What does it mean to discriminate by mikesanye


									                              What does it mean to discriminate?
  Topic                              What do people mean when they talk about a “fair and just society”? How has
                                     society discriminated against different groups in the past? Have attitudes and
                                     actions really changed? Through engaging with different texts students are
                                     challenged to consider questions such as:
                                         What is discrimination?
                                         How can people take action to promote a fair and just society?
                                         How can stereotyping contribute to discrimination?
                                    Students will also reflect on:
                                         How can I be fair minded when considering the values, views and beliefs of

  Standard                          5
  Stages                            13, 14, 15
  Year Levels                       9 - 10
  Curriculum areas                  Society and History                                 English-literacy
  Strands                           1 – Identity, relationships and culture             1 - Reading and listening
                                    2 – Democratic values and processes                 2 - Writing and representing
                                    5 – Responsible citizenship                         3 - Speaking and listening
                                    7 – Philosophical inquiry
                                    8 – Communication
  Understanding Goals                1. Students will understand how texts are used to reflect or challenge social
                                        beliefs, values and attitudes.

                                     2. Students will understand how language, stereotypes and symbolism are used
                                        to portray prejudice.

                                     3. Students will understand how people can take action to promote social justice
                                        in society.

                                     4. Students will understand how to be fair minded in considering values, views
                                        and beliefs.

                                     5. Students will understand how to communicate purposefully and sensitively.

This learning sequence can be accessed through the Society and History curriculum document at www.education.tas.gov.au   1
UGs                   Learning opportunities                                 Teacher notes and assessment

 4       Opinionaire                                                 Teacher note:
         Students consider the concept of values using the           The discussion considers where values come
         following questions:                                        from and how people develop their values and
                 Where do our values come from?                     beliefs. It enables students to see that other
                 How are values taught or learned?                  people have different opinions and discuss why
                 What values can we agree on?                       this might happen. It provides an opportunity to
                                                                     emphasise the importance of valuing the opinions
                                                                     of others.
         Ask students to complete an Opinionaire. (See
         Appendix 1) Students consider the following                 This activity enables students to use familiar
         statements and/or generate others to test:                  scenarios and relate these to their personal
                 The most important thing you can do in             experience. Students could also generate their
                  a family is forgive.                               own statements to test. Some could be more
                 A child learns more from personal                  controversial to elicit a wider range of opinions.
                  experience than being told.
                 The knowledge of the older generation is
                  no longer relevant today.
                 Girls are treated less fairly than boys in
                  our society.
                 Reconciliation should mean saying sorry
                  to Aborigines for past injustices.                 Develop criteria for effective small group work
                                                                     with the students. Where Heart Meets Mind by
                                                                     Barrie Bennet has useful strategies for
         Combine the results on the board. Students
                                                                     cooperative learning. MyRead
         could evaluate the information; noting values /
                                                                     www.myread.org/organisation.htm#coop) also
         statements that people agree on or that are in
                                                                     has a summary of cooperative learning strategies.
         dispute. Students discuss their findings in small
         groups, considering why people might have
         different opinions or values. Students respond to
         the opinionaire in their journals.
3, 4     Personal Courage                                            Teacher note:
         Students discuss the following in a small group             This activity introduces a key theme of To Kill a
         and write a personal response in their journals             Mockingbird and links to the prior discussion on
         on the question:                                            values.
                 What is personal courage?
                                                                     Students may need explicit teaching about what
         Students work collaboratively to consider the               harassment is and what it involves. These
         following issues:                                           questions are a starting point. Others could be
                                                                     added by the teacher, depending on the flow of
                 Is society made up of „insiders‟ and               the discussion.
                  „outsiders‟? If so, give examples
                 What is harassment and why does it                 Assessment for learning
                  occur?                                             Assess students‟ ability to work collaboratively in
                 What are some of the feelings that                 small groups. Students will:
                  someone may experience if they are                     agree on a process to complete the
                  harassed?                                                  group task
                 Why do individuals sometimes become                    contribute appropriate suggestions
                  part of a mob? How do they operate?                    deepen their understanding of personal
                  What is mob psychology?                                    courage
                                                                         support group members
         How do people make decisions about going
         against the beliefs / actions of the group when                 reflect on their contribution to the
         they feel „right‟ but their actions are „wrong‟?                    success of the group task
This learning sequence can be accessed through the Society and History curriculum document at www.education.tas.gov.au    2
UGs                   Learning opportunities                                  Teacher notes and assessment

3, 4     Human Rights
         Ask the question:
             What is a right?

