposal is to keep the target for cane area at lowest possible level i.e. the addition in area be
minimum and the cane requirement of the sugar factories be met by increasing the yield per hectare and
stepping up the per hectare supplies to the sugar factories .
S. Particulars Unit Year Year Year Terminal
N. 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 Year of
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 Cane area Lac. Ha. 26.61 28.30 27.00 27.00
2 Average yield Ton/ Ha. 60.00 60.60 61.00 65.00
3 Total sugar cane Lac. Ton 1590.60 1715.25 1647.00 1755.00
[ 55 ]
4 Drawl % % 48.00 55 55.00 55.00
5 Total cane crushed Lac. Ton 763.49 880 880.00 965.25
6 No. of sugar No. 133 134 134 145
7 Crushing capacity Lac.Ton. 6.10 7.19 7.25 6.75
8 Sugar recovery % 9.65 10.30 10.30 10.00
9 Total sugar Lac.Ton 73.00 119.62 119.62 96.52
(A) Intensive Cane Development Programme
Improved seed production programme
Soil and Seed treatment
(B) Construction of link roads on contributory basis
136. Cane production and productivity of the year 2006-07 was higher in comparison to production and
productivity of the year 2005-06. This was due to varietal improvement programme launched by cane
department for the last several years. Raising of cane seed nurseries and demonstrations on farmers field
was a key factor in varietal improvement programme. This trend is likely to continue in the year 2007-08
too. There is still scope for raising the productivity, production and infrastructure development in the state
in the light of the establishment of new sugar mills and enhancements in crushing capacity of the existing
137. Uttar Pradesh has a livestock population of 585.31 lakh excluding poultry as per 2003 Animal
census. The cow population stands at 185.51 lakh which comprises of 16.34 lakh crossbred and 169.17
lakh of indigenous variety. Likewise, the State has 229.14 lakh buffaloes.Sheep population stands at just
14.37 lakh although its wool constitutes the most important raw material for the large carpet industry in the
State and its population is showing a declining trend. Similarly, the goat population is just 129.41 lakh
although it is called the poor man‟s cow. Then, there are only 22.84 lakh pigs – the most proliferate, low
input and high output animal and its population is also decreasing over the years. Poultry population is also
meagre at just 117.18 lakh although the State is a major consumer of poultry products. Further virtually nil
growth has been recorded in poultry population in the State. Out of 414.65 lakh cattle & buffalos in the
[ 56 ]
State, there are only about 173.82 lakh breedable animals. Out of 173.82 lakh breedable cows and
buffaloes, only 117.81 lakh (68 percent) are in milk production.
138. There is an overall decrease of 7.3 per cent in total cattle population during the inter-censal period.
In the present era of mechanization, Livestock Population (000) per cent
mechanical & electrical power sources Increase
have largely replaced the work animals Category 1997 2003 Decrease
for farm operations like pumping and
Crossbred cattle 2105 1634 -22.38
lifting of water and haulage. Almost all
Indigenous cattle 17911 16917 -5.55
operations have switched over to
Total cattle 20016 18551 -7.32
electrical and mechanical power
Buffaloes 18996 22914 20.63
including ploughing. Decline of
Total Bovines 39012 41465 6.29
dependence on bullock power has
Sheep 1905 1437 -24.57
resulted in decline of male cattle
Goats 11784 12941 9.82
population - from 105.42 lakh in 1998 to
Pigs 3135 2284 -27.15
86.66 lakh in 2003. Working male
Camels 31 16 -48.39
bullock population dropped to 52.73 lakh
Others 545 388 -28.81
in 2003 in comparison to 65.09 lakh in
Total Livestock 56412 58531 3.76
1998. The State Government is
vigorously implementing the new National Breeding Policy and State Breeding Policy since 2001 under
which the level of exotic inheritance in crossbred animals has been fixed at 50 per cent and great emphasis
is being placed on improvement and conservation of indigenous breeds of livestock. This has led to decline
in crossbred cattle population in the State.
139. Total poultry population in the state is about 11.71 million; fowl population has decreased by
around 3.5per cent the total poultry by 3.3per cent in the State. Ducks and other birds have shown an
increase of 2.5per cent during the period - over 60 per cent of them indigenous fowls in the backyards of
rural households. Poultry production in Uttar Pradesh consists of two distinctly different streams: the
organized poultry industry made up of exclusively of commercial hybrid birds and the backyard system
with indigenous fowl in the rural areas. Organized poultry industry in UP is stagnant and over half the
eggs and poultry meat consumed in the state is imported from States as far away as Andhra Pradesh and
some from neighboring Punjab and Haryana. While the state‟s neighbors in Punjab and Haryana have an
extremely successful and flourishing poultry industry and account for nearly 40 per cent of the substantial
table egg and broiler import into the State, UP itself has lagged far behind in organized egg / broiler
production. Interstate comparision of Milk, Egg, Wool and Meat Production is given in Annexure-1,2,3,4.
[ 57 ]
Status & Achievement during Tenth Plan
Uttar Pradesh stands 1st in milk
140. U.P. is at the top in milk production in the country by production, 5 in wool production,
7 in egg production and 1 in
producing 173.56 lakh MT, seventh in egg production (9227.87 meat production in the country.
million), fifth in wool production (14.59 lakh Kg.) and first in meat
production (1983.592 lakh Kg) during 2005-06 even though the increase in total production has not been
sufficient to fulfill the ever-growing demand of the respective commodities. The low productivity of our
animals continues to remain the main concern. The State is far behind in productivity levels of livestock in
comparison to other states of the country. Hence there is a need to tap the vast potential of our livestock
and poultry through genetic improvement, adequate feeding, appropriate management and better health
coverage. Value addition, through processing of the products and support to marketing infrastructure may
provide impetus to the livestock sector in a big way.
141. During the last two decades, milk production has doubled, meat production has increased three
folds, egg production by two and a half times, and wool production by about 50 percent. Cows contribute
28 per cent, buffaloes 66 per cent and goats around 6per cent of the milk produced. National milk
production increased by 4.5 per cent per annum compared to 5.11 per cent p.a. in U.P. The per capita
availability of milk is presently about 286 grams per day.
Production Estimates of Different Livestock Products
Item Unit Achievement Achievement in Achievement in 11th plan
in 9th Plan 10th Plan
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
2001-02 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09
Achievement Achievement Target Ant. Target
1 Milk Lakh 145.58 180.946 199.04 199.04 218.94
2 Egg Milli 758.334 813.51 894.86 894.86 984.35
3 Wool Lakh 18.46 14.61 16.07 16.07 17.68
[ 58 ]
Programme Ach. Level Ach. Level X Target Ach. 2007-08 Target 2008-09
IX Plan Plan 2007-08 Anticipated
Vaccination 217.09 345.19 627.79 627.79 659.17
Artificial 17.03 23.76 27.00 27.00 28.35
Castration 7.03 7.19 09.22 09.22 09.68
Treatment 172.86 194.30 194.36 194.36 204.08
Formation of 7106 5498 6000 6000 6300
142. Milk Production is the main component of productivity in Animal Husbandry sector. 145.58 lakh
M.T. milk was produced at the end of IXth Plan with the growth rate of 4.5per cent. In the first year of Xth
Plan i.e. 2002-03, 5.03 per cent growth rate was achieved. In the fourth year of the Tenth Plan period i.e.
2005-06 the growth rate of 5.11per cent was registered in milk production. The growth rate in milk
production in fifth year of Tenth Plan period has been recorded on 5.60 per cent. Similar trends are
observed in egg and wool production.
Production of main Livestock Product
143. The livestock of the state contributed to State‟s economy by producing 180.946 lakh m.t. milk,
8135.1 lakh eggs, 14.61 lakh kg wool and 2002.31 lakh kg meat in 2006-07. Uttar Pradesh is the largest
milk producing state in the country since last many years.
A. Milk Production
Category / Animal Total milk production Percentage
lakh Kg.(2006-2007) Contribution
Buffalo 124.139 68.61
Cow 46.276 25.57
[ 59 ]
Goat 10.531 05.82
Total 180.946 100.00
144. Per capita availability of milk in U.P. is 290 gm while the national average is 245 gm./day against
the minimum requirement of 280 gram per day per capita as recommended by ICMR.
B. Meat Production
145. The state also plays a vital role in meat production in the country. Uttar Pradesh is the largest meat
exporter in the country with the export of Rs.200 crore‟s. Meat production status of U.P. is as under:
Category / Av. meat production Total meat production percent
Animal ( in Kg.) (in lakh Kg.) (2006- contribution
Buffalo 120.759 1475.577 73.69
Goat 16.133 327.921 16.38
Sheep 16.554 52.620 02.63
Pig 44.507 146.191 07.30
Total 2002.309 100.00
Infrastructure & Institutions
146. To cater to the demand of animal health services and other services, there are presently 1788
veterinary hospitals, 268 "D" class dispensaries and 2290 stockmen centers in the State. Three polyclinics,
26 mobile veterinary clinics are also functioning in U.P. One Biological Production Institute, which
produces 12 different types of vaccines, one central disease diagnostic lab, 10 regional diagnostic labs have
also been set up. In addition, two pullorum disease diagnostic labs, one T.B., Johnin & Brucellosis T.B.
lab, one swine disease diagnostic lab, one epidemiological cell at H.Q., nine sterility & infertility control
units and ten canine rabies control units are also functioning in the State. There are also six deep frozen
semen production stations, 17 liquid nitrogen production centres, 3079 artificial insemination centres and
10 State livestock cum agriculture farms in the State. One Bhadawari buffalo-breeding farm, five sheep
breeding farms, six Goat breeding & seven pig breeding farms, five poultry hatcheries are being run by the
State. One poultry training centre, one pig husbandry training centre, two livestock extension officer-
training centres, one carcass utilization & leather training cum production centre are also operational.
147. At present, there is one veterinary hospital for 20,000 animals in the state while the norm is one for
5000 animals. In order to bridge this gap, State Government has introduced privatization of livestock
services through deployment of 1582 paravets in the State (1252 under DASP, 330 by UPLDB). The
paravets are providing artificial insemination, prophylactic vaccination, first aid, castration, feed & fodder
seed distribution and technology dissemination services at farmer‟s door step on full cost recovery basis.
[ 60 ]
148. Artificial Insemination coverage is not sufficient as it covers just 27 per cent of breed able animals.
For optimization of input supply of improved breeding facilities and intensification of quality breeding
services, U.P. Livestock Development Board has been established. The UPLDB is streamlining all the
components of improved breeding coverage in the state. A rising trend in infertility in breedable cattle
population has been observed in recent times. About 36per cent breedable cows & buffalo are infertile in
the state. The State Government and U.P. Livestock Development Board have taken up a sterility and
infertility control programme.
Availability of Fodder
149. The state is having negligible pasture facilities, and inadequate green fodder and concentrate feed
availability. Only about 4 per cent of agricultural land is under fodder crop production. Fodder
requirement & production status is as follows:-
Particulars Requirement Availability Deficit per cent
Green Fodder 933.06 617.62 315.44 33.80
Dry Fodder 571.19 548.60 22.59 03.95
Compounded Feed 120.85 63.25 57.60 47.66
Sheep & Goat rearing
150. Wool production has stagnated and sheep population has decreased by 24.57 per cent due to
inadequate grazing facilities due to shrinkage of pasture land. Goat population is facing the same
constraints. U.P. is fortunate enough to have „Barbari‟ goat, a dual-purpose breed, which can be reared on,
stall-fed basis. „Jamunapari‟ is the famous goat breed of the State with high milk yield. People are coming
forward to adopt Animal Husbandry as an employment oriented sector. Establishment of goat units, sheep
units, piggery units and other Animal Husbandry programmes including establishment of poultry units
have been recognized as programmes with tremendous employment generation potential.
151. Piggery production is being done mostly by traditional Pig raisers at subsistence level. There is a
need to enhance entrepreneurship in pig husbandry. Presently progressive farmers are also coming
forward to adopt piggery farming as commercial venture on scientific lines.
152. The poultry production scenario has shown signs of change. Poultry farmers are shifting to broiler
production instead of egg production as they want quick return on investments. Per capita egg production
[ 61 ]
per annum in Uttar Pradesh is only 7 while per capita egg consumption per annum is 18. Likewise, the
present per capita broiler production per annum is 100 grams while consumption is three times higher at
300 grams per capita per annum. The shortfall is being met through imports from other States like Andhra
Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana. The state is importing about 1 crore eggs per day from other States. If ICMR
recommendation of 182 eggs per capita per annum and 10000 gm meat per capita per annum are to be met,
tremendous efforts are required to increase production to meet the growing demand.
153. Uttar Pradesh has one veterinary science and Animal Husbandry University at Mathura and one
veterinary college at Faizabad. These Institutes impart higher education and undertake research in the field
of veterinary science and animal husbandry. Apart from these educational institutes, several Central
Institutions like IVRI, Izzatanagar, CIRG, Farah, Makhdoom and IGFRI, Jhansi are located in the State.
154. Major challenges in this sector are as under:
Low productivity of livestock.
Emergence of new diseases.
Inadequate availability of feed and fodder
Low coverage of animal health services.
Lack of sufficient breeding coverage.
Unavailability of quality bulls.
Large number of non- descript animals.
Poor livestock extension.
Absence of disease surveillance & diagnostic network.
No specialized cadre in the department.
Strengthening of Research & Education
Breed improvement and reduction in infertility problems
Disease control and adequate health coverage
Expansion and strengthening of Veterinary services
Promotion of Backyard poultry
Involvement of Private sector in Veterinary health services
Annual Plan 2008-09
[ 62 ]
Animal Health Care and Veterinary Services
155. Impressive progress can be achieved by setting up of milk production units through improving
genetic material of our low yielding dairy cattle. The diseases scenario which was limited to only
contagious diseases, parasitic diseases and other digestive disturbances has changed very much. Production
stress, Metabolic and hormonal disorders and diseases like Mastitis, Foot & Mouth which cause enormous
production loss have assumed immense significance now. As such it is necessary to plan new strategies for
combating these problems to avert production loss to the farmers, who have taken up dairy as an income
156. Better health of livestock is mandatory for higher livestock production. Naturally prevention is
always better than cure. The department of Animal Husbandry comes on it self the important responsibility
for control/containment of diseases. Resources have to be generated to procure all kinds of facilities for
effective and timely immunization of the livestock wealth of the state. It is also essential to have good and
advanced diagnostic facilities, expertise service centers, and proper epidemiological status of the important
diseases. The animal health and veterinary services have to be given greater emphasis during 2008-09 the
details of the important programmes are as follows:-
Assistance to State for Control of Animal Diseases
157. It is a centrally sponsored scheme being run with 75% assistance of GOI. In this scheme three
important components are being dealt, with the first one is intensive immunization against diseases. Under
this component, vaccination of sheep and goat to eradicate the fatal disease PPR has been taken up and
intensive mass vaccination is being conducted to protect the life of sheep and goat in 19 districts of our
state. 20 districts have been taken up for 100% vaccination of livestock against HS disease; likewise 25
districts have been taken up for 100% vaccination of livestock against FMD, besides 3 districts Gorakhpur,
Azamgarh and Varanasi have been taken up for poultry vaccination against RD & FP diseases. In the
second component the surveillance of diseases for their control and monitoring is being done under
epidemiology & surveillance programme being conducted throughout the state. In the third component
various training programme of technical staff and livestock farmers are being taken up.
Rinderpest Eradication Programe
158. This is an old scheme with 100% central assistance. The scheme will include continuous sero-
surveillance and village searches, maintenance of vaccine banks and keeping effective machinery in
position along with a contingency plan for control and eradication of the diseases in case of reappearance
in any of the area. Therefore, though the State has already been declared free of this deadly disease,
constant visit has to be maintained as per the guidelines of Government of India.
