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					             Lesson Plan: Thomas Jefferson and the Modern Tea Party

Name: Barry Leonard                                                    Grade Level: 10-11

School: Graves County High School
-Lesson Essential Question: (A question that lies at the heart of a subject or a
curriculum, and promotes inquiry) How were the ideas of Thomas Jefferson’s rebellions
(KY and VA resolutions) like those of the current tea party today?

-Academic Expectation and Core Content for Assessment Standard:
2.16 Students observe, analyze, and interpret human behaviors, social groupings, and institutions to
better understand people and the relationships among individuals and among groups.
2.20 Students understand, analyze, and interpret historical events, conditions, trends, and issues to
develop historical perspective.
SS-HS-1.3.2-Students will explain how the rights of an individual (e.g., Freedom of information Act,
privacy) may, at times, be in conflict with the responsibility of the government to protect the "common
good" (e.g., homeland security issues, environmental regulations, censorship, search and seizure).
SS-HS-5.1.1- Students will use a variety of tools (e.g., primary and secondary sources, data, artifacts) to
analyze perceptions and perspectives (e.g., gender, race, region, ethnic group, nationality, age,
economic status, religion, politics, geographic factors) of people and historical events in the modern
world (1500 A.D. to present) and United States History (Reconstruction to present).
SS-HS-5.1.2-Students will analyze how history is a series of connected events shaped by multiple cause
and effect relationships, tying past to present.
Learning Targets:

  What students will know:                          What students will be able to do:
Shay’s rebellion causes and how things              Explain historical rebellions, causes and
today are similar to perceived unfair               consequences
                                                    Summarize the KY resolution in its
KY and VA resolutions what they                     context of late 18th and early 19th
actually said and meant                             century politics

Tea Party Platform-what they stand for              Discuss the Tea Party movement with
                                                    facts from its own platform and analyze
Methods of rebellion against unfair                 political cartoons about the movement
government policies
                                                    List, explain and predict the types of
                                                    rebellions various situations might cause
                                                    with government policies that are

-Instructional Set/Bell Ringer: (Opening Activity, hooks the student into the lesson)
Play a short video clip from
first-civil-war#10-days-shays-rebellion-americas-first-civil-war on Shay’s rebellion or show this
clip US History;select Shay’s rebellion
Then play from the same site the Alien and Sedition Acts.
Next play the video
If no video is available have students read a short summary copied from the hippocampus site
and the tea party POLE requirements. Attachments 1A, 2A, 3A
-Transition Activity: (Activity ties the bell ringer to the Learning Experience)

Political cartoon analysis and tea party symbols interpretation. 4A & B, 8A

-Learning Experience: (The main activity in the lesson) (if making individual copies are
a problem this can all be cut and pasted to a power point and have students do work
from bits and pieces of the text and visuals)

How Americans have dealt with unpopular government policies in the past and how they have
shaped our current and possibly our future government and its leaders. Students will read from
several primary documents, watch some video clips that are heavily bias toward a particular set
of views and distinguish between the two eras and make connections on how the government
reacts to such rebellions.

   ● Read/watch video clips of Shays Rebellion, KY & VA resolutions, Tea Party platform and
     propaganda video. Have students create a T chart comparing and contrasting the two
   ● Then analyze political cartoons and Tea Party icons from their webpage. Discussion on
     how they use popular icons to promote their message.
   ● Read Jefferson’s letter to Madison on Shays Rebellion. Then the KY adopted resolution
     that Jefferson wrote, encouraging nullification. Discuss what methods Jefferson
     supported to rebel against the government.
   ● Read and react to the Tea Party three step pink slip program. How is it like Shays
     rebellion and Jefferson’s KY resolution (nullification)?

-Lesson Wrap Up: (The closing activity, reiterates what student were to know and be
able to do) play the video or have students read
the entire 4 verses to the Star Spangled Banner. How does this identify the Tea Party
members with one party over the other today? How is the language different between
Jefferson’s letters and writings and the Tea Party? What do each very descriptively
challenge “the people” to do?

-Lesson Assessment: (How the teacher will gauge the student learning throughout the

Students will have made some comparisons on the two eras in writing and discussions, along with
their analysis of the cartoons and symbols.

-Resources and materials needed: (list of all the items the teacher will need to
implement the lesson)

Internet access to play video clips. LCD projector. Handouts for students to read. Cartoons and
symbols should be put on the projector if possible for the color effect.
             5A       A Little Rebellion Now and Then Is A Good Thing
                         A Letter From Thomas Jefferson To James Madison

