Docstoc

Breathing Apparatus Initial Course

Document Sample
Breathing Apparatus Initial Course Powered By Docstoc
					         HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE
                 SERVICE




         Breathing Apparatus

                 Course Notes

23 July 2002

Owner:     TC Commander
Revie:     3/02




                          -1-
                             HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE
                             BREATHING APPARATUS COURSE NOTES
                                           INDEX




SUBJECT                                                          PAGE
Physiology of Respiration                                         1
Irrespirable Atmospheres                                          7
Resuscitation Equipment                                           13
Set Description                                                   23
BA Procedure                                                      35
Donning, Start Up and Doffing Procedures                          45
Entrapped Procedure                                               51
Rescue and Self Rescue using BA in Confined Spaces                55
Cleaning Procedure                                                61
Routine Testing and Maintenance                                   67
Breathing Apparatus Control                                       73
Search Procedures and Structural Firefighting Techniques          91
Fire Development Within Compartments                             101
Tactical Ventilation                                             107
Guideline Procedures                                             111
Working in Hot and Humid Conditions                              123
Communications Equipment and Procedures                          131
Plan Reading and Interpretation                                  143
Thermal Imaging Equipment                                        151
Portable Inspection and Search Camera                            155
Working in Hi Expansion Foam                                     161
Protective Clothing                                              165
Hazardous Materials Procedures                                   175
Decontamination                                                  179
Medical Aftercare                                                187
Appendix A - Student Assessment Guidelines
Appendix B - Exercise Marking Sheets
Appendix C - Note for File

cehT/BAInit.tn/5 July 2001



                                             2
                       HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                     TRAINING CENTRE

                             PHYSIOLOGY OF RESPIRATION



AIMS AND OBJECTIVES


Aim

To instruct the student on the physiology of respiration.

Objectives

At the end of the session the student will be able to:

1     Define full duration, working duration and safety margin.

2     Identify that hard work will reduce duration.




                                                 1
                    HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                  TRAINING CENTRE

                          PHYSIOLOGY OF RESPIRATION



1   THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

    The system comprises of the mouth, nose, windpipe (trachea), lungs and pulmonary
    blood vessels. Respiration involves the process of breathing and the exchange of gases
    (oxygen and carbon dioxide) in the lungs and in cells throughout the body.

    We breathe in air in order to take oxygen into the lungs and we breathe out to expel the
    waste gas, carbon dioxide, a by-product of respiration. When we breathe air is drawn in
    through the nose and mouth into the airway and lungs. In the lungs the oxygen is taken
    from air sacs (alveoli) into tiny blood vessels (pulmonary capillaries). At the same time
    carbon dioxide is released from the capillaries into the alveoli and expelled as we
    breathe out.

2   THE PROCESS OF BREATHING

    Breathing is controlled by the brain through the autonomic nervous system. This system
    also helps to monitor the level of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.

    The average adult normally breathes about 16 times per minute, children about 20-30
    times per minute. The rate can be altered (usually increased) by the respiratory centre in
    the brain as a response to abnormal levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide, stress, exercise,
    injury and illness. The body can also change the depth and rate of breathing voluntarily.

    The breathing process consists of breathing in(inspiration), breathing out (expiration)
    and a pause. There is always some air left in the lungs so that oxygen is constantly
    available to the blood.

3   THE COMPOSITION OF AIR

    Air is a mixture of gases in which:

    Nitrogen                               79%
    Oxygen                                 21%
    Other Gases                            Traces

    Exhaled air comprises:

    Nitrogen                               79%
    Oxygen                                 16%
    Carbon Dioxide and Other Gases         5%

    As can be seen the process of respiration uses approximately 5% of oxygen and gives off
    an equal amount of carbon dioxide.


                                             2
4   BREATHING UNDER VARYING DEGREES OF EFFORT

    The amount of oxygen required by the body varies with the amount of work performed.
    If the body is resting, only the involuntary muscles governing the action of the lungs, the
    heart and the digestive system are being used, and consequently very little oxygen is
    required. As soon as the body becomes active, more muscles are used, a greater quantity
    of carbon dioxide is produced and a larger supply of oxygen is required.

    The following table is compiled from a series of experiments undertaken by the late
    Professor J S Haldane MB FRS, and gives an indication of the variation of oxygen
    consumption and air respired for varying degrees of exertion.

          Degrees of             Oxygen      Air Breathed Volume of            Number of
           Exertion          Consumed Litres  Litres Per  Air at each         Respirations
                               Per Minute       Minute     (Litres )
    Rest in bed                   0.237           7.7        0.457                 16.8
    Rest standing                 0.328          10.4        0.612                 17.1
    Walking at 2 mph              0.780          18.6        1.27                  14.7
    Walking at 3 mph              1.065          24.8        2.53                  16.2
    Walking at 4 mph              1.595          37.3        2.06                  18.2
    Walking at 5 mph              2.543          60.9        3.14                  19.5

    Note: 28.3 litres - 1 cubic foot.

    In heavier work, such as ascending an incline or running, the oxygen consumed may
    amount to 3 litres per minute, while the volume of air breathed may reach over 100 litres
    per minute.

5   DURATION OF BREATHING APPARATUS

    5.1      The rate of consumption of air of open circuit BA can vary over a wide range.
             This range of variation depends upon a number of factors which include, the
             physique and work rate of the wearer and the environmental conditions.

    5.2      A number of definitions are used in relation to the duration of BA.

    5.3      Full Duration

             The period during which BA is expected to provide respiratory protection, from
             the moment the cylinder valve is opened until the cylinder content is exhausted.

    5.4      Working Duration

             The period during which BA is expected to provide respiratory protection from
             the moment the cylinder valve is opened until the moment at which the low
             pressure warning whistle starts to operate.




                                              3
5.5   Safety Margin (10 Minutes or 20%)

      The period during which the low pressure warning whistle operates.

5.6   Types of cylinder are available which, whilst they may have identical maximum
      working pressure, have different capacities at this pressure. Care should be
      taken to ensure that duration tables are used and the correct table for the
      cylinder capacity to be used is consulted.

5.7   The average rate of consumption for compressed air BA sets is assumed to be
      40 litres per minute which is the average rate for a man walking at 4 miles per
      hour. When a wearer undertakes exceptionally heavy work the rate may well be
      higher and the duration correspondingly less.

5.8   The safety margin recommended for all types of BA is 10 minutes.

5.9   The formula for determining the working duration for CABA is as follows:

      Contents of Cylinder in Litres - 10
                 40

      LUXFER LCX (1800 litres)

      Working duration = 1800 - 10 = 35 minutes.
                         40




                                      4
                       HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                    TRAINING CENTRE

                             IRRESPIRABLE ATMOSPHERES



AIMS AND OBJECTIVES


Aims

1      To make students aware of the dangers of irrespirable atmospheres.

2      To identify the types of incidents where an irrespirable atmosphere may occur.




                                               5
                     HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                   TRAINING CENTRE

                           IRRESPIRABLE ATMOSPHERES



1   INTRODUCTION

    For firefighters to carry out the tasks of firefighting and rescue in a safe and efficient
    manner they must be aware of the situations where there is a potential for respiratory
    distress or injury. These situations may occur due to:

    -   Oxygen deficient atmospheres.
    -   Discharge of certain fixed installation systems.
    -   Hazardous materials.
    -   Fires.

2   OXYGEN DEFICIENT ATMOSPHERES

    These situations can occur in fires, enclosed spaces, pits and underground structures,
    sewers, silos and storage tanks. For satisfactory functioning of the body, the air breathed
    must contain at least 20% oxygen. Any reduction of the oxygen content will have an
    adverse effect on the body. The term used to describe the prevention of oxygen reaching
    the lungs is called asphyxia. The depletion of oxygen inside the body is known as
    hypoxia. In hypoxia the tissues deteriorate very rapidly - brain cells start to die if their
    supply of oxygen is interrupted for longer than 3 minutes. If hypoxia is not swiftly
    reversed, breathing and the heart may stop. The symptoms include, rapid breathing,
    gasping, blueness of skin, confusion, irritability, unconsciousness and death. However,
    in many cases people may be unaware that hypoxia is occurring.

3   DISCHARGE OF FIXED INSTALLATIONS (CARBON DIOXIDE)

    This gas may be found in, fire situations, in compartments where carbon dioxide fixed
    installations have discharged, ships holds and tanks. Although not toxic it is an
    asphixiant and will cause hypoxia. Its effects are; rapid, painful and distressed
    breathing, panic, unconsciousness and death.

4   HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

    Firefighters will often receive calls to fires and other incidents where it is known or
    suspected that dangerous substances are involved. The hazards of these substances will
    vary, the most likely being chemicals that could be highly toxic or corrosive to the lungs,
    but there may be also a risk from radioactive materials which will cause cellular and
    genetic damage to living tissue or biological contaminants which could cause disease.
    These situations will arise not only on such obvious occasions as incidents at chemical
    factories, but also may occur in many other circumstances, such as road traffic accidents,
    materials washed ashore and calls to a wide variety of premises, eg, farms, schools or
    even private houses.



                                               6
5   FIRE INCIDENTS

    Every year in fires approximately 60% of all fire deaths and 33% of all casualties are as
    a result of smoke inhalation. In a fire situation there are three factors which will cause
    damage to the respiratory system:

    5.1      Heat

             The lungs of a human being are very delicate organs and exposure to
             temperatures of above 130c can result in irreparable damage. It is important to
             note that high temperatures which would not be unbearable to exposed skin,
             may result in severe lung injury.

    5.2      Smoke Particles

             These are particles of carbon which vary in size and, although not toxic, will
             tend to settle in the lungs restricting airways and irritating the linings causing
             coughing and fluid production. They may also carry cancer causing substances
             on their surfaces.

    5.3      Toxic Products of Combustion

             These vary depending on the material involved in the fire. However, the most
             common are carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen chloride, and a
             group of chemicals that, although not present in vast quantities, act on the body
             to produce severe irritation to lungs, eyes, nose and throat.

             5.3.1       CARBON MONOXIDE

                         This is found in all fire situations and is the main cause of death by
                         smoke inhalation. It is also found in the exhaust fumes of petrol
                         and diesel engines and is present in sufficient levels to kill in an
                         unventilated area.

                         The gas is colourless, almost odourless and very poisonous. It has
                         an affinity 200x greater than oxygen for the haemogoblin in the
                         blood cells and therefore prevents oxygen from reaching the body's
                         tissues. The condition is irreversible and when levels in the blood
                         reach 70%, the majority of people will die. An atmosphere
                         containing only 1% carbon monoxide will result in death within 5
                         minutes. The symptoms of exposure include; narcosis, headache,
                         confusion, nausea, unconsciousness and death. Also exposure to
                         carbon monoxide can result in permanent long term damage.




                                              7
            5.3.2       HYDROGEN CYANIDE

                        This gas is produced in varying quantities depending on the
                        materials involved, in particular furniture that contains polyurethane
                        foam. The gas is extremely toxic and can be fatal at concentrations
                        of only 0.3%. It has a faint sweet smell of almonds and rapidly
                        paralysis every part of the central nervous system, in particular the
                        sense of smell. The symptoms of exposure include, slowness of
                        breath, gasping, irregular heart beat, blueness of skin,
                        unconsciousness and death.

            5.3.3       HYDROGEN CHLORIDE

                        This gas is produced when plastics that contain chlorine, such as
                        PVC, burn. These plastics are often used to insulate electrical
                        wiring and fires involving electrical installations will produce
                        substantial amounts of hydrogen chloride. The gas forms
                        hydrochloric acid on contact with water and can cause severe burns
                        to the lining of the lungs. The symptoms of exposure include:
                        severe respiratory pain, gasping for breath and burning of the eyes.

            5.3.4       THE IRRITANT GASES

                        These chemicals include isocyanates, acrolein, formaldehyde and
                        sulphides which are usually present at insufficient levels to be toxic
                        on there own, but instead produce severe irritation to eyes, throat,
                        and lungs. There is long term health implications to exposure.

6   SYNERGISM

    It is important to realise that although the toxic levels of individual gases can be
    predicted, their combined effect (synergism) will produce fatalities at lower
    concentrations. For example, carbon monoxide levels of 60 - 70% in the blood is the
    percentage required to kill most people. However, in fire death victims the
    concentration is usually only 40 - 50 %.

7   TURNING OVER AFTER A FIRE

    Even after the fire has been extinguished toxic gases will still be given off by the
    smouldering materials and many of them will be carcinogenic. Therefore, BA should be
    worn through out the turn over period.




                                             8
                       HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                             ADMINISTRATION OF OXYGEN



AIM

To teach students the correct method for the safe administration of oxygen.


OBJECTIVES

At the end of the session students will be able to:

1     Describe the basic anatomy and physiology of respiration

2     State that oxygen is vital for life and why this is so

3     Detail the circumstances when oxygen will be given

4     List the possible contraindications for the administration of oxygen

5     Recognise an oxygen cylinder

6     Describe the process for the administration of oxygen

7     Detail the use of the equipment

8     List the steps to be taken for the care of cylinders


THE IMPORTANCE OF OXYGEN

Oxygen is vital for life. All of the bodies cells require a constant supply of oxygen to survive
and continue functioning. If they are deprived of oxygen for more than a few minutes cells
will begin to die. Typically brain cells are believed to begin dying after 2 to 3 minutes without
oxygen. In order to supply oxygen to the cells the body carries out the process of respiration as
an autonomic function, and can extract more than sufficient oxygen from the air to meet all
normal needs. If however the respiratory process is damaged or impaired it will become vital
to give additional or supplementary oxygen to the casualty in order to maximise their chances
of survival and recovery.




                                                 9
THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

The respiratory system consists of several parts and is subdivided into 2 distinct parts. The
upper respiratory tract consists of the nose and mouth, and pharynx. The lower respiratory
tract consists of the larynx, trachea, bronchii, and lungs. It is within the alveoli of the lungs
that gas exchange takes place. Because of the law of partial gas pressures oxygen from the
atmosphere enters into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide passes out. This process is
repeated around the body at cellular level with fresh new oxygen entering in and the waste by
product of cellular activity carbon dioxide passing out. In a normal healthy person the
stimulus to breath is rising carbon dioxide levels and although breathing is an autonomic
function we do have some voluntary control over it. In order for the respiratory system to
function adequately it requires the following essential parts:

-   A patent (or intact ) airway
-   Adequate oxygen levels in the atmosphere
-   A functional chest wall and diaphragm
-   Adequate blood haemoglobin, to carry the oxygen around
-   An intact and functioning circulatory system
-   A functioning respiratory centre in the brain

In trauma any one of these could be affected and therefore all trauma patients must be given
high concentrations of oxygen at high flow rates as early as possible.

INDICATIONS FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF OXYGEN

The following classes of casualty must be given oxygen:

-   Anyone with a significant history of trauma
-   Anyone with visible trauma
-   Trapped casualties
-   Anyone with a significant history of smoke inhalation
-   Anyone with chest pains (assume it is cardiac in origin)
-   Anyone in respiratory distress

CONTRAINDICATIONS

- The only definite contraindication against the use of oxygen is the presence of
  environmental conditions that would make its use hazardous
- Casualties with Paraquat poisoning should not be given oxygen but the likelihood of finding
  such a casualty is extremely remote
- Casualties with Chronic Airway Diseases should still be given oxygen but at a reduced flow
  rate as advised at the scene by medical experts




                                                10
CHRONIC AIRWAY DISEASE

Patients who have chronic airway diseases such as emphysema, chronic bronchitis, asbestosis,
etc, have developed a tolerance to high carbon dioxide levels in their body and no longer use
this as the stimulus to breathe. Instead they use falling oxygen levels as the trigger for
breathing. It is possible therefore that giving high percentage oxygen to a casualty suffering
this condition could possibly cause them to stop breathing. It is reckoned however that due to
the time lag involved in the body recognising the high oxygen levels, that this could take 35 -
40 minutes. This is far beyond the timescale which the Fire Service would administer oxygen
for. These casualties should be given oxygen (see contraindications), if they do stop breathing
they should be resuscitated in the normal way.

ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS

Oxygen can be considered as a hazard in certain conditions and the following points should be
born in mind:

-   Oxygen is noncombustible
-   Oxygen is a supporter of combustion
-   The presence of oxygen can serve to widen the flammable limits of gases
-   Oxygen should not be used where there is fire or risk of fire there is electrical sparking
-   Personnel must not smoke when working with or near oxygen
-   Oxygen cylinders should be treated carefully and cared for in the same way as BA cylinders

AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION

The first step in any treatment is to open and secure the airway of the casualty. This can be
achieved by the use of the standard manoeuvers head tilt/chin lift or jaw thrust. When carrying
out any procedure care should be given to the protection and immobilisation of the cervical
spine. Airway adjuncts such as oropharyngeal airways and manual aspirators should also be
used as appropriate to maintain a casualties airway and allow the administration of oxygen to
be succesful.

SUMMARY

-   Casualty assessment, identifying the potential for trauma and airway blockage
-   Carry out basic manoeuvers to open and secure the airway
-   Suction
-   Oropharyngeal airway
-   Is the use of oxygen indicated
-   Think of environmental conditions
-   Think chronic airway disease
-   Administer oxygen
-   Monitor closely

RESUSCITATION

For those casualties who have stopped breathing oxygen will be used for resuscitation using
the new or converted MARS sets. The control module should be set CPR, the flow selector
should be set to off, and the resuscitation mask should be used to administer oxygen via the
use of the trigger, in conjunction with chest compressions in the normal way


                                               11
2.1   The Nature of Oxygen

      Oxygen is an odourless, colourless gas which is 20-21% of normal air. It is non
      combustible but supports combustion strongly. Pure oxygen or 100% oxygen is
      obtained commercially and stored in steel cylinders under pressure of approximately 132
      bars. The cylinders are painted black with a white shoulder.

      All parts of the body require oxygen, particularly the brain, heart and kidneys, and
      failure to supply these with oxygen may leave the casualty a mental, cardiac or renal
      cripple. Oxygen is vital to life as it supports the metabolism.

2.2   Safety Measures

      Oxygen is non combustible but strongly supports combustion (including some materials
      which do not normally burn in air). Oxygen is highly dangerous when in contact with
      oils, greases, tarry substances and many plastics.

      The normal precautions required in the storage and use of medical gas cylinders are
      applicable:

      -   Cylinders should be stored under cover preferably inside.
      -   Cylinders should be kept clean and dry.
      -   Cylinders should not be subjected to extremes of heat or cold.
      -   Cylinders should not be stored near combustibles or heat sources.
      -   Warning signs should be posted stating no smoking/no naked lights.
      -   Full and empty cylinders should be kept separately.
      -   No smoking.
      -   Keep oils and grease away from the outlet.
      -   Do not roll cylinders when moving them.

2.3   Guidelines for the Use of Oxygen Administration Equipment

      - Only administer oxygen as a supplement to normal first aid procedures.
      - Keep oxygen equipment clean, dry and in a safe location.
      - Never permit hydrocarbons, eg, oils, greases, fuels, petrol, diesel and other readily
        combustible substances to come into contact with oxygen equipment.
      - Use oxygen equipment in a well ventilated area clear of any source of ignition such as
        lighted cigarettes, electrical equipment, internal combustion engines, pilot lights, etc.
        Out in the open is best.
      - Use only soap and water for cleaning oxygen equipment.
      - After use, disinfect oro-nasal masks and associated valves using a mild disinfectant
        solution.
      - Check the contents and functioning of oxygen equipment at regular intervals at least
        once per month.
      - Never store oxygen equipment with either the cylinder turned on or the regulator
        pressurised.
      - Use only equipment purpose built for the job by specialist manufacturers. All repairs
        are to be carried out by qualified engineers.




                                               12
2.4   Oxygen Cylinders

      Medical oxygen cylinders in the United Kingdom have a black body with white
      shoulders. The most likely sizes found with portable oxygen equipment are:

      C size - 170 litres charged to 2000 psi
      D size - 340 litres charged to 2000 psi

      Medical gas cylinders are subject to strict regulations on storage and safe use. Make
      sure you are familiar with the statutory regulations and the rules laid down by your
      Brigade. Universal points to remember are:

      -   No smoking when using oxygen
      -   Newly charged cylinders must have the seal tightly fixed in position at the outlet.
      -   The outlet face must not be damaged.
      -   Avoid excessive force when turning the valve key or connecting any apparatus.
      -   Oil or grease must not come into contact with the outlet, valves or associated
          equipment; it could lead to an explosion.
      -   Never allow a cylinder to completely empty; when a cylinder is less than half full it
          should be changed.
      -   Keep empty cylinders separate from full cylinders.
      -   Do not roll cylinders when moving them.
      -   Store cylinders in a well ventilated place.

      REMEMBER:

      All materials which are combustible in air are ignited more easily and burn with a fiercer
      flame in the present of pure oxygen. The gas is safe in the absence of a source of
      ignition. Special attention must be paid to the hazards associated with smoking,
      electrical equipment and static electricity. As it is under pressure, the cylinder will
      explode on heating.

2.5   Regulators

      The regulator is fitted to the cylinder to reduce the pressure of gas from the cylinder
      pressure to the working pressure, usually 4 bar. A contents gauge is incorporated into
      the regulator assembly. The reducer is fitted with a pin index fitting. The pin index
      fitting prevents the wrong cylinder being fitted to the equipment. The oxygen reducer
      has 2 pins. These connect with 2 holes on the cylinder valve.

2.6   Cylinder Connector and Flow Meter

      A MARS flowmeter has a control knob which regulates the flow of oxygen in litres per
      minute from 0 to 15 litres per minute. From the flowmeter the oxygen is connected to
      the facemask by a delivery tube.




                                                13
2.7   Assembling the Equipment

      Always follow the same sequence when assembling oxygen equipment:

      - Remove the manufacturers seal.
      - Check for damage to cylinder outlet.
      - Turn the cylinder away from your face and open the outlet valve to release a small
        amount of gas to blow away any dust, etc.
      - Screw on the regulator head making sure it is seated firmly and there are no gas leaks.
        Do not overtighten.
      - Ensure the flowmeter is in the off position.
      - Turn on the oxygen, check the contents gauge.

3.1   Therapy Facemasks

      The non-rebreather mask is fitted with a reservoir bag to increase oxygen concentration.
      Make sure you use the correct flow rate, usually 15 litres per minute, though this may be
      reduced to 4 lpm or less for patients with chronic airway disease.

      IMPORTANT:

      -   Do not use the same mask for more than one person.
      -   Do not take the mask out of the packaging until you need it.
      -   Always explain to the casualty what you are doing.
      -   Dispose of the mask after use.

3.2   Oxygen Toxicity

      At normal atmospheric pressure oxygen is non toxic up to about 20 hours exposure. At
      increasing pressure oxygen becomes increasingly toxic to the lungs and central nervous
      system. However, in the circumstances that Fire Brigade personnel are likely to
      administer oxygen and the length of time taken to remove the casualty to hospital, there
      is no problem anticipated for the casualty.

3.3   Oxygen Administration Procedure

      The casualty may be intolerant of the mask, so explain what you are doing.

      - Check cylinder contains oxygen.
      - Open cylinder valve fully. Check oxygen is flowing.
      - Place mask over casualty's face, ensuring a snug fit.

3.4   CardioPulmonary Resuscitation

      It is important to remember that oxygen used in conjunction with CPR greatly increases
      the casualty's chance of recovery.




                                               14
3.5   Hypoxia (Low Oxygen Levels within the Body)

      Hypoxia is caused by impaired ventilation of the lungs due to respiratory muscular
      paralysis, drug overdose depressing the respiratory centre, pulmonary oedema and
      infection, or cardiac failure, and occurs in some congenital heart diseases. These all
      cause central cyanosis in which the blood is not saturated with oxygen when it leaves the
      left side of the heart. It is often advisable to give oxygen even when there is no cyanosis
      since oxygen may be deficient in the absence of cyanosis. Hypoxia may result from:

      -   Severe blood loss.
      -   Head/chest injury.
      -   Heart disease.
      -   Carbon monoxide or other toxic inhalation.
      -   Acute asthma attack.
      -   Severe burns.
      -   Stroke.
      -   Spinal injuries.

      High concentrations of oxygen (100% where possible) should be given in these
      conditions. Once the hypoxia has been overcome reduce the oxygen concentration.

3.6   Over Oxygenation

      There is a possibility of over oxygenation. The signs and symptoms are:

      - The casualty's face, especially the cheeks, will look rosy red.
      - The mouth may become dry.
      - In chronically ill persons the breathing will become depressed.

      TREATMENT:

      - Stop the administration of oxygen.
      - Observe for signs of cyanosis.
      - If cyanosis returns recommence the administration of oxygen.

3.7   When to Stop Administration of Oxygen

      Administration of oxygen should stop when:

      - There are indications of over oxygenation.
      - On the orders of a doctor, nurse or ambulance paramedic/technician.




                                               15
                                                                                     Appendix A

                                  PROCEDURES FOR USE



1.1   Pre Use

      - Open bag by undoing Velcro fasteners.

      - Connect regulator valve assembly to cylinder.

      - Check pressure gauge for contents.

      - Turn on cylinder valve fully.

      - Mars is now ready for use.

      Note: When not in use the cylinder valve should be turned off.

1.2   Using Your Mars in Respiratory Arrest

      - Bring the Mars to the casualty as soon as possible.

      - In normal non toxic breathable air, mouth to mouth resuscitation should be
        commenced immediately if no breathing is detected, and until the Mars is ready to
        use.

      - Arriving at the scene of the incident, assess the situation for further danger to yourself
        and/or casualty.

      - Check the mouth is clear of debris, vomit, false teeth, BEFORE establishing the
        airway by extending the head and neck:

         * Maintain the airway in the extended position.
         * DO NOT use Guedel Airway unless trained in its use.

      - Loosen restrictive clothing at the neck and waist.

      - Check patients breathing, pulse, pallor and pupils.

      - Open case using Velcro fasteners.

      - Ensure oxygen is turned on.

      - Only use in manual mode for child under 5 years /20 kg.

      - Remove demand valve and connect selected facemask, place adjacent to casualty.

      - Recheck airway and place mask over patients face ensuring a tight seal around the
        patients nose and mouth. (Use head harness to assure tight seal when transporting).


                                                16
      - Give 2 quick inflations to saturate the lungs with air using the manual trigger. At the
        same time watching the rise and fall of the chest.

      - Excess pressure caused by blockage of the airway through incorrect position or vomit
        will be indicated by an audible alarm on the demand valve. RECTIFY
        IMMEDIATELY BY ESTABLISHING THE AIRWAY.

      - Recheck breathing, pulse, pallor and pupils. If no pulse follow cardiac arrest
        procedure.

      - If pulse but not breathing, select required mode on the ventilating unit (large adult,
        small adult, child), maintain ventilation and continuously monitor pulse, pallor and
        pupils.

      - When the patient commences spontaneous breathing, the Mars will cut out of the pre
        selected ventilation mode and supply oxygen to the casualty. If the first aider is
        remaining with the casualty, fit non-rebreather mask. However, should the casualty
        have to be left unattended, refit Mars resuscitation facemask and put control module
        into the appropriate automatic mode which will supply oxygen on demand. Should
        the casualty’s respiratory rate drop below the pre set levels the Mars system will
        automatically recommence ventilation.