Foot and Mouth Disease Control Programme
[ 63 ]
159. This is a continued scheme with 100% central assistance being run in 16 districts of western Uttar
Pradesh viz- Saharanpur Muzaffar Nagar, Bagpat, Meerut, Gaziabad , Gautambudh Nagar, Bulandshahar,
Aligargh, Hathras, Mathura, Agra, Firozabad, Eta, Badaun, Moradabad and JP Nagar.
160. Objectives of this scheme are given below:-
To maintain livestock health through intensive vaccination (up to 100%) in order to prevent
the occurrence of F.M.D. disease, which will reduce the economic losses of milk production &
To ensure production of quality & safe livestock products.
To promote entrepreneurship in Export of meat and meat products.
To create general awareness of the disease ensuring participation in disease reporting system.
To study the impact of vaccination, assessment of field immunity and endemic pattern of such
161. There has been a good result because no FMD incidence has been reported in the area. The health
status has improved resulting in the marked increase in livestock productivity in the said districts.
Cattle & Buffalo Development
162. The State has only 27% breeding coverage of the cattle and buffalo population. Although the state
has 3229 AI centers 6 Deep Frozen Semen production centers, 17 LN-2 plants for catering to improved
breeding services, yet this infrastructure is not enough for the larger breedable population (170 Lakh) of
the state. It is proposed to increase the present breeding coverage to 50%. To achieve the goal -
Deep-frozen semen production of GLP/GMP standards will be streamlined in collaboration
with autonomous organizations.
More A. I. centers will be established.
Private A.I. worker will be deployed for delivery of A.I. services at farmer‟s doorstep on self-
State A.I. centers will be made mobile for delivery of A.I. services at farmers doorstep
To cope up with the rising demand to quality bull. A- Sire evaluation program will be
launched. B- Quality bull production will be started at Govt. bull mother farms and private
entrepreneurs will be encouraged to establish Bull Mother Farms.
Formation of breeder association will be encouraged.
Herd registration of elite animals will be carried out in an intensive manner.
It is proposed to provide subsidy on production of elite animals of high production capacity.
Infrastructure for supplying AI inputs, such as deep frozen semen straws & liquid nitrogen will
be streamlined with the help of U.P. Livestock Development Board.
[ 64 ]
Castration of scrub bulls will be a part of the programme to prevent indiscriminate breeding.
Campaign for castration of scrub bulls will be launched. Awareness programme will also be
taken up in this regard.
In remote areas, quality bulls will be made available for natural service.
Local farmers will be motivated to establish natural breeding centres. Farmers will maintain
and manage quality bulls and charge fee for services rendered to other livestock owners.
Establishment of Para-vets
163. To provide coverage as per the guidance of National Project for Cattle and Buffalo Development,
i.e. One A.I. Center per 1000 breedable bovines (Atleast One Center Per Nyay Panchayat Level should be
made available; since there are 8135 Nyay Panchayats in the State and at present we have only 5496
A.I.Centers i.e. there is a deficit of 2639 A.I. Centers at Nyay Panchayat Level) 11500 new A.I. Centers
will be required to get be established in XI Plan. For this 8300 paravets will be trained and will be
deployed in the State through Animal Husbandry Department the remaining 200 A.I. Centers will be
created at the 200 New Hospitals being established this year (2006-07). Besides this 3000 Paravets will be
established by UPLDB, after which the required A.I. workers will be available.
164. Under this programme 8300 new paravets will be trained through NGO, PCDF training centres
and also at the Veterinary Colleges of the state. The Infrastructure will be provided from Govt. resources
for establishing them in remote areas of villages to make available door step services of AI, vaccination
and castration for the live stock. This will also generate self-employment for the rural youths. They will be
deployed in their own villages for rendering the services of AI timely to the livestock owners at their
doorstep. On the one hand this will increase the interest of the farmers in animal husbandry and lead to
self-employment of the rural unemployed youths. These paravets are rendering services of vaccination,
castration and fodder development under the supervision of qualified veterinarians of that area. Out of
these 8300 paravets 2800 parvets will be from Schedule Castes i.e. under Special Component Plan and the
rest 5500 paravets will be from other Casts.
Integrated Goat Development through Public/Co-operative/Breeder's Society/N.G.O
165. The goat is called the cow of the poor and is also called foster mother child. It shows the
importance of Goat, which adapts to any climate and provides us, wholesome and nutritious milk. Goat
rearing can be a good source of income too. Under self-employment schemes, small goat units (one buck
+ten does) are being provided to a family. During 2008-09 a proposal has been made to organize the goat
[ 65 ]
breeders in to societies for their proper observance and planned aid. It has been targeted to establish 400
goat-breeding societies, each society with about 50 members. The society members will bw given ten days
training and then assisted for their financial requirements. In turn, all the societies will run like autonomous
166. A Similar scheme has been introduced for others like in the case of Scheduled Castes, 400 Goat
Breeding Co-operative Societies in various districts will be formed. The quality bucks & goats will be
procured from Central Institute of Research on Goats, Makhdoom, Farah, Mathura and other Govt. Goat
Strengthening and Expansion of Goat Breeding Facilities and Health Cover (D.S.)
167. It is a continued scheme of Distt. Sector. It will be continued to help the poor and small livestock
farmers for providing the natural service of breeding to goats through Bucks available at Hospitals. The
breeding services imparted include provision of bucks at 1023 V.H. & also bucks in fields on contribution
basis among local breeders. These Barbari and Jamunapari bucks are either produced at the six goat farms
(A.H.D.) or procured from fields through purchase.
Sheep and Wool Development
168. To improve the wool production of the state, comprehensive health cover has to be provided to the
sheep population. For this Mass Drenching Programme will be strengthened along with the vaccination of
sheep. The health of sheep will definitely improve wool production. Provision of pasture i.e. grazing
facilities will also help in the enhancement of wool production. It is estimated that by this approximately
2.90% growth rate will be obtained in this sector. 20% of the sheep population will be covered under
improved breeding, mass drenching and vaccination with the improvement in grazing facilities. This will
further improve productivity by 20% of the 3.50 Lakh sheep population to be covered. This will enhance
the wool production to 0.560 Lakh Kg wool/ annum.
Intgerated Pig Development through Public /Co-operative / Breeder's Society / N.G.O
[ 66 ]
169. The traditional pig raisers rear them in conventional ways, but introduction of Middle White/Large
White Yorkshire breeds make them aware of there qualities and now are more innovative to cross their
native stock to grade them up. These prolific nature has attracted other classes of people to raise them on
scientific lines even in urban/semi-urban areas. To ensure people's participation, under self-employment
programme, unit of 1 boar + 6 pigs is being provided for a breeder. During Tenth Five Year Plan to assist
the pig breeders a scheme has been started to organize them in the form of societies for their proper
observance, training and planned aid. It has been targeted to establish 200 such societies, each with 10
members during 2008-09. The society members are being given adequate training and are being assisted
for their financial requirements. In turn, all societies will join and work as autonomous units.
170. U.P. has the largest human population and livestock population. Either of the two requires food
from its land resources that‟s why there is a great pressure to increase the yield of sufficient food for both.
Green revolution, in agriculture, has made the farmers satisfied with their agriculture; consequently, the
land under fodder crops got reduced to a significant level. It is now evident that the livestock population
now faces a deficit of 33.80% green fodder, 3.95% dry fodder and 47.27% concentrates (as per 2003
livestock census). The farmers of the State, who used to rear livestock to add to their income, in such a
scenario of commercialization and globalization of market trends, find it difficult to nourish their livestock
adequately. The steps taken by A.H.D. through feed and fodder development schemes, since IVth five
year plan period, are limited to distribution of improved/certified fodder seeds, demonstrations of minikit
packages and feeding of enriched straws/ cellulosic wastes, are not sufficient to assist them in this regard,
because without appropriate nutrition it is not possible to maintain the livestock and get production as per
their potential. Therefore to increase the growth rate i.e. to increase the livestock production, the fodder
production has to be increased to provide sufficient nutrition for livestock.
171. For intensive fodder development schemes have to be incorporated with a view to achieving
targeted growth of 10% per annum:-
172. U.P. holds at 9th place in poultry production. The present level envisages potential for increase in
production and productivity. Though the requirement of poultry egg and meat is continuously increasing in
the state, the poultry husbandry has not yet been able to provide the minimum required quantities as per
I.C.M.R. recommendations i.e. 182 eggs and 10.82 kilograms chicken meat per head per annum. The state
is in need of more economical poultry units particularly in private sector.
173. Although the state has declared poultry as Agri- business, farms having below or more then 10000
birds come under agriculture. But the farmers are actually not getting any agricultural benefits. Availability
of facilities, according to agriculture norms is not available to poultry farmers of the state. UP has lagged
far behind in organized egg / broiler production. The state is getting about 100 Lakh eggs & one Lakh
[ 67 ]
broiler per day from Andhra Pradesh and other neighbouring states. Thus, we are loosing Rs. 3500 Million
every year to other states. So GOUP will Promote Private sector for establishing organized poultry industry
in the state.
Assistance to State Poultry/Duck Farms ( 80% C.S.)
174. Because of limited financial resources and low productivity of the poultry farms, mainly due to
excessive overhead expenses, 13 out of 18 poultry farms have been closed during IX plan, but the
remaining 5 farms, at Chakganjaria (Lucknow), Babugarh (Gaziabad), Chandpur (Varanasi), Bharari
(Jhansi) and Bhogipura (Bareilly) have been given the responsibility of producing sufficient number of
chicks for distribution to rural masses in backyard poultry keeping units. The assets created during IX Five
Year Plan need to be strengthened and expanded to improvise and support the poultry breeders. With 80%
Central Assistance, a Quail farm is being established at Chakganjaria, Lucknow and the poultry farms of
Varanasi, Jaunpur, Jhansi, Bareilly, Mirzapur, Cakganjaria (Lucknow) and Etawah are also being
strengthened. Earlier a duck farm was established at Gorakhpur and a poultry farm of Babugarh
(Ghaziabad) was strengthened through which chicks and ducklings are being provided to the rural poultry
breeders. This has further developed interest in poultry keeping in rural areas.
Protection Of Livestock Through Insurance Coverage
175. National Commission on Agriculture recommended livestock insurance as inputs to promote
investment in high quality animals. It was introduced in 1947 through four subsidiaries of the public sector
insurance company. The insurance cover is available for all livestock and poultry.
176. Inspite of several constraints livestock insurance has become one of the most power full
instruments for mitigating economic losses in the livestock sector. But there is no animal insurance cover
from the state like crop insurance, which can give relief to framers from the casuality of animals due to
natural calamities such as flood, drought and epidemic out breaks. Insurance cover is proposed to be
provided to livestock on the same pattern as crop insurance. The insurance cover all livestock will be
accelerated in consultation with general insurance authorities. Farmers will be made aware of livestock
insurance and their benefits through mass and electronic media.
Modernisation of Slaughter houses and establishment of Carcass Utilisation units for
production of Hygienic Meat
177. The meat production in the state is being done in on unorganized manner. The meat animals are
slaughtered either in the slaughterhouses, managed generally by local bodies, or in open fields. All
slaughtering activities are centered towards production of HOT-MEAT. It is observed that such slaughters
are carried out in unhygienic conditions and by untrained personals. Such meat is neither wholesome nor
fit for human consumption, and so it lowers the foreign exchange, value of such meat which in turn, affects
national income. It is therefore necessary to organize the meat production in the state on International
Standards, to ensure availability of good quality raw material and to maintain the balance between
[ 68 ]
slaughtering activity and animal production. For this purpose, control on slaughters, establishment of
slaughterhouses on modern lines, observing zoo-sanitary measures, strict surveillance of diseases in
slaughter-house areas and ensuring adequate ante-mortem/post -mortem inspections are required.
Assistance to Pt. Deen Dayal University of Veterinary Science & Go-anusandhan Sansathan,
178. Government of Uttar Pradesh has declared the College of Veterinary Science and Animal
Husbandry, Mathura as State University in the name of Pt. Deen Dayal Upadhyaya University of
Veterinary Science & Go-anusandhan Sansathan, Mathura. Keeping in view the requirement of trained
and competent man power in different branches of Veterinary and Animal Sciences and other allied fields
and also to give a boost to need based research on different aspects of live stock production, the different
faculties of the University will be strengthened.
179. The main thrust in the area of dairy development is to supplement the income of small and
marginal farmers and landless laborers to bring about socio-economic transformation of the rural people
through strengthening of cooperative structure and promoting private investment in Dairy sector. U.P. is
the largest milk producing the state accounts for state in the country with an annual milk production of
11.7 million MT around 16% of the milk production of the country. Uttar Pradesh State Cooperative Milk
Producers Federation at the state level, Milk unions at the district level and milk producers cooperative
societies at the village level carry out milk procurement and marketing activities in the State. The milk
procured of PCDF/Cooperative is marketed as liquid milk in Lucknow and the district towns. Butter Ghee,
Skimmed milk powder and other products are produced and marketed under the brand name PARAG.
180. It is proposed to further strengthen the existing dairy cooperative societies and to organize new
societies to ensure timely supply of required inputs to the producers. For raising the income of farmers, it is
essential to provide them remunerative prices by eliminating the middlemen. The value addition in this
sector would also require capacity building in milk processing and storing for its subsequent marketing in
the rural areas at remunerative price.
[ 69 ]
Status of Dairy Development in Uttar Pradesh
No. of Avg. Milk Proc Avg. Milk Sale/ Day
State Functional ( lac Kgs/day) (In lac ltr./Day)
Gujrat 10735 64.41 23.53
Karnataka 8843 29.61 17.11
Maharashtra 12572 2 8.01 16.05
Rajasthan 10394 15.57 10.14
Uttar Pradesh 14759 9.06 8.47
Punjab 5256 7.14 5.26
Haryana 4338 4.05 2.78
Source: National Dairy Development Board
Impact of AMCU: - Lucknow Milk Union (Total Number Installed - 59)
Its installation has led to a significant increase of around 35.70 % in Milk procurement
over the last year. Similarly there has been an increase in the percentage of Pourer Members that
has shot up by 25 %. Average FAT % & SNF 1% have gone up by 2.25 % & 2 % respectively.
This signals a change in the mind-set of the village based rural milk producers and his/ her
perception of the benefits that technology can bring about.
Impact of BMC: - Barabanki Milk Union
Almost similar trends have been noticed in the Barabanki Milk Union. A three-year
comparative study starting 2005-06 & ending 2007-08 (Up to Ist Week of September) reveals that
milk procurement has gone up by 18.82% for the year 2006-07 as compared to 2005-06. Further
there has been an increase of 8.03% for the year 2007-08 as against last year i.e. 2006-07. Similar
is the trend for FAT & SNF percentages, as they have gone up. FAT % has gone up by 0.95 % &
1.8 % for the two successive years. SNF % has gone up by 0.96 % for the year 2007-08 as
compared to last year.
It has also drastically improved the Quality of Milk as MBR Times recorded before &
after the installation of BMC reveal that it has gone up from 35 Minutes to 45 Minutes, at the Dairy
Dock. It has also gone up OFF the Producer and currently reads 463 Minutes as against 330
An indication towards remarkable improvement in the Quality of Milk & thereby the
perceptional change in the Market Place- That Quality of "Parag" brand Milk & Products has
certainly improved over the years. Good Quality would certainly mean remunerative prices for the
rural milk producer & betterment of his/ her economic status. more quality milk for the co-
operatives/ bettering the turnover & the overall financial status of the milk unions.
[ 70 ]
Progress and Achievement during Tenth Five Year Plan
181. The following table provides physical progress during Tenth Plan:-
S.N. Particulars Functional Membership Milk Procurement Milk Sale
(Years of Societies (In „000) (Av.Thousand (Av. Thousand
Operation) (In „000) Kg/day) Ltr./day)
Target Ach. Target Ach. Target Ach. Target Ach.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 2002-03 13.65 12.86 767.15 665.43 746.36 732.15 468.30 440.85
2 2003-04 14.09 14.37 780.53 731.43 803.38 893.54 484.69 469.77
3 2004-05 14.54 13.89 794.03 693.04 558.08 926.04 504.08 467.28
4 2005-06 14.99 15.68 807.00 757.76 914.00 1064.65 526.00 460.32
5 2006-07 15.44 15.06 821.03 755.70 972.00 1044.00 553.00 504.00
182. The above table shows that the number of village level milk producers who have associated
themselves with the cooperative net work increased from 665.43 thousand to 755.70 thousand during
Tenth Plan (2002-07). Against this, the average milk procurement increased from 732.15 thousand kg./day
to 1044.00 thousand kg/day during the same period.