       Shays' Rebellion — a sometimes-violent uprising of farmers angry over conditions
in Massachusetts in 1786 — prompted Thomas Jefferson to express the view that "a little
rebellion now and then is a good thing" for America. Unlike other leaders of The
Republic, Jefferson felt that the people had a right to express their grievances against
the government, even if those grievances might take the form of violent action.
       Jefferson airs his sentiments in a letter to James Madison on January 30, 1787,
expressing justification for the series of protests led by Daniel Shay and a group of 1,200
       Jefferson also writes of his concern over John Jay's impending negotiations with
Spain. Under consideration would be proposals to extend privileges in Spanish ports to
American ships, while providing navigation rights on the Mississippi River to Spain.
In his letter to Madison, Jefferson expresses his belief that the agreement might be
interpreted as opening up the Mississippi to Spanish rule, thus provoking a war between
settlers in the west and Spain, and eventually, dividing the nation.
                                                                      Paris, January 30th, 1787
Dear Sir,
My last to you was of the 16th of December; since which, I have received yours of
November 25 and December 4, which afforded me, as your letters always do, a treat on
matters public, individual, and economical. I am impatient to learn your sentiments on
the late troubles in the Eastern states. So far as I have yet seen, they do not appear to
threaten serious consequences. Those states have suffered by the stoppage of the
channels of their commerce, which have not yet found other issues. This must render
money scarce and make the people uneasy. This uneasiness has produced acts
absolutely unjustifiable; but I hope they will provoke no severities from their
governments. A consciousness of those in power that their administration of the public
affairs has been honest may, perhaps, produce too great a degree of indignation; and
those characters, wherein fear predominates over hope, may apprehend too much from
these instances of irregularity. They may conclude too hastily that nature has formed
man insusceptible of any other government than that of force, a conclusion not founded
in truth or experience.
Societies exist under three forms, sufficiently distinguishable: (1) without government,
as among our Indians; (2) under governments, wherein the will of everyone has a just
influence, as is the case in England, in a slight degree, and in our states, in a great one;
(3) under governments of force, as is the case in all other monarchies, and in most of
the other republics.
To have an idea of the curse of existence under these last, they must be seen. It is a
government of wolves over sheep. It is a problem, not clear in my mind, that the first
condition is not the best. But I believe it to be inconsistent with any great degree of
population. The second state has a great deal of good in it. The mass of mankind under
that enjoys a precious degree of liberty and happiness. It has its evils, too, the principal
of which is the turbulence to which it is subject. But weigh this against the oppressions
of monarchy, and it becomes nothing. Malo periculosam libertatem quam quietam
servitutem. Even this evil is productive of good. It prevents the degeneracy of
government and nourishes a general attention to the public affairs.
I hold it that a little rebellion now and then is a good thing, and as necessary in
the political world as storms in the physical. Unsuccessful rebellions, indeed, generally
establish the encroachments on the rights of the people which have produced them. An
observation of this truth should render honest republican governors so mild in their
punishment of rebellions as not to discourage them too much. It is a medicine necessary
for the sound health of government.
If these transactions give me no uneasiness, I feel very differently at another piece of
intelligence, to wit, the possibility that the navigation of the Mississippi may be
abandoned to Spain. I never had any interest westward of the Allegheny; and I will
never have any. But I have had great opportunities of knowing the character of the
people who inhabit that country; and I will venture to say that the act which abandons
the navigation of the Mississippi is an act of separation between the Eastern and Western
country. It is a relinquishment of five parts out of eight of the territory of the United
States; an abandonment of the fairest subject for the payment of our public debts, and
the chaining those debts on our own necks, in perpetuum.
I have the utmost confidence in the honest intentions of those who concur in this
measure; but I lament their want of acquaintance with the character and physical
advantages of the people, who, right or wrong, will suppose their interests sacrificed on
this occasion to the contrary interests of that part of the confederacy in possession of
present power. If they declare themselves a separate people, we are incapable of a
single effort to retain them. Our citizens can never be induced, either as militia or as
soldiers, to go there to cut the throats of their own brothers and sons, or rather, to be
themselves the subjects instead of the perpetrators of the parricide.
Nor would that country quit the cost of being retained against the will of its inhabitants,
could it be done. But it cannot be done. They are able already to rescue the navigation of
the Mississippi out of the hands of Spain, and to add New Orleans to their own territory.
They will be joined by the inhabitants of Louisiana. This will bring on a war between
them and Spain; and that will produce the question with us, whether it will not be worth
our while to become parties with them in the war in order to reunite them with us and
thus correct our error. And were I to permit my forebodings to go one step further, I
should predict that the inhabitants of the United States would force their rulers to take
the affirmative of that question. I wish I may be mistaken in all these opinions.
Yours affectionately,
Th. Jefferson