         Students brainstorm on the whiteboard possible
         meanings of „right‟. Students research different
         dictionary or encyclopedia definitions of „right‟
         and discuss the shades of meaning. Add these to
         the definitions on the board. Students use these
                                                                     Teacher note:
         ideas to create their own definition and share it
                                                                     The „Universal Declaration of Human Rights‟
         with the class.
                                                                     http://www.un.org/Overview/rights.html has a
                                                                     useful background summary including the 30
         Introduce the United Nations Declaration of
         Human Rights. Students investigate why the
         declaration was written and whether they think it
                                                                     Use the Jigsaw strategy and divide the rights up
         is necessary to have such a document.
                                                                     between groups.

         Hand out the summary of the document. Divide                Students could explore the rights using the „Four
         up the 30 articles and have students work in                Roles/Resources of the Successful Reader„
         groups of four to analyse different sections of the         www.myread.org/organisation.htm#cards
         document and produce a „plain English‟ version.
         Have each group report on the meaning of their
         articles.                                                   Assessment for learning
                                                                     Assess students‟ ability to work collaboratively in
         Then have groups discuss:                                   small groups. Students:
                Are there other rights that should be                   agree on a process to complete the
                    added to these lists?                                    group task
                                                                         contribute appropriate suggestions
                Which right or rights are the most
                    important? Why?                                      acknowledge others‟ contributions to the
         Students reword these to produce a summary                      report their findings to others
         list of key, agreed rights.
                                                                         reflect on their contribution to the
         Groups report back and write the amended                            success of the group task
         rights on the board.
         Students individually choose the rights they think          Assess students‟ ability to
         should be in the short list and write these in                  develop a list of key human rights
         their journal.                                                  justify their thinking about specific rights

         Ask students to respond to the following in their           Teacher note:
         journal:                                                    Students respond in their reflective journal to the
                                                                     questions about rights. Students can reflect on
                 Do all of these rights apply to you at all         their own values and beliefs before examining To
                  times and in all situations?                       Kill a Mockingbird.
                 What rights do you have in this
                  classroom?                                         Assessment for learning
                                                                     Assess students‟ reflective writing about rights
                 What responsibilities do you have
                                                                     and responsibilities. Students:
                  towards others in the classroom?
                                                                          demonstrate an appreciation of the
                                                                             concepts of rights and responsibilities
                                                                              give reasons to support their views

This learning sequence can be accessed through the Society and History curriculum document at www.education.tas.gov.au   3
UGs                   Learning opportunities                                 Teacher notes and assessment

1, 2,     Not Fair                                                   Teacher note:
3, 4      Ask the questions:                                         Build on the previous discussion about rights and
              What is symbolism?                                    relate it to the concepts of justice and law.
              When and why is it used?
                                                                     Introduce different symbols to examine the
          Show students a picture of the Amnesty                     concept of symbolism. For example, the cross,
          International Candle and ask:                              wedding ring, red roses, white feather, and
                                                                     golden arches.
               What message do you think the image is
                  meant to convey?
                                                                     Use the „Amnesty Candle‟
               Based on the meaning of the symbol,
                  what sorts of activities do you think this
                                                                     to investigate use of symbolism. The Amnesty
                  organisation might be involved in?
                                                                     site has a number of variations on the candle
                                                                     symbol. It also gives the history of the symbol
          Introduce students to the Scales of Justice
                                                                     and explains its meaning.
          symbol. Students discuss the possible meanings of
          the symbols used in this image i.e. the blindfold –
                                                                     Make the link to the Universal Declaration of
          justice is impartial; the scales – weighing up both
                                                                     Human Rights explicit and emphasise its
          sides of the argument equally and the sword –
          symbolising the punishment imposed on any
          guilty party.
                                                                     The „Common Law‟ web site explains the history
                                                                     and the meaning of the Lady of Justice:
          Pose these questions to students for a
                                                                     Further information is available at:
          philosophical discussion:
               What is fair?                                        This discussion of symbolism also provides an
               How do we decide?                                    introduction to symbolism in To Kill a

1, 2, 3   Students discuss the following in small groups             Build on the idea of justice and a „fair go‟. The
4         and seek agreement about whether the scenario              word „justice‟ implies fairness but what is „fair‟
          is fair or not:                                            depends on what each person believes to be fair
                A year 8 student is suspended for ten               in a particular situation. The purpose of this
                    days for smoking at school.                      activity is to enable students to reflect on this
                A 12 year old girl is not allowed to join           and appreciate that individuals have diverse
                    the U14 boys‟ water polo team.                   opinions that should be valued.