Past trend in Public sector Investment
183. A wide range of activities are financed from the plan outlay and the state has large freedom and
choice in the use of the same. It also works as a catalyst for attracting private investment in the sector. The
Plan outlay in the Dairy Development Sector since First Five Year plan is given in the following table.
Outlay/ Expenditure in Dairy Development Sector over Plan period in Uttar Pradesh
(Rs. In lakh)
Plan Expenditure in Expenditure in Dairy Percentage Expenditure in
Agriculture & Allied Development Sector Dairy Development Sector
Sector with reference to Agriculture
& Allied Sector
First Plan 3787 19 0.50
Second Plan 6742 21 0.31
Third Plan 15608 385 2.47
Fourth Plan 22066 508 2.30
Fifth Plan 39310 557 1.42
Sixth Plan 36081 2822 7.82
Seventh Plan 100663 3139 3.12
Eighth Plan 198963 12041 6.05
Ninth Plan 272449 1748 0.64
[ 71 ]
Tenth Plan 425126 5565 1.31
184. The above table does not indicate any trend in the expenditure of Dairy sector. But it certainly
shows that it was maximum in the Sixth Plan (7.82%) which reduced to 2.01% in the Tenth Plan.
P.C.D.F. coverage of milk cooperative societies will be raised from 15% to 33% villages.
Functional societies will be raised from 15063 to 35014.
Average milk procurement of 10.44 lakh kg per day will be increased to 24.23 lakh kg per day.
Physical and Financial Target for the Year 2007- 08
Particulars Target Anticipated
Functional Societies 19122 13590
Membership (Lacs) 9.735 7.48
Avg. Milk Procurement (Lacs Kg/ Day) 12.830 8.36
Avg. Liquid Milk Sale (Lacs Ltr./ Day.) 10.800 8.56
Annual Plan 2008-09
Automatic Milk Collection Units
185. Over a period of time, the milk producers‟ faith & trust in cooperative society structure has started
eroding due to lack of transparency and objectivity in milk pricing and payment. To overcome this and
restore the faith in the system, automation and mechanization of procurement system is being taken up in a
vast scale during the XI th Plan. In the Ist Year itself 1920 VDCs‟ are being provided with AMCUs.
Wherever this AMCU has functioned, it has tremendous results in the form of milk procurement,
restoration of producers faith, loyalty of membership. During 2008-09 2840 VDCs‟ will be provided with
AMCU‟s 90% cost of AMCU will be provided as grant while 10% will be borne by societies/milk unions.
Bulk Milk Coolers
186. It is the machine that is used for instantaneous chilling of milk at the society level. Milk Procured
via milk routes is taken to the machine & is chilled there. With the help of this Electronic Refrigeration
Unit, milk gets chilled instantly so as to avoid development of bacteria & as a result. It increases the shelf
life of milk. Thus when milk is transported to the dairy dock/ other milk union, its quality remains
excellent even at the end point. This would result in excellent quality end Products that would ensure a
definite market for "Parag" brand products and also reduce losses. The 100% cost of BMC will be as grant
to be provided by the state govt.
[ 72 ]
Encouragement to Private investment
187. Since de-licensing of Dairy Industries sizable private investment has taken place in the state in
this sector but regional distribution of the same has been varying, in the western part of the state specially
NCR, some districts got excess infrastructural capacity resulting in unhealthy trade practices and cut throat
out competition, artificially creating shortage of raw milk supply to various units and quality deterioration.
At the same time there is almost non existence of processing infrastructure in Bundelkhand and Eastern
part of the State. The new industrial policy of the state as well as food processing policy provide for
specific concession and relief for new dairy plant as well as for diversification of existing plant. As a result
of state initiatives 55 dairy plants have come up during the Xth plan period involving investment of Rs.
110 Crores. The proposed Ambedkar Dugdha Swarojgar Yojna has also promoted institutional credit to the
tune of Rs. 475.73 Crores in a period of four years.The proposal for formulation of suitable scheme for
promotion of commercial dairy farming for consideration of State Government is being prepared. 20% of
the AMCU and BMC proposed to be installed during the plan period will be provided to progressive
commercial dairy farmers and small entrepreneurs on the basis of 50% grant. Similarly, Bulk Vending
Machine, Milk Vending Mobile, Parag Parlour/Booths will also be provided on 50% grant.
188. Initially the Cooperative system was oriented only towards supply and provision of credit,
Gradually it has diversified its activities to include banking, input distribution, agro-processing, storage,
warehousing etc. Supply of agricultural inputs such as chemical fertilizers, high yielding seeds and
pesticides was also started by Cooperatives and it proved a great success. Cooperatives have played a vital
and commendable role in bringing green revolution in the State. Consumer movement in India through
Cooperatives was introduced in the days of great scarcity of essential commodities in the Sixties. Today it
also encompasses housing, dairy, handloom, fisheries, cold storage, processing, labour etc. The
Cooperative movement aims at serving the rural poor, small and marginal farmers, agricultural labour and
189. The past few decades have witnessed substantial growth of the Cooperative sector in diverse areas
of the economy. 18342 Cooperative societies are presently registered with the Registrar of Cooperative
Societies in Uttar Pradesh. These include 7479 Credit Societies, 50 District Cooperative Banks and 10
[ 73 ]
190. There are 7479 Cooperative Societies functioning at Nyaya Panchayat level in the State and they
constitute the main point of interface between the farmers and the Cooperative Banks for disbursement of
short term agricultural loans, HYV seeds, pesticides, fertilizers, improved agricultural implements etc.
There are 50 District Cooperative Bank which have 1353 branches. However, there is virtual stagnation in
the functioning of the Cooperative Societies in the State. During 2002-03 they disbursed Rs. 1249.38 crore
as short term agricultural loan to the farmers and this increased to Rs. 1888.16 crore in 2006-07 while the
figures for long term agricultural loans declined from Rs. 716.51 crore in 2002-03 to Rs. 419.73 crore in
2006-07. It is also being seen that the earlier Cooperative sector was meeting 65 to 70 per cent of the
agricultural credit needs of formers and rest by the commercial banks. But for some reason or the other,
the role has been reversed and presently commercial banks are making available 80 per cent of agricultural
credit and only 20 per cent loan is being provided by the Cooperative Banks.
191. Data released by NSSO further reveals that Cooperative Societies which used to play such a key
role in disbursement of agricultural credit and other agricultural-inputs do not serve more than 13% of
farmer households in Uttar Pradesh. NSSO data reveal that in UP only 20% farmer households have a
member in the Cooperative societies and just 13% have availed themselves of services from a Cooperative
while at the all India level, about 29% of farmer households are included as members of Cooperative
societies and 19% avail services from a Cooperative. Most of these households avail themselves of either
credit facilities or services related to seeds or fertilizers. Thus, there is considerable scope for improvement
in the Cooperative sector in the State.
192. Cooperatives essentially meet the requirements of short term credit through their three tier credit
structure consisting of U.P. Cooperative Bank at state level, 50 District/Central Cooperative Banks with
1353 branches at district level, and 7479 Primary agricultural Cooperative societies (PACS) at Nyay
Panchayat level. Similarly long term credit needs are being met by U.P. Sahkari Gram Vikas Bank Ltd.
with its 338 branches operating all over the State. Cooperatives on the whole, work effectively as a bridge
between private and public sector.
193. One of the major issues concerning the Cooperative sector is the lack of professional management.
If the Cooperatives have to compete in a open economic regime, it will have to professionalize the
194. Agriculture still continues to be a priority sector in the state economy and 72% of the total
population still depends on it for their livelihood. Cooperatives play a vital role in augmenting the rural
economy with its 30% contribution in fertilizer distribution, 20% share in short term loan, 60% share in
long term loan distribution. Small and marginal farmers constitute about 80% of the Cooperative
membership, Thus Cooperatives serve those who are poor and risk prone.
[ 74 ]
Achievements and Growth
195. Progress of the short term credit and fertilizer distribution dispensed by Cooperative Institutions to
the farmers during last few years is shown below:-
Short term Credit distribution
(Rs. in cr.)
S.N. Year Target Achievement Growth
Amount Amount Percentage
(in cr.) (in cr.)
1 2002-03 1425.00 1249.38 87.78 5.52
2 2003-04 1475.00 1343.12 91.56 7.50
3 2004-05 1745.00 1529.98 87.68 13.91
4 2005-06 1750.00 1627.01 92.97 6.34
5 2006-07 1800.00 1888.16 104.90 16.05
6 2007-08 2280.00 2530.80 111.00 34.00
S.N. Year Target Achievement Growth Rate in
1 2002-03 22.79 21.86 0.18
2 2003-04 23.09 23.68 8.32
3 2004-05 25.80 25.91 9.42
4 2005-06 28.17 27.49 6.10
5 2006-07 30.25 29.64 6.00
6 2007-08 34.86 31.42 6.00
196. Keeping in view the available resources with Short Term Cooperative Credit Institutions, a target
for crop loan distribution of Rs. 2280 cr. had been fixed for 2007-08 against which Rs. 2531 cr. is
expected to be disbursed which is Rs. 643 cr. more than that of last year. It is pertinent to mention that 29
DCBs are unable to fulfill the provisions of Sec. 11(1)of B.R. Act 1949 and approximately 64% PACS are
running in accumulated losses. As such they are in eligible to get any refinance from NABARD for
[ 75 ]
distribution of Crop loan and also for other developmental programmes. U.P. Cooperative Bank is
extending financial assistance to such banks out of its costlier and limited resources in the interest of
agriculture development of the state. During Tenth Five Year Plan a proposal was submitted to provide
financial assistance for cleansing the balance sheets of District Cooperative Banks and PACS as per the
financial position of 31-03-2004, but till 2006-07 no assistance has been provided. On the other hand,
Government Of India provided more than Rs. 22000 Cr. to Commercial Banks for cleansing their Balance
197. For the revitalization of Cooperative credit structure Government Of India constituted a high
power committee under the chairmanship of Prof. A. Vaidyanathan. The main features of the
recommendations of the committee are as follows:-
Induction of Professionals in committee of management of Cooperative Banks.
Ensuring due say of regular depositors in the election of committee of management of Banks.
Audit of Cooperative Bank through Charted Accountants.
Ensuring RBI‟s say in the functioning of Cooperative credit societies.
Special Financial package to Agricultural Credit Institutions against their losses assured
through special Audit.
198. Keeping in view the financial position of the Cooperative Banks of the State and the progress
made by them in the preceding year in crop loan disbursement, it is proposed to raise the flow of credit @
10% every year. Accordingly, targets for crop loan disbursement during Eleventh Five Year Plan are
proposed as under :-
S. Year Estimated crop loan disbursement Estimated
No. No. of Beneficiaries Amount requirement of
(No. in Lacs) (In cr.) Interest Subvention
1. 2007-08 35 2280 66.70
2. 2008-09 37 2620 81.22
3. 2009-10 39 3035 97.46
4. 2010-11 41 3530 116.49
5. 2011-12 43 4060 135.50
Total 195 15505 497.37
199. To achieve the target fixed for crop loan distribution, several corrective measures have been
initiated, some of them are enumerated as below:-
200. Special plan has been prepared to activate about 2000 defunct PACS out of 7479 PACS
functioning in the state. Financial assistance @ Rs. 40000/- per PACS has been provided as grant by the
State Government to the aforementioned defunct PACS so as to enable them to start their business
[ 76 ]
activities. Detailed instructions have been issued to concerned DCBs to sanction cash credit limit @ 2 lac
per PACS to defunct PACS so as to make them viable in the coming years.
201. Regular monitoring is being done to ensure timely and adequate supply of agricultural inputs at the
level of PACS. Crop Loan is being extended to all farmers through Kisan Credit Cards so that they may
draw money against the limit sanctioned as per their convenience and are not burdened with heavy rate of
interest. 5932996 K.C.Cs have been distributed to former members of PACS since inception up to
202. With a view to increase credit flow through K.C.C. ratio of cash and kind component has been
revised from 33:67 to 50:50. Ratio of cash and kind component has been further relaxed and fixed at 75:25
in certain selected districts. Instructions have also been issued to DCBs that, if PACS do not have fertilizer
due to any reason they may provide loan to farmers in the shape of 100% cash component.
203. State Government has sanctioned special grant to Weak DCBs amounting to Rs. 42 Cr. for their
revitalization. U.P. Cooperative Bank has also sanctioned interest free soft loan for 7 years to select weak
DCBs together with refinance by relaxing stipulated norms.
204. Some of the important schemes of this sector are given below:-
Interest subvention on Short term loan
205. While preparing draft XIth Five Year Plan a new scheme under the name “Interest subvention
scheme for crop loan to farmers @ 7% by PACS (State Sector)” was proposed. It was estimated that crop
loan amounting to Rs. 262000 lac would be distributed through PACS during the year 2008-09. Taking
into consideration the cost of refinance from NABARD, cost of resources of U.P. Cooperative Bank and
Distt. Cooperative Banks a sum of Rs. 8122 lac was estimated for the year 2008-09. However, in view of
revised cost of resources augmented from various sources it is estimated that interest subvention
amounting to Rs. 7663.50 lac would be required for crop loan to be distributed by PACS during the year
Assistance for Revival of credit structure based on the recommendation of Vaidyanathan
206. A Memorandum of Understanding was signed among Government Of India, State Government
and NABARD on 18th December 2006 to implement the recommendations of the Revival Package
finalized by Government Of India for strengthening of Short Term Cooperative Credit Structure. In the
package there is a provision that besides improving the working conditions of Short Term Cooperative
Credit Structure, these institutions will also be provided financial assistance to cleanse their balance sheet
based on their financial position as on 31.3.2004 and the total financial assistance for these institutions
assessed through special audit will be shared by Government Of India , State Government and Institutions
based on the origin of losses. It is estimated that an amount of Rs. 2391.45 cr. will be required out of which
[ 77 ]
RS 1931.81 cr.(80.78%) will be borne by Central Govt., Rs. 355.85 cr. (14.88%) by State Govt. and the
remaining Rs 103.79 cr. (4.34%) by the concerned Institutions.
207. The state cabinet has approved the draft bill for amendment in the U.P. Cooperative societies Act,
1965 as per recommendations of Vaidyanathan committee, which is likely to be passed by the State
State contribution for conversion of Short term loan into Medium term loan in the case of
208. At the time of natural calamities like flood, drought etc. if loss in crops is more than 50% then on
the basis of the certificate issued by District Magistrate decision is taken in District Consultative
Committee (D.C.C.) about conversion of Short Term Loan of the affected farmers into Medium Term
Loan. To meet the above eventualities, as per guidelines of NABARD on sharing basis, funds are arranged
by NABARD, State Govt., District Cooperative Bank and U.P. Cooperative Bank @ 60%,15%,15% &
Integrated Cooperative Development Project (I.C.D.P.)