The following resolutions were proposed to the Kentucky Legislature, and this version was adopted on
November 10, 1798, as a protest against the Alien and Sedition Acts passed by Congress. They were authored
by Thomas Jefferson, but he did not make public the fact until years later. This represents one of the clearest
expressions of his views on how the Constitution was supposed to be interpreted.
                                       The Kentucky Resolutions of 1798
1. Resolved, That the several States composing, the United States of America, are not united on the principle of
unlimited submission to their general government; but that, by a compact under the style and title of a
Constitution for the United States, and of amendments thereto, they constituted a general government for special
purposes — delegated to that government certain definite powers, reserving, each State to itself, the residuary
mass of right to their own self-government; and that whensoever the general government assumes undelegated
powers, its acts are unauthoritative, void, and of no force: that to this compact each State acceded as a State, and
is an integral part, its co-States forming, as to itself, the other party: that the government created by this compact
was not made the exclusive or final judge of the extent of the powers delegated to itself; since that would have
made its discretion, and not the Constitution, the measure of its powers; but that, as in all other cases of compact
among powers having no common judge, each party has an equal right to judge for itself, as well of infractions
as of the mode and measure of redress.
2. Resolved, That the Constitution of the United States, having delegated to Congress a power to punish treason,
counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the United States, piracies, and felonies committed on the high
seas, and offenses against the law of nations, and no other crimes, whatsoever; and it being true as a general
principle, and one of the amendments to the Constitution having also declared, that “the powers not delegated to
the United States by the Constitution, not prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or
to the people,” therefore the act of Congress, passed on the 14th day of July, 1798, and intituled “An Act in
addition to the act intituled An Act for the punishment of certain crimes against the United States,” as also the
act passed by them on the — day of June, 1798, intituled “An Act to punish frauds committed on the bank of the
United States,” (and all their other acts which assume to create, define, or punish crimes, other than those so
enumerated in the Constitution,) are altogether void, and of no force; and that the power to create, define, and
punish such other crimes is reserved, and, of right, appertains solely and exclusively to the respective States,
each within its own territory.
3. Resolved, That it is true as a general principle, and is also expressly declared by one of the amendments to the
Constitutions, that “the powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, our prohibited by it to the
States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people”; and that no power over the freedom of religion,
freedom of speech, or freedom of the press being delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor
prohibited by it to the States, all lawful powers respecting the same did of right remain, and were reserved to the
States or the people: that thus was manifested their determination to retain to themselves the right of judging
how far the licentiousness of speech and of the press may be abridged without lessening their useful freedom,
and how far those abuses which cannot be separated from their use should be tolerated, rather than the use be
destroyed. And thus also they guarded against all abridgment by the United States of the freedom of religious
opinions and exercises, and retained to themselves the right of protecting the same, as this State, by a law passed
on the general demand of its citizens, had already protected them from all human restraint or interference. And
that in addition to this general principle and express declaration, another and more special provision has been
made by one of the amendments to the Constitution, which expressly declares, that “Congress shall make no law
respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, or abridging the freedom of
speech or of the press”: thereby guarding in the same sentence, and under the same words, the freedom of
religion, of speech, and of the press: insomuch, that whatever violated either, throws down the sanctuary which
covers the others, arid that libels, falsehood, and defamation, equally with heresy and false religion, are withheld
from the cognizance of federal tribunals. That, therefore, the act of Congress of the United States, passed on the
14th day of July, 1798, intituled “An Act in addition to the act intituled An Act for the punishment of certain
crimes against the United States,” which does abridge the freedom of the press, is not law, but is altogether void,
and of no force.
4. Resolved, That alien friends are under the jurisdiction and protection of the laws of the State wherein they are:
that no power over them has been delegated to the United States, nor prohibited to the individual States, distinct
from their power over citizens. And it being true as a general principle, and one of the amendments to the
Constitution having also declared, that “the powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor
prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people," the act of the Congress of
the United States, passed on the — day of July, 1798, intituled “An Act concerning aliens,” which assumes
powers over alien friends, not delegated by the Constitution, is not law, but is altogether void, and of no force.
5. Resolved. That in addition to the general principle, as well as the express declaration, that powers not
delegated are reserved, another and more special provision, inserted in the Constitution from abundant caution,
has declared that “the migration or importation of such persons as any of the States now existing shall think
proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the year 1808” that this commonwealth does
admit the migration of alien friends, described as the subject of the said act concerning aliens: that a provision
against prohibiting their migration, is a provision against all acts equivalent thereto, or it would be nugatory: that
to remove them when migrated, is equivalent to a prohibition of their migration, and is, therefore, contrary to the
said provision of the Constitution, and void.
6. Resolved, That the imprisonment of a person under the protection of the laws of this commonwealth, on his
failure to obey the simple order of the President to depart out of the United States, as is undertaken by said act
intituled “An Act concerning aliens” is contrary to the Constitution, one amendment to which has provided that
“no person shalt be deprived of liberty without due progress of law”; and that another having provided that “in
all criminal prosecutions the accused shall enjoy the right to public trial by an impartial jury, to be informed of
the nature and cause of the accusation, to be confronted with the witnesses against him, to have compulsory
process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense;” the same act,
undertaking to authorize the President to remove a person out of the United States, who is under the protection
of the law, on his own suspicion, without accusation, without jury, without public trial, without confrontation of
the witnesses against him, without heating witnesses in his favor, without defense, without counsel, is contrary
to the provision also of the Constitution, is therefore not law, but utterly void, and of no force: that transferring
the power of judging any person, who is under the protection of the laws from the courts, to the President of the
United States, as is undertaken by the same act concerning aliens, is against the article of the Constitution which
provides that “the judicial power of the United States shall be vested in courts, the judges of which shall hold
their offices during good behavior”; and that the said act is void for that reason also. And it is further to be
noted, that this transfer of judiciary power is to that magistrate of the general government who already possesses
all the Executive, and a negative on all Legislative powers.
7. Resolved, That the construction applied by the General Government (as is evidenced by sundry of their
proceedings) to those parts of the Constitution of the United States which delegate to Congress a power “to lay