      - Having successfully ventilated the casualty and established a good respiratory rate,
        check the casualty for any further injuries, medi alerts and turn casualty into prone
        position.

      - Treat casualty for shock, reassure and DO NOT LEAVE the casualty until the arrival
        of medical services.

1.3   Cleaning Procedures

      - Unscrew the patient valve housing and rubber non return valve from the demand
        valve.

      - Using a solution of Trigene, immerse for a minimum of 10 minutes.

      - Rinse thoroughly and repeatedly in running water to remove all traces of disinfectant
        solution.

      - Dry all parts with clean lint free materials.

      - Wash the facemask in Trigene solution and rinse thoroughly in running water.

      - Reassemble, having dried the individual parts.

      Note: DO NOT attempt to dismantle the control module.




                                                17
                                                                                      Appendix B

                                                                                         ST/1/2/1
                                                                                           (2/01)
                                     RESUSCITATOR

                                        MARS OXYGEN


TEST FREQUENCY AND COMPETENCY LEVELS

Test Frequency

- On Acceptance
- Monthly
- Annually
- After Use

1    MONTHLY, ON ACCEPTANCE AND AFTER USE

     - Ensure that the pin index yoke seal is clean and in good condition and fully tightened.

     - Ensure that a fully charged oxygen cylinder is fitted to the resuscitator.

     - Open cylinder valve fully.

     - Check that contents gauge reads at least half full. If not replace cylinder.

     - Select child setting and place thumb over patient valve inlet port. The reed valve
       should then sound simulating an airway blockage.

     - Repeat above for all settings.

     - Whilst in large adult setting, flick trigger assembly and check that ventilation resumes
       within 4-6 seconds.

     - Check that the therapy outlet works in all flows.

     - If necessary the patient facemask may be washed in warm water with a HFRS
       recommended disinfecting solution and then rinsed thoroughly in clean running water.

     - Carry out thorough visual inspection.

     - If any further cleaning is required following use, an Operational Equipment
       Technician should be contacted for advice.

2    ANNUALLY

     Annual Test and replacement of parts will be carried out by an Operational Equipment
     Technician.




                                               18
HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                     TRAINING CENTRE

                                       SABRE CONTOUR



AIMS AND OBJECTIVES


Aims

To instruct students in the basic construction of the Sabre Contour BA Set and its associated
equipment.

Objectives

At the end of the session the student will be able to:

1      Describe the principle design features of the set.

2      Name the five main components.

3      Describe the cylinder used by Hampshire Fire and Rescue Service and its capacity.

4      Recognise the colour coding of a compressed air cylinder.

5      Demonstrate the ability to turn on and off a compressed air cylinder.

6      State the correct procedures for the storage of cylinders.

7      State the correct procedures for the transport of cylinders.

8      Describe the correct method of cleaning and repair of the surface paintwork on a
       cylinder.

9      Demonstrate the ability to fit a cylinder to a backplate.

10     Demonstrate the ability to fit the cylinder connector.

11     Describe the function of the pressure reducer.

12     Describe the function of the pressure gauge and define its safety features.

13     Describe the function of the safety warning whistle.

14     Describe the function of the demand valve.




                                                 19
15   Demonstrate the method to connect the demand valve to the facemask.

16   Demonstrate the ability to operate the by-pass valve and identify its function.

17   Describe the function of the first breath mechanism.

18   Demonstrate the operation of the first breath mechanism reset.

19   Describe the function of the oral nasal mask and exhalation valve.

20   Demonstrate the correct method of adjusting the head harness.

21   Describe the function and operation of Automatic Distress Signal Unit.

22   Identify similar rounds to a ADSU that could be encountered on the fireground.

23   Demonstrate the function of the safety torch and demonstrate the fitting of new batteries
     and bulb.




                                              20
                     HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                  TRAINING CENTRE

                                   SABRE CONTOUR



1   INTRODUCTION

    The Sabre Contour is a self contained - open circuit - 2 stage - automatic first breath
    operated - positive breathing apparatus.

    Designed to meet the requirements of BS 4667 Part 2 and the CEN Standard for
    Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus, EN 137 and EN 136.

2   5 MAIN COMPONENTS

    -   Cylinder of compressed air
    -   Pneumatic assembly
    -   Whistle and gauge assembly
    -   Sabre Panaseal full face mask
    -   Harness and backplate assembly.

    2.1      Cylinder

             2.1.1       CARBON FIBRE FULL WRAP COMPOSITE - LUXFER LCX
                         BA CYLINDER

                         Manufactured by Luxfer Gas Cylinders.

                         Conforms to:      HSE Specification FW2
                                           PPE at Work Regs 1992
                                           Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regs 1992
                                           Pressure Systems and Transportable Gas
                                              Containers Regs 1989

                         -   Ultra thin walled liner.
                         -   Smooth inert internal finish.
                         -   Insulating layer.
                         -   High performance carbon fibre overwrap in epoxy resin matrix.
                         -   70% lighter than steel cylinders.
                         -   PROTECTIVE COVERS PROVIDED MUST BE USED AT
                             ALL TIMES.

             2.1.2       Water Capacity             9 litres
                         Weight                     4 kg
                         Pressure                   207 bar
                         Capacity                   1800 litres free air
                         Full Duration              45 minutes



                                              21
2.1.3   Working Duration           35 minutes
        Safety Margin              10 minutes

        Approximate working duration calculations:

        1800 litres - 10 mins = 35 mins
        40 l/min

        Note: For the purposes of these calculations it is assumed that the
        wearer has an approximate air consumption of 40 l/min. A standard
        safety margin of 10 minutes has been allowed.

2.1.4   BS 1319

        Body                       Grey
        Neck and Shoulders         Black/White quarters

        Charging should not exceed 7 bar in 15 seconds. 7.5 min to charge
        to 207 bar. All BA cylinders are marked with the correct working
        pressure. This is indicated by black figures on a yellow label
        situated below the shoulder section of the cylinder when recharging,
        this pressure must not be exceeded.

2.1.5   CYLINDER VALVE

        - The cylinder valve is protected by a rubber buffer and the hand
          wheel is fitted with a ratchet to prevent the unintentional shutting
          of the cylinder valve.

        - In order to prevent damage to the threads, and/or ingress of dust
          into the valve, dust plugs must be fitted when the cylinder is not
          connected.

2.1.6   STORAGE

        - Cylinders must be stored well away from sources of heat, such as
          boilers, stoves, radiators, etc.

        - Wooden racks provide the most suitable method of storage.

        - Cylinders must at all times be protected from damp and
          corrosive conditions.

        - Full and empty cylinders must be kept apart; empty cylinders
          must be clearly marked 'MT' with white chalk in order to prevent
          confusion and mistakes.

        - Where possible, cylinders should not be completely emptied, as
          a positive pressure in the cylinder prevents entry of moisture
          from the atmosphere.



                            22
        - Valves of 'MT' cylinders should always be closed.

        -   All spare and 'MT' cylinder valve outlets must be fitted with
            thread protector plugs to prevent damage to the threads and for
            safety reasons if the cylinder valve is accidentally opened during
            transportation.

2.1.7   TRANSPORTATION

        - Owing to the high pressure to which cylinders are charged and
          the risk of damage to valves and screw connections by rough
          handling, every precaution should be taken to ensure safe
          transportation. The thread protectors must be fitted to prevent
          projection of the cylinder in the event of the main valve being
          accidentally opened.

        - Cylinders should be carried on appliances or conveyed in
          vehicles in containers or suitable racks, well secured. They
          should not be placed with other equipment or containers. They
          must not be allowed to come into violent contact with one
          another. Empty cylinders require as much care as full ones.

        - A cylinder may be seriously damaged by scratching and scoring
          caused by careless handling. Composite cylinders are prone to
          such damage and protective covers have been provided
          which should be used at all times.

        - The minimum pressure for spare cylinders carried on appliances
          is 180 bar. Cylinder contents should be checked weekly for loss
          of pressure and replaced as necessary.

2.1.8   HYDRAULIC TESTING AND MAINTENANCE

        All cylinders will be subjected to hydraulic testing at the following
        intervals:

        Light alloy cylinders        - every 3 years

        A record will be kept at Service HQ of all cylinders including:

        - Type
        - Serial number
        - Date of last hydraulic test




                            23
                 Luxfor LCX Composite Cylinders

                 When due for test the ADO (E) will promulgate by teleprinter to all
                 stations and Divisional HQs, the serial numbers on all cylinders that
                 are required for test. On receipt of the message the OiC will:

                 - Ensure that ALL cylinders allocated to the station are checked
                   and serial numbers cross referenced against those required for
                   test.

                 - Ensure that an accurate return (including nil return) is completed
                   and forwarded to the Divisional Staff Office as soon as possible.

                 - Ensure that any 'due' cylinder attached to a BA set is relocated as
                   a spare cylinder to enable easy collection by Divisional staff.

                 - Ensure all 'due' cylinders are clearly labelled 'cylinder due for
                   test'.

                 Cleaning

                 - Remove dirt by the use of soap and cold water.

                 - Remove grease by use of detergent.

                 Damage to Luxfor LCX Cylinders

                 Report any scratches to Operational Equipment Technicians
                 (OET's) and take off the run until dealt with.

                 Retained stations must notify divisional HQ of damaged cylinders.

                 Divisional HQ will arrange for replacement cylinders to be issued
                 and the damaged cylinder to be treated.

                 Master Gauges

                 OETs will check master gauges on stations during the annual
                 testing of BA sets.

2.2   Pneumatic Assembly Cylinder Connector

      This is made by a finger tight handwheel connection which relies for a gas tight
      seal (as do many other connections on the apparatus) on a EPDM 'O' Ring.




                                     24
2.2.1   THE PRESSURE REDUCER

        The BA set is designed to convert cylinder pressures to more
        manageable, breathable pressures in 2 distinct stages. The first
        stage is accomplished by the pressure reducer. Pressures are
        reduced from cylinder pressure (anything from a maximum of 207
        bar) down to 5.5-9.5 bar ready for acceptance at the demand valve.

        A safety feature to prevent over pressurising of the low pressure
        side of the device is provided. The valve is designed to discharge
        excessive pressure caused by a failing reducer, to waste, rather than
        allow pressure to build up and transfer to the demand valve. A
        calibrated spring (11.5 bar) holds the valve closed until pressures
        rise to an unacceptable level.

2.2.2   PRESSURE GAUGE HOSE

        The hose leading to the pressure gauge is stainless steel braided. It
        has a test pressure of 450 bar with a burst pressure of 800 bar. A
        flow restrictor in the reducer will restrict flow to approximately 8-9
        lpm at 70 bar should a defect occur in the hose.

2.2.3   DEMAND VALVE SUPPLY HOSE

        The demand valve supply hose is nitrile reinforced with a test
        pressure of 16 bar and a burst pressure of 80 bar.

2.2.4   THE DEMAND VALVE

        The demand valve assembly is designed to regulate the flow of air
        into the facemask. It must:

        -   Satisfy the operator's requirement for air.
        -   Sustain positive pressure respiratory protection in the facemask.

2.2.5   DEMAND VALVE FIRST BREATH MECHANISM

        When the BA set is first turned on, air will flow into the demand
        valve but will not flow from the outlet port into the facemask. The
        air is held back from this final stage by the 'first breath mechanism'.
        The mechanism is actuated by lowering the pressure within the
        facemask, which is done on inhalation by the operator. This will
        allow the set to be switched on without the facemask having to be
        held onto the face.

2.2.6   BYPASS FACILITY

        Attached to the inlet stem is a ribbed sleeve which allows the stem
        to be rotated to align the port in the stem with another in the body.
        This allows a continuous flow of air (nominal 150 lpm) to the mask
        independent of the normal demand valve operation.


                            25
2.3   Pressure Gauge

      2.3.1      A Bourdon Tube type gauge gives the wearer a constant indication
                 of cylinder pressure. The casing is constructed of stainless steel.

      2.3.2      The gauge is calibrated from zero to 350 bar in 10 bar calibrations.
                 It has a luminous backplate with black pointer and marks every 50
                 bar.

      2.3.3      SAFETY FEATURES

                 -   A flow restrictor in the base of the gauge.
                 -   Heavy duty neoprene cover.
                 -   Polycarbonate shatterproof window.
                 -   A blow out disc in the back of the gauge.

      2.3.4      A new pressure gauge featuring a fully luminous face has been
                 developed by Sabre. These will replace current gauges if they
                 become defective and require replacement.

      2.3.5      THE LOW PRESSURE WARNING WHISTLE

                 The low pressure warning whistle is actuated by a change in
                 cylinder air pressure. The whistle sounds when the cylinder
                 pressure drops to 20% of the fully charged cylinder capacity (45-40
                 bar).

                 The operation of the whistle marginally affects the duration of the
                 set, with a consumption of 2 litres of air per minute.

2.4   Facemask

      The facemask is a Panaseal full vision mask made of non-dermatitic neoprene.
      It has a reflex seal and a polycarbonate visor to Grade I impact/optical
      requirements BS 2092. It has a removable ori-nasal inner mask and speech
      diaphragm.

      A neoprene neckstrap and adjustable head harness.

      2.4.1      EXHALATION

                 The exhalation valve is a sealed pre-set spring assisted mushroom
                 valve which opens between 36 to 60 mm WG. It is located in the
                 front of the mask and protected behind a cover plate.

2.5   Harness and Backplate

      2.5.1      HARNESS AND WAISTBELT

                 This is made of polyester with fire resistant foam padded shoulder
                 straps and stainless steel buckles.


                                      26
Side arms are of glass filled nylon.




                    27
      2.5.2      BACKPLATE

                 - Backplate is constructed from nylon-carbon-glass composite.
                 - Non conductive and anti static.
                 - Low heat transfer properties.
                 - Hoses contained in backplate channel.
                 - Straps are constructed of flame retardent polyester/nylon with
                   closed cell padding.
                 - Full padded backpad.
                 - Pelvic support strap.

                 Approx weight less cylinder = 3 kg

                 Method of Use: The harness and backplate can be worn high or
                 low on the back to suit individual preference.

2.6   Automatic Distress Signal Unit - Diktron DSX Mk II

      To provide a fully automatic distress alarm in hazardous areas.

      SPECIFICATION

      The Diktron DSX alarm is specifically designed for users of breathing
      apparatus working in potentially hazardous environments. Conforms to or
      exceeds JCDD 38 ADSU 1990.

      The DSX unit will automatically emit a 96dBa alarm should the wearer be
      rendered unconscious or trapped.

      The DSX is waterproof and intrinsically safe and the case is moulded in a fire
      retardent materials.

      METHOD OF USE

      To turn the unit on, remove the priming key by pressing on the top of the key
      and sliding it backwards. The unit then emits an OK signal (Morse) to confirm
      it is now fully operational.

      Manual Switch

      The unit can be manually set to full alarm by pressing in the manual switch pad
      on the top of the front panel of the unit.

      Movement Sensor

      A lack of movement for 30 seconds will cause a 10 second pre alarm signal
      (70-80 dBa) which can be cancelled by movement. If no movement occurs
      during the 10 second pre alarm then the unit will lock into full alarm.




                                     28
             Duration Timer

             This unit measures the time elapsed from the removal of the priming key. The
             signals of elapsed time are:

             10 minutes      1 bleep
             20 minutes      2 bleeps
             30 minutes      3 bleeps
             35 minutes      5 bleeps
             Then every 5 minutes thereafter 5 bleeps

             This facility is designed to prompt the normal routine of pressure gauge
             readings and is provided purely as an aid in this regard.

             The 2 bleeps after 20 minutes will also assist wearers in CPS and gas tight suits
             that they have worn the suits for 20 minutes.

             Evacuation Whistle

             The side button can be used to emit evacuation whistle blasts enabling the
             wearer to 'pass on' any evacuation instruction received. This sound will
             continue until the key is inserted or a higher priority sound is required.

             Sound Priority

             1     Full alarm - 96dBA at 2m in free air
             2     Pre alarm - 10 sec low continuous tone 70-80 dBA
             3     Evacuation - 3 short blasts every 20 secs
             4     Low battery warning - Red LED and audible tone 1 sec every 2 secs

             The priming key has a small magnet implanted and care should be taken that
             small metal particles do not damage the key slide in the body of the unit.

             MAINTENANCE

             Clean the unit with soap and water, never use solvent or chemical cleaners.

             Never over tighten screws on battery compartment or harness fixings.

3   SAFETY TORCHES

    This torch is designed and constructed to the highest standards of safety and reliability.
    It is made from a tough anti-static plastic material and all metal parts are non-ferrous.
    Besides its safety features it is also completely water and dustproof.

    3.1      Instructions

             This torch MUST be locked before being taken into a dangerous atmosphere
             and MUST NOT be opened whilst in the danger areas. If used in the presence
             of aromatic solvents the torch must not be opened for at least 24 hours after
             removal from the vapour hazard (due to possible swelling of mating parts).


                                              29
3.2   Locking and Unlocking

      Two independent locks are provided, one for the front cap and one for the base
      cap. To lock the torch, tighten the caps down firmly to ensure a good seal,
      taking care to align the flat faces on the front cap with those on the body and
      one of the slots in the base cap with the locking screw boss. Screw forward the
      captive locking screws sufficiently for the stops to engage fully in the recesses
      of the caps. DO NOT OVER TIGHTEN THE LOCKING SCREWS.

      To unlock, reverse the procedure, unscrewing the locking screws just enough to
      disengage the stops.

3.3   To Fit Batteries

      Remove base cap and insert 2 or 3 R20 size 1.5 volt dry cells, caps uppermost,
      only zinc/carbon type cells may be used. Replace cap and lock.

3.4   To Replace Bulb

      Unlock and remove front cap, unscrew bulb holder from reflector, exchange
      bulb and re-assemble, ensuring that the bulb holder is screwed firmly home and
      that there is a good connection between the bulb 'pip' and the centre contact,
      and the bulb holder and side contact, in the head of the torch. Replace front cap
      and relock.

      2 spare bulbs are housed in the base cap, these should be replenished after each
      bulb change.

3.5   Switch

      The 3 position switch (off-flash-on) actuates the electrical contacts through a
      sealed waterproof diaphragm. The switch which is secured by screws is
      detachable and can be replaced if it becomes worn or damaged.




                                      30
                       HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                     TRAINING CENTRE

                                       BA PROCEDURE


AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

Aim

To instruct students on the procedures to be adopted during incidents involving BA.

Objectives

At the end of the session the student will be able to:

1     State who can give instructions for the wearing of BA.

2     Relate the importance of reporting respiratory hazard/distress to the IC.

3     State the duties of Breathing Apparatus wearers at an incident.

4     Define the minimum number of wearers in BA team.

5     State the duties of a team leader.

6     State that BA should only be donned in fresh air.

7     Demonstrate the effective use of a pressure gauge to calculate working duration during
      exercises.

8     State that the low pressure warning whistle sounds to indicate the safety margin and
      should not be included in the working duration.

9     Describe the procedure for summoning assistance and evacuating a building.

10    State what factors and occurrences determine when withdrawal from a risk area should
      occur.

11    State the procedure for the operation of a distress signal unit.

12    Describe the procedure to be adopted following a facemask dislodgement.

13    Describe the procedure for incidents involving wearer distress.

14    Describe the procedure for impounding a Breathing Apparatus set.

15    Describe the procedures to be adopted when aerial appliances are used to gain access to
      an entry point for BA teams.

16    Describe the procedures for the use of aerial appliances whilst wearing BA.

                                                31
                        HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                      TRAINING CENTRE

                                        BA PROCEDURE



BA is to be worn only on the instructions of the Officer in Charge of an incident. Where any
doubt exists as to the safety of working conditions the Officer in Charge will give orders that
BA (and any other appropriate protective equipment) will be used. Particular care must be
taken in assessing when it is safe to discontinue the use of BA. Many plastic materials
continue to give off irritant gases for a period after flame has been extinguished, therefore, BA
operations may need to be continued into the salvage and turning over phase of a fire. Listed
below is information on basic BA procedures that are not covered under any other sections:

1     GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS TO BA WEARERS

      1.1      Health

               Any firefighter suffering from a cold or other complaint affecting the
               respiratory system, eyesight or general health and impairing the ability to wear
               BA must inform the Officer in Charge when reporting for duty. The firefighter
               will not be permitted to wear BA unless authorised to do so.

      1.2      Facial Hair

               Any excess facial hair may result in a poor facial seal with the facemask,
               therefore beards are not permitted and sideburns must be kept thin. Moustaches
               are permitted providing that they are of a type that does not interfere with the
               seal of the mask.

2     DUTIES OF THE OFFICER IN CHARGE

      The IC will need to conduct an assessment of the developing and potential risk of the
      incident before committing BA crews. This will involve:

      - Identifying the hazard.
      - Carrying out a risk analysis.
      - Carrying out a risk assessment.

      The risk assessment process should be continuous throughout the incident to enable the
      IC to review plans in line with developing risk.

3     DUTIES OF BA WEARERS

      3.1      Nominated at the Fire Station

               3.1.1         Carry out the appropriate Standard Test for the BA set.

               3.1.2         Record the results.


                                                   32
    3.2   At an Incident

          Firefighters ordered to wear BA at an incident are responsible for:

          - Checking that the apparatus is functioning correctly.
          - Ensuring that lamps, communications and firefighting equipment are
            operating correctly before entering the risk area.
          - Equipping themselves with 2 BA door wedges before reporting to Entry
            Control.
          - Handing the tally to the Entry Control Officer before entering the risk area.
          - Regularly checking their pressure gauge.
          - Maintain regular verbal contact with other members of the team.
          - Collecting the tally from the Entry Control Officer when they have finished
            working in the risk area.
          - Ensuring that any information relevant to the incident is made known to the
            Entry Control Officer (debrief).
          - After collecting their tally, reporting to the BA Main Control (if
            appropriate).

          Note: BA wearers are often at the forefront of firefighting activity and all
          members of a BA crew should remain alert to the potential for flashover and for
          backdraught during the incident.

    3.3   If rapid deployment procedure is being used then the BA wearers are
          responsible for providing the BA control board for the pump operator.

4   SIZE OF BA TEAMS

    4.1   BA teams are to consist of no fewer than 2 and, save in exceptional
          circumstances, not more than 4 personnel. For ship fires, teams will ideally
          consist of no fewer than 3.

    4.2   The IC should increase the size of the team in relation to range and demands of
          the tasks to be carried out. The more difficult or complex tasks will sometimes
          benefit from larger teams but can slow down operations. The size of team
          should reflect the BA wearers experience and competence. For more complex,
          difficult or dangerous incidents team leaders should be drawn from experienced
          watch officers or station commander ranks whenever these are available.
          Where possible, BA crews should be formed from teams from the same station
          and led by their own junior officers.




                                          33
    4.3     In normal circumstances, BA wearers who enter the incident as a team should
            remain as part of the team for the whole time that they are in the risk area.
            Teams may divide only for specific tasks and with the prior instruction of the
            team leader. Where the duration of the division is likely to be for an extended
            period, the Entry Control Point (ECP) must be informed. A new team leader
            must be appointed for the newly separated team. If practicable or considered
            appropriate, the ECP should be informed of the separation. In reaching a
            decision about whether to separate for anticipated extended periods, the
            estimated time of whistle, the location and ease of access of emergency team(s),
            if available, should be taken into consideration by the team leader. A BA
            wearer is not to enter a risk area alone, nor is a wearer to be left alone in the
            risk area, either to work or to withdraw from the risk area.

5   DUTIES OF A TEAM LEADER

    5.1     A team leader should be a minimum rank of Leading Firefighter.

    5.2     The duties of a team leader are:

            - Fully brief the team before entry.
            - Co-ordinate gauge checks.
            - Monitor working conditions.
            - Ensure that the ECO is regularly updated with relevant information if
              communications equipment is being used.
            - Decide when to withdraw from the risk area.
            - Respond to ADSUs.

6   STARTING UP

    BA should be donned and started up in fresh air if possible, or an area free of smoke or
    chemical hazard. Only for self rescue purposes should a firefighter who has already
    inhaled smoke, oxygen deficient or toxic fumes subsequently rig in BA. Unless the
    appliance is designed for the purpose, personnel should not rig in BA en route to an
    incident.

7   USE OF THE PRESSURE GAUGE

    7.1     Pressure gauge readings taken during use will indicate the rate at which the
            contents of the cylinder is being depleted. This indication is, however, relative
            to the filled capacity of the cylinder and extreme care should be taken to avoid
            confusion when cylinders of more than one capacity are in use at an incident.

    7.2     Team leaders are responsible for periodically reminding team members to
            check their pressure gauges and for initiating action to withdraw the team when
            necessary.

    7.3     Notwithstanding the above, the wearer is responsible for checking the reading
            on the gauge frequently during wear, both to detect a rapid loss of contents
            which is not explained by the workload and to ensure that sufficient air remains
            to permit withdrawal to safety by the time the whistle sounds. The team leader
            should be informed of any difficulties.


                                               34
8    LOW PRESSURE WARNING WHISTLE

     8.1     The low pressure warning whistle is designed to operate when the remaining
             cylinder contents provide only the 'safety margin'.

     8.2     Whenever a low pressure warning whistle operates, the wearer of the set
             involved is to immediately inform the BA team leader who must withdraw the
             whole of a two wearer team, or at the team leader's discretion, part of a larger
             team from the risk area.

     8.3     Wearers should be aware that the warning whistles consumes 2 litres of air per
             minute and therefore affects duration.

9    SUMMONING ASSISTANCE

     Where additional personnel are required to carry out tasks inside an incident, loud, slow
     and regular hand clapping can be used to attract the attention of other crews working
     nearby.

10   WITHDRAWAL

     10.1    The decision about when to withdraw from a risk area is a very important one.
             The central aim must be to ensure that all the BA team members return to the
             Entry Control Point (ECP) by the estimated time of operation of the low
             pressure warning whistle, subject to circumstances which necessitate an early
             withdrawal.

             BA team leaders must not rely solely on cylinder contents when reaching a
             decision to withdraw from the risk area and the following additional factors
             must be taken into account by the team leader:

             - Unusual physiological or psychological stress experienced from rapid
               temperature increase.
             - Depth of penetration into the risk area.
             - A deteriorating situation.

             A BA team leader must withdraw their team if any member:

             -   Has an uncontrolled loss of pressure.
             -   Appears or feels unwell or confused.
             -   Has a gauge that becomes faulty or unreadable.
             -   Has been exposed to an irrespirable atmosphere.
             -   Has a low pressure warning whistle activate.

             The team should also withdrawn when:

             - The team leader, acting on personal initiative, experience, assessment or the
               advice of team members, determines that the team is being exposed to an
               inappropriate level of risk.
             - A team member reaches a pre determined pressure reading as set by the IC.
             - The evacuation signal sounds.


                                              35
     10.2   For teams of 3 or less, the whole team should withdraw whether or not the task
            is completed. However, at the BA team leaders discretion, part of a team may
            withdraw from the risk area, for example:

            - Where team members number 4 or more a team could split with only 2
              members having to withdraw.
            - Where a low pressure warning whistle activates prematurely due to set
              malfunction.
            - A minor leak to the facemask.