209. The Cooperative Societies are the main agency/vehicle for providing agricultural credit and other
inputs in the state to achieve the envisaged targets of agricultural production and rural development. The
Cooperative credit agricultural societies and other allied Cooperative societies, have to be strengthened to
achieve the above goal with the object of overall development of the district through Cooperative societies,
„INTEGRATED COOPERATIVE DEVELOPMENT PROJECT (ICDP)‟ scheme has been launched in the
state in 1992. Under I.C.D.P. project a district is selected and the project is launched in which agricultural
as well as agricultural allied societies are covered. Normally the tenure of the project is five years. The
project report of each selected district is prepared by the consultant, approved by the state government and
N.C.D.C. the Project of the district is sanctioned after the approval of state government and the appraisal
by N.C.D.C. Under ICDP project financial assistance for margin money, infrastructural development e.g.
for construction of additional storage godowns, and repair of existing godowns, furniture & fixture and
also for tank development and purchase of boats for fisheries Cooperative and business development to
other allied Cooperatives is provided by state government in shape of loan and share capital as per funding
pattern approved by N.C.D.C.. N.C.D.C. provides loan to the state government for these activities and
20% Subsidy for under Developed state. N.C.D.C also provides financial assistance in the form of subsidy
to meet managerial cost of project implementation team, monitoring cell and for providing training to the
office bearers and member of Cooperative societies.
Assistance for Agricultural Financial Services
Govt. contribution in the debentures of U.P.Sahakari Gram Vikas Bank Ltd., Lucknow.
[ 78 ]
210. A Government of India scheme for investment in debentures of State Cooperative Rural
Development Bank is active since 1966-67. Nabard contributes 92% of total debenture floatation and
remaining 8% is contributed by State and Central Governments on equal basis, in U.P. only UPSGVB is
covered under the scheme. Repayment under the scheme is done on half yearly basis as per rate prescribed
Statewise Loaning Position 2006-07
(Amount in Crores)
S.N. Name of the State Loaning Percentage
1. Kerala 524.55 19.80
2. Uttar Pradesh 490.46 18.51
3. Punjab 378.26 14.28
4. Karnataka 250.87 9.47
5. Rajasthan 250.85 9.47
6. Haryana 189.04 7.13
7. Gujrat 136.55 5.15
8. West Bengal 124.15 4.69
9. Andhara Pradesh 113.92 4.30
10. Madhya Pradesh(S.C.B.) 61.91 2.34
11. Tamil Nadu 60.39 2.28
12. Himachal Pradesh 49.22 1.86
13. Pondicherry 7.86 0.30
14. Chattisgarh 7.11 0.27
15. Tripura 4.29 0.16
16. Assam 0.13 0.005
17. Bihar 0.00 0.00
18. Jammu Kashmir 0.00 0.00
19. Orissa 0.00 0.00
Total 2649.56 100.00
211. From the above table it is evident that UPSGVB stood at IInd Position in loan disbursement during
the year 2006-07. Out of 15 ARDBs its share was 18.51%.
Purpose wise Loaning during Tenth Five Year Plan (2002-03 to2006-07)
(Amount in Crores)
S. Purpose Loan Disbursed
[ 79 ]
N. 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08
1- Minor Irrigation 205.45 187.88 166.85 99.89 101.46 46.15
2- Farm 100.83 82.31 67.71 65.72 67.08 29.76
3- Diversification 374.09 361.46 364.65 285.11 247.66 135.12
(a) Dunlop Cart 36.42 36.27 24.33 8.75 7.25 3.24
(b) Animal 29.59 25.80 28.88 23.56 20.91 12.67
(d) Fisheries 5.08 3.63 3.81 3.24 2.83 1.16
(e) Dairy 220.83 208.64 192.16 147.99 137.38 72.88
(f) Poultry 9.63 9.97 20.42 19.58 15.45 11.72
Horticulture 72.34 77.15 95.05 82.19 63.84 35.35
4- Non Farm Sector 55.72 69.49 99.80 111.76 55.12 22.60
5- Rural Housing 5.87 6.32 5.72 4.18 4.06 2.88
6- Others 2.27 3.07 2.75 2.05 15.08 3.59
Total 744.23 710.52 707.49 568.71 490.46 242.08
212. The table shows a downward trend in loan disbursement by the Bank. It is mainly because of
restrictive measures adopted by Nabard in giving refinance to the bank. The Bank has set a target of Rs.
500.00 cores for loan disbursement during the year 2008.09. The purpose wise details are given below.
(Amount in Crores)
S.N. Purpose Number Proposed Loaning
1 Minor Irrigation 40835 105.00
2 Farm Mechnisation 6864 70.00
3 Dunlop Cart 4398 8.00
4 Animal Husbandry 7358 23.00
5 Fisheries 316 3.00
6 Dairy 27447 130.00
7 Poultry 3417 16.00
8 Horticulture 11596 64.00
9 Non Farm Sector 22017 60.00
10 Rural Housing 704 5.00
11 Others 565 16.00
[ 80 ]
Total 125515 500.00
213. An analysis and review of interest rates levied by different agencies reveal that it varies from 11.5
percent to 13 percent which is quite high keeping in view the paying capacity and economic status of
farmers. An agency wise breakup of interest rates is given below in table:-
Agency wise Rate of Interest
S.N. Source of Finance Effective Rate of Interest
1- Commercial Bank 8.5 % to 9%
2- Co-operative Bank 8.5% to 10%(subsidised by 2 % by State Govt.)
3- UPSGVB 11% to 13%
214. As is evident from above table, the rate of interest of UPSGVB is on the higher side which is
making bank loan costly for borrowers 90% of whom are small and marginal farmers consequently the
loan disbursed by the bank witnessed a down word trend during past two years. Nabard has recently
increased rate of refinance from 7 % to 9 % which will further affect sustainable viability of the bank. In
order to maintain its sustainable viability, the bank needs to increase its interest rate which is not possible
due to market constraints so in order that bank maintains its same rate of interest, Govt. is requested to
subsidies its interest rate by 2% so that the bank may enhance its lending and serve small or marginal
215. Another factor which is adversely effecting loaning of the bank is the ban on coercive measures
imposed by the Govt. in recovery. This measure is resulting in increase of defaulters which is reducing
refinance of the bank
216. Importance of aquatic resources in our economy is well recognized. The need for food production
has assumed vital importance hence, use of aquatic resources for developmental purpose such as
aquaculture and fisheries at par with the terrestrial resources for agriculture and animal husbandry has
gained considerable attention in recent years. As a result of intensive efforts, aquaculture has become one
of the fastest growing food production sectors over the past two decades in many countries including India.
Aquatic Resources in the State
[ 81 ]
Rivers &Canals 62%
Large & Medium Reservoirs 12%
217. According to the recommendation of F. A. O. 12 Kg. /Yr / Person of fish is essential to meet the
protein requirements whereas the present status is far behind i.e. less than 4 Kg./Yr/ Person. The
productivity level of fish has been considerably increased from 600 Kg. /ha. to 2850 Kg. /ha. by the end of
Tenth Five Year Plan. But still there is a huge gap between availability and demand. The estimated fish
consumption of the state is about 3.2 lakh tons whereas the production is only 2.8 lakh tons. The gap is
bridged by importing fish from other states mostly from Andhra Pradesh. The estimated demand is further
substantially increased to the tune of about 7.4 lakh tonnes as per norms fixed by F. A. O. by the end of
Eleventh Five Year Plan.
Review of Tenth Plan-Physical & Financial
218. During the Tenth Plan, the production of fish increased from 2.49 lakh tonnes to 3.07 lakh tonnes
while productivity increased from 2.55 ton per ha. per year to 2.85 ton per ha. per year.
Outlay and Expenditure
219. Against an approved outlay of Rs. 5000.00 lakh, an expenditure of Rs. 2884.93 lakh was incurred.
220. The total production of fish in the country is 30.40 lakh tonnes out of which state‟s contribution is
2.8 lakh tonnes which is comparatively very low compared to the leading states like West Bengal, Andhra
Pradesh. The comparative chart is given below:-
S.N. Name of State Rank Fish Production(lac
1. West Bengal I 9.00
2. Andhra Pradesh II 7.00
3. Uttar Pradesh III 2.80
[ 82 ]
221. The Fish productivity level of U.P. is 2850 kg/ha/yr at the end of X th Five Year Plan which is more
than national average of 2400 kg/ha/yr but it is still far behind that some of other states.
S.N. Name of State Rank Fish Production (kg/ha/yr)
1. Andhra Pradesh I 6500
2. Punjab II 5200
3. Haryana III 4500
Matsya Jivi Sahakari Samiti Ltd. Bharayal Distt. Hardoi
222. About 18 K.M. away from the district head quarter of Hardoi, village Bharayal of block Tadiyavan
is situated, enriched with water bodies which have been brought under fish culture. Department of fisheries
U.P. registered a primary fisheries society named Matsya Jivi Sahakari Samiti Ltd. Bharayal having 23
members in 2006 which was assisted with the allocation of ponds‟ lease of area of 125.203 ha. and got Rs.
87 lakh as loan sanctioned provided with the help of Fish Farmers Development Agency in 2007, out of
that Rs. 54 lakh is loan portion & Rs. 33 lakh is as C.C.L. F.F.D.A., Hardoi provided training to the
members of the society & made them efficient in their occupation, supplying them high quality
progressive fingerlings resulting in high yield of fish produce. The total production is about 350 tons which
is being sold in the local markets as well as in Lucknow. Besides, the project included integrated fish
farming along with fish & duck culture, Jetrofa & mustered seed plants.
Jangal Jahanabad Distt.Unnao
223. A good example of collective fish farming in waste land came in to existence through F.F.D.A.
Unnao in tehsil Hasanganj, block Miyanganj, village Jangal Jahanabad where seven families opted for fish
culture in their private land of about 4.029 ha. & that has been converted in to fishery ponds. Earlier the
beneficiaries did not get any benefit of their land because of the wild vegetation and constant damage and
panic created by the herd of Neel Gai. F.F.D.A. Unnao extended its support in 2006 and provided them a
loan of Rs.10,15,000 along with subsidy of Rs.2,53,750 through S.B.I. Parenda. The success of this
project motivated many others to opt for fish farming in neighboring areas gradually changing the scenario.
Existence of private mini fish hatcheries has boosted the scope and catalyzed the progress of aquaculture in
Village Sohasa block Ahiraura,Hardoi
224. Kasim Ali, a resident of village Sohasa showed the best example of use of sodic land by
converting it into fish pond of one ha getting production of 4000 kg/ha. He applied 2500 kg of Mahua oil
[ 83 ]
cake constantly for four years maintaining desired water level to make the fish culture feasible in sodic
land. FFDA Hardoi provided him all the necessary technology and provided training pertaining to
optimum use of water resources. The first hatchery of Hardoi in private sector has been established in the
vicinity of the pond in 2006. This shows that degraded land like sodic land and water logged areas can be
brought under pisci culture successfully.
Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-12)
Growth rate to be increased from 7.4% to 13%.
Enhancement of productivity from 2.8 t/ha/yr. to more than 4 t/ha/yr.
Increase in total annual fish production from 2.90 lac ton to 5.32 lac ton .
Increase in seed production capacity to get about 150 crore standard fingerlings from present
Diversifications of culture activities for a variety of aquatic products e.g. prawn, catfish,
225. The following table gives year wise details of physical targets during XIth Plan;
Annual Physical Targets During Eleventh Five Year Plan
Physical Progress during the Year 2007-08
[ 84 ]
Activity 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12
1 Pond area lease (ha) 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000
2 Improvement and 12000 12000 12000 12000 12000
construction of ponds
3 Fish seed production 126 132 138 144 150
4 Establishment of 69 31 33 27 27
5 Seed rearing units 75 192 169 210 170
6 Training of 8000 8000 8000 7700 7700
7 Fish productivity 2950 3100 3250 3500 3800
8 Fish production 3.44 3.78 4.19 4.75 5.32
9 Organization of coop. 140 140 150 160 200
10 Fish development 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000
11 Development of water 3810 3251 3251 3251 2692
Item Achievement (Till Dec, 07)
Annual fish production 2.33 lac M.T.
Seed production & supply 1156.06 Million
Fishermen Houses 2089
Insured beneficiaries 1,00,000
Training of fishermen 5893
Fish productivity 2850 kg/ha/yr
Lease of ponds 7348.42 ha
[ 85 ]
226. The expenditure during 2007-08 is Rs. 13.28 crores against an outlay of Rs. 14.48 crores.
Proposals For Year 2008-09
Fish Farmers Development Agency
227. FFDAs facilitate leasing (Patta) from Revenue department and arranges bank credit from financial
institutions for improvement and inputs. FFDA provides subsidy as per norms on these expenditures. It is
the most important centrally sponsored production oriented program in the field of pond fisheries.
Renovation of rural ponds, training and extension are the main activities under this program. State and
Central Government share expenditure in 25:75 basis in this scheme . Subsidy for renovation of existing
ponds, construction of new ponds, training of fish farmers and extension support is available to fish
farmers through these agencies. These agencies have played tremendous role in the expansion of fish
culture in rural ponds and increasing productivity from initial 600 kg/yr to current 3100 kg/yr.
Fresh Water Prawn Culture
228. Fresh water prawn (scampi) culture is a recently introduced scheme which has tremendous scope
in inland sector. Migratory nature and breeding in fresh water and larval growth in saline water make seed
production a difficult task. Presently prawn seed is procured from coastal states, therefore extra support is
required to popularize this activity among farmers. As initial incentive provision for prawn seed and feed
at 50% subsidy for 200 ha water area in the entire state is proposed .
229. Forests are a natural habitat of flora and fauna. It is the homestead of good number of Non-Timber
Forest Produce, Medicinal Plants, and Wild-life etc. It plays an important role in soil and water
conservation watershed management and ground water recharge. Forests contribute significantly in
employment generation and help in poverty alleviation of the masses. They are the source of sustenance
for forest dwellers specially tribals as they provide them non timber forest products, small timber, fuel
wood and fodder.
230. The chief economic product of the forests is timber, but the economic benefits, in terms of climate
control, pollution abatement, and wildlife maintenance, have rarely been calculated. The economic
importance of non-wood forest products is also increasing.
231. Forests are vitally important for preserving adequate water supplies. In addition, the forest
provides shelter for wildlife, recreation and aesthetic renewal for people, and irreplaceable supplies of
[ 86 ]
oxygen and soil nutrients. Deforestation, particularly in the tropical rain forests, has become a major
environmental concern, as it can destabilize the earth's temperature, humidity, and carbon dioxide levels.
Forest and tree cover
(Area in Sq.Km.)
1 State‟s geographical area 240, 928
2 Recorded forest area 16,826
3 Forest cover 14,118
4 Tree cover 7,715
5 Forest and tree cover 21,833
6 Percentage of Forest and tree cover against geographical 9.06%
Change in Forest Cover
(Area in Sq.Km.)
hical 1997 1999 2001 2003
area Forest % of Forest % of Forest % of Forest % of
cover geographic cover geographic cover geographic cover geographic
al area al area al area al area
240928 10751 4.462 10756 4.464 13746 5.705 14118 5.86
Source: State forest report 2003, published by forest survey of India.
Physical and Financial Performance
Plan Period State Share Area Employment
S.N. (Rs in crore) (In hectare) created -
(In lakh no.)
1. IX Five Year Plan 294.65 251914 289.12
2. X Five Year Plan 460.01 182876 326.79
3. Annual Plan 2007-08 228.48 42537 51.96
232. The basic objectives that govern the National Forest Policy are the following:-
[ 87 ]
Maintenance of environmental stability through preservation and where necessary, restoration
of the ecological balance that has been adversely disturbed by serious depletion of the forests
of the country.
Conserving the natural heritage of the country by preserving the remaining natural forests with
the vast variety of flora and fauna, which represent the remarkable biological diversity and
genetic resources of the country.
Checking soil erosion and denudation in the catchment areas of rivers, lakes, reservoirs in the
interest of soil and water conservation, for mitigating floods and droughts and for retardation
of siltation of reservoirs.
Increasing substantially the forest/tree cover in the country through massive afforestation and
social forestry programmes, especially on all denuded, degraded and unproductive lands.
Meeting the requirements of fuel wood, fodder, minor forest produce and small timber of the
rural and tribal populations.