and collect taxes, duties, imports, and excises, to pay the debts, and provide for the common defense and general
welfare of the United States,” and “to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into
execution, the powers vested by the Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or
officer thereof,” goes to the destruction of all limits prescribed to their powers by the Constitution: that words
meant by the instrument to be subsidiary only to the execution of limited powers, ought not to be so construed as
themselves to give unlimited powers, nor a part to be so taken as to destroy the whole residue of that instrument:
that the proceedings of the General Government under color of these articles, will be a fit and necessary subject
of revisal and correction, at a time of greater tranquillity, while those specified in the preceding resolutions call
for immediate redress.
8th. Resolved, That a committee of conference and correspondence be appointed, who shall have in charge to
communicate the preceding resolutions to the Legislatures of the several States: to assure them that this
commonwealth continues in the same esteem of their friendship and union which it has manifested from that
moment at which a common danger first suggested a common union: that it considers union, for specified
national purposes, and particularly to those specified in their late federal compact, to be friendly, to the peace,
happiness and prosperity of all the States: that faithful to that compact, according to the plain intent and meaning
in which it was understood and acceded to by the several parties, it is sincerely anxious for its preservation: that
it does also believe, that to take from the States all the powers of self-government and transfer them to a general
and consolidated government, without regard to the special delegations and reservations solemnly agreed to in
that compact, is not for the peace, happiness or prosperity of these States; and that therefore this commonwealth
is determined, as it doubts not its co-States are, to submit to undelegated, and consequently unlimited powers in
no man, or body of men on earth: that in cases of an abuse of the delegated powers, the members of the general
government, being chosen by the people, a change by the people would be the constitutional remedy; but, where
powers are assumed which have not been delegated, a nullification of the act is the rightful remedy: that every
State has a natural right in cases not within the compact, (casus non fœderis) to nullify of their own authority all
assumptions of power by others within their limits: that without this right, they would be under the dominion,
absolute and unlimited, of whosoever might exercise this right of judgment for them: that nevertheless, this
commonwealth, from motives of regard and respect for its co States, has wished to communicate with them on
the subject: that with them alone it is proper to communicate, they alone being parties to the compact, and solely
authorized to judge in the last resort of the powers exercised under it, Congress being not a party, but merely the
creature of the compact, and subject as to its assumptions of power to the final judgment of those by whom, and
for whose use itself and its powers were all created and modified: that if the acts before specified should stand,
these conclusions would flow from them; that the general government may place any act they think proper on
the list of crimes and punish it themselves whether enumerated or not enumerated by the constitution as
cognizable by them: that they may transfer its cognizance to the President, or any other person, who may
himself be the accuser, counsel, judge and jury, whose suspicions may be the evidence, his order the sentence,
his officer the executioner, and his breast the sole record of the transaction: that a very numerous and valuable
description of the inhabitants of these States being, by this precedent, reduced, as outlaws, to the absolute
dominion of one man, and the barrier of the Constitution thus swept away from us all, no ramparts now remains
against the passions and the powers of a majority in Congress to protect from a like exportation, or other more
grievous punishment, the minority of the same body, the legislatures, judges, governors and counsellors of the
States, nor their other peaceable inhabitants, who may venture to reclaim the constitutional rights and liberties of
the States and people, or who for other causes, good or bad, may be obnoxious to the views, or marked by the
suspicions of the President, or be thought dangerous to his or their election, or other interests, public or personal;
that the friendless alien has indeed been selected as the safest subject of a first experiment; but the citizen will
soon follow, or rather, has already followed, for already has a sedition act marked him as its prey: that these and
successive acts of the same character, unless arrested at the threshold, necessarily drive these States into
revolution and blood and will furnish new calumnies against republican government, and new pretexts for those
who wish it to be believed that man cannot be governed but by a rod of iron: that it would be a dangerous
delusion were a confidence in the men of our choice to silence our fears for the safety of our rights: that
confidence is everywhere the parent of despotism — free government is founded in jealousy, and not in
confidence; it is jealousy and not confidence which prescribes limited constitutions, to bind down those whom
we are obliged to trust with power: that our Constitution has accordingly fixed the limits to which, and no
further, our confidence may go; and let the honest advocate of confidence read the Alien and Sedition acts, and
say if the Constitution has not been wise in fixing limits to the government it created, and whether we should be
wise in destroying those limits, Let him say what the government is, if it be not a tyranny, which the men of our
choice have con erred on our President, and the President of our choice has assented to, and accepted over the
friendly stranger to whom the mild spirit of our country and its law have pledged hospitality and protection: that
the men of our choice have more respected the bare suspicion of the President, than the solid right of innocence,
the claims of justification, the sacred force of truth, and the forms and substance of law and justice. In questions
of powers, then, let no more be heard of confidence in man, but bind him down from mischief by the chains of
the Constitution. That this commonwealth does therefore call on its co-States for an expression of their
sentiments on the acts concerning aliens and for the punishment of certain crimes herein before specified,
plainly declaring whether these acts are or are not authorized by the federal compact. And it doubts not that their
sense will be so announced as to prove their attachment unaltered to limited government, weather general or
particular. And that the rights and liberties of their co-States will be exposed to no dangers by remaining
embarked in a common bottom with their own. That they will concur with this commonwealth in considering
the said acts as so palpably against the Constitution as to amount to an undisguised declaration that that compact
is not meant to be the measure of the powers of the General Government, but that it will proceed in the exercise
over these States, of all powers whatsoever: that they will view this as seizing the rights of the States, and
consolidating them in the hands of the General Government, with a power assumed to bind the States (not
merely as the cases made federal, casus fœderis but), in all cases whatsoever, by laws made, not with their
consent, but by others against their consent: that this would be to surrender the form of government we have
chosen, and live under one deriving its powers from its own will, and not from our authority; and that the co-
States, recurring to their natural right in cases not made federal, will concur in declaring these acts void, and of
no force, and will each take measures of its own for providing that neither these acts, nor any others of the
General Government not plainly and intentionally authorized by the Constitution, shalt be exercised within their
respective territories.
9th. Resolved, That the said committee be authorized to communicate by writing or personal conference, at any
times or places whatever, with any person or persons who may be appointed by any one or more co-States to
correspond or confer with them; and that they lay their proceedings before the next session of Assembly.
Also see the Virginia Resolution of 1798, authored by James Madison, for the same purpose, and a followup
Kentucky Resolution of 1799 adopted by the Kentucky Legislature a year later