            On no account should a BA wearer attempt to leave the risk area
            unaccompanied.

     10.3   The IC should be immediately informed of any decision to withdraw
            prematurely from the risk area.

11   DISTRESS SIGNALS

     11.1   BA wearers should indicate that they are in distress by operating the Distress
            Signal Unit. In the event of an individual wearer becoming distressed only the
            affected wearer should operate their distress signal unit.

     11.2   When a distress signal is heard the team leaders of BA teams who have
            sufficient reserves of air are to direct their teams to investigate the source of the
            sound. Rendering assistance to a wearer in distress is to take precedence over
            the work in hand, but regard must be had to keeping escape routes open and
            rescues already being carried out. Once sufficient help is available, any hose
            lines temporarily abandoned must be reinstated.

     11.3   A number of devices exist which produce a similar sound to that of a Distress
            Signal Unit. Many of these devices, such as freezer alarms and single point
            smoke detectors, may be encountered at an incident. Such a sound must be
            investigated to ensure that it is not a distress signal.

     11.4   Distress Signal Units must not be used for any purpose other than to indicate
            that a wearer is in distress.

12   EVACUATION SIGNAL

     12.1   The evacuation signal is repeated blasts on an Acme Thunderer Whistle for
            approximately 2 minutes, or until all personnel are accounted for. Officers and
            Junior Officers should also operate their whistles to speed up evacuation.

     12.2   On hearing the evacuation signal wearers will withdraw immediately without
            attempting to recover hose lines or equipment, and report to the appropriate
            Entry Control for the entry board to be checked. If all personnel are not
            accounted for, a search of the building must be initiated and the Officer in
            Charge of the incident informed.




                                             36
13   INCIDENTS INVOLVING WEARER DISTRESS

     13.1    Incidents occur from time to time during which a wearer of BA may suffer
             distress or injury. Where a wearer suffers a loss of air he/she should
             immediately:

             13.1.1      Ensure the cylinder air valve is fully open.

             13.1.2      Operate the bypass control and withdraw to safety.

             13.1.3      Should the air supply not be forthcoming, the wearer is to operate
                         the Distress Signal Unit and travel to open air as quickly as
                         possible. Going to a window or other opening and awaiting
                         assistance may be the best course of action rather than undertaking
                         a long journey to the entry point.

     13.2    It should be noted that the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous
             Occurrences Regulations SI 2023: 1985, specifies that any incident where BA
             or other apparatus serving the same purpose, while being used, fails to function
             safely, or develops a defect likely to affect its safe working, is a notifiable
             dangerous occurrence within the meaning of the Regulations. Clearly, some
             incidents involving BA potentially fall within this definition.

14   INCIDENTS INVOLVING FACEMASK DISLODGEMENT

     If a wearers facemask becomes dislodged the wearer should hold their breath and
     replace their mask.

     A wearer who believes that they have been exposed to irrespirable atmospheres due to
     dislodge or damage to the facemask should inform the team leader who in turn should
     arrange for the wearer to be escorted to safety as soon as possible.

15   PROCEDURE FOR IMPOUNDING A BA SET

     15.1    In the event of a BA wearer suffering distress, injury or set defect, the BA
             Entry Control Officer will:

             15.1.1      Inform the Officer in Charge of the incident.

             15.1.2      Initiate action relating to the welfare of the wearer.




                                              37
       15.1.3      Impound the set and the following information must be noted and
                   recorded either in a notebook, on the remarks column of the control
                   board or on the BA drawing board:

                   - Close the cylinder valve and note the number of complete turns
                     required to do so.
                   - The position of the bypass control.
                   - The gauge reading.
                   - The time when the wearer left the incident.
                   - Any other information regarding the condition of the set which is
                     obvious without carrying out a detailed inspection, or remarks by
                     the wearer or other team member.

       15.1.4      Place the complete set with the ancillary equipment and tally into a
                   plastic bag, together with a record of the information on the control
                   board, notebook or drawing board relating to the original entry of
                   the team and the impounding of the set, and then secure the plastic
                   bag.

15.2   The officer in charge of the incident will:

       15.2.1      Inform HFRS Control that a BA set has been impounded and where
                   it is going to be taken.

       15.2.2      Arrange for the set to be taken and then held in a secure room and
                   for the test records relating to the set to be seized and held with the
                   set.

       15.2.3      Ensure that NO examination of the BA set is carried out either at
                   the incident or whilst in transit.

15.3   HFRS Control will:

       15.3.1      Immediately inform the Operational Equipment Officer or HQ Duty
                   Officer and the nearest Operational Equipment Technician (BA),
                   who will carry out an investigation under the supervision of the
                   Operational Equipment Officer or nominated Officer, of the
                   minimum rank of Station Officer.

       15.3.2      If wearer distress was possibly caused by the set not providing
                   sufficient air, it will stay impounded pending inquiry by
                   HFRS/Sabre/HSE, to be convened as soon as possible.

                   - If malfunction caused a free flow of air or fail safe condition the
                     set will be inspected by an OET to determine fault.
                   - The OEO or Duty Officer will inform DO (P) of all findings.




                                        38
            15.3.3     It must be remembered that among all the familiar criteria for a
                       malfunction to be reportable as a dangerous occurrence under the
                       RIDDOR Regs the following are included:

                       - Malfunction of breathing apparatus whilst in use or during
                         testing immediately before use.
                       - Heat stress.

16   AERIAL APPLIANCES

     16.1     A Firefighter at the head of an aerial appliance who is required to wear
              breathing apparatus for the purpose of personal protection and comfort, is
              not considered as part of a team and can work as an individual. However,
              they must remain in communication with the ladder operator and must not
              leave the head of the ladder and enter any building.

     16.2     Aerial appliances being used by BA teams as access to an entry point must
              not be used for any other purpose (unless transporting relief/emergency
              teams) and should remain at the entry point.

     16.3     The cage of an aerial appliance is not to be used as the site of an entry
              control point. Instead, it should be sited in a suitable position close to the
              base of the aerial appliance.

     16.4     It is undesirable for aerial appliances to be operated by breathing apparatus
              wearers (either from the cage or base). Where in exceptional circumstances
              it is necessary to operate such an appliance then it should be borne in mind
              that the facemask visor can distort vision and may impair perspective.




                                            39
                       HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                     TRAINING CENTRE

                  DONNING, DOFFING AND START UP PROCEDURE



AIMS AND OBJECTIVES


Aim

To instruct the students in the donning, start up procedure and removal of BA set in a safe
manner.

Objectives

At the end of the session the student will be able to:

1     Demonstrate the correct procedure for donning a BA Set that has been placed on the
      floor.

2     Demonstrate the correct procedure for donning a BA set from the back of an appliance.

3     Demonstrate the start up procedure for a BA set.

4     Demonstrate the close down procedure and removal of a BA set.




                                                40
                    HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                 TRAINING CENTRE

DONNING, START UP AND DOFFING PROCEDURES FOR SABRE CONTOUR BA
                             SETS



1   GENERAL

    Care must be taken when removing BA sets from appliances and other stowage to
    ensure that damage is not caused to any part of the apparatus by violent contact with any
    objects of structure in the vicinity. When it is necessary to place the BA set on the
    ground the facemask should always be placed with the visor uppermost to prevent
    scratching of the visor by dirt or dust. One of the side arms to be folded against
    backplate to reduce strain on waist belt. At all times when the set is not being used the
    mask must always be protected by placing it in the mask protection bag supplied with
    the set.

2   DONNING PROCEDURE

    2.1     Check that all straps are fully slackened off.

    2.2     Check that the cylinder valve is off.

    2.3     Check that demand valve is correctly fitted to the facemask.

    2.4     Grasp neckstrap, demand valve supply hose and right shoulder strap in left
            hand, hold top of strap with right hand and swing apparatus around onto the
            back. Place left hand through shoulder strap.

    2.5     Fit neckstrap, adjust shoulder straps by pulling loops outwards then downwards
            towards the waist until set is in a comfortable position.

    2.6     Connect and tighten the waistbelt buckle, wrap away excess webbing.

    2.7     Check bypass valve is closed, depress first breath mechanism.

    2.8     Turn cylinder valve on fully. (Note: Initially there will be a flow of air from
            the demand valve, the valve will then close.) Then listen for any leaks.

    2.9     Check cylinder contents (minimum 80% cylinder pressure/160 3.3 bar).

3   START UP PROCEDURE

    3.1     Take breath and fit facemask chin first, adjust head harness buckles. Ensure
            that hair does not compromise the facemask seal area. This may be more easily
            achieved if the wearer leans forward.




                                             41
3.2    Exhale breath, then inhale sharply to initiate first breath mechanism.

3.3    BA wearers should visually check their partners head harness is correctly
       positioned on the head with the straps in line with the mask tongues and evenly
       tensioned.

3.4    Insert 2 fingers between your face and the mask, there should be an outflow of
       air indicating that the set is operating in positive pressure.

3.5    Take 2 or 3 breaths then hold breath for 5 seconds. There should be no audible
       flow.

3.6    Check by-pass operation, open then close.

3.7    Hold breath and turn off the cylinder. KEEP your hand on the cylinder valve.

3.8    Observe the gauge for 8 seconds whilst moving the head through all axis.

3.9    Extreme movement of the head may cause some leakage, but this should cease
       once the head is returned to a more central position and/or the head movement
       is less severe.

3.10   Breathe the set down slowly observing the gauge and noting the activation of
       the whistle.

3.11   Turn the cylinder valve back on and take 2 or 3 normal breaths.

3.12   Hold breath and again turn off the air supply to the mask keeping a hand on the
       cylinder valve.

3.13   Breathe steadily until the air is exhausted, gauge shows empty, inhale to cause
       the mask to collapse on to the face. If there is a defect with the facemask or
       poor fit between the face and the mask, the wearer will be unable to generate a
       vacuum inside the mask, therby preventing the continued collapse on the face.

3.14   Hold your breath for a further 8 seconds ensuring that the facemask remains
       ‘sucked’ onto the face.

3.15   If any leaks are identified re-fit the facemask and re-test.

3.16   Fit fire hood (check other team members).

3.17   Fit helmet.

3.18   Check the gauge reading.




                                        42
    3.19    Check ADSU as key with tally is removed at Entry Control.

    Note:   BA must always be donned and started up in fresh air. It is appropriate that the
            effectiveness of the face mask seal is tested on every occasion that BA is worn.
            However, in some operational situations it may be necessary for the individual
            B.A wearer to conduct a risk assessment to establish the practicality of carrying
            out the full test (eg, persons reported). The rigorous application of this test
            when taking over a set at the start of a shift, or other time as appropriate, will
            ensure that the wearer is satisfied that they can achieve an effective seal with
            that particular facemask.

4   DOFFING PROCEDURE

    4.1     Collect tally and isolate ADSU.

    4.2     Remove helmet.

    4.3     Remove fire hood.

    4.4     Take a breath, reset first breath mechanism.

    4.5     Loosen head harness buckles, bottom, middle, and top.

    4.6     Remove facemask.

    4.7     Depress cylinder valve ratchet and turn valve off.

    4.8     Undo waistbelt.

    4.9     Remove left arm from shoulder strap.

    4.10    Remove neckstrap from neck with left hand.

    4.11    Grasp right hand shoulder strap with both hands and swing apparatus to the
            front.

    4.12    Bend the knees and keeping a straight back lay the apparatus on its backplate.

    4.13    Drain the remaining air from the pneumatic system using the bypass valve.

    4.14    Place facemask on top of the cylinder, visor up.

5   DONNING BREATHING APPARATUS ON ROUTE TO AN INCIDENT

    5.1     In an appliance where the BA set forms part of the seat backrest, the harness
            may be donned but the set is to remain secure in its cradle until arrival at the
            incident.

    5.2     In appliances where the BA set does not form part of the seat backrest it is not
            to be donned until arrival at the incident.



                                              43
                       HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                     TRAINING CENTRE

                                ENTRAPPED PROCEDURE



AIMS AND OBJECTIVES


Aim

To instruct the students of the correct procedure to be adopted when in an entrapped
procedure.

Objectives

At the end of the session the student will be able to:

1     Describe the entrapped procedure.

2     Recognise that the wearer's demand for air can be dramatically reduced by adopting the
      entrapped procedure.




                                                44
                    HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                  TRAINING CENTRE

                              ENTRAPPED PROCEDURE



1   INTRODUCTION

    The proper use of an entrapped procedure in emergency situations will enable the wearer
    to extend his BA set considerably beyond its normal duration.

    The value of this procedure is paramount in cases where the BA wearer is trapped under
    debris in an Irrespirable atmosphere or has his means of exit blocked by debris or by the
    operation of self-closing fire resisting doors.

    It is well known that the greater the physical exertion of the wearer, the higher his air
    consumption, and conversely, the less his physical exertions the lower his air
    consumption. It is therefore of vital importance that in circumstances when the set must
    be made to last as long as possible, the wearer must cease all strenuous physical activity
    and, if possible, adopt a position as relaxed as the circumstances will allow, preferably
    sitting down or reclining.

2   SEQUENCE OF ACTIONS

    - Operate a Distress Signal Unit and torch.

    - Cease all strenuous physical activity and adopt a sitting or reclining position relaxing
      as completely as circumstances allow.

    - Ensure that all members remain conscious and alert and stay in personal contact.

    - Breathe calmly and gently.

    By following this procedure the wearer's demands for air will be reduced to
    approximately 8 litres per minute.




                                             45
                       HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                     TRAINING CENTRE

          RESCUE AND SELF RESCUE USING BA IN CONFINED SPACES



AIMS AND OBJECTIVES


Aim

To instruct the students in the partial removal of a BA set to negotiate a narrow space.

Objectives

At the end of the session the students will be able to:

1     State the only situations when partial set removal may be carried out and who can make
      that decision.

2     Demonstrate the ability to negotiate a horizontal narrow space by the partial removal of
      a BA set.

3     State the safety aspects that need to be considered when undertaking partial BA set
      removal.

4     Recognise the additional hazards of negotiating a vertical narrow space by the partial
      removal of the BA set.




                                                46
                     HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                  TRAINING CENTRE

        RESCUE AND SELF RESCUE USING BA IN CONFINED SPACES



1   INTRODUCTION

    BA sets conforming to BS 4667 Pt II, and in particular the Sabre Centurion set used by
    Hampshire Fire and Rescue Service are designed to be carried on the back of the wearer
    and supported by the shoulder harness. The set when in this position, and adjusted
    correctly, affords the wearer freedom of movement with little conscious concern for the
    air supply. There has however always been an acceptance that there may be certain
    operational situations when BA wearers may be forced to deviate from normal
    procedures. These situations can present great danger to wearers so extra vigilance and
    training in the procedures is necessary.

2   PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    During tests it has been found that an average firefighter can negotiate an opening of 25
    cm x 40 cm however, when wearing BA the minimum opening able to be negotiated
    increased to 50 cm x 40 cm. It is obvious therefore that the wearing of BA is restrictive
    and limits the firefighter's capability in confined space situations. BA set removal may
    be necessary in the following situations:

    - When a firefighter has become entrapped and the dangers are too great to await
      rescue.

    - When a rescue has to be effected from a confined space and time will not allow
      awaiting the arrival of airline or other specialised equipment.

    In both of these situations, BA wearers may have to make their way either horizontally or
    vertically through the obstruction once the BA set has been removed.

    THE DECISION TO REMOVE THE BA SET WILL REST WITH THE OIC. IF
    INSIDE A RISK AREA THE BA TEAM LEADER WILL MAKE THE DECISION.

3   HORIZONTAL MOVEMENT

    Once the decision has been made to remove the BA set, the operator, with due
    consideration for the protection of his air supply, must decide whether to negotiate the
    obstacle with the set in advance of the body or following the body. Wherever possible
    the wearer should proceed feet first with the set following the body. This method
    provides protection to the BA set which is the wearer's lifeline, additionally, it reduces
    the possibility of the set sliding or falling away from the wearer.




                                              47
    Because with this method movement is away from the more static BA set, care should be
    taken to avoid any tension becoming applied to the air supply hose. If this method is to
    be employed in an organised rescue attempt, assistance can also be offered by other
    members of the crew in supporting the BA set.

4   VERTICAL MOVEMENT

    To work with a BA set which is not in position on the back through a vertical obstruction
    is very arduous and hazardous.

    The weight of the set acting downwards will present problems to the wearer. The wearer
    may have to support the set which will result in only one hand being free to support the
    body. The opening may be so narrow as to require the BA set to be carried above the
    head or in some way suspended below the trunk.

    In a pre-planning situation, equipment and personnel may be available to allow a safe
    descent or ascent. This equipment will be for example, lines to support the weight of the
    set, and hook belts worn by the wearer to attach to ladders etc, this means that the weight
    of the body is taken by the belt and both hands are free to manoeuvre the set.
    Additionally, the hook belt can support the set. Where a self-rescue has to be considered
    such resources may not be available and such manoeuvres are extremely dangerous and
    highly dependent on the wearers strength, agility and physical and mental condition.

5   MOVING WITH THE SET REMOVED

    5.1      Standing Position

             When removed, the BA set, whenever possible, is to be carried by placing an
             arm through both shoulder straps of the BA set.

    5.2      Prone Position

             When removed, the BA set is to be carefully dragged behind the wearer by
             placing an arm through both shoulder straps of the BA set.

6   SAFETY ASPECTS

    - BA team members should render every assistance to each other, in particular taking
      the weight of the BA set when the wearer is passing through a confined area.

    - If at any time during the removal or replacement of the set the wearer is in distress,
      the DSU of the distressed wearer should be operated, either by the wearer or another
      member of the BA team.




                                             48
    - Whenever possible only one member of the BA team should negotiate a restricted
      opening at a time.

    - Care must always be taken to ensure that any set removal does not pose a threat to
      the face seal.

    - The wearer must always maintain access to the contents gauge.

    - The method the wearer adopts in moving with the set is dependent on the task in
      hand.

    - The possibility of the set becoming caught must be borne in mind and therefore
      particularly good communications between team members is important.

    - All members of the BA team must complete the replacement procedure as soon as
      possible before the BA team makes further progress.

7   PRACTICAL SET REMOVAL TRAINING

    This type of training will only be carried out when the following criteria is complied
    with:

    - Must be carried out by a BA instructor who has attended the BA Instructors course at
      Morton in the Marsh or at the Service Training Centre.

    - In clean air with good visibility, in a safe environment, not within a normal BA
      Training facility.

    - The training will only be conducted on a horizontal plane.

    - It will be stressed during training that these procedures will only be carried out in
      exceptional circumstances or during an extreme emergency.

    - Training for movement through confined spaces does not necessarily require
      expensive or complicated equipment. Every day objects, such as chairs or tables can
      be utilised quite effectively within a lecture room.

    - Emphasis should be placed on building confidence and making wearers aware of their
      individual ability. On no account should any Firefighter be forced through or into any
      restriction unless they are reasonably sure that they can pass through.

    - Firefighters should be encouraged to think their way through each situation.

    - Set removal training will not form part of any other BA drill.




                                             49
                       HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                     TRAINING CENTRE

                                 CLEANING PROCEDURE



AIMS AND OBJECTIVES


Aim

To instruct students in the correct procedures for cleaning a Breathing Apparatus Set.

Objectives

At the end of the session the student will be able to:

1     Demonstrate the correct method for the cleaning of a BA set on Station.

2     Describe the method of cleaning for a BA set on the fireground.




                                                50
                    HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                 TRAINING CENTRE

               SABRE CONTOUR CABA CLEANING PROCEDURE



1   INTRODUCTION

    There will be two cleaning routines, one for use during operational incidents, exercises
    and prolonged use during divisional smoke and heat training, the other for on station
    cleaning after such use. All personnel must ensure that this cleaning is carried out in
    strict compliance with these instructions.

2   CLEANING ON STATION

    2.1     Remove the mask from supply tube by pressing in spring loaded button on
            demand valve and turn demand valve 90º in clockwise direction, mask and
            demand valve will separate.

    2.2     Cleaning Breathing Assembly Harness

            Should the breathing assembly, cylinder retainer, cylinder cover and harness
            require cleaning, proceed as follows:

            - Wet a cloth in detergent solution, wring out excess moisture and wipe all
              surfaces clean - only liquid detergent as supplied by Central Purchasing
              Department, or household washing up liquid diluted at the rate of 1
              tablespoon to 22-27 litres of water.

            - Should the surface require additional cleaning, scrub the area with the brush
              provided and detergent solution; do not use excessive amounts of water.

            - Rinse the cloth well in fresh water to remove detergent solution, wring cloth
              as dry as possible and again wipe all surfaces.

    2.3     Cleaning Facemask

            2.3.1       Wipe outer surfaces of mask with a damp cloth.

            2.3.2       The mask should be washed in cool soapy water. More resistant
                        soiling may be removed using a small nail brush. Use only toilet
                        soap, liquid soap or bar soap provided by central stores;
                        DETERGENT MUST NOT BE USED.

            2.3.3       Immerse the mask in trigene disinfectant solution.

            2.3.4       Trigene disinfectant solution is supplied from the dispenser pump
                        as a premixed solution and needs no water to be added.



                                             51
            2.3.5       Dispense the solution into a bucket or sink (for large number of
                        sets), the amount needed depends on the number of facemasks to be
                        cleaned and the degree of soiling of the mask.

            2.3.6       If the facemasks are heavily soiled one bucket of solution can be
                        used for a straightforward cleaning process. A second fresh bucket
                        should then be used for disinfecting process.

            2.3.7       Facemask should be dunked thoroughly and the solution allowed to
                        be in contact with the mask for 5 minutes.

            2.3.8       Rinse thoroughly in fresh water.

            2.3.9       Remove the mask from the water, invert it to allow excess liquid to
                        drain away, then shake lightly before drying thoroughly. Pay
                        particular attention to the inner mask behind the flap seal and the
                        area around the breathing ports. Ensure that the mushroom valves
                        on the inner mask are not dislodged or distorted.

                        Hampshire Fire and Rescue Service policy is that, under no
                        circumstances will hand/face forced air blowers be used to dry
                        BA facemasks.

            2.3.10      Connect facemask to demand valve and turn 90º in anticlockwise
                        direction to engage locking mechanism. Ensure that facemask
                        straps are fully slackened off.

            2.3.11      Fit fully charged BA cylinder.

            2.3.12      Ensure first breath mechanism is reset. Turn on cylinder valve to
                        charge Pneumatic system.

            2.3.13      Carry out the monthly/after use test.

            2.3.14      Complete Form FM/7/8/2/2 recording wearing and testing.

3   CLEANSING AT INCIDENTS

    For the purpose of cleaning BA masks at incidents all appliances carry an orange plastic
    box containing trigene spray and a roll of walkisoft.

    3.1     Cleansing Facemask - Interior

            Spray trigene solution over the interior of the visor behind the flap seal, interior
            and exterior of the inner mask and the top of the exhalation port. Leave
            solution in contact with the mask for 5 minutes and then wipe dry using the
            walkisoft.

            - Do not insert the cloth into the interior of the exhalation port.
            - Do not remove non return valves from their seatings.
            - Do not use the spray or cloths for exterior cleaning.


                                             52
3.2   Fit new cylinder and carry out full test as in the routine testing and maintenance
      section.

      Note:       Facemask Bags

                  The idea of the bag is to protect the facemask whilst stored and in
                  transport.

                  It is acceptable that a serviced facemask may be left to dry naturally
                  and then be inserted into the bag.

                  Care must be taken to ensure that facemasks and bags are kept
                  together.

                  The facemask bag must be kept in a clean, dry and hygienic
                  condition. This will involve a minimum level of a visual inspection
                  weekly and a thorough wash with hot soapy water, rinse and dry as
                  required.




                                      53
                       HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                     TRAINING CENTRE

                       ROUTINE TESTING AND MAINTENANCE



AIMS AND OBJECTIVES


Aim

To instruct the students on the frequency and procedure for testing BA sets and associated
equipment.

Objectives

At the end of the session a student will be able to:

1     Describe the frequency of tests carried out on a BA set.

2     Demonstrate the general check on a BA set.

3     Demonstrate the monthly check of a ADSU.

4     Describe the procedure for reporting a fault.

5     Demonstrate the ability to fill out a Standard Test Record.




                                                54
                      HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                  TRAINING CENTRE

                      ROUTINE TESTING AND MAINTENANCE



1   BA SET

    Test Frequency:

    - General Check, as follows:

      Continuously crewed stations: Commencement of shift
      Day/nucleus crewed stations: Commencement of shift and en route to incident
      Retained stations: Weekly and en route to incident
      After use and prior to re-use by original wearer (with new cylinder)

    - Monthly
    - Annually
    - After Operational Use

    1.2      General Check

             - Carry out a full visual inspection of the set and facemask.

             - Fully slacken the shoulder straps, waistbelt and facemask harness.

             - Check cylinder valve retainer is in the correct position and that the cylinder
               sits squarely on the backplate.

             - Check the cylinder connection is tight and that the cylinder retaining strap
               catch is secure.

             - Ensure the demand valve quickfit connection is correctly fitted to the mask.

             - Check the bypass control is off and depress the reset button on the demand
               valve.

             - Open main cylinder valve fully and note gauge reading (minimum 180 bar).

             - Close cylinder valve and observe pressure gauge reading which should not
               drop more than 10 bar in 1 minute. If satisfactory open main cylinder valve.

             - Don and fit the facemask.

             - Inhale sharply to initiate first breath mechanism.

             - Insert 2 fingers between your face and the mask, there should be an outflow
               of air indicating that the set is operating in positive pressure.


                                             55
      - Take 2 or 3 breaths in the mask. Check for leaks by holding your breath for
        5 seconds. There should be no audible flow.

      - Operate bypass briefly and close.

      - Close main cylinder valve.

      - Breathe down very slowly whilst observing gauge.

      - Ensure whistle operates between 45-40 bar and the pointer returns to zero.

      - When all air is exhausted, inhale gently drawing the mask onto the face and
        hold breath. A leakage will be indicated by the mask moving away from the
        face.

      - Fully slacken off the head harness and remove facemask.

      - Depress the reset button on the demand valve

      - Remove the BA set and restow - checking the securing device.

      - Clean the facemask using trigene spray and approved wipes.

      - Complete the BA tally.

      - Check all ancillary equipment, torch, ADSU, personal line.

      - Complete and sign test record.

1.3   Monthly Test (and After Use on Return to Station)

      - The set should be removed from the appliance and laid out in an area
        suitable for inspection.

      - The cylinder should be removed from the set and the cylinder securing
        mechanism examined.

      - A thorough visual inspection of the apparatus should be carried out paying
        particular attention to the harness, waistbelt backplate and other areas not
        easily checked on the general check including the ADSU and personal line
        securing devices.

      - If required, the harness and backplate should be cleaned to remove any
        residual deposits, dry naturally.

      - Fully slacken the shoulder straps, waistbelt and facemask harness.

      - The facemask should be cleaned and disinfected.

      - Check cylinder contents using station test gauge.

      - Refit cylinder (minimum contents 180 bar).

                                     56
- Check the cylinder connection is tight and that the cylinder retaining strap
  catch is secure.

- Ensure the demand valve quickfit connection is correctly fitted to the mask.