233. The principal aim of Forest Policy must be to ensure environmental stability and maintenance of
ecological balance including atmospheric equilibrium which is vital for sustenance of all life forms,
human, animal and plant. The derivation of direct economic benefit must be subordinated to this principal
234. In order to accomplish the above mentioned target, the state is endeavoring for massive
Target for the Eleventh Five year Plan
Plantation by Departments
S. N. Year Plantation in ha. Total Area
Forest Department Other Departments (in ha.)
1. 2007-08 55000 1500 56500
2. 2008-09 55000 1500 56500
3. 2009-10 55000 1500 56500
4. 2010-11 55000 1500 56500
5. 2011-12 55000 1500 56500
Total 275000 7500 282500
235. The area coverage comes to be 1.17 % in eleventh plan period.
Plantation through Peoples Participation
[ 88 ]
S.N. Year Number of Seedlings Area Covered (in ha.)
Planted (In Crore)
1. 2007-08 25.00 125000
2. 2008-09 25.00 125000
3. 2009-10 25.00 125000
4. 2010-11 25.00 125000
5. 2011-12 25.00 125000
Total 125.00 625000
236. Presuming a survival percentage of 50% of the seedlings planted through public participation the
area coverage comes to be 1.29% in eleventh plan period.
High Value Plantation Project
237. This project is proposed to be implemented in 15 districts of the state with the financial support of
NABARD. This scheme will help in increasing tree and forest cover.
Conservation of Bio-diversity
238. Conservation of biodiversity is related to biological resources and with the maintenance of
ecological stability and productivity. Conservation involves a number of parameters such as number of
species, their population, dynamics, distribution, habitat and climate and microhabitat physical
239. This scheme is aimed at providing fuel, fodder, small timber and other forestry based raw material.
In order to meet the demand of the rural people, departmental plantations are being raised in all districts of
U.P. on community land, wasteland and sides of road, rail ,canal. In this scheme innovative plantations are
being raised for increased people‟s participation.
240. Research plays an important role in the forestry sector by way of providing improved seedlings for
plantations. This enhances the productivity of the forest and thus tries to meet the ever-increasing demand.
In U.P. State Forest Research Centre is situated in Kanpur.
[ 89 ]
Integrated Forest Protection Scheme
241. This scheme is funded by G.O.I. There are three components of the scheme (Forest Protection,
Survey and demarcation and Working Plan preparation) which are important for developing infrastructure
in the forestry sector. Forest Protection is one of the major activities in this scheme.
Vrikshawaran Vistar Yojna
242. Rehabilitation of degraded forests and promotion of Natural regeneration is a big challenge. For
intensive plantation on different types of land (such as community land, forest land, school, industrial area,
banks of canal, road and rail side) available in 48 districts of U.P. this scheme has been undertaken in
2007-08. This scheme will continue in 2008-09.
Uttar Pradesh Participatory Forest Management and Poverty Alleviation Project (J.B.I.C.
243. This scheme is proposed to be funded by Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) . It is
proposed to be launched in 2008-09. This scheme will develop new dimensions in the departmental work.
The Project will be implemented by various offices to be created within the UPFD as well as the Project
Management Unit (PMU) to be established outside the UPFD as an independent autonomous society in
compliance with Society Registration Act, 1860. At the field level, 20 Divisional Management Units
(DUMs) and 101 field Management Units (FUMs) will be established, and the functioning of DMUs and
FMUs will be monitored by concerned Zonal Offices and Circle Offices. An Empowered Committee will
be created within the State Government as the highest decision-making body for the Project.
244. The general objectives of the project are:-
To manage and improve the natural resources (Forest, wild life, tree cover and degraded areas)
on a sustainable basis.
To reduce poverty through natural resource conservation, reforestation and sustained
community action along with enhanced productivity of these renewable resources.
National Afforestation Programme
245. National Afforestation Programme funded by Ministry of Environment and Forest, Govt. of India
is being implemented through Forest Development Agency. The broad objectives of the scheme are as
Ecological restoration & Environmental Conservation and Eco-development.
Fulfillment of broader objectivities of productivity, equity and sustainability for the general
benefit of the community.
To provide regular employment to the poor people of Scheduled Castes/ Scheduled Tribes.
[ 90 ]
To create community assets which can help in eco-development.
To involve the village folks in planning & management of forest.
Wild Life Conservation
246. One National Park and 24 Wild Life Sanctuaries are situated in U.P. comprising an area of 5714
sq. kms. The development of these protected areas is primarily done through the two Centrally Sponsored
Schemes namely “Project Tiger” and “Development of National Parks and Sanctuaries”.
247. Important activities taken for wildlife conservation and habitat improvement / eco development are
as mentioned below:
1. Conservation of water bodies.
2. Weed eradication.
3. Infrastructure development.
4. Vaccination of animals in adjoining villages etc.
248. This is an ambitious project implemented with financial support from Government of India. Its
main aim is to save the master predator sitting at the apex of food chain. This scheme is being implemented
for ecological development of the park area and protection of wild life.
Development of National Parks and Sanctuaries
249. This scheme is being implemented with financial support from Government of India. Objectives of
this scheme are to conserve and improve natural habitat of the sanctuaries. Eco-development activities are
also taken up in this scheme.
250. For conservation of Elephant and development of Elephant corridor in Saharanpur and Bijnor
districts this scheme is being implemented with financial support of G.O.I. The areas taken up in this
scheme are adjoining Uttarakhand State where a large population of Elephants is reside in Rajaji National
Park. This corridor will help in movement of Elephants and provide natural habitat to them.
IRRIGATION AND FLOOD CONTORAL
Major and Medium Irrigation
[ 91 ]
251. The economy of the state is primarily agriculture based with about 2/3rd of its population
dependent on agriculture and allied activities. Rapid increase in the pace of agricultural development is,
therefore, essential to bring about desired improvement in the State's economy. The resources of cultivable
land of the state are, however, limited and agriculture production can, therefore, be increased mainly
through multiple cropping and higher productivity. For both these objectives irrigation is an inevitable
252. The assessment made by the water resources organization. Government of India indicates that 75%
dependability flow of five major rivers of the state is as below:-
Water Availability and Annual Flow
Sl.No. Name of River Discharge Annual Inflow Share of Catchments
Observation Site (MAF) of U.P. (MAF)
1. Ganga Varanasi 54.50 34.80
2. Gandak Balmikinagar 26.77 8.45
3. Ghaghra Turtipar 50.61 50.61
4. Sone Chopan 9.25 1.23
5. Gomti Naighat 3.97 3.97
Total 145.10 99.06
253. According to this assessment, the quantum of water available for exploitation in the state will be
99.06 MAF which is less than the annual inflow of 145.10 MAF including the share of other states. About
32.00 MAF water is already being used through various schemes in operation. Thus the total surface
resource which can be developed by the state (including Uttarakhand) is 131.06 MAF. Allowing for
drinking, municipal and industrial use and peak flood flows that cannot be arrested at present, the
remaining available water for irrigation will be about 76.00 MAF Thus 76.00 MAF of water has to be
utilized through Major and Medium irrigation projects including those reservoirs and multipurpose projects
located in Uttarakhand State and also through minor surface schemes creating a potential of about
(125.00+12.00)=137.00 lakh ha both in Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand Though the details of sharing of
surface water resources between U.P. and Uttarakhand need to be worked out and finalized through
institutional arrangement proposed in the U.P. Re-organization Act 2000, a tentative break-up of Ultimate
potential likely to be created in Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand through surface water is as below:-
Sl. Ultimate Potential(Lakh Ha.) Water Required (MAF)
No. Share of Share of Total Share of Share of Total
U.P. Uttarakhand U.P. Uttarakhand
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1. Major & 121.54 3.46 125.00 67.40 1.90 69.30
[ 92 ]
2. Minor Surface 6.82 5.18 12.00 3.80 2.90 6.70
Total 128.36 8.64 137.00 71.20 4.80 76.00
254. Thus out of 76.0 MAF of water, 71.20 MAF is left for U.P. creating a potential of 128.36 lakh ha
through major & medium & minor surface schemes. It is to be pointed out here that 71.2 MAF of water
includes the water that will be available through multipurpose and storage schemes either on-going or
identified located in Uttarakhand.
Utilization Of Water Available In Uttar Pradesh For Major & Medium Irrigation Projects
Quantum of water available for major & 67.40 MAF
Anticipated utilization through completed 55.55 MAF
projects during Xth Plan which have spilled
from IX plan(1997-2002)
New Projects included in Xth Plan(2002-07) 2.50 MAF
Balance for New Projects XI Plan & onward 9.35 MAF
New Projects included in XI Plan(2007- 3.10 MAF
Review Of Progress up to Tenth Plan
255. The growth in irrigation potential and investment made under Major & Medium schemes up to the
end of Tenth Five Year Plan (2002-07).
Expenditure and Benefits of Major and Medium Projects
Period Expenditure Incurred Potential Created %age of
(Rs. In Crore) (Lakh Ha.) Potential
During Cumulative During Cumul Creation
up to ative against
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1. Eight Plan (1992-97) 1738.00 5423.45 2.54 69.10 56.85
2. Ninth Plan(1997- 3014.58 8438.03 8.78 77.88 64.08
3. Tenth Plan (2002-2007) 4866.70 13304.73 5.31 83.19 68.45
Programme For Eleventh Plan
[ 93 ]
256. Priority, Strategy and Moniterable Targets for the Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-12), are given
Priority & Strategy
257. The Priority & Strategy for implementation of projects in the Eleventh Plan 2007-2012 is primarily
to complete the on-going projects. Selected new projects, mostly with a view to reduce the regional
imbalance have been proposed. The priority among the on-going projects has been fixed as below:-
Externally Aided Projects.
Other on-going projects where substantial expenditure has already been incurred.
Provisions have also been made for meeting the pending liabilities of completed schemes and
land compensation for completed schemes.
Provisions to keep up the performance of existing canal system.
Survey and Investigation, Research and Training Facilities.
Selected new schemes, mostly with a view to reduce the regional imbalance.
Projects for restoration of existing capacity that includes modernization and rehabilitation of
old gravity canals as well as major lift canals and strengthening of dams under distress, to
reduce the gap between potential created and utilized.
A study is being conducted by I.I.M. Lucknow regarding the full utilization of created
irrigation potential in the State as per guidelines by Water Resources Ministry , Government of
Expenditure and Benefits of Major and Medium Projects
S. N. Period Expenditure to be Potential to be Percentage
incurred (Rs. In Crore) created (Lakh Ha.) of Potential
During Cumulative During Cumul Creation
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 Eleventh Plan (2007-12) 13408.22 26724.98 11.70 94.89 78.07
[ 94 ]
2 Annual Plan (2007-08) 1714.19 15030.95 2.20 85.39 70.17
3 Annual Plan (2008-09) 2091.10 17122.05 1.86 87.25 71.79
258. It is proposed to complete23 major , medium and ERM projects out of which some important
projects are Saryu canal project, Eastern ganga canal project and Chaudhary charan singh Lahchura Dam
Sectoral Linkage with other Sectors
At output level, Major and Medium Irrigation has its major forward linkage with Agriculture
Sector and its next linkage occurs with the Power Sector. However, for the optimum utilisation
of water, some other sectors are also identified that may utilise water, which is flowing
through the canals, so that we may achieve the level of minimum or no wastage of water.
Those sectors are Fisheries, Water Supply, Animal Husbandry and Forest.
The subsidiary output of Major and Medium Irrigation Sector is the canal road. The service
roads of main canal and branches have good potential for public use in conveyance. Hence its
linkage occurs with the PWD sector.
259. At input level, this sector has backward linkages with „Food & Civil Supplies‟, for cement & steel,
„Power Corporation‟ for power supply, „Financial Institutions‟ for finances, „Industry‟ sector for
Machinery & Equipments, „Revenue‟ sector for Land Acquisition, „Technical Education‟ for technical
personnel and „Science and Technology‟ for information and acquiring latest technology, research work
Resources Available Through Convergence
260. In view of the resource crunch, loan assistance from NABARD under RIDF is being obtained
since 1995-96 with the condition of their utilization in three years from the year of sanction. Further
Central Loan Assistance under Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP) is also being provided by
Government of India for early completion of the on-going projects, on which substantial expenditure has
already been incurred. At present as per modified guide lines for the accelerated irrigation benefits
[ 95 ]
programme effective from December 2006, the central assistance will be in the form of central grant which
will be 25% of project cost. The balance cost of the project as the state‟s share is to be arranged by the
state government from its own resources. The eligibility criteria for funding is as below:-
261. Major, medium and Extension, Renovation & Modenrnisation (ERM) irrigation projects (a) having
investment clearance of Planning Commission (b) are in advanced stage of construction and can be
completed in the next four financial years (c) are not receiving any other form of financial assistance can
be considered for inclusion in the programme. Components of the projects not receiving any other form of
financial assistance can also be considered for inclusion in the programme.
262. The details of loan assistance/grant provided by them and the expenditure incurred on these
projects during various years are given below:-
Progress under AIBP /NABARD assisted projects
(Rs. In Cr.)
Year RIDF Loan Assistance (NABARD) Central Loan
Sanctioned Expenditure** incurred Assistance/Grant*
Released by G.O.I.
1 2 3 4
Tenth Plan 485.63 558.88 1329.82
Eleventh Plan ( Target) 896.08 896.08 1572.21 *
2007-08 (Anticipated) 122.89 122.89 192.84 *
2008-09 (Proposed) 424.46 424.46 275.61 *
**The expenditure is against the sanction under different phases of RIDF
263. Category wise breakup of 26 Major and Medium irrigation schemes ( spilling to Ninth plan)
completed during Ninth Plan, Tenth Plan (2002-2007) and those proposed to be completed during Eleventh
Plan (2007-12) is given below:-
Year Category of Schemes
Major Projects Medium & Mod. Projects
1997-98 (Actual) - 1. Revised Tons Pump Canal
2. Chittaurgarh Reservoir
1998-99 (Actual) 1. Bewar Feeder 1. Mod. of Ghaghar Canal
1999-2000 (Actual) 1. Gunta Nala Dam
2000-2001 (Actual) 1. Sarda Sahayak Project
[ 96 ]
Year Category of Schemes
Major Projects Medium & Mod. Projects
2001-2002 (Actual) 1. Maudaha Dam 1. Pathrai Dam
2. Chambal Lift Scheme
3. Gyanpur Pump Canal (Closed)
4. Sone Pump Canal (Closed)
2002-03 1. Upper Ganga Irrig. Mod. Project
2. National Water Management -
Project (Sarda Canal)
3- Madhya Ganga Canal
2004-05 1-Paddy Channels in H.K. Doab 1.Linning of channels in Bundelkhand
2.New Tajewala Barrage & Baghelkhand (Closed)
2006-07 1- Tehri Dam 1-Jarauli Pump Canal
XI Plan (2007- 1- Rajghat Canal 1-Mod. Of Chaudhri Charan
2012) 2-Bansagar Project Singh Lahchura Dam.
3-Saryu Nahar Pariyojna
4-Mod. of Agra Canal
5-Eastern Ganga Canal
6- Kanhar Irrigation Project
2007-08 1- Rajghat Canal
2- Mod. Agra Canal
2008-09 1-Saryu Nahar Pariyojna 1-Mod. Of Chaudhri Charan
2-Eastern Ganga Canal Singh Lahchura Dam
Constraints / Bottlenecks In The Implementation / Completion Of Projects
Availablity of Land
264. Non availability of land in time for the construction of distribution system in all the major and
medium projects has been a major bottleneck in the past. Litigation pending in the court pertaining to land
has also been a major problem in completing the distribution system resulting in gaps in the canals. Delay
in transfer of forest land has also been a major constraints .For speedy disposal of land cases pertaining to
major projects ,special institutional arrangement other than the present setup is needed.
Inter State Issues
[ 97 ]
265. Kanhar Irrigation Scheme is not getting clearance from C.W.C. G.O.I. because of inter state issues
involved in it .Jharkhand (previously Bihar) has raised some objections in the Sone water distribution
which is still to be sorted out .