                                   7A             Kentucky Resolution of 1799

THE representatives of the good people of this commonwealth in general assembly convened, having maturely
considered the answers of sundry states in the Union, to their resolutions passed at the last session, respecting
certain unconstitutional laws of Congress, commonly called the alien and sedition laws, would be faithless
indeed to themselves, and to those they represent, were they silently to acquiesce in principles and doctrines
attempted to be maintained in all those answers, that of Virginia only excepted. To again enter the field of
argument, and attempt more fully or forcibly to expose the unconstitutionality of those obnoxious laws, would,
it is apprehended be as unnecessary as unavailing.
We cannot however but lament, that in the discussion of those interesting subjects, by sundry of the legislatures
of our sister states, unfounded suggestions, and uncandid insinuations, derogatory of the true character and
principles of the good people of this commonwealth, have been substituted in place of fair reasoning and sound
argument. Our opinions of those alarming measures of the general government, together with our reasons for
those opinions, were detailed with decency and with temper, and submitted to the discussion and judgment of
our fellow citizens throughout the Union. Whether the decency and temper have been observed in the answers of
most of those states who have denied or attempted to obviate the great truths contained in those resolutions, we
have now only to submit to a candid world. Faithful to the true principles of the federal union, unconscious of
any designs to disturb the harmony of that Union, and anxious only to escape the fangs of despotism, the good
people of this commonwealth are regardless of censure or calumniation.
Least however the silence of this commonwealth should be construed into an acquiescence in the doctrines and
principles advanced and attempted to be maintained by the said answers, or least those of our fellow citizens
throughout the Union, who so widely differ from us on those important subjects, should be deluded by the
expectation, that we shall be deterred from what we conceive our duty; or shrink from the principles contained
in those resolutions: therefore.
RESOLVED, That this commonwealth considers the federal union, upon the terms and for the purposes
specified in the late compact, as conducive to the liberty and happiness of the several states: That it does now
unequivocally declare its attachment to the Union, and to that compact, agreeable to its obvious and real
intention, and will be among the last to seek its dissolution: That if those who administer the general
government be permitted to transgress the limits fixed by that compact, by a total disregard to the special
delegations of power therein contained, annihilation of the state governments, and the erection upon their ruins,
of a general consolidated government, will be the inevitable consequence: That the principle and construction
contended for by sundry of the state legislatures, that the general government is the exclusive judge of the extent
of the powers delegated to it, stop nothing short of despotism; since the discretion of those who administer the
government, and not the constitution, would be the measure of their powers: That the several states who formed
that instrument, being sovereign and independent, have the unquestionable right to judge of its infraction; and
that a nullification, by those sovereignties, of all unauthorized acts done under colour of that instrument, is the
rightful remedy: That this commonwealth does upon the most deliberate reconsideration declare, that the said
alien and sedition laws, are in their opinion, palpable violations of the said constitution; and however cheerfully
it may be disposed to surrender its opinion to a majority of its sister states in matters of ordinary or doubtful
policy; yet, in momentous regulations like the present, which so vitally wound the best rights of the citizen, it
would consider a silent acquiescence as highly criminal: That although this commonwealth as a party to the
federal compact; will bow to the laws of the Union, yet it does at the same time declare, that it will not now, nor
ever hereafter, cease to oppose in a constitutional manner, every attempt from what quarter soever offered, to
violate that compact:
AND FINALLY, in order that no pretexts or arguments may be drawn from a supposed acquiescence on the part
of this commonwealth in the constitutionality of those laws, and be thereby used as precedents for similar future
violations of federal compact; this commonwealth does now enter against them, its SOLEMN PROTEST.
Approved December 3rd, 1799.
8A analyze these pictures from the Tea Party webpage
What theme are they referring to? Historical significance of taxes, government interventions, open
Read Important Information
Tea Party “Operation: PINK SLIP” Is Working! Pink Slips are flowing to Washington on top of our other
blistering faxes!

All we have to say is OUCH! Can you feel our pain now?
I think they got the message and are running like turpentine cats with their fur on fire! Oh, some are
calling it retirement, some claim they are running for other offices, but the word on Capitol Hill is, We
The People are regaining the power in Washington and the Obama-Reich ranks are empting.

Liberals In Deep Trouble! (...and more to come)
Obama-Care, Bowing To Saudi Kings, No Birth Certificate, Global Warming, Tax And Spend, Wall Street
Bailouts, Billions Of Dollars Of Pork, Bribes, Secret Back-Room Deals, Socialism, ACORN, TARP, CAP
and TRADE, Bailout Fat Cat Mortgage Moguls, Broken Promises…………

Who in their right mind could turn a blind eye to such outright political corruption?

READ THIS, liberal members of Congress are retiring, calling in sick, deciding to drop out, sneaking out
the back-door, stepping down, running home to mama.

Why? Because of YOU! You have been e-mailing, writing letters, sending faxes, marching, phone
calling, protesting going on the radio and TV demanding responsibility in government!

Yes, America, you have been heard! The battle for Washington has just begun!

It is now time to turn up the heat; cook Washington fax machines with HOT, SEARING Faxes! Not just
any fax, BUT millions of boiling PINK SLIPS, each one sending a powerful message!

Time to tell all the liberal RAT-BASTARDS their political days are over, while encouraging Conservatives
that help is on the way!

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Would you like to send a Pink Slip to every member of the House of Representatives?

Would you like to send a Pink Slip to every Member of the Senate?

Would you like to send a Pink Slip to all 100 Senators and 435 Members of the House and all 50
Governors, 2 TIMES!

      WOW! Send 1,170 Pink Slip Faxes!

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The Tea Party Fax Project will fax a blistering, hot Pink Slips directly to all 435 members of the House
and 100 members of the Senate and all 50 Governors but we won’t stop there!

The wonderful thing is, it will look like it came from you!