- Check the bypass control is off and depress the reset button on the demand
  valve.

- Open main cylinder valve fully and note gauge reading. Check gauge
  reading corresponds with that of station test gauge.

- Close cylinder valve and observe pressure gauge reading which should not
  drop more than 10 bar in 1 min. If satisfactory fully open main cylinder
  valve

- Don and fit the facemask.

- Inhale sharply to initiate first breath mechanism.

- Insert 2 fingers between your face and the mask, there should be an outflow
  of air indicating that the set is operating in positive pressure.

- Take 2 or 3 breaths in the mask. Then hold your breath for 5 seconds.
  There should be no audible flow.

- Operate bypass briefly and close.

- Close main cylinder valve.

- Breathe down very slowly whilst observing gauge.

- Ensure whistle operates between 45-40 bar and the pointer returns to zero.

- When all air is exhausted, inhale gently drawing the mask onto the face and
  hold breath. A leakage will be indicated by the mask moving away from the
  face.

- Fully slacken off the head harness and remove facemask.

- Depress the reset button on the demand valve.

- Restow the BA set - checking the securing device.

- Clean the facemask using the approved wipes.

- Check and test ADSU (see Appendix B).

- Complete the BA tally.

- Check torch.

- Complete and sign test record (use red ink after operational use).

                                57
58
    1.4   Annual Test

          Carried out by OETs only.

    1.5   BA and Ancillary Equipment

          BA control equipment (including BA clocks) and BA guidelines will be
          checked at commencement of shift or weekly in the case of retained stations.

    1.6   Defects

          All defects will be reported to Control who are responsible for informing the
          appropriate OET.

2   AUTOMATIC DISTRESS SIGNAL UNIT

    2.1   Test Frequency

          -   On Acceptance
          -   Daily on WT Stations (Weekly on Retained Stations)
          -   Monthly
          -   After Operational Use

    2.2   Daily/Weekly

          - The unit should be armed by removing the key and check that the test signal
            is heard.
          - Immobilise the unit and check that the yellow LED goes out within 7
            seconds.
          - Allow the unit to go through its full automatic operation from pre alarm to
            full alarm, it should then be silenced using the key.
          - Operate the distress signal manually then silence using the key.
          - Operate the evacuation whistle to check operation then operate distress
            signal manually and check it overrides the evacuation whistle, then silence
            using the key.

    2.3   Monthly and After Operational Use

          - In conjunction with the monthly BA standard test the ADSU should be given
            a full visual inspection and cleaned if necessary.
          - Carry out the daily/weekly tests.
          - If the unit is satisfactory, record the results of the test in the BA test sheet.
            (This item does not have its own record sheet as it forms part of the BA set).
            If a unit proves faulty Control should be informed. A replacement ADSU
            will be fitted by an OET.

          Note: The unit is maintenance free and should only require cleaning using
          water and soap following heavy soiling. No solvents are to be used.

                                           59
                       HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                     TRAINING CENTRE

                          BREATHING APPARATUS CONTROL



AIMS AND OBJECTIVES


Aim

To instruct students on the control procedures required when Breathing Apparatus is worn at
an incident.

Objectives

At the end of the session the student will be able to:

1     Describe the information contained on a Breathing Apparatus tally.

2     Describe the information contained on a Breathing Apparatus Board.

3     Describe the contents of a Breathing Apparatus pouch.

4     State that Breathing Apparatus Control will be instigated at all incidents involving
      Breathing Apparatus.

5     State who decides where a Breathing Apparatus Control Point is set up and the factors
      effecting a decision.

6     State the procedures for setting up a Breathing Apparatus Control Point and demonstrate
      the ability to carry this out.

7     Describe the operational limits for Stage I Entry Control procedures.

8     Describe the duties of Entry Control Officers on nomination at station.

9     Describe the duties of a Stage I Entry Control Officer and demonstrate the ability to run
      an entry control point under stage I.

10    Describe the rapid deployment procedure.

11    Describe when Stage I Entry Control procedures must be superseded by Stage II Entry
      Control procedures.

12    State what the minimum rank should be for a Stage II Entry Control Officer.

13    Describe the additional duties of a Stage II Entry Control Officer.



                                                60
14   State the correct procedures for re-entry and the minimum pressure that a wearer must
     have.

15   State when a Breathing Apparatus Main Control must be instigated.

16   State when emergency teams should be committed and the procedures that must be
     followed.

17   Describe the ‘BA emergency’ procedure.

18   Describe the term Bridgehead and the procedures to be followed when it is in use.




                                             61
                      HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                       TRAINING CENTRE

                          BREATHING APPARATUS CONTROL



For the safe and efficient operation of BA at an incident, or during drill, some degree of
control is required. The level of control required is dependent on a number of factors; these
factors being fully explained in subsequent sections of this note.

The system used by Fire Brigades can be broken down into 4 main levels; Rapid Deployment
Procedure, Stage I, Stage II and BA Main Control. To run this system, certain items of
equipment are required. The following equipment will be found on all appliances carrying
BA.

1     BA SET TALLY (FIGURE 1)

      The tally is used to record certain information with regard to the set and the wearer. The
      following information will be indelibly marked.

      1.1      Name of Brigade.

      1.2      Station.

      1.3      Type of apparatus.

      1.4      Number of apparatus.

      1.5      Cylinder capacity.

      In addition, space will be provided for:

      1.6      Name of wearer.

      1.7      Pressure of cylinder.

      1.8      Time in.

      1.9      Dosimeter readings (on reverse side).

2     BA BOARD (FIGURE 2)

      The board is combined Stage I and Stage II control board. It is used to house the set
      tallies whilst the set is in use, also to record additional information in the space
      provided. For a full description, see attached 'Figure 2'.




                                                 62
3   CANVAS POUCH

    This contains:

    3.1     2 circular tallies marked A and B to denote main guidelines.

    3.2     4 rectangular tallies with 1, 2, 3 or 4 holes for denoting branch guidelines.

    3.3     1 branchline chain.

    3.4     BA tabard.

    3.5     2 coloured armbands.

    3.6     Waterproof marker.

    3.7     Evacuation whistle.

    3.8     Wooden wedges.

    There also exists a number of procedures that must be followed by Entry Control
    Officers and BA wearers.

4   DUTIES OF ENTRY CONTROL OFFICERS ON NOMINATION AT STATION

    4.1     An individual who is nominated as ECO will as soon as practicable:

            - Check the BA control board, pouch and ancillary equipment. Ensure that it
              is clean with no previous entries.
            - Synchronise the ECB clock with Control.
            - Report any defects.

    4.2     In the event of an ECO not being nominated, one of the BA wearers must be
            allocated these tasks by the IC. Once nominated the wearer must only carry out
            the ECO duties with the exception of circumstances described in the rapid
            deployment procedures.

5   GENERAL BA CONTROL PROCEDURES

    5.1     At all incidents where BA is used, BA Control procedures will be put into
            operation. If rapid deployment procedures are used, then Stage 1 BA control
            procedures must be implemented as soon as practically possible.

    5.2     For incidents in the open, ie, car fires or turning over operations, the pump
            operator may operate as the ECO only in the following circumstances:

            5.2.1        When only a crew of 4 is on the appliance and a maximum of 2 BA
                         wearers are in use.

            5.2.2        At all other times Stage I or Stage II procedures must be adopted.



                                             63
    5.3     Stage II is to be introduced when the scale of operations demands a greater
            degree of control and supervision.

    5.4     The Officer in Charge must nominate an Entry Control Officer.

    5.5     The level of control selected by the Officer in Charge applies to the whole
            incident and shall not be varied for differing entry points.

    5.6     The responsibility of Entry Control Officers extends only to the control and
            management of the entry control point to the extent outlined in this guidance.
            They do not have any responsibility to supervise or control operations at an
            incident or the work of the BA wearers. However, the IC, depending on the
            likely extent of BA wearer activity, may appoint officers to assist with the
            management of firefighting and rescue activity at each ECP.

    5.7     During the initial stages of an incident, the urgency of the situation and the
            number of personnel available may necessitate that the duties of Entry Control
            Officer being combined with other duties, ie, pump operator or Officer in
            Charge. The Officer in Charge of the incident must designate a firefighter to
            act solely as the Entry Control Officer as soon as additional personnel become
            available.

    5.8     Personnel wearing BA are not to enter a risk area without first handing the BA
            tally to the Entry Control Officer. Personnel wearing BA are to collect their
            tallies from the Entry Control Officer on completion of wearing BA.

    5.9     At BA incidents Control must be informed of:

            -   The number of BA in use.
            -   The purpose, eg, ventilation.
            -   When Stage II is in operation.
            -   When additional BA resources are required.
            -   When rapid deployment entry control is in use and when it has been replaced
                by Stage I.

6   IMPLEMENTING STAGE I ENTRY CONTROL PROCEDURES

    Use of Stage I procedures is to be limited to the following circumstances:

    - Where the size of the incident is small and the use of BA is unlikely to be protracted.
    - Where no more than two entry control points are used.
    - Where the total number of BA wearers in the risk area does not exceed 10.

7   DUTIES OF ENTRY CONTROL OFFICER (STAGE I)

    7.1     The duties of the Stage I Entry Control Officer at each entry control point
            include:

            7.1.1       Take up the position nominated by the IC for the Entry Control
                        Point.




                                             64
7.1.2   Provide an entry control board and pouch with ancillary ECO
        equipment (drawing board, tripod, resuscitator, radio). In addition
        to the black and yellow tabard each pouch is issued with 2 coloured
        armbands. The ECO must indicate clearly on the entry control
        board that Stage I is in operation and don the appropriate colour
        band around the upper arm. The first ECP will be designated ‘Red
        Control’ followed sequentially by White, Blue and Green for
        subsequent separate ECPs. If in exceptional circumstances further
        ECPs are required then the IC will nominate further colours unique
        to those ECPs. This procedure applies to every occasion that BA is
        worn, even if it is initially envisaged that operations will be limited.

7.1.3   The first BA teams to use an entry point will be designated by the
        ECP colour and the figure 1, eg, ‘Red Control from Red 1’,
        subsequent teams will be designated ‘Red 2’, ‘Red 3’, etc.
        Similarly teams entering by separate ECPs will be designated
        ‘White 1’, ‘Blue 1’, etc. BA teams numbers will not be reallocated
        at an incident.

7.1.4   The Entry Control board clock should be synchronised (if possible)
        at the earliest opportunity with the first entry control board
        established. However, if personnel have already been committed
        through the entry control board the clock should not be adjusted.
        The 24 hour clock system should be adopted for all time readings.

7.1.5   Receiving the tallies of BA wearers and checking that the name of
        the wearer and the cylinder content at the time of entry into the risk
        area are correctly recorded.

7.1.6   Entering the 'time in' on each tally in chinagraph pencil.

7.1.7   Placing each tally in a slot on the entry control board so that the
        tallies of each team of wearers are together and the team indicated
        by bracketing the tallies using the chinagraph pencil (the earliest
        time of the whistle being placed outside the bracket). The ECO
        should allocate each team with a call sign and if possible issue them
        with a radio.

7.1.8   Calculating the 'time of whistle' for each wearer for whom they
        have a tally using the clock affixed to the board and the appropriate
        duration table (or calculator scale) and entering this in the
        appropriate section of the control board opposite the tally.

        NB: Care is to be taken to ensure that the correct section of the
            duration tables is used in calculating the 'time of whistle'
            particularly in relation to both the cylinder pressure reading at
            entry and the type of cylinder/apparatus in use.




                             65
7.1.9    Acting on the guidance of the IC, if necessary, restrict the length of
         exposure in difficult or strenuous conditions. The BA wearer and
         team leader must be advised to withdraw from the risk area at a pre
         determined pressure reading or time. The Entry Control Officer
         should calculate the time of exit and make a note in the remarks
         column. To prevent heat stress, personnel wearing chemical
         protective clothing must be limited to a total duration of 20
         minutes.

7.1.10   The Stage I Entry Control Officer will indicate the location of teams
         in the column provided and record details in the 'Remarks' and
         'Location of Teams' column of the Entry Control Board as
         necessary.

7.1.11   Whenever radio communications are to be used, carry out a radio
         check prior to entry and inform the IC of prolonged breakdown in
         radio communications with the BA teams.

7.1.12   Sending an emergency team (if available) and immediately
         informing the Officer in Charge of the incident if:

         - any wearer fails to return to the entry control point by the
           indicated 'time of whistle'
         - a Distress Signal Unit is operated
         - it is clear a dangerous situation is developing, or if it appears that
           any BA wearer is in distress.

7.1.13   If the IC is not available, the Entry Control Officer shall initiate a
         radio message ‘BA emergency’ and shall include in the message the
         following:

         -   Name of originator.
         -   Address of incident.
         -   Text ‘BA emergency in progress’.
         -   Brief details, ie, ADSU sounding.

7.1.14   Ensuring that when chemical protective clothing is being worn, the
         suit number is shown in the 'remarks' column adjacent to the
         wearers' tally.

7.1.15   At an incident in another Brigade area HFRS personnel may wear
         BA issued by HFRS as long as they are under the control of an
         HFRS ECO and ECB. The HFRS ECO must not accept wearers
         from other Brigades on the HFRS ECB. At an incident in
         Hampshire where another Brigade is providing BA wearers, they
         must provide their own ECO and ECB. However one ECP can be
         used by both Brigades under the supervision of the IC.

7.1.16   Designating main guidelines and affixing appropriate tallies to the
         lines prior to their deployment in the risk area, and removing main
         guideline tallies at the conclusion of an incident.


                              66
            7.1.17      At incidents involving radiation (and whilst wearing appropriate
                        protection) checking the dosimeter reading of BA wearers and
                        recording on the reverse of the tally the reading when they leave the
                        risk area.

                        NB: This duty also includes making a permanent record of
                            exposure of each wearer to radiation and handing it to the
                            Officer in Charge at the conclusion of the incident. At
                            incidents involving radiation or hazardous chemicals the
                            Entry Control Officer must also liaise with the
                            Decontamination Officer.

            7.1.18      Removing tallies from the entry control board and returning them to
                        wearers when they leave the risk area.

            7.1.19      Collecting information from team withdrawing from incident,
                        collating and briefing subsequent team before entry into incident
                        ensuring that the IC is kept fully informed of all relevant
                        developments.

            7.1.20      When personnel resources permit or following consultation with the
                        IC, it is considered necessary, 2 BA wearers should be kept
                        available at the entry control point for emergency purposes.

8   RAPID DEPLOYMENT PROCEDURE

    For all normal BA operations the full stage I/II entry control procedures will be
    instigated. Only if the following conditions apply may the rapid deployment
    procedure be used for the initial control of 2 wearers.

    Only one pump in attendance with 4 riders and:

    - The snatch rescue of a person who is in great risk and is known to be within a
      short distance of the entry point, or
    - Dangerous escalation of the incident can be prevented by immediate and limited
      action.

    If these circumstances exist then the following procedures must be adopted:

    - The IC will detail the pump operator to act as 'Rapid Deployment' Entry Control
      Officer.

    - The BA wearers will provide the Stage I & II BA entry control board for the pump
      operator.

    - Before entering the area of operations the BA wearers will give their personal tallies
      to the pump operator.

    - The pump operators will enter the 'Time In' on the tallies and place them in the board.

    - The IC will pass an informative to Control stating "Rapid Deployment Entry Control
      in use".

                                             67
    - The next pump in attendance will immediately provide an Entry Control officer to
      relieve the pump operator.

    - The full Stage I entry control procedure must now be implemented.

    - An informative is passed by the IC stating Stage I Entry Control now in use.

    Note: For incidents in the open, eg, car fires and skip fires, where the pump operator
    supervises the ECB, it is not necessary to implement full Rapid Deployment Procedures,
    ie, the informative message ‘Rapid Deployment Entry Control procedures in use’ need
    not be sent to Control.

9   IMPLEMENTING STAGE II ENTRY CONTROL PROCEDURES

    9.1     Stage II entry control procedure supersedes Stage I procedure and in particular
            is used when one or more of the following apply:

            - Where the scale of operations is likely to be protracted or demands greater
              control and supervision than is provided by Stage I procedure.
            - Where more than two entry control points are necessary.
            - Where more than a total of 10 BA wearers are committed into the risk area
              at one time.
            - When branch guidelines are used.
            - When line communications are used.

    9.2     Ensure that all Firefighters are aware that Stage II has been implemented.

    9.3     Due to the extra workload and responsibility the IC should now appoint at least
            a LFf to assume the duties of ECO (if a LFf is already the ECO then another
            person will normally still be required). The new Stage II ECO should assume a
            direct supervisory role ensuring that all the responsibilities of a Stage II ECO
            are carried out. The Stage II ECO may also need a dedicated radio operator to
            assist at more complex incidents. The ECP will also be supervised by the
            Sector Officer responsible for that area.

    9.4     In addition, when Control are informed that Stage II BA Control is being
            implemented, they will mobilise suitable vehicles, equipment and personnel to
            enable BA main control to be set up. The IC can then use his/her discretion in
            deciding to implement the full BA main control procedure.

    9.5     Provide an entry control board and pouch with ancillary ECO equipment. In
            addition to the black and yellow tabard each pouch is issued with 2 coloured
            armbands. The ECO must indicate clearly on the entry control board that Stage
            II is in operation and don the appropriate colour band around the upper arm.
            The first ECP will be designated ‘Red Control’ followed sequentially by White,
            Blue and Green for subsequent separate ECPs. If in exceptional circumstances
            further ECPs are required then the IC will nominate further colours unique to
            those ECPs. This procedure applies to every occasion that BA is worn, even if
            it is initially envisaged that operations will be limited.




                                            68
     9.6      The first BA teams to use an entry point will be designated by the ECP colour
              and the figure 1, eg, ‘Red 1 to Red Control’, subsequent teams will be
              designated ‘Red 2’, ‘Red 3’, etc. Similarly teams entering by separate ECPs
              will be designated ‘White 1’, ‘Blue 1’, etc. BA teams members will not be
              reallocated at an incident.

     9.7      Where the number of BA wearers entering the risk area through a single Stage
              II entry control point exceeds 10 (excluding the emergency team) an additional
              Control Officer (who may be of any rank) will be provided for each additional
              group of up to 10 wearers.

     9.8      Where Stage II procedures are implemented a Stage II control is to be
              established at each entry control point into the risk area.

     9.9      During the changeover period between Stage I and Stage II procedures, care is
              to be taken that the number of wearers whose Entry Control tallies are
              supervised by one Officer (on one or more boards) does not exceed 10
              (excluding the emergency team).

10   DUTIES OF ENTRY CONTROL OFFICER (STAGE II)

     The duties of a Stage II Entry Control Officer include:

     10.1     All of the duties specified for Stage I Entry Control Officer and writing on the
              control board that Stage II is in operation.

     10.2     The Entry Control board clock should be synchronised (if possible) at the
              earliest opportunity with the first entry control board established. However, if
              personnel have already been committed through the entry control board the
              clock should not be adjusted.

     10.3     Checking any 'time of whistle' calculations of the Stage I Entry Control Officer
              he has revealed.

     10.4     Ensuring that BA teams are relieved at the scene of operations in sufficient time
              to permit their return to the entry control point by the time of the whistle.

     10.5     Having available (at least 5 minutes before they are due to enter) sufficient
              relief teams to allow pre-entry checks and briefing to be completed without
              delaying their entry.

     10.6     Having a fully equipped emergency BA team of 3 rigged and standing by the
              entry point throughout the period that the entry point is in operation. NB: If a
              Main Control is in operation this responsibility may be transferred to the Main
              Control Officer unless the Main Control is sited remotely from one or more of
              the Stage II entry points.

     10.7     Liaising (by radio, runner, etc) with other Stage II entry points and informing
              them of the names of BA wearers who leave the risk area other than via the
              point at which they entered.



                                              69
     10.8    Liaising as necessary with Main Control, if one is established, and ensuring that
             personnel who have withdrawn from the risk area and have collected their
             tallies report immediately thereafter to the main control.

     10.9    Attaching BA main guideline tallies and attaching the branch guideline chain
             complete with the branchline tallies to the appropriate lines as necessary and
             removing them when the line is no longer required.

     10.10   Nominating BA communications teams and communications operators and
             supervising communications between the team leader of a team equipped with
             line communications equipment and the Officer in Charge of the incident
             whenever it is decided that such equipment should be brought into use.

     10.11   If it becomes necessary to use another entry control board, the tallies are NOT
             to be transferred to a second board, but are to remain on the original board
             under the control of the Entry Control Officer until the wearers collect their
             tallies and the board can be disestablished.

     10.12   Where possible, communication must be established between each Stage II
             entry point in order to comply with 9.7 above this must be done.

     10.13   Stage II Entry Control Officers should have no duties other than those directly
             related to the BA control function. It may therefore be necessary to have an
             officer close by to give direction as to firefighting requirements, equipment
             supply or casualty handling.

11   RE-ENTRY PROCEDURE

     11.1    If, after withdrawing, closing down and reporting to the Control Officer, a team
             is required to re-enter the building to perform a special task and the Officer in
             Charge is satisfied with the contents of their cylinders, even though their
             pressure gauges may record less than 80% (160 bar) of full contents, this is a
             RE-ENTRY and fresh records are required. A re-entry cannot be made by a
             wearer if the remaining contents pressure is less than the lowest pressure
             calculation shown on the duration tables of the entry control board,
             50% (100 bar).

     11.2    If a team withdraws to collect a piece of equipment, pass a message, etc, but do
             not remove their facemasks, close down their sets or collect tallies, but
             immediately re-enter the building, this is part of their initial working duration
             and no fresh records or amendments to records are required.

             NB:      The facemask seal should not be broken until the wearer has collected
                      the Breathing Apparatus tally.

     11.3    A team withdrawing from the risk area, closing down their sets and accepting
             their tallies may then service their sets and change the cylinders (where
             necessary). If they do this and then have to make another entry into the risk
             area this is a NEW ENTRY and fresh records are required.




                                             70
12   ENTRY CONTROL POINTS

     12.1   The correct siting and number of BA entry control points is important. The
            following factors should be taken into account:

            - The size of the risk area.
            - The location of access points to the risk area.
            - The number of levels or floors involved.
            - Wind direction.
            - The physical limitations of the site taking into account the obstruction to
              firefighting and effective control that can exist if the site is divided by
              major roads, railways or rivers.
            - The likely development of the incident.

     12.2   The entry control point(s) should be sited as near to the seat of operations as is
            commensurate with safety so that the maximum use of the available duration of
            the BA can be made and in a position easily located by all BA wearers.

     12.3   Entry control points should be sited in fresh air or an area free of smoke or
            chemical hazard and in such a position that should the incident deteriorate it
            will not be necessary to relocate.

     12.4   The number of entry control points should be the minimum necessary to enable
            the incident to be dealt with effectively. Additional entry control points should
            not be established merely because teams enter the risk area using different
            equipment resources or different entrances to building unless they are so widely
            separated as to make use of one entry control impracticable.

     12.5   Bridgeheads

            Under normal circumstances before entry is made into a risk area using BA, an
            external position close to the point of access to the structure is usually
            designated as the entry control point. However, under certain circumstances it
            may be operationally necessary to set up the BA entry control point within a
            structure (such as high rise buildings or ships). If during the course of the
            incident the BA entry control point has to be relocated (due to escalation of the
            incident or deterioration of conditions) the crews committed through that Entry
            Control Point must be withdrawn immediately and the situation assessed by the
            IC. The Incident Commander may consider the need to use a line laid from the
            initial entry point to the bridgehead as a ‘pathfinder route’. This may be a GP
            line, guyline, hose, etc, but MUST NOT be a BA guideline.




                                            71
13   BA MAIN CONTROL

     The fourth level of control is referred to as BA Main Control. To operate this level of
     control additional items of equipment are required. The following equipment would be
     found on Special Equipment Units.

     - A BA Main Control board.
     - BA Main Control tabard.

14   IMPLEMENTING BA MAIN CONTROL

     14.1    Where there is more than one Stage II Entry Control, or the number of wearers
             is large, an additional control to assist Entry Control Officers and to co-ordinate
             BA requirements is to be established. This control is known as the 'Breathing
             Apparatus Main Control' and should be set up at the most convenient site for
             easy access and communication with all Stage II entry controls and the
             fireground control. It is important to note a BA Main Control does not relieve
             Stage II entry control Officer of their duties.

     14.2    Nomination of BA Main Control Officers

             A BA Main Control Officer (MCO) should be appointed by the IC of the
             incident. The MCO should have the appropriate command and management
             skills and have shown proficiency in the responsibility required. MCOs and
             their assistants should wear black and yellow chequered BA control tabards.
             MCOs should be identified by means of appropriate words or initials on their
             tabards.

     14.3    Duties of the MCO

             14.3.1      MONITORING DUTIES

                         The MCO shall:

                         - Establish and record the availability of BA, associated
                           equipment and personnel at the incident.
                         - Identify the location of each Stage II ECP, record the name of
                           each ECO and establish communications with Stage II controls
                           and fireground control.
                         - Take account of any time variations between clocks.
                         - Establish and record the requirements for relief teams of BA
                           wearers from each of the Stage II ECPs.
                         - Have available sufficient BA wearers to provide the relief teams
                           required by each Stage II ECP and dispatch them to arrive at the
                           ECP at least 5 minutes before required.




                                             72
14.3.2   EMERGENCY PROVISION DUTIES

         The MCO shall:

         -   After liaison with the ECOs and IC, decide upon:

             * The number of emergency BA teams required, and
             * The numbers to be in each team.

             Note: All members of emergency teams should be fully
             equipped at least to the standard of BA wearers committed
             to the incident.

         - In reaching the decision the MCO will need to consider:

             * The number, size and location of BA teams committed to the
               incident.
             * The complexity of the incident.
             * The potential hazards from development of the incident.
             * Where possible, the need for one of the emergency teams to
               be at least of equal number to the largest BA team committed.

             As a minimum, however, there should be one emergency team of
             2 BA wearers standing by for every 10 BA wearers committed to
             an incident.

14.3.3   BA EQUIPMENT DUTIES

         The MCO shall utilise the operational equipment technicians or
         nominated person to:

         - Obtain sufficient fully charged cylinders and other equipment
           necessary for preparing BA for re-use, including the collection of
           equipment from appliances in attendance and arranging for
           mobilising controls to be warned of likely future requirements
           (eg, for cylinder charging and resupply).

         - Control, and account for, cylinder stocks at the incident,
           including exchange/issues of full for empty cylinders from bulk
           stores to users.

         - Control the return of all cylinders (full or empty) to the
           appropriate station/establishment during and at the conclusion of
           the incident.

         - Maintain records necessary to allow the duties of the MCO to be
           conducted.

         Where a BA Main Control is in operation, BA wearers should
         report to the ECP after leaving the risk area, collect their tallies and
         report to BA Main Control, after any necessary debriefing.


                              73
15   EMERGENCY TEAMS

     15.1   Emergency teams of BA wearers are established at all incidents where Stage II
            BA entry control procedures are in operation and at other incidents where
            personnel resources permit.

     15.2   The provision of an emergency team is the responsibility of the Entry Control
            Officer (unless this function has been assumed by the Main Control or the Main
            Control Officer).