266. The physical target can only be achieved if the price escalation component during the plan period
is also provided. As the above constraints can not be removed fully in future, the physical and financial
achievements will be much lower than what have been envisaged in the Eleventh Five Year Plan.
267. A brief description of schemes proposed during the Annual Plan 2008-09 is given in the following
Inter State Projects
268. Bansagar Dam & the Conveyance System (MP) is being implemented by Madhya Pradesh. The
cost of construction of Bansagar dam is to be shared by the three states of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh
and Bihar in the ratio of 1:2:1. The cost of conveyance system (MP), which will deliver the water to U.P.,
is to be shared by Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. The share of Uttar Pradesh in the dam and in the
Canal System (MP) is Rs 379.49 Cr. Uttar Pradesh has paid Rs 251.64 Cr to M.P up to 03/2007.
269. Besides, provisions for the State's share in the inter-state project of Bansagar Dam, provisions for
constructing the canal systems by the State for utilizing the stored water, as per the inter-state agreements
has also been made. Latest cost of Bansagar Project is 2058.01cr.(Rs. 1856.44 Cr for.works only) against
which expenditure of Rs.1068.02 cr. (Rs.938.20 cr. for works only) has been incurred upto 3/07. Provision
of Rs 237.50 cr.and Rs.377.80 cr. outlays have been kept during Annual Plan 2007-08 and Annual Plan
2008-09 respectively of Eleventh Plan.
Tehri Dam Project
270. Tehri Dam project was being constructed by the State during 1969-1989. After creation of the
Tehri Hydro Development Corporation in 1989, it was transferred to the corporation. As per agreement,
20% of the total cost of the project will be met by the irrigation sector. Uttar Pradesh will bear the total
cost of the irrigation sector and the irrigation benefits will therefore accrue to the State. T.H.D.C. has
informed the revised cost of the Tehri Dam, updated to the price level of November 2005 the Irrigation
component is Rs 1401.16 Cr. The total expenditure of Rs. 1180.96 cr. has been incurred by the end of
[ 98 ]
2006-07. Provision of Rs.126.32 cr.and Rs.88.72 cr. have been made in Annual plan 2007-08 and Annual
plan2008-09 respectively of Eleventh Plan under the head of liabilities.
New Projects Of Eleventh Plan
Major & Medium Projects
271. 21 new major and medium projects are proposed to be taken up in Eleventh Plan (2007-12). These
include Kachnaudha Dam,Virat Sagar Dam, Bhorat Dam, Uttari Dam, Bardaha Dam, Arjun Sahayak,
Bundelkhad Irrigation Potential Development. This will help in reducing the regional imbalances. Outlay
of Rs. 5437.81 is being provided for new projects in Eleventh Plan (2007-12).
ERM (Extension, Renovation and Modernisation) Projects and Dams in Distress
272. During Eleventh Plan an outlay of Rs. 1258.84 Cr. has been provided for ERM and Dams in
distress projects. This includes Rs. 112.10Cr.for 8 major and medium pump canals, Rs. 170.77 Cr. for
major dams that are in distress and the balance Rs. 675.97 Cr. for restoring the existing capacity of major
Potential Growth & Utilization
273. It is proposed to create11.70 lakh hectare additional irrigation potential during Eleventh Five Year
Plan. The irrigation potential created through major and medium irrigation works up to 2006-07 and its
utilisation are given below:-
Irrigation Potential Creation and Utilisation
Year Potential Created Utilisation of Cumulative Gap in
Potential Percentage against potentia
the l created
During Cumul During Cumula Same Previous and
ative tive Year Year utilisati
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Eight Plan (1992- 2.54 69.10 3.63 60.01 - - 9.09
Ninth Plan 1997-02 8.79 77.88 2.28 62.29 - - 15.59
Tenth Plan 2002-07 10.00 - 10.00 - - - -
2002-2003 0.73 78.61 0.62 62.91 80.03 80.78 15.70
[ 99 ]
2003-2004 0.75 79.36 0.39 63.30 79.76 80.52 16.06
2004-05 1.28 80.64 0.43 63.73 79.03 80.30 16.91
2005-06 0.82 81.46 - 63.73 78.23 79.03 17.73
2006-07 1.73 83.19 0.82 64.55 77.59 79.24 18.64
Eleventh Plan 11.70 94.89 11.70 76.25 - - -
2007- 2.20 85.39 1.65 66.20 77.53 79.57 19.19
2008-09(Proposed) 1.86 87.25 2.00 68.20 78.16 79.87 19.05
Irrigation Facilities From Different Sources
274. The irrigation facilities from different sources like canals 72450 kms, State Tube wells 28366 Nos,
Major and Medium Pump Canals 27 Nos, Minor Lift Canals 243 Nos and Reservoirs 66 Nos / Bundhies is
being provided in the State.
275. The details of potential created , potential utilized and actual irrigation through major and medium
irrigation projects for last 10 years are as below-
(Area in Lakh Ha.)
Sl. Year Potential Potential Actual Percentage Potential as per
No. created Utilized Irrigation as per actual irrigation
(cumlative) (cumlative) potential (5/3x100)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 1997-1998 70.39 60.34 42.86 85.72 60.89
2 1998-1999 71.51 61.09 47.24 85.43 66.06
3 1999-2000 72.64 61.84 43.08 85.13 59.31
4 2000-2001 76.69 62.15 39.37 81.04 51.34
5 2001-2002 77.89 62.29 40.92 79.97 52.54
6 2002-2003 78.61 62.91 40.91 80.03 52.04
7 2003-2004 79.36 63.30 44.34 79.76 55.87
8 2004-2005 80.64 63.73 42.73 79.03 52.99
9 2005-2006 81.45 63.73 42.62 78.24 52.29
10 2006-2007 83.19 64.55 43.43 79.59 52.20
Average of 42.75 81.39 55.55
[ 100 ]
276. It is clear from the above figure that the average irrigation of 42.75 lakh ha. is being provided
against irrigation potential created which is 83.19 lakh ha. up to year 2006-07 . The present gap is 40.44
lakh ha. Some of the important reasons for under utilization and actual irrigation are given below-
Some of the major canal systems of the state like Upper Ganga Canal, Eastern Yamuna Canal,
Agra Canal, Lower Ganga Canal, Gandak Canal System, Sarda Canal and Belan Canal System
are approximately 60 to 100 year old. Because of inadequate maintenance, for want of
sufficient O & M grants, these systems have deteriorated considerably. The actual irrigation on
these systems is therefore going down.
The cropping pattern as envisaged in the original project is not being adopted in the field. This
is resulting in un equitable water consumption in lower irrigation area . The actual cropping
pattern is different from that adopted in the project report as such the consumption of
utilization of the irrigation potential is not realistic. More water consuming crops are adopted
especially in head reaches, the command area in tail reaches are deprived of their due share of
Out of 60 main dams in the state, 10 dams are 50 years old and have been distressed with
different reasons. Due to this the storage capacity of the reservoirs is being reduced causing
less availability of water in canals which adversely affected irrigation.
The efficiency of electric motors is being reduced due to usage for a long period in major
pump canals. The electric motors can not run continuously due to the electric supply not being
stable for 24 hours with required voltage .
In some cases the system were originally designed for protective irrigation, where as now a
days adoption of high yielding variety of seeds requires more water depths resulting in less
irrigated area. Changes in land use pattern have also resulted in command areas and
consequently the irrigated area getting reduced.
Deterioration in Socio-economic conditions and law and order in the state has completely
disrupted the system of equitable distribution of water through canals. The distributaries and
minors are cut by farmers, unauthorized outlets and bunds are fixed in smaller channel
resulting in drawl of more water and also wastage of water in Upper reaches rendering the tail
reaches completely dry.
It is being observed that additional irrigation potential is created through on going major and
medium irrigation projects. But guls are not constructed by CADA (Command Area
Development Authority) in time simultaneous with creation of potential. Thus there is a gap in
new potential created and its utilization.
The irrigation projects are planned on 75% dependability of designed irrigation supplies. Thus
it is in built that for 25% of the period(in one hundred sequence) the water requirement for full
irrigation potential will not be met and even if designed cropping pattern is followed there will
be a lag in potential utilized irrespective of the extent of field channels.
[ 101 ]
Some times it happens that due to unavoidable circumstances drinking water supply and
industrial requirements have to be made on priority basis from irrigation schemes and this
causes, curtailment in irrigation supplies and results in reduced irrigated areas.
Role Of Voluntary Sector & Private Sector
State Water Policy
277. The state is endowed with bountiful water resources but the fast increasing demand indicates that it
will increase in future. In order to cope up with the increasing demand in future the state has formulated
" State Water Policy " on the pattern of National Water Policy. The broad objectives of State Water
policy are preservation and optimal utilisation of available water for various purposes, proper management
of water resources, maintenance of quality, basin & sub-basin wise conjunctive use of surface & ground
water, maximum hydro power generation within the constraints imposed by other users, ecological and
environmental balances ensuring equity & social justice among individuals & group of users in water
resources allocations and management, effective monitoring through management information services,
promotion of research and training facilities and evolving mechanism for the resolution of conflicts
between various users.
Water Sector Restructuring Project
278. In order to implement the main objective of the State Water Policy in Irrigation Department, Water
Sector Restructuring Project has been formulated. The project is funded by World Bank.
279. The main purpose and objective of the project is to benefit the poorest farmers by the way of
increasing yield of crops and diversification of agriculture by use of optimal water.
280. The project costing nearly US$ 1300 million is to be implemented in a period of 12 to 15 years.
The first phase of the project (UPWSRP-1) is meant to be implemented during 5years duration. World
Bank has sanctioned a loan of US$149.2 million for the first phase of the project. The first phase
UPWSRP-1 has been included in the Tenth Five Year Plan. The total expenditure at the end of Tenth Plan
has been Rs. 168.82 cr. against the cost of UPWSRP Ph-I project Rs.819.39 cr. Provision of Rs.233.16 cr.
and Rs.218.60 cr. have been made in Annual plan2007-08 and Annual plan2008-09 respectively.
Water User Associations (WUA)
281. Under the State Water Policy, participatory irrigation management is being implemented for the
efficient and best use of water on the state irrigation canal system. Under this system all the farmers of
minors will be the member of the Water User Associations (WUA). The working committee of the water
user association has been formed. The required training to the farmers would be given by Water and Land
[ 102 ]
Management Institute (WALMI). Water user association (WUA) on minors has been constituted and for
distributaries WUA is in progress. The entire management of minors will be transferred to WUA in three
282. Ground water Department is the nodal organization at State Level, entrusted with the
responsibilities of survey and investigation for the assessment of ground water resources and assisting the
user departments in the ground water development, management, augmentation, conservation & regulation
of ground water resources of the state covering 820 blocks.
283. Ground water Department is engaged in performing the ground water survey programme ie.
Hydrogeological survey. (Assessment of declining/rising trend of ground water level and blockwise
Ground water resource estimation & categorisation), suitable site selection for tubewell through
geophysical survey, electrical well logging, quality monitoring of ground water sample for agricultural
purposes, tubewell drilling etc. along with the monitoring and co-ordination of rain water
harvesting/recharging schemes in the state.
284. The progress in the field of ground water survey investigation gained momentum due to the
recommendation of Ground Water Estimation Committee-1997 and the problems of continuous decline in
ground water levels in some areas of the state .
Priority For Eleventh Five Year Plan
285. The proposal for 11th Five Year Plan (2007-12) was formulated considering the problem arising
out of indiscriminate use of ground water,its declining trend & scarcity areas .The Ground water study has
been framed in such away to provide solution to eradicate the above problems related to ground water
286. Keeping in mind, the ground water regime (quantitatively and qualitatively) problems arising out
of over-exploitation, causing declining ground water level and water logging, soil degradation due to
shallow water table and excessive use of chemicals in the field, the programmes of ground water
development are being planned/proposed in such away, so as to provide a permanent and sustainable
solutions to the ground water problems in the State.
287. The following ground water survey programmes are proposed to be carried out during financial
year 2008-09. Detailed specific programmes and financial requirements are summarized below-
Ground water Resource Estimation and Strengthening of Ground water survey
[ 103 ]
Monitoring of Ground water Level on hydrograph stations network (Observation
Construction of Piezometers
Estimation of Ground Water Resource
Micro Study in Over Exploited / Critical Blocks
Quality Assessment Monitoring of Ground Water
Procurement of Drilling, Survey and Monitoring Equipments
Rain water harvesting and Recharging
288. In this scheme Roof top rain water harvesting, ponds and percolation tanks will be constructed for
study purpose on model basis. Inter departmental co-ordination for monitoring and implementation of Rain
Water Harvesting / Recharging activities in the State, impact assessment and rain water
harvesting/recharging activities and schemes on ground water regime (ground water level and quality ) are
to be carried out. An outlay of Rs. 96.00 Lacs is proposed for this work.
Aquifer mapping and deep aquifer parameter tests
289. In this scheme aquifer mapping and fence diagram based on geophysical survey data / drilling
data will be prepared for 164 blocks of the state. Along with this, ground water exploration and pumping
tests on deep aquifers will be performed to know the behavior of sub-surface ground water movement
(horizontally & vertically).An outlay of Rs. 98.00 Lacs is proposed for this work.
Estimation of land damage index
290. In this scheme the land damage index of 164 Blocks has been proposed to demarcate, the water
logged and saline/ alkaline area for future agricultural planning. An outlay of Rs. 96.00 Lacs is proposed
for this work.
Private Minor Irrigation
291. The Minor Irrigation Department provides free technical guidance and subsidy to farmers to create
their own source of irrigation. In Feb 1985, a scheme namely ''Free-Boring-Scheme" was launched to
[ 104 ]
benefit, small and marginal farmers for increasing agricultural production. The out come of this scheme is
very encouraging. In the year 2004-05, a new scheme namely Medium-Deep-Tube-Well Scheme” has also
been launched. At present, the following Schemes are being implemented:-
Construction of Shallow Tube-Well for Small/Marginal farmers under “Free Boring
Construction of “Medium Deep Tube-Well” in alluvial areas of State where water bearing
strata is between 31 to 60 metre.
Construction of Deep Tube Well for deep and difficult areas of state having water bearing
strata above Sixty metre.
Construction of Blast Well /Deepening of Well in rocky areas.
Boring by In well Rig/Wagon Drill in rocky areas.
Artesian Well Scheme (Mainly for Jalaun Distt.)
Ground Water Recharging/Check dam Scheme in which Renovation of Ponds and construction
of check dam is included.
292. The following facilities of subsidy are being provided to the farmers for construction of different
private minor irrigation works:-
Sl.No. Name of Works Eligibility Average of Detail of Subsidy Provided
1- Free Boring
A- Boring Small/ Rs. 8000/- 1- General Category
Marginal (1) Small Farmer 3000/-
(2) Marginal Farmer 4000/
2- Small/Marginal Farmers of SC/ST
B- Pump set (5 Hp) Rs. 1- General Category
18,000/- (1) Small Farmer 2800/-
(2) Marginal Farmer 3750/-
3- Small/Marginal Farmers of SC/ST
2- Medium Tube Well Farmers of All Rs. 1.70 50% cost of the Tube well maximum
[ 105 ]
Categories Lakh Rs. 75000/- & for water distribution
system cost of 50% maximum Rs.
10000/- Total Rs. 85,000/-
3- Deep Tube Well Farmers of All Rs. 3.30 50% cost, maximum Rs. 1.00 lakh.
4- Artesian Well Farmers of All Rs. 50% cost, maximum Rs. 5000/-
5- Blast Well Farmers of All Rs.1.20 50% cost, maximum Rs. 5000/-
6- Boring by In well Farmers of All Rs. 50% cost, maximum Rs. 7500/-
Rig Machine Categories 50,000/-
7- Deepening of Well Farmers of All Rs. 122/- 50% cost, maximum Rs. 20/- per hole.
in Rocky Area Categories per hole
8- Surface Pump set Farmers of All Rs. 25% cost, maximum Rs. 3000/-
(Rocky area of Categories 20,000/-
Bundle khand &
Allah bad District)
9- Construction of Community Rs. 10.00 Cent percent Subsidy.