This revolutionary concept will magnify your fax voice to a shouting level while having a Pink Slips
delivered directly Washington!
Liberals In Deep Trouble! (...and more to come)
Obama-Care, Bowing To Saudi Kings, No Birth Certificate, Global Warming, Tax And Spend, Wall Street

BailoutsBillions Of Dollars Of Pork, Bribes, Secret Back-Room Deals, Socialism, ACORN

WOW! Send 1,170 Pink Slip Faxes! Washington!

                          >>YOU ARE BEING PUT ON NOTICE<<
                             HERE IS YOUR PINK SLIP!

 Your superiors have reviewed all the hired hands in the Senate and the House of Representatives. Our
review discovered many of our elected employees operating outside of their job descriptions and without
authorization. During the interview throughout the last election all job candidates promised to perform in
accordance with their employer’s written instructions, also known as the U.S. Constitution. However, it has
become painfully apparent that your terms of employment were never followed and your job performance is
at an all time low.

Furthermore, it has been brought to the attention of your employer that you have engaged in flagrant
violations of the Peoples instructions (aka the U.S. Constitution). Reference employer’s handbook: Articles 1
through 7 and Amendments 1 through 27. Upper management has little choice but to take appropriate
actions by un-electing, otherwise known as termination of employment, of those who refused to follow the
employer’s instructions in 2010 and 2012.

[X] - Voting for National Health-Care against the will of your employer. These actions alone could
bankrupt your employer.

[X] - Voting for Cap and Trade against the expressed wishes and direct instructions of your employer.

[X] - Endorsing dangerous security practices by promoting unguarded and unprotected borders, thereby
jeopardizing Employer's livelihood, personal security and the continuation of domestic tranquility.

[X] - Creating a dangerous American work environment by funding Wall Street Fat Cats and
 Mortgage Moguls while ignoring America's largest employer, small business.

[X} - Restricting firearm sales, thereby increasing the risk of loss by the employer. The employer has
given explicit instructions regarding firearms, yet direct violation of the Second Amendment "Right To
Bear Arms" have been witnessed.

For Violations - Please reference, employer’s handbook. (U.S.C. September 17th 1787)

If you have been involved in any of these violations of the employer’s handbook (U.S. Constitution)
or willfully ignored the expressed wishes of your employer, the People, then your services are no
longer needed and you will be unelected in 2010, and others in 2012. Definition of terms: Un-
Election means: "You can KISS WASHINGTON GOODBYE, and We The People will send you home to

RECONSIDERATION: However, because of the great and gracious history of your Employer, We
The People are willing to reconsider your previous actions if it is witnessed your attitude
improves and you labor on behalf of your employer’ best interest, show an honest effort to
reverse the damage done by yourself and fellow employees and not be in violation of the We
The People’s Handbook, the U.S. Constitution.

Signed; Your Name       Address Here

Correspondence: Please write and inform me of your intentions. We The People will review every
employee's performance and review each on a case-by-case basis. Authority: U.S.C. - Bill Of Rights:
Amendment 1: "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the
free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people
peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances."

Order Your Fax, Let Your Fax Voice Be Heard!
The Tea Party will send this BLISTERING Pink Slip fax to all 100 Senators and all 435 Members of
the House of Representatives and all 50 Governors 2 times!! For Only $ 55.00 WOW!

Never before has there been such an important issue as this one! The Tea Party under the direction
of Dale Robertson is leading the way.

"I am not going to sit by and watch my beloved nation turn into a 3rd world socialist state."
Dale Robertson

Send all 100 Senators, 435 Members of the House and all 50 Governors this powerful Pink Slip
fax 2 times for only $ 55.00 ! You will make your fax voice scream and be supporting the
Patriotic actions of the Tea Party at the same time!

Send all 100 Senators, all 435 Members of the House and all 50 Governors a Pink
Slip 2 times!
100 Senators + 435 Members of the House + 50 Governors = 585 X 2 = 1,170 Pink
and support the Tea Party at the same time! WOW!
Soon Washington will feel the heat of your Pink Slip faxes as it reaches every
Senator's and House Member's office 5 times!

          Thank You Patriot-America Needs More Citizens Like You!

4A & B
POLE Requirements
(Pledge, Oath, Listing for Everyone)    Requirements for Listing
Must Be Truthful Must Support, Defend and Restore the Constitution Must
Reduce Government Spending Support Term Limits (Executive, Legislative,
Judicial) * We reserve the right to remove individuals who do not support these values.
Patriots Oath
I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I
will support and defend the Constitution
of the United States against all enemies,
foreign and domestic; that I will bear
true faith and allegiance to the same;
that I take this obligation freely, without
any mental reservation or purpose of
evasion; and that I will well and
faithfully discharge the duties of a
Patriot. So help me God
Candidates Pledge
I pledge allegience to the U.S. Constitution. I will defend it regardless of party affiliation.
I acknowledge that the U.S. Constitution is fundamentally Conservative and I have
fidiciary responsibility to reduce the burden of Government on its citizens. I answer to
the people of whom I’m elected in so much that their fickelness does not undermine the
tenets of the Constitution. I will strive to bring value to that Office if Elected not for
personal gain or ambition, but for protection and perservation of the U.S. Constitution.