     15.3   The Entry Control Officer is to nominate an emergency team of BA wearers
            from those available at the incident.

     15.4   The nominated emergency team, comprising a minimum of 3 wearers equipped
            with BA equal to the maximum capacity of the BA committed to the risk area,
            should rig (but not start up) and stand by the entry control point until instructed
            to enter by the ECO or until relieved of that duty.

     15.5   The emergency team shall be suitably equipped for the incident in hand. The
            emergency team MUST have immediately available:

            - Radio communications.
            - Resuscitation equipment.
            - Firefighting media.

            The emergency team may also have any other specialist equipment deemed
            suitable for the incident (eg, thermal imaging camera). All equipment should
            be tested and ready for immediate use.

     15.6   Where BA wearers at an incident are wearing any other protective clothing in
            addition to their BA the emergency team will be similarly protected.

     15.7   The Entry Control Officer will deploy the emergency team in the following
            circumstances:

            15.7.1      Where a BA team or wearer fail to return to the entry control point
                        by the calculated 'time of the whistle'.

            15.7.2      Where contact with a BA line communications team is lost without
                        warning.

            15.7.3      Where a Distress Signal Unit is operated or reported.

            15.7.4      In any other circumstances appearing to require their deployment.

     15.8   Before deploying a BA emergency team the Entry Control Officer will ensure
            that all members of the team are fully briefed as to the nature of the emergency
            and the likely location of the wearer(s) in distress (if this is known).

     15.9   Emergency teams are to follow BA guidelines or communications cables
            whenever these are available.


                                             74
15.10   Following the deployment of an emergency team the Entry Control Officer or
        the Main Control Officer is to inform the Officer in Charge of the incident and
        call for a replacement emergency team at the earliest opportunity.




                                       75
       CYLINDER CAPACITY          TYPE & NO OF BA SET

       LOAMCHESTER FB                       NO
       STATION


                                  CYL PRESS          TIME IN




        REVERSE SIDE OF TALLY

                       DOSIMETER READING


                 IN                       OUT




MATERIAL: PLASTIC AT LEAST 1.5 mm THICK


TALLIES COLOURED AS FOLLOWS:

     COLOUR             TYPE OF SET             WORKING
                                                DURATION
       PINK               OXYGEN                OVER 90 MINS

      WHITE               OXYGEN            45 MINS - 90 MINS

     YELLOW            COMPRESSED AIR             -------------
  THE COLOURS IN LIGHT PASTEL SHADES SO THAT
    BLACK CHINAGRAPH WILL SHOW UP WELL


                      BA Set Tally (Fig 1)




                                 76
    H .F .R .S .
                                                                                                                                                                 60
    B .A . C O N T R O L B O A R D                                                                                                             55                                5
                                                                            E N TR Y C O N T R O L O F F IC E R
                                                                                                                                                                T IM E
                                                                                                                                     50                           IN                        10
                                                                              F F ** * * ** * * **
                                                                                                                                                            1 80 0 LITR E        1 00
                                                                            L O C A T IO N                                                             C Y L IN D E R S O N LY
                                                                                                                                                                                     1 10
                                                                            M A IN E N TR A N C E                                   45                                                           15
          E N TR Y C O N TR O L PO IN T C O L O U R                         S U N N Y S U N B L IN D S                                                                               1 20
                                                                            H IG H S TR E E T                                                                                        1 30
                  RED                                                       F O R D IN G B R ID G E
                                                                                                                                                                                 1 40
                                                                                                                                                                          1 50
                                                                                                                                     40             2 00
                                                                                                                                                           1 90 1 80 70 1 60
                                                                                                                                                                                             20
                                                                                                                                                                    1

                                                                              HARD W O RK
       S TAG E
                               I                                              W IL L R E D U C E D U R A T IO N                                35
                                                                                                                                                                 30
                                                                                                                                                                                     25

ID E N T IF IC A T IO N                                                    T IM E O F W H IS T L E                L O C A T IO N O F T E A M                    REM AR KS
H A M P SH IR E F R S
ST A T IO N C 4 5
                                                C O M P A IR N o . 1 5 4                                           R ig h t H a n d S e a rc h                RED I
       N AM E          1 800
                                            C YL P R E SS   T IM E IN         1307                                 G ro u n d F lo o r                        HO SE REEL
FF H awke                                    20 0           1 2 :3 2                             1 2 :5 8                                                     R A D IO
H A M P SH IR E F R S
ST A T IO N C 4 7
                                                C O M P A IR N o . 1 5 2                                                                                      C as u a lty lo c ate d 1 1 4 1 h rs .
       N AM E          1 800
                                            C YL P R E SS   T IM E IN         1 2 :5 8                                                                        3 rd . R o o m o n rig h t b lu e o v e r a lls
    F F M a tt h e w s 1 6 0                                  1 2 :3 2                                                                                        1 1 4 5 h rs . e x it w ith c as u a lty R E D    1
H A M P SH IR E F R S
ST A T IO N C 4 7
                                                C O M P A IR N o . 1 5 1                                      R ig h t H a n d S e a rc h                     RED 2
       N AM E          1 800
                                            C YL P R E SS   T IM E IN         1312                            F irs t F lo o r                                R A D IO
 F F C r a tes                               190             1 2:39                                  1 3 :1 2 L a y in g G uid e L in e “A ”
H A M P SH IR E F R S
                                                C O M P A IR N o . 1 5 5
ST A T IO N C 4 5
       N AM E          1 800
                                            C YL P R E SS   T IM E IN         1 3 :1 4
 F F S tr e e t e r                            20 0         1 2:39                                                                                                                                    RED 2
H A M P SH IR E F R S
ST A T IO N C 5 1
                                                C O M P A IR N o . 1 5 8                                           L e ft H a n d S e a rc h                  RED 3
       N AM E          1 800
                                            C YL P R E SS   T IM E IN         1 3 :0 9                             G ro u n d F lo o r                         R A D IO
 L F F W in ter                               1 60          12:43                                    1 3 :0 9                                                 45m m JET
H A M P SH IR E F R S
                                                C O M P A IR N o . 1 5 7
ST A T IO N C 5 1
       N AM E          1 800
                                            C YL P R E SS   T IM E IN         1 3 :1 6
 FF Johns                                      19 0         1 2 :4 3                                                                                                                                  RED 3
H A M P SH IR E F R S
                                                C O M P A IR N o . 1 4 9                                           R ig h t h a n d S e a rc h                RED 4              HOSE REEL
ST A T IO N C 4 7
       N AM E          1 800
                                            C YL P R E SS   T IM E IN         1 3 :1 9                             F irs t F lo o r                           R A D IO
 F F S h er g o ld                            2 00          1 2 :4 4
H A M P SH IR E F R S
ST A T IO N C 4 5
                                                C O M P A IR N o . 1 5 6                             1 3 :1 4 S E A R C H IN G O F F                        L IM IT E D D U R A T IO N W E A R
       N AM E          1 800
                                            C YL P R E SS   T IM E IN         1 3 :1 4                                                                      T O 2 0 M IN U T E S D U E O U T
 F F H in to n                                1 80          1 244
                                                                                                                   G U ID E L IN E ‘A ’                     AT 1304
H A M P SH IR E F R S
                                                C O M P A IR N o . 1 5 0
ST A T IO N C 4 7
       N AM E          1 800
                                            C YL P R E SS   T IM E IN         1 3 :1 4
 F FM e ag er                                 1 80          1 2 :4 4                                                                                                                                  RED 4




                                                                                                                                                                               EM ERGENCY
                                                                                                                                                                                  TEAM

                                                                                                                                                                               EM ERGENCY
                                                                                                                                                                                  TEAM




                                                                                                         BA Board (Fig 2)




                                                                                                                                      77
                       HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                     TRAINING CENTRE

     SEARCH PROCEDURES AND STRUCTURAL FIREFIGHTING TECHNIQUES



AIMS AND OBJECTIVES


Aim

To instruct the student on the correct search procedures to be adopted whilst firefighting
wearing Breathing Apparatus.

Objectives

At the end of the session the student will be able to:

1     Demonstrate the ability to carry out a search whilst having regard for personal safety.

2     Demonstrate the ability to carry out a left or right hand search pattern.

3     Demonstrate the ability to carry out a search whilst using hose lines.

4     Demonstrate the ability to effectively search for and rescue casualties.

5     Describe the method of finding a fire in low visibility.

6     Demonstrate the ability to effectively cool down the hot flammable gases within a closed
      door compartment.

7     Demonstrate the ability to test the environmental conditions within a compartment.

8     Demonstrate the ability to extinguish a fire within a compartment.

9     Demonstrate the ability to accurately debrief a search on withdrawal from an exercise.

10    Demonstrate the ability to safely transverse a staircase.

11    Demonstrate the ability to safely transverse a vertical ladder.

12    Demonstrate the ability to safely negotiate confined spaces including tunnels.

13    Demonstrate the ability to safely transverse through a doorway where a potential
      backdraught situation is suspected.




                                                78
                       HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                       TRAINING CENTRE

    SEARCH PROCEDURES AND STRUCTURAL FIREFIGHTING TECHNIQUES



One of the chief difficulties encountered by BA wearers at many incidents is the inability to
see due to smoke. Because of this, many tasks which in daylight would present little difficulty
become complicated and time consuming.

In normal conditions we use our 5 senses in the following percentages:

75%               Sight
13%               Hearing
 6%               Touch
 3%               Smell
 3%               Taste.

The reliance on sight in smoke conditions is greatly reduced and the sense of touch and
hearing become most important to a BA wearer.

BA wearers should always adopt strict search procedures when working in smoke filled areas.
The two main factors involved in carrying out a search are:

-     Maintaining personal safety.
-     Searching for fire/casualties.

1     SEARCHING FOR PERSONAL SAFETY

      BA wearers must balance the need for making progress and the need for taking safety
      measures to avoid the numerous potential hazards found at all incidents. The following
      safety measures must always be adopted to reduce the possibility of accidents:

      1.1      A firefighter should always shuffle not walk. The weight of the body should be
               placed on the rear foot until the advancing foot has been tested that it is safe to
               move forwards. The feet should not be lifted from the ground, the foot should
               slide forward to detect obstructions or openings and other dangers such as
               projecting nails. As you move forward, you should raise the free hand in front
               of you, lightly clenched with the back uppermost to feel for obstructions. If the
               back of the hand touches a live electrical wire the shock will throw you clear
               and will not cause the hand to grasp the wire.




                                                79
2   SEARCH PATTERNS

    Searches should be carried out methodically to a programmed system detailed by the
    OIC before the search has begun. There are two directions in which a search can be
    carried out:

    - left hand search (maintaining contract with a wall using the left hand on the way into
      the incident).

    - right hand search (maintaining contact with a wall using the right hand on the way
      into the incident).

    On completion of the search, the route to the exit point can be found by reversing the
    search pattern.

    These searches can be carried out using two different methods of search pattern
    depending on the circumstances of the task.

    2.1      Indirect Search

             When crews are briefed to search a structure to locate a casualty or the seat of a
             fire, then crew members must spread out to cover the maximum area possible
             whilst maintaining physical contact. The team leader is responsible for
             maintaining the designated search pattern and wherever possible, the crew must
             remain at right angles to the wall. Any openings or doors that are found on the
             opposite side to the search should be briefly assessed and if they cannot be
             searched without leaving the designated search pattern, the crew should make
             note of it and inform the OIC.

    2.2      Direct Search

             When crews are briefed to go to a specific area of a structure on either a left or
             right hand search pattern to carry out a search for casualties, locate a fire, or
             relieve a crew then there is no requirement to search the areas of the structure
             prior to the arrival at the designated area. Therefore crews will proceed one
             behind the other with the team leader as the pathfinder, remaining crew
             members must still carry out personal search procedures. Also direct search
             patterns can be used by crews withdrawing from an incident.

3   GAUGE READING

    Gauge reading should be taken at regular intervals and crews must learn to measure
    travel distances in terms of pressure. Gauge readings should be taken, in particular, on
    the following occasions:

    - Whenever crews change level
    - Prior to an attack on a fire (as conditions will deteriorate and visibility will be
      reduced).
    - Prior to the rescue of a casualty (to ensure that the crews have enough air for the
      increase in work rate).



                                              80
    When calculating turn around times crews must take into account that the return journey
    will take less pressure (except when returning with a casualty), as the route will have
    been searched and crews will be more confident of the layout.

4   DOOR OPENING PROCEDURES

        When opening doors inside a structure involved in fire, the temperature of the surface
        of the door and its fitting should be tested. Look around the edges of the door for signs
        of heat and smoke. Feel around the door edges for heat with the back of the hand. Use a
        few drops of water on metal door furniture to ascertain its temperature. If a fire or
        potential backdraught condition is suspected then certain precautions must be taken to
        prevent injury:

    - Ensure that suitable firefighting equipment is available and in position.
    - Consider tactical ventilation before opening compartment door.
    - Ventilate, cool/ dilute smoke in access room/corridor (cool/dilute using water spray if
      ventilation is not possible ) to minimise the risk of a backdraught occurring outside of
      the fire compartment.
    - Determine the type and the direction of opening of the door. Which side are the
      hinges? Are the door stops on your side or the other side etc?

    If the door opens towards the team:         If the door opens away from the crew:
    Use door as shield                          Use the wall on the opposite side to the
    Brace leg against door                      door’s hinges as protection. This may not
    Keep low                                    always be practicable.
    Ensure branch is in position                Keep low.
    Warn the crew(s)                            Keep hold of the handle, maintain control of
    Open no more than 0.5m                      the door.
    Assess the conditions and once              Attach belt line to handle as an option, do not
    it is safe, proceed through the door.       compromise PPE when retrieving from inside
                                                tunic.
                                                Ensure the branch is in position.
                                                Warn the crew(s) and
                                                Open the door slightly. ( no more than 0.5m )
                                                Assess the conditions and once it is safe,
                                                proceed through the door.

5   GAS COOLING

    When fire-fighters are presented with a closed door to a compartment in which there is a
    fire or it is suspected that flammable gases are present, an effective measure to reduce
    the level of risk is to discharge a narrow cone of water spray in short bursts into the
    upper regions of the compartment. The water droplets applied in short bursts will:

    - turn to steam diluting the flammable gases,
    - cool the hot gases and reduce the radiation heating the fuel and
    - limit the amount of oxygen reaching the flames
    - Water also cools the rest of the compartment, increasing the amount of heat it will
      absorb from the plume, so cooling it further.
    - If too much water is applied it will expand rapidly driving the products of combustion
      and steam out of the compartment possibly towards the BA crew.
    - Also the steam and smoke will be forced to the floor.

                                               81
    5.1     Technique

            - No2 prepares to open the door.
            - No1 remains at the side of No2 using available cover with the hose line on
              the outside of their body in a bight so as to enable just the branch to be
              placed in the door opening.(not the branch holder)
            - No2 opens the door no more than 0.5m. All crew members observe what
              happens.
            - If a fire, flashover or backdraught are suspected within, No1 applies a narrow
              cone of water spray in a long or short bursts up into the hot gases above the
              neutral plane.
            - The door is then closed and the steam is allowed to inhibit the fire gases.
            - The door is opened again and the crew, depending on environmental
              conditions, can repeat the process or following a dynamic risk assessment
              may enter the compartment.
            - Dynamic risk assessments should be carried out continually by ascertaining
              the nature/temperature of the gases by observing the effects of the water. i.e.
              is it steaming off or dripping down.
            - Remember firefighting at the door may take some time before the
              compartment is tenable.
            - Only enter the compartment when it is deemed safe to do so i.e.. the thermal
              out put has been reduced, the flammable gases have been diluted etc....

            Always ensure the escape route is kept clear and is safe to use at all times.
            Remember fight the fire from the door unless there is a compelling reason
            to enter. Short burst can be interpreted as a controlled on and off
            movement in order to produce the desired effect. Short rapid Pulsing
            should be avoided as it may damage equipment!

    5.2     When to Carry Out Gas Cooling

            -   Moving through smoke/fire gas filled areas.
            -   Suspect a fire within the compartment.
            -   Signs of potential backdraught or flashover are present.
            -   Colour, density and pressure of smoke gives cause for concern.

6   ENTRY PROCEDURES

    Prior to opening the door you must look for any clues as to the conditions behind it.
    Before entry is made correct procedures will need to be carried out and decisions made.

    6.1     Door Opening Procedures and Gas Cooling

            Open the door (no more than 0.5 m) and carry out effective gas cooling to
            ensure maximum efficiency of the water.

    6.2     Evaluate/Risk Assess

            Carry out a risk assessment taking into consideration the level of the neutral
            plane, looking for casualties and signs and symptoms of backdraught and
            flashover.


                                            82
    6.3      Enter the Compartment or Not

             Assess whether to enter taking into account the conditions. On entry depending
             on the level of the neutral plane/temperature enter standing up or in a crouched
             position.

7   ENVIRONMENTAL TEMPERATURE TESTING (MARITIME FIREFIGHTING ONLY)

    Contact burns through heat transmission can cause serious injury. In a fire situation heat
    will be transferred to the BA wearers by:

    - High atmospheric temperatures.
    - Radiant heat.

    When working in BA regular sampling of the temperature to prevent contact burns can
    be achieved by rolling back the cuff of the glove and testing the air temperature at or
    above head level. This technique is designed to prevent BA wearers, who by the nature
    of their protective clothing are isolated from the environment, entering into potentially
    hazardous conditions of high radiant heat and atmospheric temperatures. A count of 5
    seconds should be able to be sustained before raising to firefight or to enter a
    compartment.

    If a BA wearer starts to experience contact burns through their fire kit they should
    withdraw immediately and remove it ASAP. Usually the first signs of heat transmission
    through the PPE are felt at the shoulder straps and other places where the material of the
    PPE is in contact with the body. Note: Radiant heat is directional and unless the wrist is
    exposed in line with the direction of transmission BA wearers will not detect its
    presence.

8   TRAVERSING A STAIRCASE

    When ascending stairs wearers should keep close to the wall side to take advantage of
    the maximum support and each stair should be tested for integrity and stability before
    transferring the weight of the body.

    When descending stairs it is better to proceed backward, since this shields the face from
    heat and enables one to grasp the stairs with the hands and so prevent a fall. Each stair
    should be checked for security with a foot before descending to the next stair. Wearers
    should also keep to the wall side to take advantage of the maximum support. As an
    alternative wearers may prefer to move downstairs in a sitting position with head well
    back close to the stairs.

    If the condition of the stairs is uncertain, then crew members should traverse the stairs
    one at a time.




                                             83
9    TRAVERSING A VERTICAL LADDER

     When wearers are required to proceed up or down a vertical ladder only one crew
     member at a time should traverse the ladder. Hands should be placed on the strings, not
     rounds (in sewers this reduces chances of chemical/biological contamination; and on
     ships it is easier to cool strings than rounds before traversing, as well as avoiding oil
     deposits left by ship’s engineers boots). Once that crew member is clear of the ladder,
     he will then indicate the fact by kicking the ladder and/or shouting to the other crew
     members. Whenever there is a person on the ladder the rest of the crew must stand
     clear.

10   TRAVERSING A TUNNEL OR SHAFT

     When wearers are required to search tunnels, horizontal shafts or ducting of restrictive
     size, they should proceed backwards in the prone or all fours position feeling for security
     with their feet. Whenever possible, only one person at a time should be committed to
     the tunnel or shaft.

11   MEZZANINE FLOORS

     A mezzanine floor is a half level between two floors of a building. Often found in
     factories to create space, they are usually used for storage or office space and may not be
     apparent from the outside of the building. If a mezzanine floor is encountered on a
     search of a building, then the crew should inform the BAECO and await further
     instructions. If contact with the BAECO cannot be made then the crew must make a
     decision as to whether:

     - The crew travel up to the mezzanine and carry out a search. If this decision is taken it
       is important that the crew ascend and descend by the same staircase to ensure the area
       under the mezzanine is then thoroughly searched.
     - Make a note of its presence and continue with the search of the ground floor level,
       returning after completion of the designated search pattern to search it or leave the
       search to another team.

12   SEARCHING - LOCATING CASUALTIES

     Search for casualties must be methodical whilst progressing and covering as much of an
     area as possible. Each door or aperture encountered must receive particular attention to
     ensure that a complete search is made of the room beyond. Having entered a room the
     first act should be to feel behind the door since people overcome by smoke sometimes
     manage to reach a door, but have insufficient strength to open it. The two places in
     which people overcome by smoke are most commonly found are, in fact, behind doors
     and under windows.

     A complete circuit should be made staying in contact with the wall, yet spreading the
     rest of the BA team out to cover as much of the area of search as is possible. Wearers
     should feel under and in beds, opening and feeling inside cupboards and wardrobes,
     divans and below other articles of furniture, basically, if it is possible for a casualty,
     adult or child, to be concealed in an area, they must be searched.




                                               84
On leaving a room some indication should be made to signify that room has been
searched. This can be a mark on the door or more simply by closing the door. The latter
also has the advantage of possibly lessening the effects of fire spread.




                                       85
13   RESCUE OF CASUALTIES

     Crews must act quickly on the discovery of a casualty as continued exposure to the fire
     conditions will dramatically reduce the casualty's chances of survival.

     The following actions should be taken:

     - Gauges should be checked.
     - Radio BAECO that a casualty has been located and give location.
     - Instigate a relief crew if pressures are low.
     - Each crew member should be designated a certain task (where numbers allow, a crew
       member should be made responsible for leading the team out).
     - The casualty's head should be protected and where possible kept low to prevent the
       inhalation of hot toxic gases.
     - Crew members carrying a casualty should be changed around if they become
       fatigued.

14   SEARCHING TO LOCATE A FIRE

     When searching for a fire, a knowledge of smoke travel can be of considerable
     assistance. However, smoke may travel considerable distances from the source, also the
     volume of smoke is not always a true guide to the size of the fire. Smoke rises by
     convection and sinks as it cools. Therefore, near a fire there is a definite upward
     tendency which continues until it strikes a roof or ceiling when it spreads sideways
     (mushrooming). Where smoke cannot be used to trace a fire there are several other
     indications. Usually, the temperature increases as fire approaches, however, in the
     immediate vicinity of the fire an inrush of cool air may be felt. The feeling of
     woodwork, doors, etc, for heat, the blistering of paintwork and discoloration of plaster
     can give good indications of the presence of fire. The fire may provide light even
     though greatly diminished by smoke and also fires tend to be noisy and the sound of
     falling plaster or falling stock may give a good indication of the presence of fire.

15   FIREFIGHTING IN BREATHING APPARATUS

     When entering a building where there is a suspected fire situation, BA crews should
     always take with them a means of fighting the fire for their on personal safety.
     Generally hosereels or hose lines will be used and crews must be aware of the difficulty
     of working a hose line into a structure when there is several changes of level or
     direction. There are two methods of working a hosereel into a structure:

     - Hosereels can be flaked out and then pulled into the building by the crew. At each
       change of direction the crew will then pull in as much hosereel as required depositing
       it in coils on the floor. The process then can be repeated as often as required.
       However, this can cause congestion and makes the retracing of hosereels very
       difficult.

     - Each crew member can take with them several coils of hosereel looped over their
       shoulder and as they progress the solids can be dropped off one at a time. This
       method reduces congestion and makes progression quicker.




                                              86
Hose lines are heavier and more difficult to work into a structure than a hosereel and
require an increase in personnel. There are two methods of working a hose line into a
structure:

- Increase the number of personnel in each crew.

- Use two teams for each hose line, one crew responsible for firefighting and the other
  for working the line into the structure.

When crews are entering an area of potential danger, then the hose line should go in with
the first crew member and remain in the area until the last person is out.

When firefighting in a compartment crews must be aware of the production of steam
when attacking a fire and the use of water should be kept to the absolute minimum.
Prior to an attack on a fire, ensure that all other BA crews in the area are aware that an
attack on the fire will be taking place, the crew should remain low, but wherever
possible be in a position that if conditions deteriorate due to steam production then they
can drop to a lower position to escape the effects. A short burst of water should be
applied to the fire for maximum of two seconds and all crew members are then to crouch
to allow the steam to disperse. Before the second attack one member of the crew should
carry out an environmental temperature check using their wrist to ensure that conditions
are bearable. The crew are then to return to a semi-crouched position to carry out the
second attack on the fire. This procedure should be repeated several times, increasing
the duration of attack on each occasion providing that conditions allow. Finally the crew
can then move in to the seat of the fire for turning over the embers.

If crews are in a situation that requires withdrawal without reliefs, then a decision must
be made as to whether the hose line is taken back with the crew or if it is left at the scene
of operations.

It is important when making this decision that crews assess the conditions. If a hose line
is taken back with the crew then they have a means of tackling any outbreaks of fire that
could occur through re-ignition or unseen fire travel and prevents the possible
destruction of the hose line should it be left at the scene of operations unattended.
However, if conditions allow, by leaving the hose line in situ subsequent crews can
proceed straight to the scene of operations.

Full safety procedures are still to be followed to ensure that the situation has not
changed since the previous crew left the incident.




                                          87
                       HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                     TRAINING CENTRE

                  FIRE DEVELOPMENT WITHIN COMPARTMENTS



AIMS AND OBJECTIVES


Aim

To instruct the student on the potential hazards of fighting a fire within a compartment.

Objectives

At the end of the session the student will be able to:

1     Describe fire development within a compartment.

2     Describe the term flashover and identify the signs and preventative actions to be taken.

3     Describe the term backdraught and identify the signs and preventative actions to be
      taken.




                                                88
                    HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                  TRAINING CENTRE

                FIRE DEVELOPMENT WITHIN COMPARTMENTS



1   FIRE GROWTH

    In the early stages of combustion, flames will be small and confined to just above the
    burning material. As the temperature of the materials increases, it will decompose and
    give off more flammable vapours which in turn will result in an increase in flame height.
    Fire gases from the combustion will be at high temperatures and will rise due to the
    effect of conventional currents. The fire gas plume will rise until it reaches the ceiling
    and then begin to travel outwards across the ceiling in all directions creating a layer of
    hot flammable gases.

2   FLASHOVER

    The stage in a compartment fire when the total thermal radiation from the fire plume,
    combustion gases and compartment boundaries, causes the rapid release of pyrolysis
    products from all combustible materials in the compartment which, if ignited, results in
    the sudden and sustained transition from a growing fire to a fully developed fire.

    2.1     Signs of a Potential Flashover

            - Rapid increase in temperature from hot gases at ceiling level.
            - Tongues of flame visible in the smoke and gas layer.
            - Other surfaces giving off fumes (pyrolysis).

    2.2     Preventative Actions

            -   Retreat from the compartment.
            -   Stay low.
            -   Long or short pulses of fog into the hot gas layer above the neutral plane.
            -   Tactical vertical ventilation can control the risk of flashover but must only
                be carried out by fully trained personnel.


3   BACKDRAUGHT

    Limited ventilation can lead to a fire in a compartment producing fire gases containing
    significant proportions of partial combustion products and un-burnt pyrolysis products.
    If these accumulate then the admission of air when an opening is made to the
    compartment can lead to a sudden deflagration. This deflagration moving through the
    compartment and out of the opening is a backdraught.