Check dam Work Lakh.
10- Renovation of Tank Community Rs. 03.00 Cent percent Subsidy
293. It is clear from the above table that for creating own sources of irrigation on an average one third
of the total cost of the project is being provided as one time subsidy to the cultivators. The balance two
third cost is being borne by the cultivator in the shape of loan or from his own resource. The maintenance
of individual minor irrigation works is done by the owner/cultivators themselves where as the maintenance
of the community work is done by the concerned Gram Panchayat. The Government does not have to
spend on maintenance of Minor Irrigation Works. The subsidy provided on these works, acts as a catalyst
for speedy development.
Status of Minor Irrigation Works
294. Under “Free Boring Scheme” since Feb 1985, 32.32 lakh boring have already been done up to
31.03.2007 . The Status of other minor irrigation works up to 31.03.2007 is as under:-
S.N. Item Unit Total
1. Dug Wells Nos. 126084
2. Pump sets on Surface Water “ 23198
3. Shallow Tube wells " 3895442
A. Electric driven „‟ 472946
B. Diesel driven „‟ 3321005
[ 106 ]
C Others " 101491
4. Deep Tube Wells „‟ 14694
5. Medium Deep Tube wells " 2684
6. Artisan Wells „‟ 668
7. Free Borings " 3232364
A General Category " 1985849
B. SC/ST " 1246515
Contribution of Free Boring Scheme
295. The Free Boring Scheme is having a major role in increasing irrigation potential and agriculture
production in the State. It is clear from, above table that the net irrigated area of private tube wells which
was at the level of 50.86 lakh hect. in the year 1985 has tremendously increased to the level of 89.78 lakh
hect. in March 2004 which shows that 38.92 lakh hect. area has been added in this period, which is 76.5
Availability of Ground Water
296. As per available data Zone wise ground water recharge, exploitation and stage of development in
different regions of the state is given below:-
(Million ha. m.)
S.N. Zone Ground Water Annual Balance Stage of
Recharge Ground water Ground Water Development
1 2 3 4 5 6
1 East 2.54 1.68 0.86 66
2 West 2.58 2.05 0.53 79
3 Central 1.45 0.96 0.49 66
4 Bundelkhand 0.44 0.19 0.25 43
Total 7.01 4.88 2.13 * 69
* Out of this 1.95 Million ha. m is available for irrigation purpose.
297. At present 37 blocks are over-exploited, 13 blocks are critical and 88 blocks are semi critical and
675 blocks are in safe categories as per stage of ground water development.
Creation of Irrigation Potential
[ 107 ]
298. The irrigation potential from Minor Irrigation works at the starting 1 st five year plan was only
14.44 lakh hect. As per 3rd Censes of Minor Irrigation Works Conducted by Govt. of India in the base year
2000-01 the actual irrigation potential created through Minor Irrigation Works came to 158.97 lakh
hectares. The position expected at the end of 10th Five Year Plan, after taking consideration, depreciation
of M. I. Works @ 1% as per 3rd Census of M.I. works, is given below:-
Slink Item Plan Period Irrigation Potential Created (In Lakh hectares)
During Plan Depreciation Net
Period @ 1%
1 2 3 4 5 6
(i) 3 M.I. 2000-01 - - 158.97
(ii) 2001-02 3.61 1.58 161.00
(iii) 2002-03 3.83 1.61 163.22
(iv) 2003-04 2.92 1.63 164.51
(v) 2004-05 3.41 1.64 166.28
(vi) 2005-06 4.00 1.66 168.62
(vii) 2006-07 3.95 1.68 170.89
Proposed Work in Annual Plan 2008-09
299. The following Minor Irrigation works are being proposed during Annual Plan 2008-09 under
continuing schemes as well as under new schemes. The Following schemes are proposed in 11th Five Year
Sl.No. Name of Work Physical Financial Required
Targets Target (Rs. Outlay Rs.
Crore) * Crore
Continuing Schemes 201780 115.00 115.00
1- Small & Marginal farmers
Programme (Free Boring Scheme)
2- Private Minor Irrigation
2.1 Deep Tube Well 24,00 24.00 24.00
2.2 Medium Tube Well 4706 40.00 40.00
2.3 In well Boring 192 0.144 0.144
2.4a Construction of Blast Well 200 0.10 0.10
2.4b Deepening- of Blast Wells 200 0.024 0.024
2.5 Surface Pump set 1000 0.30 0.30
2.6 Artesian Well 100 0.05 0.05
2.7 Boring Go down 3 0.48 0.48
[ 108 ]
2.8 Ground Water Recharging/ Check 88 11.00 11.00
2.9 Machinery & equipment - 2.00 2.00
(3) Centrally sponsored schemes
(i) Degree/Diploma Stipend 50:50 - 0.10 0.05
(ii) Statistical cell 100% - 0.375 -
Total 193.573 193.148
2. New Schemes
(a) Capacity building
(i) E-governance - 4.58 4.58
(ii) Research & Design 1 0.592 0.592
(iii) Technical Audit Cell 1 0.63 0.63
(b) Construction of Community Blast 198 4.60 4.60
Well under RIDF-13 and deepening
of existing Blast Wells for Mahoba
(c) Census of Minor Irrigation Works - 2.032 -
(d) Dr. Bhimrao Ambedakar Tube well 400 17.20 17.20
(e) Dr. Ambedakar Comunity Tube 200 4.30 4.30
Total 33.934 31.902
Grand Total 227.507 225.05
* The amount is as per present subsidy rates.
Community Blast Well Scheme
300. In rocky areas of the state where free boring scheme for benefit of small and marginal farmers is
not possible, a scheme namely community blast well scheme is proposed to be launched to provide
irrigation facilities. One blast well of six meter dia and 15 m depth, costs Rs. 2.96 lakh. The scheme will be
implemented in 41 Blocks of districts namely Lalitpur, Jhansi, Mahoba, Chitrakoot, Sonbhadra, Allahabad,
Mirzapur, Agra and Chanduli which are rocky. For the first time as a Pilot Scheme all the 4 rocky blocks
of Mahoba district have been taken up in which 300 New Community Blast Wells will be constructed and
295 existing Blast wells will be deepened. A total amount of Rs. 1184.19 lakh will be required for this
scheme 1785 hect. additional irrigation potential will be created.
301. For better management of irrigation, a medium rain gun and a pump set will also be installed on
each blast well, The unit cost of this asset is Rs. 64000/- One unit to each group of cultivators will be made
[ 109 ]
available on 50% subsidy. The proposal for Annual Plan 2008-09 is Rs-10 Lakh for new Blast Well and
2.40 Lakh for Deepning of old Well by Blasting.
Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedekar Tube well Scheme
302. For the alluvial areas of Utter Pradesh a scheme named Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedekar tube well
scheme is launched with hundred percent grant from special component plan to benefit farmers of
Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. The tube well constructed under the scheme will have irrigation
potential to irrigate 20 hact. Land. The unit cost of construction of the tube well will be Rs. 4.30 Lakh.
For the constructions of tube well land measuring 25 Sq.mt. will be donated by the farmer to Irrigation
committee of the village panchayat. The tube well will be the asset of village panchayat instead of specific
individual farmers. In this scheme minimum 51% beneficiaries will be from schedule cast and schedule
tribe. Gram panchyat/water users committee will collect irrigation charges from farmers and deposit it in
the account of irrigation committee. In 11th five year plan 2014 tube wells will be constructed as a cost of
Rs. 8660.20 Lakh. And 400 tube wells will be constructed at a cost of Rs. 1720 lakk. in the financial year
Dr. Ambedekar Community tube well scheme
303. Dr. Ambedekar community tube well scheme has also been proposed under the general schemes of
minor Irrigation programs of Uttar Pradesh for the areas having hard and deep strata, where free boring
schemes are not possible. The tube well will have irrigation capacity of 20 hect. The unit cost of
construction will be Rs. 4.30 lakh. There will be a minimum of 51% users from the category of small &
marginal farmers and priority would be given to the farmers belonging to schedule cast/schedule
tribes/OBC/Minority category/below poverty line & other farmers. In this scheme subsidy of 50% up to
maximum of Rs. 2.15 lakh will be provided. Operation and maintenance of the scheme will be done by
304. In 11th five year plan a construction of 1800 tube well costing Rs. 3870.00 lakh proposed from the
scheme and in financial year 2008-09 the 200 tube wells costing Rs. 430.00 is proposed to construct in the
305. Private Minor Irrigation Works are maintained and owned by cultivators themselves, Subsidy is
provided to them to act as a catalyst. The main programme of Private Minor Irrigation is, installation of
Shallow Tube Wells for which the average cost is Rs. 25.0000 but govt. is providing subsidy to the tune of
about Rs.75,000 only hence 2/3rd investment is done by cultivators themselves in cash or through
Institutional Finance. The details of private investment in each programme is given below:-
(Rs. in crore)
[ 110 ]
Sl.No. Item Five Year Plan 2007-2012 Annual Plan 2008-2009
Target Financial Private Target Financial Private
Req. Investment Req. Investment
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1- Continuing 11,00,000 640.257 603.56 201780 115.00 108.41
(1) Small &
(2) Deep Tube 24,000 240.00 480.00 2400 24.00 48.00
(3) Medium Tube 28235 240.00 282.35 4706 40.00 47.06
(4) In well Boring 2,500 1.875 10.62 192 0.144 1.02
5-a Construction of 1,000 0.50 6.50 200 0.10 1.30
5-b Deepening- of 1,000 0.12 0.52 200 0.024 0.10
(6) Surface Pump 5,000 1.50 8.00 1,000 0.30 1.60
(7) Artesian Well 500 0.25 0.25 100 0.05 0.05
TOTAL 1124.502 1391.80 179.618 207.54
306. The main objective of the Annual Plan 2008-09 is to provide all the small and marginal farmers
having land holding above 0.2 ha with a irrigation source so that they may become self sufficient in
irrigation excepting rockey and difficult areas.
State Minor Irrigation
307. Minor irrigation works are the most important inputs of assured irrigation in areas where
construction of large gravity canals is not feasible and in areas left out of command of such canals. Minor
Irrigation works, based on ground water, are also a means of conjunctive use of surface and ground water.
These works help to increase the intensity of cropping and productivity of different crops. These works
[ 111 ]
with a short gestation period, provide quick irrigation facilities. These schemes benefit mainly small and
marginal farmers, who are not in a position to have their own source of irrigation. State Minor Irriation
works can broadly be classified as follows:-
Minor Lift Canals
Other Minor Irrigation works such as Bundhies, Check Dams, Small bandhs.
Status of Creation of Irrigation Potential
308. The total irrigation potential created in the state through State Minor Irrigation works, in the pre-
plan period was 4.82 lakh hectares. The state continued to lay stress on developing the irrigation potential,
through State Minor Irrigation works during different plan periods. The irrigation potential through State
Minor Irrigation works increased from 4.82 lakh hectares to 37.54 lakh hectares at the end of Tenth Five
Year Plan. Thus during the plan period i.e. upto Tenth Five Year Plan, Irrigation potential by State Minor
Irrigation works has increased by 778 percent.
Creation of Irrigation Potential in Tenth Plan
309. The State Government of U.P. finally fixed an outlay of Rs. 256.25 Crores for Tenth Five Year
Plan for plains only. Against the above outlay, the corresponding expenditure for State Minor Irrigation
work was Rs 472.83 crores, resulting in 0.49 lakh hectare irrigation potential.
310. The thrust is now on stabilization / restoration of existing infrastructure of State Minor Irrigation
works. In view of the above, priority is being given to the completion of distribution system on State
Tubewells, reconstruction of failed tubewells, renovation of derelict guls of state tubewells and
replacement of wornout equipments on the tubewells. Accordingly projects are being sanctioned from
NABARD for stabilization/ restoration of existing irrigation potential. In the Tenth Five Year Plan 1.28
lakh hectares of stabilization /restoration of irrigation potential shall be achieved.
Status of State Minor Irrigation Works
311. The state tubewells are means to provide assured round the year irrigation in their command areas.
In the pre plan period 2343 State tubewells were energized, since then construction of state tubewells in
all districts of plains in the state has been carried out at a steady pace and 32336 state tubewells were
energized upto 31.3.2000. The actual number of state tubewsells in operation as on 1.4.2000 were 29215
out of which on account of creation of new State Uttaranchal 664 state tubewells in operation were
transferred to Uttaranchal and as on 1.4.2000 only 28551 state tubewells were in operation . As on
1.4.2007, 28366 state tubewells are in operation.
[ 112 ]
312. To implement the policy of decentralization the state tubewells located in the villages were handed
over to Gram Panchayats in the month of July, 1999. The operation of tubewells and water distribution
was being managed by Gram Panchayats. All the tubewells operators and Part time Tubewell Operators
were transferred to Gram Panchayats. The Gram Panchayats were entrusted with the responsibility of
running of state tubewells, water management, recording of irrigation, fixation of irrigation dues and
collection of irrigation dues. Recently all state tubewells alongwith tubewell operators have been received
back from Gram Panchayats and they are being maintained by Irrgaiton Department as before.
313. 243 Minor Lift Pump Canals are in operation in the state at present. The total capacity of these
canals is 3703.40 Cusecs having C.C.A. of 1.68 lakh hectares, against which about 1.00 lakh hectares of
irrigation is being achieved.
Gap Between Creation & Actual Utilization Of Irrigation Potential
314. The performance of state tubewells has gone down slightly during the last 10 years while in 1994-
95 actual area of about 50 hectares per tubewell has been irrigated. The main reasons for non utilization of
irrigation potential are as given below:
Less availability of power.
Incomplete water Distribution System.
Depleted condition of Guls on tubewells.
The equipment installed on state tubewells, which have completed their normal life require
Back log of about 800 failed state tubewells which
Small Lift Pump Canals
315. About 59% of the C.C.A of small lift pump canals is being irrigated at present. The main reasons
for non utilization of irrigation potential of lift pump canals are as given below:-
Less availability of power.
The Distribution system of these canals require strengthening.
Status of Ground Water Development
316. The level of exploration of Ground Water in the state is only 69%. There is still a lot of scope of
Ground Water exploration in the state. However the level of Ground Water Development is not equally
distributed in the state. It is therefore necessary that the ground water development should be carefully
planned and ground water recharge should be strengthened. Artificial recharge projects are also required
[ 113 ]
to be given priority such as checked dams, small bandhs, bandhis & top roof rain water harvesting
Conjunctive Use Of Water Resources
317. It is high time now that serious thinking is to be given for the conjunctive use of surface and
ground water resources for optimum benefits on the basin wise or sub basin wise schemes. There are
conflicting demands of water resources by its various users. The highest priority is required to be given to
drinking water followed by irrigation and industry. Therefore, it has become necessary that the allocation
of water resource to various users are done on the basis of their future assessments. The coordination
between various users of water regarding exchange of, basic data, pilot studies research & development,
training, sustainable management of Ground Water etc., is at all more necessary. The state has recently
constituted a “ State Water Board “ which will play a key role in this matter.
Strategy For Eleventh Five Year Plan ( 2007-2012)
318. During Eleventh Five Year Plan an outlay of Rs.1245.00 Crores has been proposed for completion
of irrigation schemes.
Creation of 3.60 lakh hectares of irrigation potential has been proposed.
Emphasis has been given to restoration of already created irrigation potential during Eleventh
Plan. Restoration of 2.43 lakh hectares of irrigation potential has been proposed.
To increase the coverage under irrigation, restoration and upgradation of the already created
assets have been proposed to be completed during Eleventh Plan.
Schemes have been proposed almost in all regions of the State specially in backward area to
reduce regional imbalance.
New concept of participatory irrigation management has been introduced by constituting
WATER USERS ASSOCIATION on minor lift canals and JAL PRABANDHAN SAMITIs on
state tubewells. About 302 Water Users Association on all minors of minor lift pump canals
and 35 on distributories of minor lift canals have been constituted for their participation in
irrigation management. These association are conducting meetings at Block head quarters for
disposal of problems regarding irrigation management and maintenance of channels.