1A John Adams-Alien and Sedition Acts
The feud with France created bad blood between the political parties in America. Democratic-
Republicans and Federalists took advantage of every opportunity to undermine each other. In 1798, the
Federalist-controlled Congress exploited the anti-French sentiment sweeping through the colonies to
pass a series of laws that, on the surface, promoted American safety but actually were designed to quiet
their Democratic-Republican counterparts. The Alien and Sedition Acts were comprised of four laws:
   ●   The Naturalization Act lengthened from five to fourteen years the residency requirement for
       citizenship. Since many poor European immigrants favored the more inviting Democratic-
       Republican Party, the wealthier aristocratic Federalists intended to use the act to delay
       their voting privileges.
   ●   The Alien Enemies Act allowed the president to expel aliens in wartime. Federalists created
       this law because they believed a war with France was imminent. However, since war was
       never officially declared, it served no feasible purpose.
   ●   The Alien Act authorized the president to deport or imprison all aliens whom he considered
       dangerous to the safety of the United States. Although the law was never enforced, many
       immigrants feared the subjective power the president wielded and fled the country.
   ●   The Sedition Act prohibited antigovernment activity. It was illegal to publish or even speak
       any false, scandalous, and malicious criticism of government officials. This law directly
       targeted Democratic-Republican newspapers. Twenty-five editors were indicted under the
       act, and ten were convicted by Federalist judges who did not attempt to hide their
       prejudice. Vermont Congressman Mathew Lyon, one of the first convicted, was fined and
       jailed for opposing the policies of the Adams administration. To avoid having the Sedition
       Act used against them, Federalists inserted into the law an expiration date of 1801 in case
       they lost the next election.
The Alien and Sedition Acts effectively muzzled the Democratic-Republicans; however, their ultimate
effect worked against the Federalists. Many colonists, angry at the Federalist abuse of authority,
shifted their political support to Thomas Jefferson and his Democratic-Republican Party. Adams also
lost many followers because he agreed to sign the bills into law and ordered their enforcement. The
political tide in the colonies was turning, and Jefferson was poised to take a leadership role.
In 1798, Jefferson and James Madison penned resolutions disputing the constitutionality of the Alien
and Sedition Acts. Since the Congress and Supreme Court were dominated by Federalists, the duo took
their fight to the Democratic-Republican legislatures of Kentucky and Virginia. Jefferson presented his
draft to the Kentucky legislature, and Madison offered his version to the legislature of Virginia.
The resolutions asserted that each state enter into a compact, or contract, with the national government
and delegate power to the centralized entity for the common good of all states. If a state decided that
the national government overstepped its constitutional authority, it could intervene to protect its
citizens from tyrannical law. Jefferson argued that the Federal government had exceeded its authority
with the establishment of the Alien and Sedition Acts and concluded that each state had the right to
nullify the laws because they deemed them unconstitutional.
Jefferson and Madison hoped that the approval of their Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions would
inspire other states to follow their lead to weaken the Federalist stronghold on government. They
anticipated a swell in the membership of the Democratic-Republican Party as voters uncovered the
truth about the Federalists’ actions. However, no other states approved the resolutions. Although the
compact theory touting the power of individual states did not garner much support in the post-
Revolutionary era, it would prove to play a substantial role in the political events leading up to the
Civil War.

2A The Confederation Faces Challenges
Shays’s Rebellion
The Economic difficulties that continued to plague Americans throughout the 1780s were the source of
growing social unrest. All through the summer of 1786, popular conventions and informal gatherings
in several states demanded reform of the state administrations. That same summer, an uprising known
as Shays’s Rebellion took place in western Massachusetts. The leaders of Massachusetts were rigidly
conservative, and rather than print currency to pay off the state’s debts, they increased taxes that fell
most heavily on farmers and the poor. Several Massachusetts farmers, many of them war veterans,
were losing their farms through mortgage foreclosures and tax delinquencies.
When the Massachusetts legislature adjourned in 1786 without providing the citizens with relief from
high tax rates and debt, the western counties revolted. An armed mob began to stop foreclosures by
forcibly preventing the courts from holding their sessions. Under the leadership of Daniel Shays, a
farmer and former army captain, a group of nearly 1,200 disgruntled farmers marched to the federal
arsenal at Springfield, Massachusetts. Shays’s followers sought a more flexible money policy,
suspension of property confiscations, and the right to postpone paying taxes until the depression lifted.
The Massachusetts authorities summoned troops and quickly put an end to the uprising. Daniel Shays
was condemned to death, but was later pardoned. When the next legislature came into session, the
majority sympathized with the rebels and met some of their demands for debt relief.
Thomas Jefferson commented from Paris, where he was serving as minister to France, that this was
just a small uprising and that it was good for the health of the government. However, most did not
agree with Jefferson’s position and instead were of the same mind as the usually unexcitable George
Washington, who felt that the country was on the verge of anarchy.
The conditions of the new nation, including diplomatic problems, a strong concern for property rights,
economic depression, lack of commercial control, and Shays's Rebellion, were troubling and led to
discussions about the need for a stronger central government. Advocates of a stronger central
government began to demand a convention to revise the Articles of Confederation.
The first steps toward reform were taken when a dispute between Maryland and Virginia over
navigation on the Potomac River, and thus control of commerce, occurred. The argument led to a
conference of representatives at Annapolis, Maryland, in 1786. However, since the Annapolis
Convention represented only five of the thirteen states, Alexander Hamilton convinced his colleagues
to call all the states to appoint representatives for a meeting to discuss general commercial problems.
The meeting was to be held the following spring in Philadelphia.
The Annapolis group approved Hamilton’s recommendation for a conference to discuss governmental
reform and trade between the states. The Continental Congress reluctantly endorsed the meeting when
they found out that Virginia had elected George Washington as their delegate. On May 25, 1787, what
came to be called the Constitutional Convention opened its proceedings at the state house in
Philadelphia, unanimously electing George Washington as its president.