                                             89
3.1   If the fire is smouldering and the combustion gases are not escaping, the air
      which enters when the door to the compartment is opened may mix with the
      flammable gases, forming an explosive mix. If the gases are hot enough they
      will auto ignite at the doorway and the flame will spread back into the
      compartment with the fresh air. This results in rapid fire growth but not
      necessarily a backdraught. If the gases are not hot enough to ignite, ignition
      will occur when sufficient oxygen mixes with the flammable gases surrounding
      the seat of the fire. Flame will travel back across the compartment towards the
      door resulting in flame shooting out of the door.

3.2   A potentially more dangerous situation can occur when the fire has almost died
      out. When the compartment door is opened air flows in and mixes with the
      flammable gases, but ignition does not occur as there is no immediate source of
      ignition. However, as firefighters enter the compartment their activities, such
      as turning over, may result in exposure of a hidden source of ignition which
      results in a delayed backdraught with them inside. This type of backdraught
      can occur even when the gases appear to have cooled down.

3.3   A fire gas explosion happens when flammable gases escape from the fire
      involved compartment into surrounding unaffected areas. As there is no
      immediate source of ignition present, this allows time for the flammable
      vapours to mix with air to form a very explosive atmosphere. A backdraught
      could then occur in the initial unaffected area when a source of ignition is
      introduced. This could occur when firefighters open the door to the fire
      involved compartment or the wall separating the 2 compartments fails resulting
      in flames entering the unaffected areas.

3.4   Signs of Potential Backdraught

      -   Dense smoke with no obvious signs of a fire.
      -   Smoke blackened windows.
      -   Signs of heat around the door.
      -   The pushing and pulling of smoke.
      -   Whistling sound may be heard as air is drawn in.

3.5   Risks Control Actions

      - Correct door opening procedures.
      - Pre entry ventilation.
      - Pre laid protective hoselines.
      - Environmental colling of the fire gases not only within the compartment but
        also outside it is essential.
      - Good communications are essential.




                                       90
                       HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                     TRAINING CENTRE

                                TACTICAL VENTILATION



AIMS AND OBJECTIVES


Aim

To give students a basic understanding of the term tactical ventilation and the procedures to be
adopted by BA crews during such activities.

Objectives

At the end of the session the student will be able to:

1     Describe the terms offensive and defensive ventilation.

2     Describe the term positive pressure ventilation and identify the correct procedures to be
      adopted by BA crews during PPV operations.




                                                91
                       HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                     TRAINING CENTRE

                                 TACTICAL VENTILATION



To improve conditions for breathing apparatus crews within a structure involved in fire
tactical ventilation can be used. This involves Fire Service personnel opening up the building
to release the products of combustion and allow fresh air to enter. Tactical ventilation can be:

Defensive Ventilation - Ventilation carried out away from the fire or immediately after the fire
has been extinguished.

Offensive Ventilation - Ventilation carried out close to the fire prior to it being extinguished.

Tactical ventilation will increase visibility which may negate or supplement the use of
guidelines and with the release of hot gases will produce a more tolerable environment,
therefore increasing a firefighters working duration in BA.

Whilst tactical ventilation can improve conditions within a structure, if it is not carried out
correctly it can result in rapid fire spread which could endanger firefighters. Therefore, it
should only be carried out by trained personnel under strict supervision.

POSITIVE PRESSURE VENTILATION

PPV involves forcing fresh air into a compartment from outside the building with a
mechanical fan thus creating a slight positive pressure within the space. When an alternative
vent is opened the contaminants from all parts of the building will be forced out of the
building. Only crews who have received the appropriate level of training in PPV will be used
to operate that fans as incorrect operation can rapidly spread the fire to unaffected areas.
When PPV is in use BA crews must be aware of the following points:

- Stage II BA control procedures to be implemented.

- All personnel must always remain on the fan side of the fire and ensure that they do not
  block doors/passageways or impede the flow of air.

- Personnel should be aware that any interruption to the PPV air flow will result in
  conditions rapidly worsening and crews must not commit themselves into the fire
  compartment until the fire reduction is such that failure of the fan will not put firefighters at
  risk.

- The fans are noisy in operation and the audibility of ADSU may be affected.

- All teams must be equipped with hand held radios.

- Full use of the throw of firefighting branches should be used and personnel must not
  approach closer to the fire than absolutely necessary.




                                                92
- BA crews should close compartment doors during progress where this is practical.
  However, the flow of air to the fire compartment must not be interrupted by the closing of
  doors or positioning of personnel.




                                              93
                       HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                     TRAINING CENTRE

                                GUIDELINE PROCEDURES



AIMS AND OBJECTIVES


Aim

To instruct the student on the procedures to be adopted when guidelines are used.

Objectives

At the end of the session the student will be able to:

1     State the length of a guideline and describe the construction adopted to indicate the
      direction of travel.

2     Describe the function of a guideline.

3     State who decides when guidelines are used.

4     State when guidelines should be used.

5     Demonstrate the correct method of attaching a guideline to a wearer.

6     Describe the main guideline tallies.

7     Demonstrate the correct method of securing a tally to a guideline and state who is
      responsible for this at an incident.

8     Demonstrate and describe the correct procedures for laying a guideline.

9     Demonstrate the ability to safely follow a guideline, stating the direction of travel.

10    State when two teams are travelling in opposite directions along a guideline which team
      has priority.

11    Describe the construction of a personal line.

12    State the maximum distance a wearer can travel out on their personal line.

13    Describe the two methods a team can use to transverse a guideline and the
      limitations/restrictions of each method.

14    Identify when branch guidelines are required.



                                                94
15   Describe the branch line tallies and chain and demonstrate how they are attached to the
     branch line guidelines.

16   Demonstrate how a branch line is attached to a main guideline.

17   Demonstrate the procedures for extending a main.

18   Demonstrate the procedure for securing a main or branch guideline bag when a team has
     to withdraw before completion of the task.

19   Demonstrate the method for indicating that a room has been searched when using
     guidelines.

20   Demonstrate the correct method of re-stowing a guideline in its container.




                                             95
                       HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                    TRAINING CENTRE

                                GUIDELINE PROCEDURE



The BA guideline is provided to enable a team of BA wearers in a risk area to retrace their
steps to the entry point and to enable subsequent teams readily to locate them at the scene of
operations..

The following equipment is provided on all appliances carrying BA.

A     GUIDELINE

      The guideline is carried in a fabric cylindrical container. The looped end of the line is
      attached to a snap hook inside the container. The line may be paid into the container in
      a 'haphazard fashion' with the running end arranged to pay out from one end of the
      container which should be carried on the wearers leg using the attachments provided.
      The container is carried in an upright position, the line should pay out from the top. For
      full description see Figure 2.

B     MAIN GUIDELINE TALLIES

      See Figure 3A.

C     BRANCH LINE TALLIES AND CHAINS

      See Figure 3B.

D     PERSONAL LINE

      The term personal line means a special line carried in a pouch and secured to a BA set,
      for description see Figure 4.

1     WHEN TO USE GUIDELINES

      1.1      Guidelines are to be used only on the instruction of the Officer in Charge.

      1.2      The use of guidelines should always be considered where no other means exists
               for tracing the way out of a risk area (eg, when entering and searching in thick
               smoke or where premises are flooded and hose lines submerged) and is
               essential when entry is made into areas of high expansion foam.

      1.3      It is usually unnecessary to use guidelines in domestic properties or known
               small basements and at incidents where hosereels or hose is laid by the first
               teams to enter the risk area.




                                               96
2   THE PROCEDURE FOR LAYING MAIN GUIDELINES

    2.1    The guideline container is secured to the team leaders leg and set using the
           attachments provided.

    2.2    Unless the guideline is to be used to extend an existing guideline or to form a
           branch guideline it is secured to a suitable object outside the risk area, and
           under the control of the Entry Control Officer, before the BA team enter the
           risk area.

    2.3    Any main or branch guideline tally required for a BA guideline is to be fitted to
           the line by the Entry Control Officer before the team enters the risk area. The
           tallies should be attached to the line utilising the split ring on the tally and the
           dog clip eye on main guidelines, and on branch guidelines the tally is attached
           to the branch guideline chain dog clip eye. The tally should only be removed or
           changed by the Entry Control Officer.

    2.4    Only one main guideline is to be laid along any single route leading from an
           entry point to the scene of operations. This main guideline may consist of a
           number of guidelines joined together.

    2.5    There should be no more than 2 main guidelines in use at any entry control
           point.

    2.6    The guideline is to be paid out of the container by the BA team leader, or, if
           more convenient, by another member of the team.

    2.7    When a guideline is being laid, all members of the team, other than the team
           leader, are to attach themselves to the team member in front of them by the
           short length of personal line. However, this method must not be used in BA
           operations involving ships or buildings under construction, repair or
           demolition, or any other types of structure or situation that may indicate to a
           team leader or IC that individual attachment to the guideline is necessary.

    2.8    The personal line allows team members to search off the main guideline, but
           only to a maximum of 6 metres. Wherever possible, no team member shall be
           out of personal touching distance with remaining members of the team. See
           Figure 5.

    2.9    Where rooms or areas have been searched en route into the building, the
           guideline should be retrieved and tied loosely across the door to indicate to
           subsequent teams that the area has been searched.

    2.10   After a guideline has been laid, the leader of the team following it must be
           attached to it by the short length of personal line. The other members of the
           team must be attached by the short length of their personal lines to the team
           member in front or to the guideline.




                                            97
2.11   Attachment by team members to the remainder of the team has advantages
       when the ground is reasonably level and passing teams may be encountered as
       only the team leader has to unhook. Individual attachment of the personal line
       to the guideline is generally the more suitable method where shafts or steep
       ladders may be encountered as it allows more freedom of movement. However,
       HFRS personnel will attach themselves directly to the guideline when they are
       deployed in ships, buildings under construction, major repair or demolition.
       Other types of structure or situation may also indicate to a team leader or IC
       that individual attachment to the guideline is necessary.

2.12   When attached individually to the guideline, team members should also remain
       within physical contact distance of the remaining members of the team.

2.13   The guideline is to be tightly secured at intervals, preferably at waist height, to
       suitable objects on the route by other members of the guideline team.

2.14   When it is known, or suspected, that penetration may be deep an additional
       guideline should be carried by another member of the team.

       Extending Main Guidelines

       A guideline should be extended by unclipping the looped end from the snap
       hook of another guideline.

       When unclipping the looped end from the snap hook attached to the bag and
       clipping on to the snap hook of another guideline, the existing guideline is to
       remain threaded through the eyelet in the bag lid.

       This will ensure that the guideline bag is not lost and also act as a prompt to
       crews following the guideline that an additional line has been added to extend
       the length of the guideline.

2.15   Emergency withdrawal may be accomplished by the team leader releasing the
       guideline container and, by following the guideline, the crew are then able to
       retrace their steps. If possible, the guideline container should be secured to a
       suitable object by using the clip on the bag to attach onto a loop within the knot
       of the last tie off point, before withdrawal.

2.16   When a team laying a guideline has to retire before the objective is reached, the
       team leader should ensure that the container is unfastened and secured as above
       at a convenient point so that it can be used by other BA teams.

2.17   OUTGOING TEAMS MUST ALWAYS HAVE PRECEDENCE ON
       GUIDELINES OVER TEAMS ENTERING THE RISK AREA.

2.18   Where a guideline is to be laid to follow the line of an existing BA
       communications cable, the guideline team should attach themselves to the cable
       using their personal lines as described in this guidance.

2.19   Main guidelines should preferably not be secured to the same points as the
       communications cable.


                                        98
3   ADDITIONAL PROCEDURE FOR THE LAYING OF BRANCH GUIDELINES

    3.1   Branch guidelines are to be used where the distance of the area of search from
          the main guideline is greater than the length of one personal line.

    3.2   There should be no more than 4 branch guidelines from an entry control point.

    3.3   Branch guidelines are to be designated 1, 2, 3 or 4 by the Entry Control Officer.
          They are to be marked by using a branch guideline tally (the number of holes
          representing the number of the branch guideline).

    3.4   The branchline chain must be attached by the entry control officer and the
          branchline tally then attached to the chain before it is taken into the risk area.

    3.5   Branch guidelines are to be attached to the main guideline securely. The
          recommended way to attach a branch line to a main guideline is to tie a clove
          hitch using the branchline chain leaving a tail of approximately 0.5 metres. The
          dog clip on the tail is then clipped back onto the standing part of the chain. This
          method should ensure easy recognition of the branch line and designating
          tallies.

    3.6   For safety reasons and to avoid potential confusion, branch guide lines should
          not be joined together or extended.

    3.7   The details of which main and branch guidelines to which individual teams are
          committed must be recorded on the Entry Control Board by the Entry Control
          Officer.

    3.8   The Entry Control Officer is responsible for the removal of main and branch
          guideline chain and tallies when the lines to which they are attached are
          removed from the risk area. They are not to be removed by any other person or
          for any other purpose.




                                           99
Guideline Markings (Fig 2)



            100
Main Guideline Tallies




  Branchline Tallies



          101
Personal Line (Fig 4)




         102
Use of Guide and Personal Lines (Fig 5)




                  103
Branch Guideline Chain


          104
                       HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                     TRAINING CENTRE

                   WORKING IN HOT AND HUMID ATMOSPHERES



AIMS AND OBJECTIVES


Aim

To instruct student on the potential hazards of working in hot and humid atmospheres.

Objectives

At the end of the session the student will be able to:

1     State the physiological effects that may be experienced when working in hot and humid
      conditions.

2     State the 3 factors that will determine the length of time a firefighter will be able to work
      in hot and humid conditions.

3     Describe the symptoms and treatment of heat stress.

4     Name the three medical conditions that can occur through exposure to hot and humid
      conditions, recognise their symptoms and state the necessary actions to treat each
      condition.




                                               105
                   HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                 TRAINING CENTRE

                WORKING IN HOT AND HUMID ATMOSPHERES



1   INTRODUCTION

    1.1     High temperatures will be encountered in fire situations where, by nature of the
            structure, ventilation is difficult:

            - Ships' engines and boiler rooms and other confined spaces.

            - Basements, cable tunnels.

            - HM Forces underground control centres.

    1.2     The length of time firefighters will be able to work in such conditions is
            governed by the following factors and not the capacity of the set:

            - Amount of physical effort being exerted.

            - Humidity and temperature.

            - Type of BA and clothing worn.

    1.3     In the above situations when water jets are brought into use by BA wearers, the
            humidity will rise and the atmosphere will become saturated. Any prolonged
            physical effort in these conditions by BA wearers may result in an increased
            demand for air coupled with a loss of strength, rapid rise in body temperature,
            and heat exhaustion.

    1.4     To assist wearers who are faced with the situations as described above, a
            knowledge and understanding of the following sections is important.

2   MAINTENANCE OF NORMAL BODY TEMPERATURE

    The human body likes to maintain its temperature within about half a degree of 37ºC so
    it is apparent that we are most comfortable when losing heat to the atmosphere. Our
    thermo-regulatory system attempts to maintain normal body temperature in various
    ways.

    2.1     Radiation

            This normally accounts for about 50% of the heat loss and depends on the
            surrounding atmosphere being cooler than the body. If the atmosphere is hotter
            or there is a source of high radiant temperature the body tends to absorb heat.
            Clothing will restrict heat loss by radiation from the body, but it will also
            protect the body from radiant heat.


                                            106
    2.2       Convection

              Moving air currents normally account for about 25% of our heat loss. The body
              heats the air surrounding it, the warm air rises and is replaced by cool air.
              However, if high ambient temperatures are encountered or heavy clothing is
              worn (ie, fire kit), this method of heat loss is severely restricted.

    2.3       Evaporation

              One of our main defences against overheating is to sweat. As the perspiration
              evaporates it has a cooling effect, even in hot conditions the body can lose heat
              in this way. The maximum rate of sweat secretion is 1 to 3 pints per hour (0.7
              to 1.71 litres per hour). Persistent hot and humid conditions gradually reduce
              the sweat rate and hence its cooling effect, the body then quickly becomes
              overheated.

    2.4       Vaporisation

              A small amount of heat is lost from the body when cool air is inhaled, warmed
              in the lungs, then exhaled. This is referred to as vaporisation and is still
              effective when wearing open circuit BA. The body may react by panting to
              cool down, this can substantially increase air consumption.

3   PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS

    Firefighters often fail to consider the physiological effects of heat when it is associated
    with high humidity levels. Nevertheless, these effects can have serious consequences
    leading to impaired decision making or irrational behaviour.

    Some of the physiological effects that may be experienced in hot and humid conditions
    are:

    -   Rapid fatigue.
    -   Performance levels drop.
    -   Mental confusion.
    -   Manipulative and visual skills deteriorate.
    -   Possible cramps.

    In simple terms these symptoms are a result of the body overheating which can be
    accelerated.




                                              107
4   FACTORS

    The physiological effects of heat and humidity are not always predictable and vary
    depending on a combination of the following factors:

    - Air temperature; high temperatures restrict heat loss by radiation and convection.

    - Humidity; this restricts heat loss from evaporation.

    - Air movement; static air reduces heat loss by evaporation.

    - Radiant temperature; if high the body may absorb heat.

    - Metabolic heat; if hard work is being performed the body will produce more of its
      own heat.

    - Clothing; heavy clothing will reduce the heat loss by radiation and convection.

    - Fitness level; fitter people can usually cope with the physical strain better than less fit
      people.

    - Age; study has shown that the 30-50 year age group cope better under these
      conditions.

    - Temperament; it appears that the easy going character has a greater tolerance than the
      highly strung person.

    - Acclimatisation; someone from a hot and humid climate or a person who is regularly
      exposed to these types of conditions will cope better than someone who isn't.

    - Sex; because females generally carry more insulating fat cells, they lose heat more
      slowly so are normally more susceptible than males.

    - Experience; although not a physiological factor, experience can increase the tolerance
      to these conditions.

5   HEAT STRESS (HEAT INDUCED ILLNESS)

    BA wearers operating in conditions of high temperature and humidity may experience
    symptoms of heat stress:

    -   Dizziness.
    -   Nausea.
    -   Headache or a feeling of lightness.
    -   Abdominal pain.
    -   Muscular cramps.

    If any of the symptoms are experienced the wearer concerned must inform the team
    leader who will immediately arrange withdrawal to fresh air.




                                              108
    Any incident in which the affected wearer loses consciousness or is incapable of self
    controlled actions due to heat stress must be reported under the RIDDOR (Reporting of
    Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations S12023: 1985) scheme to the
    Health and Safety Executive.

    Treatment

    -   Remove the affected wearers BA.
    -   Use resuscitation set to assist breathing if required.
    -   Undo/remove clothing.
    -   Immerse hands in cool water to reduce body temperature.
    -   Cool body with water if climatic conditions allow.
    -   Provide saline solution to drink.
    -   Seek medical advice.
    -   Impound the BA set.

6   HEAT INDUCED MEDICAL CONDITIONS

    In addition to the general symptoms of heat stress, there are 3 distinct and separate
    medical conditions that can occur when a Firefighter is exposed to hot and humid
    conditions. Note: These conditions are not a progressive sequence of events and can
    occur independently from each other and suddenly without warning.

    6.1      Heat Syncope

             This condition may occur when a person moves into an area of high
             temperature. The body reacts by dilating the blood vessels on the skin to try to
             cool itself. However, due to high temperatures the body will take in heat. In
             extreme cases the blood pressure drops and causes fainting. This is known as
             heat syncope.

             Treatment - remove the casualty from the heat and treat for fainting. Do not
             allow the casualty to return to the hot atmosphere for several hours.

    6.2      Heat Exhaustion

             This is the most likely reaction firefighters will encounter in severe conditions.
             Heat exhaustion can occur under hot, dry conditions, but it develops more
             quickly under hot humid conditions due to the reduced cooling available to the
             body.

             When working hard in these conditions, the body will sweat heavily and lose
             appreciable amounts of salt and water. This may lead to the following
             symptoms:

             -   Exhaustion and restlessness.
             -   Fast shallow breathing.
             -   Rapid pulse.
             -   Dizziness and possible fainting.
             -   Pale clammy face.
             -   Muscular cramps and a headache may follow.


                                             109
          Treatment - remove the person from the heat and cool them down, administer
          saline drinks. Do not allow the casualty to return to the hot atmosphere for
          several hours. Use resuscitation set to assist breathing if required. Undo light
          clothing. Immerse hands in cold water to reduce body temperature. Cool with
          water if climatic conditions allow. Impound BA set. Seek medical advice.

    6.3   Heat Stroke

          This is an extremely serious condition and should be recognised. It is caused
          by prolonged exposure to high temperatures and is accelerated by high humidity
          levels. As the body is exposed to heat, all methods of heat loss become
          ineffective except for evaporation. However, if exposure is prolonged and the
          humidity level is high, the rate of sweating declines and the body temperature
          rises rapidly. Collapse, coma and even death may follow if treatment is not
          instituted.

          The symptoms are:

          - Skin is dry and hot.

          - Temperature is very high.

          - Patient may be restless or irritable.

          - Unconsciousness may develop.

          - Rapid bounding pulse.

          It must be remembered that this condition only normally happens after several
          hours exposure to a hot environment. However, high humidity levels and hard
          work will reduce this time.

          NOTE:       Some medical ailments may promote the onset of heat stroke.

          Treatment - remove the casualty from the heat, use resuscitation set to assist
          breathing if required, cool by removing clothing, applying wet towels, water
          sprays or fanning. This treatment must be continued until the patient's
          temperature is down to 38ºC. Remove immediately to hospital.

7   OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES

    7.1   When BA wearers are required to work in high temperatures, provision must be
          made for relieving personnel at frequent intervals. A realistic time factor must
          be determined to suit the situation. Where practicable, BA wearers must avoid
          over-exertion when within the incident area.

    7.2   The BA Entry Control Officer must ensure that BA wearers are relieved and
          withdrawn in accordance with the specified time factor.

    7.3   In such conditions the Officer in Charge should arrange for relief crews to be
          drawn from fresh personnel.


                                          110
                       HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                     TRAINING CENTRE

                            COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT



AIMS AND OBJECTIVES


Aim

To introduce the students to the different types of communication equipment used with
Breathing Apparatus and the procedures to be adopted with their use.

Objectives

At the end of the session the student will be able to:

1     Name the different types of communication equipment available.

2     State which types can and cannot be used in hazardous atmospheres.

3     Demonstrate the ability to set up a Diktron Lines Communication System.

4     State the procedures for the use of Diktron Line Communications.

5     State the procedures for relieving a BA Line Communications Team.

6     State when the Diktron Communications Line can be used as a guideline.

7     State the course of action in event of a Diktron Line Communication failure/emergency.

8     Describe the necessary actions to prevent damage to the Diktron Line Communications
      Equipment.

9     Demonstrate the ability to operate a personal radio and select the correct channel for BA
      operations.

10    Explain the correct procedures for the passing and receiving of messages on the radio
      scheme.




                                               111
                    HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                  TRAINING CENTRE

                             RADIO COMMUNICATIONS



1   GENERAL DESCRIPTION

    The small light weight 2-way UHF personal radios used by the Hampshire Fire and
    Rescue Service provide BA wearers with far greater flexibility than the Diktron
    Communications equipment.

2   RADIO COMMUNICATIONS PROCEDURES

    Radio communications equipment may be used under all stages of entry control. The
    type of radio used with BA must be suitable for the environment in which it is used.
    Where the use of radio equipment may involve its exposure to flammable or explosive
    atmospheres then an intrinsically safe type of radio must be used.

    Radio communications may be used in all circumstances where line communications are
    appropriate. However, users should be aware of the limited penetration of radio signals.
    Therefore, in the event of a communications breakdown the procedures taken should be
    broadly similar to line communications, but discretion must be given to committing
    emergency teams.

3   BA COMMUNICATIONS PROCEDURE

    Generally, for incidents within Hampshire, Channel 6 should be considered the first
    primary channel choice for BA operations as this will ensure that users of both models
    of radios have a common frequency to work with.

    Radio communications should always be tested by operation before a BA team enters a
    risk. Where teams equipped with radios are relieved by teams without, the radios will
    be transferred and the BAECO informed.

    The first BA team to use an entry point will be designated by that entry control point's
    colour and the figure 1, eg 'Red Control from Red 1', subsequent teams will be
    designated 'Red 2', 'Red 3', etc.

    Similarly teams entering the building by separate entry points will be designated White
    1, Blue 1, etc.




                                             112
Team leaders should ensure that the Entry Control Officer is regularly updated on any
development of the operational incidents or potential hazards that are likely to be
considered significant by the IC or are of relevance to other crews.

Except for the passing of relevant information to the wearers within the premises or for
circumstances of safety, the initiation of messages should be from BA team to external
operator.




                                        113
                    HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                  TRAINING CENTRE

             COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT AND PROCEDURES

                   DIKTRON BA COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM



1   GENERAL DESCRIPTION

    The Diktron system consists of any number of individual units designed to enable the
    wearer of BA to communicate fully and clearly with another member of his team. The
    team is normally connected to the BA Entry Control Officer (or a man nominated by
    him) by an automatically laid cable, thus permitting all team activities to be monitored.

    The individual harness mounted unit consists basically of a microphone, battery
    powered amplifier and built-in speaker connected to the microphone by a flexible cable.
    When the user speaks to fellow team members or to casualties, his voice is amplified
    and broadcast by his loudspeaker. The cable link from operator to control enables the
    Control Officer outside the building to converse with and give instructions to the
    operator and other members of the BA team. The Control Officer must also be equipped
    with a Diktron unit, the microphone in this case being fitted to a half-mask which
    excludes extraneous noise.

    There are no talk/listen switches; controls are restricted to a simple volume control on
    top of the amplifier.

2   AMPLIFIER

    This is a fully transistorised unit of robust construction, capable of long periods of use
    without attention other than recharging of the built-in power supply, which is completely
    sealed and charged in-situ. Only one control is fitted (on the amplifier top panel which
    adjusts the volume level from the built-in speaker to suit the various ambient
    conditions). No switches are used, the amplifier becoming 'live' when the microphone
    connection cable is inserted in either socket. When correctly located the grey moulding
    should be pushed in and the plug will then lock into position. To remove, simply pull
    on the metal ring.

    The basic function of the set is now operating, ie, the voice of the wearer is brought
    outside the facemask enabling him to speak normally to those in the vicinity. There are
    two further facilities which can be plugged into the vacant socket:

    2.1      An extension cable can be used to couple two units when both operators will be
             in communication with each other. No switching is required.

    2.2      Where circumstances demand it (eg, working in foam when the speaker may be
             baffled). A combined microphone and earpiece can be plugged in. In these
             circumstances, the speaker will be muted.



                                             114
3   PLUGS AND SOCKETS

    In order to simplify operation, particularly in difficult conditions, the unit has been
    designed so that any plug may be inserted into any socket whatever the function
    involved. This means however, that connections into the plugs and sockets must be
    carefully repeated, should they have to be replaced.

4   MICROPHONES

    The microphone used at the remote end of the communication line is mounted in a half-
    mask, and is intended to be worn by the Entry Control Officer. This facility allows both
    hands of the operator to remain free for other purposes, and also prevents any extraneous
    noise from being transmitted to the BA wearer. The half-mask also prevents the
    possibility of 'acoustic feedback', a 'howl' developing due to close proximity of
    microphone and speaker until when high volume levels are used.