There were 4 ongoing irrigation projects under State Minor IrrigatIon Sector in the beginning
of Tenth Five Year Plan, out of which 4 projects have already been completed. During Tenth
Plan 13 new projects have been started out of which 6 projects have been completed during
Tenth Plan. During Eleventh Plan balance 7 ongoing projects are likely to be completed.
Besides this 12 new projects have been proposed to be included in Eleventh Plan and are likely
to be completed during the Plan period.
6 Number ongoing projects, Nabard aided, such as 4 small Bundhs of Bundelkhand Region
and reconstruction of 450 state tubewells and new construction of tubewells under 1000
[ 114 ]
Chaudhary Charan Singh Tubewell Schemes shall be completed during Year 2007-08.
Expenditure & Irriigation Potential creation of State Minor Irrigation
Rs. in Crore
Irrigation creation in lakh hect.
Sl. Plan Period Expenditure Potential Creation
No. Additional Cummulative Additional Cummulative
1 Before Planning 0 0 4.82 4.82
2 First Plan (1951-56) 17.25 17.25 3.92 8.74
3 Second Plan (1956-61) 13.30 30.55 4.34 13.08
4 Third Plan (1961-66) 37.10 67.65 3.48 16.56
5 Three Annual Plan 42.97 110.62 1.31 17.87
6 Fourth Plan(1969-74) 78.62 189.24 1.43 19.30
7 Fifth Plan(1974-78) 94.38 283.62 4.00 23.13
8 Annual Plan(1978-80) 68.42 352.04 2.86 26.16
9 Sixth Plan (1980-85) 278.01 630.05 7.16 33.32
10 Seventh Plan (1985-90) 597.10 1227.15 5.55 38.87
11 Annual Plan(1990-91) 120.60 1347.75 0.62 39.49
12 Annual Plan(1991-92) 63.19 1410.94 0.56 40.05
13 Eight Plan (1992-97) 424.54 1835.48 0.80 40.85
14 Ninth Plan (1997-2002) 226.05 2061.53 0.42 37.05
15 Tenth Plan (2002-07) 472.83 2534.36 0.49 37.54
16 Annual Plan(2007-08) 206.65 2741.01 0.72 38.26
17 Annual Plan(2008-09) 229.06 2970.07 0.34 38.60
Construction Of 3000 Nos New State Tubewells (Financed By Nabard) Phase-II
319. The cost of Rs 368.00 Crores is sanctioned by NABARD for construction of 3000 New tubewells
each of 1 cusec capacity in Phase-II during the Eleventh Plan creating 150 .00th. hectares of irrigation
[ 115 ]
potential. These tubewells are of low cost, more beneficial to farmers and having 50 hectares of C.C.A.
each. revised cost is Rs 448.54 Crore.. Rs 81.10 crore for construction of 665 stws & 33.25 th hect
irrigation potential is likely to be created during year 2007-08. An outlay for year 2008-09 is Rs 100.16
crore for construction of 670 stws & 33.50 th hect irrigation potential is likely to be created after
energisation of stws.
Modernization Of 800 State Tubewells ( To Be Financed By Nabard)
320. Total cost of Rs. 115.15 Crores has been proposed for reconstruction of about 800 tubewells
during the Eleventh Plan to be financed by NABARD. About 0.80 lakh hectares of irrigation potential is
likely to be restored. Proposed outlay for the year 2008-09 is Rs 35.98 crores for the reconstruction of 250
stw & 25.00 th hec likely to be restored after energisation.
Modernisation Of 3100 Nos. Of State Tubewells
321. The Cost of Rs. 30.88 crore has been sanctioned by NABARD for Modernization of Distribution
Systems of 1500 State Tubewells and Installation of New Pump Sets on 750 State Tubewells during
Eleventh Plan. As a result 0.14 lakh hectares of irrigation potential is likely to be restored. Revised cost of
project is Rs 40.19 crores. During the year 2007-08 is Rs 15.18 Crore is proposed which will restored
irrigation potential of 7.046 th hect. During the year 2008-09 an allocation of Rs. 26.35 crore is proposed.
This will further restored an additional irrigation potential of 7.354 th hect.
Modernisation Of 11000 Stws (To Be Financed By Nabard)
322. Total cost of Rs. 158.17 Crores for the Modernization of 11000 STws to be Financed by
NABARD and irrigation potential of 110.00 th hect. is likely to be restored after completion of project.
During the year 2008-09 an allocation of Rs. 25.01 crore is proposed. This will further restored an
additional irrigation potential of 2.03 th hect. Details of Expenditure, creation and restoration during Tenth/
Eleventh Plan and Proposed Outlay of Annual Plan 2008-09 is as yearwise shown below:
Potential in Th. Hect.
Rs. in Crore.
Plan Year Outlay Expenditure Irrigation portential Total
creation Restoration irri
[ 116 ]
Target creation Target restoration gation
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
TENTH 2002-03 18.08 2.31 12.02 14.33
PLAN(2002- 2003-04 37.88 2.27 31.86 34.13
07) 2004-05 78.19 9.65 21.40 31.05
2005-06 256.25 99.11 69.60 5.90 188.15 20.74 26.64
2006-07 239.57 29.30 42.13 71.43
TOTAL 472.83 49.43 128.15 177.58
Eleventh 2007-12 1245.00 360.44 243.10 603.54
Annual 2007-08 206.65 71.66 59.94
Annual Plan 2008-09 229.06 34.10 70.58
Command Area Development
323. In early seventies, it was felt that there was a big gap between irrigation potential created and
utilization, obtained under the irrigated areas were lower in comparison to other countries . The main
reason for low productivity was realized to be lack of irrigated and co-ordinated approach to irrigation
water utilization at farm level, for obtaining optimum production from irrigated land. Keeping in view the
problem, a centrally sponsored C.A.D.W.M. was initiated during 1974-75 in Uttar Pradesh . The
programme is being taken up as a scheme on a sharing basis 50:50 between Central & State Govt.
324. The objective of Command Area Development Programme is to utilize the irrigation potential
created in selected major medium and minor irrigation projects and to increase the crop production and
productivity in Command Area at Present fifteen Irrigation projects under this scheme have been taken up
in the State i.e. Sharda Canal, Saryoo Canal, Narainpur Canal & Devkali Pump Canal, in (Sharda
Command) & East Yamuna Canal, East Ganga Canal, Ramganga, Betwa & Gursarai, Cane Canal, Upper
Ganga Canal, Madhya Ganga Canal, Gyanpur Pump Canal, Belan, Tons Pump, Sone Pump, Tumariya
Pump Canal System. (Ram Ganga Command)
325. In this Programme of "ON FARM DEVELOPMENT" works which include construction of
Earthen Guls, Lining of Trunk Guls, Construction of Water Control Structures and Drainage Channels are
[ 117 ]
carried out in each Kulaba command. The Enforcement of proper system of "Warabandi" & equitable
distribution of water to individual fields and encouraging farmers for Participatory Irrigation Management
(PIM) are also important components of the programme. The working group constituted by the Planning
Commission Government of India on CAD Programmes of the Eleventh Five Year Plan has
recommended a ratio of 50:40:10. It is mandatory to contribute ten percent of the total cost of expenditure
to the beneficiary in the form of cash or labour.
326. During the Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-12), it is proposed that an area of 570 thousand hectare
will be taken up for field channel construction, 1.50 thousand hectare for constructing field drains, 570
thousand hectare for Warabandi and 27.5 thousand hectare for water logged areas and demonstration in
farmers fields. Training to functionaries and farmers will be organized for the successful implementation
of the program as per requirements.
327. For the execution of the OFD activities as proposed above during the Eleventh Plan an amount Rs.
57000 lakh will be required for fields channels, Rs. 6000 lakh for field drains, Rs. 3828 lakh for Warabandi
and Rs. 4125 lakh for reclamation of water logged areas in irrigated commands. Besides an amount of Rs.
250 lakh will be required for adaptive -trial and demonstration and Rs. 80 lakh for training to functionaries
and farmers. Rs. 8720 lakh for system of deficiency & Rs. 825 Lakh for renovation of irrigation tanks has
been proposed during Eleventh Plan.
328. Additional components which have been recommended to be teken up by working group in the
Correction of System deficiencies/rehabilitation and modernization of the irrigation system.
Provision for linking/management of collector, intermediate and main drainage systembelow
Participatory irrigation management (PIM). Setting up viable Sustainable WUAs and transfer
of system including maintenance, management and collection of water charges.
Cent percent assistance of dissemination of technical know how.
Renovation & desalting of existing irrigation times including the irrigation system & control
Use of specific bio-drainage techniques for reclamation of water logged areas.
329. For the Eleventh Five year Plan (2007-12) an outlay of Rs. 40000 lakh has been fixed. In the year
2006-07 an expenditure of Rs.5447.96 lakh incurred as State Share and Rs. 5447.96 lakh as Central
Share by which physical achievement of O.F.D. works and Osrabandi works are 77.81 thousand hectare.
Respectively In the year (2007-08), an expenditure of 5446.00 lakh has been incurred by which the
physical achievement of OFD works and osrabandi works are 46420 hectare and 50700 hectare
respectively till November , 2007.
[ 118 ]
330. During the Annual Plan (2008-09) it is proposed that an area of 114 thousand hectare, will be
taken up for field channel construction, 3 thousand hectare for field drains, 114 thousand hectare for
warabandi, 5.5 thousand hectare for water logged area treatment. In addition to this, demonstrations on the
farmers fields, adaptive trials, training and evaluation studies and participatory irrigation management will
also be taken up. For Annual Plan 2007-08 an outlay of Rs. 5446 lakh has been provided as state share to
meet the Physical target of OFD and Osrabandi work. An outlay of Rs. 60.00 crore has been fixed for the
331. To ensure effective peoples participation . Kulaba Prabandh Samities will be made more effective
and functional . Involvement of beneficiaries in water management will be ensured through participatory
irrigation management. To legalize the W.U.A. essential correction in irrigation NICD Act. 1873 and PIM
model Act. is being made by Irrigation Department. Stress will be laid on the establishing inter-sectoral
and intra-sectoral linkages and to ensure this effective convergence will be made with agriculture and
allied departments includings irrigation.
332. Uttar Pradesh is situated in Northern part of India and in terms of area, it is 4th biggest state of
India. It has a geographical area of 240.93 lakh hactare, out of which flood prone area is 73.06 lakh
hactare. The protectable area is about 58.42 lakh ha. only which can be protected from flood and drainage
congestion by constructing various flood management works.
333. Financial input and physical outcome up to end of 4th Five Years Plan and onwards are given
Five Year Plan Marginal City No. of Land Expenditure
Embankments/ protection villages Protected (Rs in
Drains (Km.) works (no.) Raised (lakh ha.) crore)
cumulative cumulative cumulative cumulative cumulative
Upto end of 4th 989 41 4500 6.16 41.80
five year plan
5th five year plan 1389 12433 58 4500 11.56 120.00
6 five year plan 1666 12748 64 4500 13.67 206.60
7th five year plan 1811 23929 14.87 300.36
8th five year plan 1878 13015 15.40 396.57
9th five year plan 1918 13183 64 4511 15.79 495.00
Note- All the figures are cumlative.
334. In the 10th Five Year Plan, (2002-07). an expenditure of Rs. 910.65 crore was incurred. In 11th
Five Year Plan (2007-12), the physical and financial progress is given as under.
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335. The proposed outlay of Rs. 330.79 crore for the annual plan 2007-08, againsed which the target
for completing 60 km embankment construction, 300 km. construction of Drains. and 0.60 lakh hect. land
to be protected against flood and water logging and the progress of the work is as per the target given.
Above expendiyure includes Rs. 9.00 crore central grant and Rs. 89.06 crore financed by NABARD.
336. The proposed outlay of Rs. 344.70 crore for the annual plan 2008-09 against which 60 km
embankment construction, 300 km. construction of Drains. and 190 no. Anti-erosion works are to be
completed and 0.60 lakh hect. land is to be protected against flood and water logging. It includes Rs.
110.25 crore loan for NABARD schemes, State share of Rs. 8.45 crores for centrally sponsored schemes.
Central Assistance/ Grant of Rs. 25.35 crores is not included in this amount of Rs. 344.70 crores.
337. On an average approximately 26.89 lakh land is affected by flood every year and there is a total
loss of Rs. 432.20 crores in U.P on account of flood. State wise Fund allotment by the Government of
India during 10th Plan period (2002-07) is given below-
(Rs. in crore)
Name of States Central Share State Share Total Cost
Uttaranchal 4.00 1.33 5.33
Uttar Pradesh 32.56 10.85 43.41
Bihar 65.84 21.95 87.79
Jharkhand 4.30 1.44 5.74
West Bengal 51.00 17.00 68.00
Himachal Pradesh 4.32 1.44 5.76
Sub Total- A 162.02 54.01 216.03
B: FARAKKA BARAGE PROJECT
FBP 89.00 0.00 89.00
GRAND TOTAL 251.02 54.01 305.03
Area affected due to flood in different states of the country
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(Area in lakh hect.)
Flood affected area Protected Percentage Balance area Percentage
India 346.16 186.39 54% 159.77 46%
Uttar Pradesh 73.36/ 58.72 18.29 31.15% 40.43 68.86%
Bihar & Jharkhand 64.61/ 42.60 - 58% - -
(Protect able area)
Punjab 37.00 - 76% - -
Rajasthan 32.60 - - - -
Haryana 32.50 - 77.6% - -
West Bengal 37.66 - 76.50% - -
Assam 31.50 - - - -
338. From the above table ,it is obvious that the ratio of the protected area in U.P. is less in comparision
to other states. The main reason for this may be attributed to the lower central share allocated to U.P. in
comparision with other States like Bihar & West Bengal.The population of the State is expected to be
30.13 cr. in 2025.In these circumstances it is essential to reclaim additional land for agricultural purposes
by adopting protective measures against waterlogging and flooded area.
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MILK PRODUCTION IN MAJOR STATES ( Year 2005-2006)
S.N. STATES Milk Production
(Lakh Mt. Tonnes)
1. Uttar Pradesh 173.56
2. Punjab 89.09
3. Rajasthan 87.13
4. Andhra Pradesh 76.24
5. Gujarat 69.60
6. Maharashtra 67.69
7. Madhya Pradesh 62.83
8. Tamil Nadu 54.74
9. Haryana 52.99
10. Bihar 50.60
11. NATIONAL 971.00
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EGG PRODUCTION IN MAJOR STATES (Year 2005-2006)
S.N. STATES Egg Production
1. Andhra Pradesh 164534
2. Tamil Nadu 62225
3. Maharashtra 35227
4. Punjab 35200
5. West Bengal 29637
6. Karnataka 18348
7. Bihar 10012
8. Kerala 11956
9. Madhya Pradesh 9414
10. Uttar Pradesh 9228
11. NATIONAL 462307
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WOOL PRODUCTION IN MAJOR STATES (Year 2005-2006)
S.N. STATES Wool Production
1. Rajasthan 154.05
2. Jammu & Kashmir 74.00
3. Karnataka 55.00
4. Andhra Pradesh 39.78
5. Gujarat 31.23
6. Maharashtra 16.40
7. Himachal Pradesh 16.03
8. Uttar Pradesh 14.59
9. Haryana 11.36
10. Tamil Nadu 7.50
11. NATIONAL 449.00
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MEAT PRODUCTION IN MAJOR STATES (Year 2005-06)
S.N. STATES Meat Production
1. West Bengal 336.19
2. Maharashtra 236.28
3. Uttar Pradesh 198.36
4. Andhra Pradesh 189.24
5. Bihar 176.00
6. Karnataka 89.00
7. Haryana 73.27
8. Nagaland 63.25
9. Kerala 55.92
10. Orissa 52.04
11. NATIONAL 2310.00
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