                   10A The Star Spangled Banner
                                    by Francis Scott Key
O say! can you see, by the dawn's early light,
 What so proudly we hail'd at the twilight's last
Whose broad stripes and bright stars, thro' the
perilous fight,
 O'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly
And the rockets' red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
 Gave proof thro' the night, that our flag was still
O say! does that Star-Spangled Banner yet wave
 O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
On the shore, dimly seen thro' the mist of the deep,
  Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence
What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering
As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses?
Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam,
  In full glory reflected now shines in the stream.
'Tis the Star-Spangled Banner. O long may it wave
  O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.
And where is that band who so vauntingly swore,
 That the havoc of war and the battle's confusion
A home and a country should leave us no more?
 Their blood has wash'd out their foul footstep's
No refuge could save the hireling and slave
 From the terror of flight or the gloom of the grave,
And the Star-Spangled Banner in triumph doth wave
 O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.
O thus be it ever when freemen shall stand
  Between their lov'd home and war's desolation,
Blest with vict'ry and peace, may the Heav'n-rescued
  Praise the pow'r that hath made and preserv'd us a
Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just,
  And this be our motto, "In God is our Trust."
And the Star-Spangled Banner in triumph shall wave
  O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.
This past week we looked at the events leading up to the Constitutional Convention
and included the debt-ridden, farmers’ rebellion known as Shays’ Rebellion that
occurred in 1786-87. Because of rampant inflation and other economic factors,
former Revolutionary War soldiers couldn’t pay off their mortgages and were faced
with jail time in debtors prison, seizure of valuable property or foreclosure on their
homes. To prevent the foreclosure of their homes, the farmers in rural Massachusetts,
led by Daniel Shays, closed courthouses all around Massachusetts. Only when a
private militia (hired by the moneyed interests of Boston) opened fire on the mutinous
men of the rebellion did it finally end.
An event like this convinced those on the fence that a stronger central gov’t. was
needed to deal with the systemic problems of the Articles of Confederation.
Today, some groups like the Tea Party advocates (Tea standing for Taxed Enough
Already) believe that we have drifted far away from this founding legacy of “small
government” and that our current gov’t. is way too strong and intrusive in our
lives. We see this intrusion in regulations on corporations and other businesses,
excessive federal spending, and changes to health care. Many of these groups appear
to be grass-roots and decentralized, lack a specific political platform, have a little bit of
party money and haven’t rallied around a national leader, according to The
Washington Post’s survey of the nation’s TEA Parties published on Oct. 24.
Virtually all of the 650 groups surveyed identified opposition to President Obama’s
and the Democratic Party’s policies. The groups also identified economics as a major
concern, and this is no surprise considering the country’s economic mess since 2007.

As you can see by the chart on the left, the US economy finally came out of its epic
doldrums in 2008 in 2009 with some small signs of growth. For the first two quarters
of 2010, there has also been growth as well (3.7% 1st qtr., 1.7% 2nd qtr), but nothing
As shown in the graph below in GDP growth/loss by states, Michigan and Florida had
the worst GDP losses in 2007-08 (the yellowish states are the worst hit by this

recession).                                          (1)
In the summer of 2010, home foreclosures hit a record high of almost 270,000 homes
in the 2nd qtr (2). Some of these foreclosures have been questioned b/c it appears
that many banks may have kicked people out of their homes w/o “reading the
documents.” According to Fox News, in the latest 3rd qtr, almost 290,000 homes
were foreclosed, and the banks are on pace to hit 1.2 million by the end of the year (3).
Like the farmers in Shays Rebellion, many homeowners have either lost their homes to
foreclosure or seen the value of their house drop so significantly that the mortgage
isn’t worth paying off (called an underwater mortgage). Therefore, a number of
people have walked away from their homes and let the banks have them. Currently,
over 1/2 million homes are owned by banks that aren’t even on the market (3).
Tea Parties have complained a lot about taxes. They’ve also complained, and rightly
so, about out-of-control government spending.
If you ever wondered how much money is taken in by the government in taxes, here’s a
The federal Government will take in $2.6 trillion for FY2011. The individual taxpayer
— you — provides the bulk of this. Here’s how:
   ● Income taxes contribute 45%.
   ● Social security taxes are 34%.
   ● Corporate taxes are only 12%.
   ● Excise taxes and other make up the remaining 9%. (4)
How is it that corporations only pay 9% of our tax burden? Maybe that’s
where the gov’t. and Tea Partiers should look for more money.
Or maybe the gov’t. should do with less like the rest of us, especially those who are
directly affected by the auto industry. Would it hurt the nation terribly to cut all
expenses by 1-2% for the next year? It probably would, but how much has the
government’s stimulus package really benefited the country?
The worst part about all of this is that when the country needs the two parties to work
together to get us out of this mess, the parties are at a historical point of fighting
with each other. Not since the end of World War 2 have the two parties voted only for
their own party’s programs and voted against the other party’s program. Between 85-
90% of each party’s members have voted for their own bills and against the other party
So, what do we do?
Your question (pick two of the following):
1. Do you think an armed rebellion like Shays could happen today based upon home
foreclosures or another source of discontent? Why or why not?
2. Why don’t you think the federal government is willing to cut expenses even slightly
to either cut taxes or to reduce our federal budget deficit?
3. What do you think the long-term consequences will be with so many homes being
foreclosed, especially this year?
 4. Do you think the Tea Party protest is just a one-time thing like the Bull Moose Party
(1912) or the States’ Rights Party (1948)? Or will it be around to be a real contender
in 2012? Why or why not?

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