    One of the main advantages of the Diktron system is the facility of direct speech
    communication by the BA wearer, and the fact that both amplifiers are identical so
    allowing their use individually by BA wearer or connected via the communication line.
    It is not recommended that the BA wearer uses headphones, even in noisy surroundings,
    as normal hearing is essential to give prior warning of danger, especially so when the
    sight is impaired due to thick smoke.

    The microphone for use by the BA wearer is provided ready fitted to a standard Sabre
    facemask without breathing valve. In order to use this mask the wearer will remove the
    breathing valve from his own facemask and refit it into the communications mask.

5   CABLE PACK

    This is made from PVC coated canvas, and is both hard wearing and washable. It
    contains a minimum of 90 metres specially manufactured cable which is very flexible,
    light and strong. In the event of the cable becoming severed it may be joined by using
    normal cable jointing techniques, ensuring that the two strainers are tied prior to
    sleeving the repaired portion.

    The team leader will normally wear the cable pack clipped to his set by means of snap
    hooks in such a way that the bag is in an upright position with the cable paying out from
    the top. After use the cable should be made up on a former (any 13 mm to 25 mm
    dowel). Two or three turns are taken around the dowel about 150 mm from the end, the
    cable is wound on 'ball of string' fashion keeping the cable to the bottom right and the
    top left of the increasing ball rotating the ball on quarter of a turn clockwise every two or
    three turns. The end which protrudes through the hose in the pack lid is the centre of the
    winding.




                                             115
6   BATTERY CHARGING

    A fully exhausted battery requires a charge of 14 hours, although this condition is very
    unlikely to occur, as lack of volume and a certain amount of distortion is apparent long
    before the battery is completely exhausted. A useful check in deciding the amount of
    charge that is necessary is to take the approximate total use of the amplifier in hours and
    double this time for charging.

    A special dual-charger is available which is semi-automatic in its operation, and will
    charge two amplifiers simultaneously. Indicator lamps show when charge is taking
    place, and act as a fuse in the event of a fault. The lamps will glow rather brightly when
    charging an exhausted battery and will progressively dim as the battery becomes
    charged. A constantly dull lamp indicates a fully charged battery. The condition of the
    batteries should be checked weekly.




                                             116
                    HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                 TRAINING CENTRE

                     LINE COMMUNICATIONS PROCEDURE



1   INTRODUCTION

    BA line communications equipment is provided to allow BA team leaders two-way
    communications with a communications operator located outside the risk area.

2   PROCEDURE FOR RIGGING IN BA LINE COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT

    Procedures for rigging in BA line communications equipment are as follows:

    2.1     The communications team don their BA and the leader's communications
            equipment is connected to the team leader's BA and to the communications
            cable.

    2.2     The communications operator puts on the communications equipment and
            connects the equipment to the 'pay out' end of the communications cable.

    2.3     Two way communications are tested.

    2.4     The BA team carry out the normal starting up procedures.

    2.5     The communications cable is to be paid out of the container by the BA team
            leader, or, if more convenient, by another member.

    2.6     When it is known, or suspected, the penetration may be deep, an additional
            communications cable carrier should be carried by another member of the team.
            Communications cables may be extended by joining two of more cables
            together. Cables are joined by connecting the snap hooks seized on to each
            cable together and connecting the electrical plugs in the single line adapter.

    2.7     Emergency withdrawal may be accomplished by the team leader releasing the
            cable container and disconnecting the communication equipment from the
            cable. By following the cable the team are then able to retrace their steps to the
            entry point.

    If possible, the BA team leader should warn the Entry Control Officer, through the
    communications operator, before disconnecting the cable.




                                            117
3   PROCEDURES

    BA line communications equipment is to be used only on the instructions of the Officer
    in Charge.

    Such incidents will normally require the institution of Stage II entry control procedures,
    however, there is nothing to preclude the use of line communications whenever BA is in
    use.

    The Officer in Charge should consider the use of BA line communications equipment in
    the following circumstances.

    - Where intrinsic safety is required.

    - Deep seated fire, eg in basements and tunnels.

    - Incidents that are likely to be protracted.

    - Incidents where guidelines are required.

    Such incidents will require the institution of Stage II entry control procedure.

    The Entry Control Officer will detail the members of a BA line communications team
    and a communications operator.

    The BA team leader is to report progress and any hazards and potential hazards
    encountered. The team leader is also to report any other information considered to be
    relevant. Except for the passing of relevant information to the wearers within the
    premises or for circumstances of safety, the initiation of messages should be from the
    BA team to external operator.

    The communications operator is to pass any information received from the BA team
    leader to the Entry Control Officer who will use the information to brief any additional
    BA team that may enter the risk area and to keep the Officer in Charge informed of the
    progress of the incident. Any information that might affect the whole strategy of dealing
    with the incident must be brought to the immediate attention of the Officer in Charge.

    As the Diktron communications consists of a voice activated transmission system, BA
    Diktron communications wearers must be aware that all verbal communication made
    will be transmitted to the BA Diktron external operator at the entry control. Therefore,
    any message that is required to be passed to the external operator must be clearly
    indicated by the use of formal communications procedure (ie, Red 1 to Red Control).

    BA line communications equipment is not to be used as a guideline except when one of
    the following applies:

    - It comprises of a combination BA guideline and communications line.

    - A communications team, upon completion of its designated task, returning to the
      entry point.



                                             118
    - A BA team entering needs to extend a communications cable laid by an earlier team.

    - A communications team is to be relieved.

    - A team withdraws in an emergency.

    - The circumstances of an incident require a guideline to be laid along the route of a
      communications cable.

    - An emergency team enters as a result of a communications failure.

    - A team enters to assist the communications team with a specific task.

    In the event of the failure of line communications the communications operator must
    inform the Entry Control Officer.

    As soon as it becomes apparent that communications contact with a BA communications
    team has been lost the Entry Control Officer is to despatch an emergency team to check
    on their safety .

    The team leader of a BA team must decide whether to withdraw the team or to continue
    when contact with the communications operator is lost. In deciding whether to
    withdraw the team leader must take into account reactions of the Entry Control Officer
    described above.

4   PROCEDURE FOR RELIEVING BA LINE COMMUNICATION TEAM

    When it is necessary to relieve a BA line communications team the relief team should
    proceed as follows:

    4.1     The team should rig in BA and communications equipment as described above,
            but without a communications cable.

    4.2     After the leader of the team to be relieved has been warned, a test should be
            carried out by use of a second cable that the communications equipment of the
            relieving crew is functioning.

    4.3     After carrying out normal BA entry control procedures the relieving team
            should follow the existing communications cable (or combined cable and
            guideline) into the working area and locate the BA team to be relieved.

    4.4     After warning the communications operator, the leader of the team to be
            relieved should unfasten the cable container and disconnect the cable from the
            communications equipment. The team leader of the relieving team should
            connect the cable to their communications equipment and secure the cable
            container and retest communications with the communications operator.

    4.5     The relieved BA team should return to the entry point using the
            communications cable as a guide.




                                            119
5   PROCEDURE FOR CARE OF BA LINE COMMUNICATIONS

    The cable used with BA line communications equipment is selected for lightness and
    strength. It is not unbreakable, however, and consequently care is necessary in using it,
    especially as follows:

    5.1      If the cable snags the bag whilst being paid out the team should stop and
             carefully free the obstruction so that the cable runs freely before proceeding.

    5.2      Care should be taken in passing the cable through doorways and as far as
             possible, cables should not be allowed to come into positions where they might
             be crushed. If possible, cables should be tied off on each side of a door
             opening.

    5.3      Cables should not be tugged free whilst making up.

    5.4      Cables should not be dragged excessively whilst making up thus avoiding
             abrasion damage.

    5.5      'D' ring clips should always be used to prevent strain on cable connectors.

    5.6      As far as possible, cable runs should avoid sharp edges, but where this is
             impossible, the cable should be fastened in such a way that chafing is avoided.




                                             120
                       HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                     TRAINING CENTRE

                       PLAN DRAWING AND INTERPRETATION



AIMS AND OBJECTIVES


Aim

To give the students a basic understanding of plan drawing.

Objectives

At the end of the session the student will be able to:

1     Recognise that different scales are used in plan drawing and interpret this information.

2     Recognise the major key symbols and apply this to understanding a plan drawing.

3     Demonstrate the ability to pass information contained on a plan to another crew via
      communication equipment.

4     Demonstrate the ability on exit from a building to draw or relate information as to its
      internal layout.




                                               121
                     HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                    TRAINING CENTRE

                      PLAN DRAWING AND INTERPRETATION



1   INTRODUCTION

    Fires in large buildings or structures of a complex nature can present considerable
    difficulties for firefighters in locating the seat of a fire or the rescue of any casualties. If
    a plan of the structure is available it can give considerable assistance to firefighters in
    the following way:

    - Reduces the risk of crews getting lost.

    - Helps reduce the length of time that it takes crews to search a building or to locate a
      specific area.

    - Enables an OIC to determine the number of teams it will take to search a building.

    - Assists an OIC in confirming that an area has been searched.

    However, Firefighters must be aware that alterations are often carried out to the internal
    layout of premises and that the plans available may not show these changes. Therefore,
    it is important that at the earliest opportunity a responsible person, who is familiar with
    the layout of the premises, is used to confirm the accuracy of the plan.

    Equally if a plan is not available, then the ability of firefighters to draw a basic plan of
    the area that has been searched will greatly assist subsequent crews and reduce search
    times.

2   PLANS IN GENERAL

    Plans are a pictorial representation of a structure and its fittings (which may include
    furniture), as viewed from above. The three types of plans that a firefighter may
    encounter in the course of their duties are:

    - Architects plans.

    - Fire safety plans.

    - Ships plans.

    2.1      Architects Plans

             These plans are a very accurate and drawn to scale, they convey a lot of
             information and on initial inspection may appear confusing. However, if a
             photo-copy of the plan can be obtained then the relevant information such as
             walls and stairs can be highlighted using a highlighter pen.


                                               122
123
2.2   Fire Safety 11D Plans

      These are generally straight forward plans with only information relevant to the
      firefighter and can be a very valuable tool. However, these plans are generally
      drawn to proportion and not to scale. This factor must be considered when
      predicting travel distance and determining search patterns.




                                     124
2.3   Ship Plans

      The design of ships varies greatly due to national tradition and legislation to the
      trade in which the ship is employed and to the requirements of the owners.
      There are several plans held on board ships of particular valve, in cases of fire,
      which should be consulted in association with the Master or Chief Officer and
      Chief Engineer by the Officer in Charge of the incident.

      -   Fire Control Plan
      -   Stability data
      -   Cargo stowage plan (where appropriate)
      -   Damage control plan (on most passenger ships)

      In order that firefighters may interpret any plans they may be shown, it is
      necessary that they have an insight into the main techniques employed in
      labelling holds and decks.

      When reading ships plans care should be taken to check at which deck level
      you are making entry and whether stairways leading from one deck level are
      taking you into the area required.

      In general terms the plans will be laid out in a similar manner to building plans,
      ie compartments will be identified by single line drawings with a separate
      drawing for each deck level. The layout or notation of deck levels may differ
      depending on the company who own the ship. Sometimes decks will be
      numbered 1, 2, 3, 4 etc or named lower deck, sun deck, lounge deck,
      promenade deck, etc or the decks may be lettered A, B,C,D. Generally holds
      will be numbered 1, 2 ,3, 4, etc running fore to aft.




                                      125
The marking of compartments on RN ships differs from that of merchant ships.
The decks are numbered as shown in the diagram. To locate compartments
within that deck a designating letter is given to the large space between
watertight bulkheads. These compartments can be further broken down by
using a second designation letter as shown in the diagram. The only further
location required is going across the ship. This is achieved by numbering from
centre line out, odd numbers to starboard, even numbers to port.

As an example the shaded area shown on the diagram would be shown as
"3E4b".




                              126
3   PLAN INTERPRETATION

    3.1       Scales

              Scales are used to give proportion to a plan. This allows a person to measure
              the distance between two points on a plan and determine what that will
              represent within the building. For example, a plan drawn to 1:100 scale will
              indicate that 1 cm on the plan will represent a distance of 100 cm within the
              building.

    3.2       Key Symbols

              All plans come with a key symbol table and this is a code used to present
              certain fixtures and fittings within the building. These symbols vary according
              to the type of plan involved. However, there are certain symbols which are
              generally common to most plans (see figure 1).

4   REFERENCE POINTS

    These can be used to orientate the plan. External doors and windows can be common
    reference points for both the BA crews and the BACO. Whilst stair, particular types of
    doors and fixtures such as hosereels can be a valuable internal reference point for BA
    crews.

5   PLAN COMMUNICATION

    To assist BA crews inside a building, information on the plan can be passed to them
    from the outside of the building using communication equipment. However, to avoid
    overloading the crews with information or irrelevant facts certain rules should be
    followed:

    -   Identify what information will assist the crews in the completion of the task.
    -   Identify suitable reference points.
    -   Formulate the message before passing it.
    -   Use simple language and correct radio procedures.
    -   Keep transmissions brief and infrequent.

6   DRAWING PLAN

    When plans are not available, then crews on withdrawal can use a drawing board to
    indicate the areas that have been searched. This is a difficult procedure and requires
    regular practice. Generally when formulating a plan, the BACO should make a drawing
    of the perimeter of building at each floor level indicating the dimensions. The crews can
    then draw in the internal layout and relevant features. Two factors that can assist in the
    drawing of a good plan are:

    - Do not indicate on the plan items of furniture.
    - Try to assess travel distances whilst searching (1 BA shuffle step is approximately
      0.5 m).




                                             127
PLAN DRAWING SYMBOLS (FIG 1)




             128
                       HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                     TRAINING CENTRE

                              THERMAL IMAGING CAMERA



AIMS AND OBJECTIVES


Aim

To instruct students in the operational use of the thermal imaging camera.

Objective

At the end of the session the student will be able to:

1     Describe the operational procedures to be adopted when the thermal imaging camera is
      used by a BA team.




                                               129
                    HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                  TRAINING CENTRE

                           THERMAL IMAGING CAMERA



1   INTRODUCTION

    All objects with a temperature above absolute zero emit infra red radiation, the intensity
    and wavelength of which depends on their temperature emissity. The thermal imaging
    camera is a device similar to a television camera except that it is sensitive to infra-red
    radiation rather than light and is capable of producing a thermal image onto a monitor.
    It is so sensitive that a temperature differential of 1° centigrade can easily be detected.

2   DESCRIPTION

    The camera is waterproof and insulated for use in high ambient temperatures. Each
    camera comes with two battery containers, two sets of rechargeable batteries and a
    charger. One of the containers and set of rechargeable batteries is for drill purposes only
    and should be marked accordingly. The remaining container is for operational use only.
    One set of batteries should last approximately 60 minutes and a light-emitting diode
    battery indicator, visible through the monitor, gives a warning 10 minutes before battery
    exhaustion. The camera lens is fitted with a automatic iris to prevent overload and
    blooming of the picture when very hot scenes are viewed. The iris will take a few
    seconds to re-open when the overload is removed.

3   ADVANTAGES

    - Provides clear vision through smoke.

    - Instantly shows the location of a fire source or casualty.

    - Substantially increases BA operators mobility in smoke filled areas.

    - Initial survey of a building can indicate the probable location of a fire by indicating
      the heat source.

    - When a fire has been extinguished, it can indicate any isolated hot spots which could
      cause re-ignition.

    - Overheating equipment can be located before ignition occurs.

    - When connected from a smoke chamber to a VDU outside it can be used to monitor
      techniques of BA teams undergoing training.




                                             130
4   DISADVANTAGES

    - The thermal imaging camera can only detect temperature differences and although
      very sensitive to them, there is the possibility that an obstacle might not be detected if
      it is at the same temperature as the surrounding environment.

    - It can not give an indication of the integrity or stability of a floor.

    - Infra red radiation is absorbed by water and the efficiency of the camera will be
      effected by humid or moist atmospheres. The camera is less effective when used
      behind a water curtain or spray.

    - It is not intrinsically safe.

5   OPERATIONAL USE WITH BREATHING APPARATUS

    The thermal imaging camera can be a very valuable tool for a breathing apparatus crew,
    providing them with clear vision through the smoke. However, certain procedures
    should be adopted with its use with breathing apparatus to ensure maximum
    effectiveness and safety. These are:

    - Crews must carry out correct personal search procedures at all times. This is due to
      the camera only detecting temperature differences and any debris or obstacles that are
      at the same temperature as the surrounding environment will not show on the monitor
      screen.

    - A methodical search pattern should be used by crews to allow them to retrace their
      route in the event of a failure of the thermal imaging camera. Consideration should
      be given to the use of hoselines and/or guidelines.

    - BA team leader should ensure that the team pauses at regular intervals to allow the
      thermal imaging camera to scan the area.

    - The thermal imaging camera operator is potentially the most valuable member of a
      BA team and should be protected by other team members.

    - Ensure that the BA Entry Control Officer records in the remarks column that the
      thermal imaging camera is in use.




                                              131
                       HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                     TRAINING CENTRE

                  PORTABLE INSPECTION AND SEARCH CAMERA



AIMS AND OBJECTIVES


Objective

At the end of the session the student will be able to:

1     Describe the operational procedures to be adopted when the Portable Inspection and
      Search Camera is used.




                                               132
                     HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                  TRAINING CENTRE

                  PORTABLE INSPECTION AND SEARCH CAMERA



1   FUNCTION

    The Portable Inspection and Search Camera provides the operator with a remote viewing
    capability.

2   DESCRIPTION

    The unit is called the ‘Snake Eye’.

    The system consists of:

    -   Camera
    -   Connecting cable (2 x 4 ft and 1 x 100 ft)
    -   Wand and gooseneck
    -   Monitor
    -   Torch and accessories (3 batteries and charger)

3   OPERATION

    Pre checks:

    - Insert the male end of the connector cable into the female port on the bottom of the
      monitor unit.

    - Fully hand tighten the cable nut (clockwise) until the connection is secure.

    - Note: The cable connectors must be properly seated and the cable tightened in order
      to effect a proper connection. ONLY HAND TIGHTEN.

    - Connect the camera, cables and/or wand as required. Fully hand tighten the cable nut
      (clockwise) until the connection is secure.

    - Fit a fully charged battery. Open the door on the base of the unit. Insert the battery
      into the base on the unit ensuring the metal edge contacts are uppermost. Push the
      battery fully in and ensure the plastic clip locks behind the battery retaining it in
      place. Close the door.




                                             133
    To check the unit is operating correctly:

    - Switch the unit on. This is the green centre button. Ensure a picture is visible on the
      screen which is in focus.

    - Operate the red left hand button which will toggle the camera lights on and off.

    - Operate the blue right hand button which will toggle the screen backlight function on
      and off.

    The unit is now tested and ready for use. The battery can be left inside the unit, but
    ensure that the unit is switched off before stowage.

4   OPERATION

    - Select the correct cable and adapters, many combinations can be used together. There
      is the wand, gooseneck and extension cable. 2 x 4 ft and 1 x 100 ft.

    - The torch is powered by AAA batteries and should only be fitted to the gooseneck.

    - The green button activates the unit. Batteries will last approximately 45 minutes
      when fully charged.

    - The red left hand button will activate the lights around the camera. These are not
      very powerful so for searching an enclosed space use the torch.

    - The blue right hand button will activate the backlight. This function enhances the
      screen brightness but does not require more power to operate so therefore reduces
      battery operation time.

    - The monitor rotates to ensure that the picture is always upright.

    - In bright sunlight or high glare conditions use the sun hood. If the sun hood is not
      available the backlight will increase the screen brightness. To fit lay the hood on a
      flat surface and wrap around the screen with the heavy seamed edge so that it just
      overlaps the back of the screen and fasten the Velcro. Always hold the monitor by
      the strap and not the sun hood as it could become loose and fall out.

    - The camera and all the cables and connectors are waterproof up to the monitor, the
      monitor is only shower proof and therefore care should be taken that the monitor is
      not immersed in water.

    - Ensure that the unit is switched off before being returned to the case. DO NOT
      disconnect the camera before switching off. If the camera is disconnected first then
      the screen goes blank and appears to be off and therefore the battery will drain.

    - The red light on the front of the monitor will illuminate to show low battery
      condition. When the battery falls to a minimum level the unit will switch off
      automatically.




                                                134
5   RESTRICTIONS

    - The camera and unit are not intrinsically safe.

    - Can be affected by heat from a fire.

6   CLEANING

    After use:

    - Clean with warm soapy water.

    - Trigene may be used.

    - Always have the connections made.

    - Dry in warm air before returning to case.

    - Replace and charge batteries as required.

    Standard Test - Functional Test:

    -   On Acceptance
    -   After Use
    -   Weekly
    -   Monthly




                                             135
                       HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                     TRAINING CENTRE

                                         HI-EX FOAM



AIMS AND OBJECTIVES


Aim

To instruct students on the hazards of working in HI-EX foam.

Objectives

At the end of the session the student will be able to:

1     State the hazards associated with working in HI-EX Foam.

2     List the equipment required to be taken when making an entry into HI-EX Foam.

3     Demonstrate the ability to work safely in HI-EX Foam.




                                               136
                      HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                    TRAINING CENTRE

                         WORKING IN HI EXPANSION FOAM



Conditions within a compartment filled with Hi-Ex foam are extremely hazardous and
wherever possible Firefighters should not be committed into such an environment. However,
there may be occasions where BA wearers are required to enter areas which have been filled
with Hi-Ex Foam. In such situations the following factors must be taken into account.

1    Hi-Ex Foam is opaque and therefore visibility in it is virtually nil.

2    Audibility of speech, low cylinder pressure warning whistles and ADSU's is greatly
     reduced.

3    The virtual isolation from sound and vision can have a more claustrophobic effect then
     immersion in smoke.

4    The penetration of light from torches is adversely affected.

5    Surfaces will be slippery and care should be taken to keep a secure footing at all times.

6    Full use of guidelines and communications equipment should be made.

7    Wearers should keep in physical contact with each other as much as possible.

8    The transmission of heat is also inhibited by high expansion foam and the location and
     travel of fire may be much harder to determine than is usual. Personnel working in a
     foam flooded compartment could thus be at risk from becoming cut off by fire.
     Firefighters may not be aware when foam is being used that ceilings and other structural
     features of combustible material out of sight and hearing may be damaged by fire,
     especially in the space at the top of any compartment which the foam does not
     completely fill. Therefore, wearers should take with them a line of 45 mm hose or
     hosereel, ready to extinguish with water any pockets of fire still remaining, taking care
     that fire does not break out behind them.

9    In the event of an emergency, Hi-Ex foam can be broken down rapidly using water
     sprays or dry powder extinguishers.




                                               137
                       HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                     TRAINING CENTRE

                            CHEMICAL PROTECTION SUITS



AIMS AND OBJECTIVES


Aim

To instruct the students on the different types of Chemical Protection Suits used by the Fire
Service and procedures for their use.

Objectives

At the end of the session the student will be able to:

1     Identify the different types of Chemical Protection Suits used by the Fire Service.

2     Demonstrate the procedure for dressing in Coverall Chemical Protection clothing.

3     Demonstrate the procedure for dressing in a Gas Tight (Coverall) Suit.

4     Demonstrate the correct stowage for Chemical Protection Suits.

5     Identify the different types of damage that might occur to Chemical Protection Suits.

6     State the maximum working duration for working in Chemical Protection Suits.




                                               138
                    HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                 TRAINING CENTRE

                              PROTECTIVE CLOTHING



1   INTRODUCTION

    With the continual increase in chemical incidents (Hampshire Fire and Rescue Service
    attended 107 incidents in 1996), provision of suitable protection is necessary. A positive
    pressure BA set affords the wearer suitable protection from inhalation and ingestion
    hazards. However, ordinary fire kit would afford little or no protection from certain
    chemicals (gases, liquids or powders) which may contaminate personnel when contact is
    made with the skin. To overcome this hazard, impervious protective clothing is worn,
    this clothing may be divided into 2 categories:

    - BA Coverall Chemical Protection Clothing (CPC).
    - BA Gas Tight Suits (GTS).

    These suits are one-piece construction and can be made from a variety of materials, the
    most commonly used material being 'Neoprene'. The degree of protection required
    against specific chemicals will be advised using the 'Protective Clothing Code', see
    Appendix 1.

2   BA COVERALL CHEMICAL PROTECTION CLOTHING (CPC)

    There are 2 types of BA coverall chemical protection clothing used by HFRS:

    Beadle 2000:        Constructed of hypalon neoprene mix.
    Respirex SC4:       Constructed of neoprene.

    Both are designed to be worn over a BA set and both suits are suitable for use at all
    hazardous material incidents where a chemical protection suit is deemed to be adequate
    protection and at all incidents where the emergency action code indicates ‘FULL’, for
    the purposes of carrying out emergency action. Where more prolonged or routine
    exposure is required then the additional personal protection code should be consulted
    and the appropriate level of protection adopted advised by the code.

3   GAS TIGHT COVERALL SUITS

    The gas tight coverall suit used by the Hampshire Fire and Rescue Service is the
    Respirex Tychem TK. It consists of a high strength, high tear resistant 100% non woven
    polyester staple fabric sandwiched between 2 proprietary non halogenated barrier films.
    It provides complete environmental protection for the wearer against the more hazardous
    chemicals that could be encountered at an incident. Designed for limited use, an
    assessment of its condition must be carried out after every incident by the Service
    Hazmat Officer. When in storage it has a maximum shelf life of four years. It is carried
    on Special Equipment Units.



                                            139
4   ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF COVERALL SUITS

    It must be stressed that coverall suits do not offer a higher level of protection, but do
    offer some distinct advantages:

    4.1      Advantages

             -   No exposed skin will be left uncovered.
             -   BA set is protected therefore hazardous chemicals cannot attack it.
             -   BA set is not contaminated therefore it can be used.
             -   Speed of donning.
             -   Hands-free facility inside of suit.
             -   Shower compatible and waste of decontamination.

    4.2      Disadvantages

             -   Communications between wearers - poor, use radios whenever possible.
             -   Movement slow.
             -   Dextrous tasks more difficult.
             -   Misting up of visor.

5   CLOTHING TO BE WORN UNDER THE SUIT

    Gas tight and chemical protection suits are not designed for firefighting or extremes of
    temperature. Therefore, care must be exercised on electing the type of clothing to be
    worn underneath the suit.

    The IC of the incident will be responsible for determining what should be worn beneath
    CPC and GTS. The factors to consider will be:

    - Fire situation (fire kit).
    - Cryogenic incident (incidents involving gases/liquids at very low temperatures)
      (jumper/fire tunic/full fire kit).
    - High or low environmental temperature (working rig).

    Shorts must never be worn as the sole garment beneath CPC or GTS.

6   WORKING DURATION

    Working in gas tight or chemical protection suits can be arduous and in extreme cases
    can bring on the phenomena of 'heat stress'. Therefore, ALL wearers of either suit will
    be subject to a MAXIMUM WORKING DURATION OF 20 MINUTES. This will:

    - Reduce the effects of heat stress.
    - Ensure sufficient reserves of air for decontamination.
    - Reduce the exposure time of the suit to aggressive chemicals.

    However, following consultation with the IC the working duration of decontamination
    operators can be extended to a maximum of 30 minutes.




                                              140
7   COVERALL CHEMICAL PROTECTION SUIT

    7.1   Donning Procedures

          - Provide canvas sheet for wearer to stand on.

          - The services of a dresser must be employed to assist the wearer.

          - Donning of coverall suits should take place as CLOSE TO THE BAECO AS
            POSSIBLE.

          - Remove helmet and boots. Dresser to prepare the suit and apply anti-fog
            agents.

          - Ensure correct clothing is as determined by the IC.

          - Don BA set, DO NOT START UP. Dresser to remove DSU and torch and
            affix to outside of suit.

          - RADIO COMMUNICATIONS SHOULD BE PROVIDED INSIDE THE
            SUIT WHENEVER POSSIBLE.

          - Insert legs ensuring stirrup is under the arch of the foot, and the outer leg is
            fully rolled up.

          - Don rubber fireboots ensuring inner cuff is inside boots and outer cuff is
            outside.

          - The Coverall 2000 suit support straps should be attached to the BA set
            waistbelt and for the Respirex SC4 the waistbelt done up.

          - Start up the BA set in accordance with normal donning and starting
            procedures. Hand the completed BA tally to the BAECO and fully fit the
            fire helmet.

          - Fit the remainder of the suit and zip fully up ensuring velcro flap zip cover is
            folded down.

          - If operations require a lot of manual handling, riggers gloves may be worn
            over the CPC gloves.

8   GAS TIGHT COVERALL SUITS

    8.1   Respirex Tychem TK Gas Tight Suit Dressing

          - Provide canvas sheet to stand on.

          - The services of a dresser should be employed.




                                          141
      - Wearer to be ready in the correct clothing to be worn under the suit, as
        detailed by the Incident Commander.

      - Dresser to prepare suit and apply anti fogging agent.

      - Ensure zip is fully undone before attempting to don suit.

      - Roll up outer legs of suit, insert wearers legs into the suit, carefully putting
        feet into the sock arrangement and then into a pair of rubber boots, pull
        down outer legs.

      - Lift suit to waist and secure waistbelt.

      - Don BA set, do not start up.

      - Remove ADSU and refit to outside of suit.

      - Provide radio communications.

      - Start up BA set. Fit helmet (tape visor).

      - Wearer to don cotton gloves or surgical gloves (personal preference).

      - Don remainder of suit.

      - Fully close zip and Velcro flap.

      - If operations require a lot of manual handling, riggers gloves may be worn
        over the GTS gloves.

8.2   Doffing Procedure (For All Types of Chemical Protection Suits)

      - Leave working environment with sufficient air to doff suit (if possible).

      - If contact with hazardous materials (including vapours) was made, ensure
        decontamination procedures are carried out.

      - The doffing procedure is the reverse of the donning procedure. The suit will
        then be examined by the OET before it is re-used.

      - Upon completion of the incident and examination by the OET, the suit must
        be cleaned and tested in accordance with the Hampshire Fire and Rescue
        Service Standard Test Guidance Note.




                                       142
9    GAUNTLETS (TRELLRING SYSTEM OF ATTACHMENT)

     Following use the gauntlets are to be refitted to the suit as detailed below:

     - Place 'flower pot' cone into gauntlet and fold in gauntlet around the cone.

     - Pull sleeve of suit inside out.

     - Place hand in glove and push glove into sleeve sealing grommet (thumb in line with
       sleeve seam).

     - Fold the sleeve flap into gloves.

     - Pull sleeve back to the correct position, and, finally, gently squeeze glove into
       position ensuring that 'flower pots' are fully positioned into sleeve grommet.

10   CARE OF SUITS

     It should be noted that although every precaution may be taken to avoid damage, the
     material from which these suits are manufactured may in time deteriorate through the
     process of natural ageing.

     The types of damage which might occur to suits and some of the conditions giving rise
     to such damage can be categorised under the following headings:

     10.1     Mechanical Damage

              This would cover damage to suits as a result of abrasion, puncture, blows,
              stretching, tearing, cracking, crazing or other surface degradation, damage to
              the zip or pressure relief valves and lifting of the seams.

     10.2     Effects of Heat and Cold

              Material from which chemical protection suits are made is likely to be damaged
              by contact with extremes of heat or cold, either when in use or in store.

     10.3     Chemical Damage

              It is possible for some chemicals to attack the material from which suits are
              made, affecting the composition of the fabric leading to porosity, brittleness
              and/or cracking. Failure to undertake the proper decontamination/cleaning
              procedures following a chemical incident could increase the effects of any
              damage caused to the suit by such chemicals.




                                              143
     10.4     Strong Sunlight

              Direct rays of sunlight upon a suit whilst stored could accelerate the natural
              deterioration of the suit material through ageing.

     10.5     Ozone

              Damage from the effects of ozone could arise if suits were stored in the
              proximity of electrical apparatus, in such places as compressor rooms.

     10.6     Bacterial Damage

              Damage to suit from bacterial attack can arise from their stowage or storage in a
              poorly ventilated room and/or with the suit left in a damp condition. Particles
              of dirt remaining in the zip could also assist bacterial damage.

     10.7     Damage Through Testing

              Great care should be taken to ensure that the testing of suits does not itself
              cause damage to the suit.

11   STOWAGE AND STORAGE

     To obtain maximum life and to prevent damage to the suits, they should be stored neatly
     in their own individual supplied holdalls. The visors should not be bent or distorted, but
     should be flat against the suit facing down for protection.

12   CLEANING OF SUITS FOLLOWING USE

     Irrespective of the method used for the decontamination of the suit, it should be closely
     examined for contamination. If there are any concerns over remaining contaminate or
     the integrity of the suit, then the Service Hazmat Officer should be consulted. The suit
     should be hung in a well ventilated area for a period of 24 hours or more, depending on
     the chemical involved. Internally the suits should be cleaned using ‘Trigene’. This
     material is a disinfectant and deodoriser which will also provide long term germicidal
     protection on the internal surfaces of the suit. When using 'Trigene' particular attention
     must be paid to the armpits, crutch and the interior of any integral boots.

     To ensure that the zip remains in good order it should be lubricated with candle wax for
     the Coverall 2000 suit and maxwax for the Respirex SC4.

     Any suit used at an incident should be closely examined for signs of mechanical or
     chemical damage and may require subsequent examination after a period of 24 hours,
     subject to any technical advice received.

13   TRAINING

     Operation protective clothing must not be used for training purposes. Divisions have
     been issued with a number of training suits which must be used for training purposes
     only.



                                              144
     Training suits are to be held in Division under the control of the Divisional Training
     Officer who will make arrangements for them to be available to all stations and where
     necessary other Divisions for training purposes.

     The Training centre also has a number of training suits which may be requested by
     Division for use at larger Divisional exercises.

     All stations should receive regular training in the use of both types of suit.

14   REPAIR

     Any suit requiring repair should be sent to the BA Maintenance Centre for the Division.
     Each suit should have a label attached giving brief details of the damage and location.

     All suits issued as training aids must be clearly and distinctly marked with the letter 'T'
     on the chest and back.




                                               145
                     HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                  TRAINING CENTRE

              ADDITIONAL ADVICE ON PROTECTIVE CLOTHING

                  ADDITIONAL PERSONAL PROTECTION CODE




No Code The EAC clothing code level is appropriate.
 Letter

   A      This indicates that the substance is likely to permeate chemical protective
          clothing within 10 minutes under continuous exposure conditions, or is carried
          molten or refrigerated. Special operational procedures, including the use of
          thermal protection, may therefore be appropriate.

   B      This indicates that gas-tight chemical protective clothing shall be worn. Gas-
          tight CPC conforming to BS:EN 943 Part 2 (draft) used in conjunction with BA
          is recommended and should provide protection for up to 30 minutes.

These codes may be combined to give:

  AB      This indicates that the substance is likely to permeate within 10 minutes or is
          carried molten or refrigerated etc, and that gas-tight CPC is recommended.




                                             146
                       HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                     TRAINING CENTRE

                       HAZARDOUS MATERIALS PROCEDURES



AIMS AND OBJECTIVES


Aim

To instruct the student on the procedures to be adopted when dealing with hazardous
materials.

Objective

At the end of the session the student will be able to:

1     Describe the operational procedures for a snatch rescue.

2     Describe the standard operational procedures for dealing with hazardous materials.




                                               147
                     HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                  TRAINING CENTRE

                     HAZARDOUS MATERIALS PROCEDURES



1   PRE DETERMINED ATTENDANCE

    The PDA for all Hazmat incidents will be:

    3 Pumping Appliances
    1 SEU
    1 Officer
    1 Hazmat Officer to Control
    1 Operational Equipment Technician

    A Hazmat Officer will be mobilised to the incident if the initial officer sent is not a
    qualified Hazmat Officer.

2   INITIAL ACTIONS

    2.1      On arrival at the incident the IC should ascertain the nature of the incident to
             determine if:

             - Life is at risk
             - There is a threat of escalation
             - There is a threat to the environment

             If none of these apply then the further involvement of HFRS personnel and
             resources may not be needed.

    2.2      Following the initial assessment, if HFRS involvement is required then the
             following procedures should be adopted.

3   OPERATIONAL ACTIONS

    3.1      To perform a snatch rescue or to prevent catastrophic escalation a risk/benefit
             analysis does allow for Firefighters to be committed with the minimum
             protection afforded by BA and standard firefighting or PVC gloves. If this
             course of action is followed then the following brief should be given to crews:

             -   Minimum size rescue team of 2 personnel
             -   Full fire kit, BA, standard firefighting or PVC gloves (consider rubber boots)
             -   Approach upwind
             -   Keep clear of spills
             -   Exposure time kept to a minimum
             -   Retrieve any obvious information
             -   On withdrawal pass through emergency decontamination and remove fire kit,
                 IC to arrange for medical check up via the Hazmat Officer in Control


                                             148
3.2   Where there is no immediate risk to life or a catastrophic escalation then the
      following actions should be taken:

      - Full reconnaissance of the area by the IC to ascertain the nature of the risk in
        relation to the 3 criteria in Paragraph 1.1.

      - If the decision to commit crews is made then crews will be committed
        wearing the correct level of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). This will
        be initially Chemical Protection Clothing (CPC). Further information on
        Additional Personal Protection (APP) will be provided by Control when
        information becomes available.

      - Set up an inner cordon and control it. This inner cordon should include the
        actual spillage/leak area (hazard area) and the decontamination area.

      - Commit crews to hazard areas to retrieve information. Personal radios
        should be provided to assist in transmission of information providing that the
        atmosphere is deemed a safe environment to use them in.

      - Following further information the incident should be stabilised and made
        safe. Crews should then be withdrawn for decontamination.

      - Incident handed over to appropriate agency for final clear up and restoration
        to normality. HFRS are not responsible for clear up operations once the
        emergency has been stabilised.




                                      149
                       HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                     TRAINING CENTRE

                                    DECONTAMINATION



AIMS AND OBJECTIVES


Aim

To instruct the students on the different types of decontamination procedures used in the Fire
Service.

Objectives

At the end of the session the student will be able to:

1     Describe the 3 levels of decontamination that can be used at an incident.

2     Demonstrate the ability to set up a decontamination zone using the instructions
      contained with the decontamination equipment.




                                               150
                    HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                 TRAINING CENTRE

                                DECONTAMINATION



1   INTRODUCTION

    The purpose of decontamination is to ensure that whenever personnel become
    contaminated by chemicals at an incident, the correct procedure can be introduced to
    ensure effective decontamination, so minimising the danger of contaminants coming
    into contact with the skin, being inhaled or ingested and from being spread beyond the
    decontamination zone. The decontamination of equipment is a secondary consideration
    and may in appropriate cases be carried out elsewhere.

    Three levels of decontamination are available for use:

    - Emergency
    - Initial
    - Full

2   PROCEDURE

    2.1     Emergency Decontamination

            2.1.1       Emergency decontamination should be used in the following
                        circumstances:

                        - Members of public contaminated with a hazardous material.

                        - Fire Service personnel committed in fire kit and BA for snatch
                          rescues, etc.

                        - Fire Service personnel who become distressed whilst wearing
                          CPC/GTS.

                        - Loss of CPC/GTS integrity.

            2.1.2       Emergency decontamination will consist of using a hosereel or open
                        end to flush contamination away. Clothing should be removed
                        ASAP. Personnel who undergo emergency decontamination should
                        receive medical attention immediately.

    2.2     Initial Decontamination

            2.2.1       Initial decontamination should be employed whenever personnel
                        require decontamination prior to full decontamination being
                        established.



                                            151
      2.2.2      Initial decontamination will consist of:

                 - Selecting a suitable decontamination area. Consider direction of
                   water run off, water courses, environmental impact. Liaise with
                   Control for advice if in doubt.

                 - Nominate a decontamination officer.

                 - Provide decontamination equipment. This may consist of
                   charged hosereels, delivery hose with open end, soap and
                   brushes, etc.

                 - Contaminated wearers should decontaminate each other. This
                   minimises the number of personnel involved.

                 - Wearers to assist each other in undressing each other. Only the
                   inside surface of the suit should be touched using ungloved
                   hands.

                 - Move away from suits, report to BA Control, remove BA set.

2.3   Full Decontamination

      2.3.1      Full decontamination should be employed at prolonged incidents
                 when the IC/Hazmat Officer at an incident request it. To carry out
                 full decontamination a trained decontamination team are required.

      2.3.2      Full decontamination is divided into 2 methods:

                 - Wet
                 - Wet Contained

      2.3.3      Full decontamination will utilise the shower units.

2.4   Decontamination Team

      A decontamination team will consist of a minimum of 4 personnel plus an
      Operational Equipment Technician (OET).

      2.4.1      DECONTAMINATION OFFICER

                 This officer is responsible for the tactical control of
                 decontamination. This officer will operate from outside the
                 decontamination area.

      2.4.2      ASSISTANT DECONTAMINATION OFFICER

                 This officer is responsible for the operational control of
                 decontamination. This officer should operate outside the
                 decontamination zone but should wear BA and gloves to assist in
                 the transfer of personnel from the hazard area to the safe area.


                                     152
      2.4.3      DECONTAMINATION OPERATIVES

                 These personnel are responsible for decontaminating personnel.
                 They should be dressed to the same standard required for dealing
                 with the incident.

      2.4.4      The OET will co-ordinate suit replacement and removal.

2.5   Full (Wet) Procedure

      Full (wet) decontamination will consist of:

      2.5.1      Establish suitable decontamination area. Consider direction of
                 water run off, water courses, environmental impact. Liaise with
                 Control if in doubt.

      2.5.2      Establish a separate BAECO and transfer tallies of personnel
                 awaiting decontamination to this board.

      2.5.3      Decontamination will be completed by the decontamination team.
                 Notes for guidance for the team are provided with the shower unit.

      2.5.4      Following decontamination the Hazmat Officer in conjunction with
                 the OET will decide on the appropriate course of action relating to
                 the removal/replacement of CPC or GTS.

2.6   Full (Contained) Procedure

      2.6.1      Certain materials require the containment of decontamination water.
                 Advice on this will be given by Control.

      2.6.2      The method is the same as for full (wet), however, all water must be
                 prevented from entering drains or such. Dams or similar
                 containment must be used. This may preclude the use of a shower
                 because of the volume of water involved. If this is the case
                 hosereels should be used.

2.7   Decontamination Check List

      Consider:
      - Wind direction
      - Slope of ground
      - Water supplies
      - Size of area
      - Distance from incident
      - Location of drains, streams and other water courses
      - Nature of materials involved and any advice to determine method of
        decontamination
      - Early placement of spill control equipment prior to decontamination
      - Inform Environment Agency if water used in decontamination enters water
        courses


                                     153
            Ensure:
            - Safety and welfare of wearers is priority
            - Restricted zone set up
            - Designated clean and dirty areas
            - Disciplined control of the area
            - Procedure for medical aftercare is followed
            - FM/1/12/1 list of personnel attending is completed. This is the responsibility
              of the Hazmat Officer

3   ALTERNATIVE METHODS OF DECONTAMINATION

    In addition to wet decontamination procedures there are 2 other methods of
    decontamination that may be required in exceptional circumstances:

    3.1     Dry

            Carried out for certain chemicals by means of an approved vacuum cleaner as
            specified in he Asbestos Research Council (ARC) Control and Safety Guide
            Number 9.

            The Service does not have any means of carrying out dry decontamination.
            Where there is a need for this method arrangements would be made with private
            companies.

    3.2     Neutralising Agent

            This is where a specific substance is used to wash down the wearers, the
            substance would be used as a neutralising agent on the hazardous chemical.

            Control would advise the fireground of the neutralising agent required and
            arrange mobilisation of this agent to the fireground.




                                           154
Suggested Decontamination Zone
   Containment if Required




             155
Suggested Decontamination Zone (Showers)




                  156
                       HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                     TRAINING CENTRE

                                  MEDICAL AFTERCARE



AIMS AND OBJECTIVES


Aim

To instruct students in medical aftercare procedures following exposure to hazardous
materials.

Objective

At the end of the session the student will be able to:

1     State the procedure for medical aftercare whilst on duty.

2     State the procedure for medical aftercare whilst off duty.




                                               157
                 HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                              TRAINING CENTRE

                            MEDICAL AFTERCARE



1   POLICY

    1.1   The Hazmat Officer attending an incident is responsible for the correct
          documenting and recording of personnel and information at the incident.

    1.2   Form FM/1/12/1 is to be completed listing all personnel attending the incident.
          This form will provide a post incident record of attendance.

    1.3   All personnel who have been exposed or are believed to have been exposed to
          hazardous materials are to complete and wear the appropriate wristbands
          supplied to SEUs and Hazmat Officers. This wristband is to be worn for 48
          hours following the incident.

2   PROCEDURE

    2.1   On Duty

          - Any person who has been exposed or is believed to have been exposed to
            hazardous materials and complains of any after effects must be immediately
            conveyed to hospital by ambulance. If the effects commence when leaving
            the incident or returning to station then personnel should be transported to
            hospital by Service transport or ambulance whichever is the most expedient.

          - Details on the hazardous materials involved including safety data sheets if
            available should accompany personnel.

          - Control must be notified giving full details as follows:

             * Full name and number of personnel.
             * Details of hazardous materials involved.
             * Name and address of hospital.

          - Control will notify the duty Divisional Officer.




                                         158
    2.2     Off Duty

            Any person who feels unwell or believes that they are feeling the effects of the
            material involved in the incident are to:

            - Contact their GP or the nearest hospital casualty department without delay,
              or

            - Contact the Service Occupational Health department as soon as possible.

            - Bring the information contained on the wristband to the attention of the GP
              or casualty personnel.

    2.3     Control

            - Service Control will be the emergency contact number specified on the
              wristband and will receive calls from third parties should a member of the
              Service collapse post incident.

            - In this situation Control will ensure that the procedure detailed on the
              wristband is followed, obtain information regarding the receiving hospital
              and will inform the duty Divisional Officer.

            - In all cases the most appropriate officer (a Hazmat Officer if available) will
              be despatched to the receiving hospital to act as liaison and provide specialist
              information.

            - The Service Occupational Health Physician is to be notified as appropriate.

            - The Employment Medical Advisory Service may be in a position to assist.

3   CONDITIONS OF SERVICE

    Completed Forms FM/1/12/1 are to be retained on the individuals personal record file.




                                           159
                                                                                              APPENDIX A

                             HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                          BA INITIAL COURSE

                                STUDENT ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES



AIM

To confirm that students have a sound knowledge of operational procedures and display a satisfactory level
of competence in the wearing of BA in simulated operational conditions.


OBJECTIVES

To ensure that students display a satisfactory level of competence in the following areas:

Procedures

The ability to implement the operational procedures in a practical situation. The capability to make decisions
within the framework of laid down operational procedures.

Teamwork

The ability to work effectively as a member of a team. The capability when required to command and make
decisions as a team leader.

Determination/Work Rate

To demonstrate the physical ability to complete tasks in arduous conditions which the student may
experience in operational incidents and to recognise their own physiological limitations.

Communication Skills

The ability to pass relevant information and ideas to other members of a BA crew. To show proficiency in
the use of communications equipment and be capable of sending appropriate messages.

Composure

The ability to remain calm and composed in difficult or arduous situations. The capability of making logical
decisions when placed under pressure.




                                                       1
PRACTICAL ASSESSMENT

Each student will be individually assessed throughout the BA course using the assessment marking sheet.
Every exercise will have a list of core competencies that are undertaken by each team and by cross reference
between the assessment marking sheet and the exercise briefing sheet, the students level of competence can
be determined. When a student fails to achieve competence and scores a one in any area or scores less than 3
in 2 or more areas, they will be interviewed on their strengths and weaknesses and a note for file must be
produced. When a student fails to achieve competence in one area or has a minor weakness, the instructor is
to record this on the marking sheet and the student will be informed during one of the course progression
interviews. By the end of the BA course a student who fails to achieve competence in any area will be
deemed to have failed the BA module.


STUDENT PROGRESSION INTERVIEWS

Students will be counselled during the course as to their strengths and weaknesses at Day 4 and Day 6 if
necessary, due to time restraints, at the earliest convenient time.


THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE

This will be assessed using a written examination and 4 oral/work based examination stations.


WRITTEN EXAMINATION

The pass mark for the written examination is 75%.


WORK STATIONS

During the 3 work based/oral examination stations, the student must demonstrate to the examiner that they
have an acceptable knowledge on the various items of equipment and are fully competent in all procedures
that have been passed during the examination. Instructors at their discretion may reassess a student at the
end of examination by questioning, providing that it is in only one or 2 areas that they have failed to
demonstrate competence. Students who are clearly not competent must be failed and are not to be reassessed
on that day.

The 3 stations are:

- BA control procedures including running a board under stage 1. Also to demonstrate the ability to attach
  main and branch guideline tallies and to attach a branch guideline to a main guideline.
- Resuscitation equipment including the use of the Mars on a resus-anne.
- Physical demonstration of BA set donning, start up and doffing procedures, set servicing and standard
  testing.




                                                      2
                                          HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE

                                                              TRAINING CENTRE

                                                                 NOTE FOR FILE


Name:                                                                                 Rank:                                      No:

Brigade:                                                                              Course:                                    Date:


This Note for File records the above named students performance in the following area:



                                                                  NOTE FOR FILE

Throughout the breathing apparatus instructors course, the students are continually assessed.

A ‘Note for File is an internal form used to record additional events or observations that may occur during the
course. These may include comments on injuries, attitude and approach or standard of dress. They may also
be used in support of positive actions and performance, as well as to highlight areas of concern.

Once completed the student will be interviewed and counselled concerning the matter and the remedial action
required.

The student and the instructor will both sign the ‘Note for File’. A signature is required as proof of sighting
and not necessarily as an agreement of the content. It will then be retained in the course folder along with
other course documentation.

On completion of the course, all documentation will be forwarded to the Senior Instructor. It will then be
filed and retained for 3 years within Training Centre.



The student named above has been interviewed and counselled in detail concerning this Note for File and
any remedial action required

Student’s Signature: .....................................................................................................................

Instructor’s Signature: ..................................................................................................................

Instructor’s Name (Print): ............................................................................................................


Owner:                            TC Commander
Author:                           Senior Instructor
Review:                           12/01


cehT/BAInit.tn
14 March 2001

                                                                               3
                                                                                                                               RFTU 15

           HAMPSHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE                                      Interviewed                 Date        Initials
                   TRAINING CENTRE                                                Mid Course
                  BA MARKING SHEET                                               End of Course



Name .......................................   Course No ....................        Squad/Syndicate ..............................


Scoring is as follows:                   1         Poor
                                         2         Below average
                                         3         Average
                                         4         Above average
                                         5         Excellent

• Any student scoring a ‘2’ in any area of an exercise (including ECO) is to be counselled on his/her
  failings.

• Any student scoring a ‘1’ or more than one ‘2’ in any area of an exercise (including ECO) is to be
  issued with a ‘note for file’.


EXERCISE EASY CONDITIONS                                    Team No: N/A    Pos: N/A                           BAECO: N/A
             Determination                                        Procedures




Overall Performance - Sat/Unsat (Delete)                  Instructor (Print) ..............................     Date ..................


EXERCISE VARIED CONDITIONS                                  Team No: N/A    Pos: N/A     BAECO: Yes/No
            Determination                                         Procedures      Composure




Overall Performance - Sat/Unsat (Delete)                  Instructor (Print) ..............................     Date ..................


EXERCISE DOMESTIC                                      Team No:        Pos:                            BAECO: Yes/No
Team Work   Determination                       Comms Skills Procedures                         Composure




Overall Performance - Sat/Unsat (Delete)                  Instructor (Print) ..............................     Date ..................
                                                                   4
                                                  -2-


EXERCISE HIGHTOWN ONE                     Team No:        Pos:                          BAECO: Yes/No
Team Work    Determination         Comms Skills Procedures                       Composure




Overall Performance - Sat/Unsat (Delete)   Instructor (Print) ..............................   Date ..................


EXERCISE HIGHTOWN TWO                     Team No:        Pos:                          BAECO: Yes/No
Team Work    Determination         Comms Skills Procedures                       Composure




Overall Performance - Sat/Unsat (Delete)   Instructor (Print) ..............................   Date ..................


EXERCISE HARDLEY                          Team No:        Pos:                          BAECO: Yes/No
Team Work   Determination          Comms Skills Procedures                       Composure




Overall Performance - Sat/Unsat (Delete)   Instructor (Print) ..............................   Date ..................


EXERCISE FAWLEY POWER STATION Team No:           Pos:                                   BAECO: Yes/No
Team Work   Determination Comms Skills Procedures                                Composure




Overall Performance - Sat/Unsat (Delete)   Instructor (Print) ..............................   Date ..................


EXERCISE HEAT AND HUMIDITY                   Team No:        Pos:                       BAECO: Yes/No
Team Work   Determination                          Procedures                    Composure




Overall Performance - Sat/Unsat (Delete)   Instructor (Print) ..............................   Date ..................

                                                    5
                                                  -3-


EXERCISE HI EX FOAM                       Team No:        Pos:                          BAECO: Yes/No
Team Work    Determination         Comms Skills Procedures                       Composure




Overall Performance - Sat/Unsat (Delete)   Instructor (Print) ..............................   Date ..................


EXERCISE MERCURY                          Team No:        Pos:                          BAECO: Yes/No
Team Work   Determination          Comms Skills Procedures                       Composure




Overall Performance - Sat/Unsat (Delete)   Instructor (Print) ..............................   Date ..................


EXERCISE SUB BASEMENT                     Team No:        Pos:                          BAECO: Yes/No
Team Work    Determination         Comms Skills Procedures                       Composure




Overall Performance - Sat/Unsat (Delete)   Instructor (Print) ..............................   Date ..................



Owner:              TC Commander
Author:             SubO Yarney
Review:             7/01



cehT/BAInit.tn/14 March 2001




                                                    6

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Stats:
views:216
posted:4/23/2011
language:English
pages:167