          Groups report back to class. Students explain:             These could be developed as role play cards.
              How difficult did your group find it to               Students could also develop their own scenarios.
                 decide what was fair?                               Playing cards could be used to allocate random
              What was the basis for different views of             groups – four per group.
                 group members?
                                                                     Use numbered heads for reporting; playing cards
          Allocate the following words to different groups:          are useful here too as each group has four suits
               justice                                              to choose from so the „numbering‟ is already
               prejudice                                            done. Visit the „MyRead‟ web site.
               discrimination                                       http://www.myread.org/organisation.htm#coop)
          Two groups research each word using different
          sources. They discuss the definitions, taking into
          account earlier discussions about rights and
          sharing with the class their definition of the term.
          Students then write individual definitions of each
          term in their books.

This learning sequence can be accessed through the Society and History curriculum document at www.education.tas.gov.au    4
UGs                   Learning opportunities                                  Teacher notes and assessment

1, 2,     Video Babakieuria                                          Teacher note:
3, 4, 5   Show the video and ask students to write a
                                                                     This video can provoke a powerful emotional
          detailed response to the following question.
                                                                     response from students due to its imaginative
                 How do you feel when you hear the                  portrayal of „white‟ Australians.
                  negative commentary and see the
                  negative images the video uses to portray
                  white Australians?                                 Assessment of learning
          Students discuss the remaining questions in                Assess students‟ ability to write reflectively about
          groups. They write a detailed individual response          discrimination. Students will:
          to the final question.                                              understand the negative impact of
                 What negative images, words and                              discrimination on individuals and groups
                  stereotypes are used to depict white                        appreciate the need to take action
                  Australians?                                                 against discrimination and to act more
                                                                               equitably and fairly
                 How is humour used? Is it effective?                        write detailed responses using effective
                                                                               structures and features
                 Why do you think a documentary-style
                  was chosen?
                 What do you think is the message of the
                 How does discrimination affect
                  individuals and groups?

This learning sequence can be accessed through the Society and History curriculum document at www.education.tas.gov.au    5
UGs                   Learning opportunities                                 Teacher notes and assessment

1, 2     A study of the film To Kill a Mockingbird                   Teacher note:
                                                           Before seeing the film it is important that
         Introduce the film To Kill a Mockingbird. Pose thestudents gain an understanding of the society of
         question to students:                             the time. Some possible approaches:
              Was Maycomb a fair and just community?           The teacher explains the context. Useful
                                                                   background information can be found at:
         Students explore how US society was broadly               http://www.slc.k12.ut.us/webweavers/jillc
         structured in the 1930s, especially in the                /mbird.html in particular the interviews
         Southern states.
                                                                Students undertake an internet or library
         Show the film.                                            search to explore US society in the
         Discuss the following with students, referring to         1930s; students report back on and
         the book when necessary:                                  reference two interesting facts they
              How is symbolism used in the film to        Relate the work back to the earlier discussions
                 explore issues of discrimination?         about prejudice, discrimination and justice.
         Students work in small groups to consider
         symbols such as:                                  Assessment for learning
                  The chewing gum, the Indian pennies, the          Assess students‟ ability to:
                   tyre etc. What do the mended trousers,                 understand how symbolism is used in
                   the gifts and the blanket tell us about                    texts for particular purposes
                   Boo?                                                   identify and explain how symbolism is
               The Mockingbird: „It is a sin to kill a                       used in the film to explore issues of
                   mockingbird‟ p99. „Mockingbirds don‟t                      discrimination
                   do one thing but make for us to enjoy.‟                understand how negative images can be
                   p100.                                                      used to create or counter prejudice
               The gun: Although Atticus is a dead shot
                   he refuses to shoot for entertainment.
                   pp108-9. „I wanted you to see real
                   courage instead of getting the idea that
                   courage is a man with a gun in his hand.
                   It‟s when you‟re licked before you begin
                   but you begin anyway and you see it
                   through no matter what. You rarely win
                   but sometimes you do.‟ p124.
         Students record key points from their group
         Students examine how „outsiders‟ are presented
                                                                     Assessment for learning:
         in the film. Students could explore questions
                                                                     Assess students‟ ability to:
         such as:
                                                                          explain how „outsiders‟ are presented in
               What is the town‟s reaction to Atticus‟
                                                                              the film
                   defence of Tom Robinson?
                                                                          understand the effects of being an
               Why do most people believe Tom
                                                                              „outsider‟ in a small community
                   Robinson is guilty of rape?
               Why do you think Harper Lee uses Bob
                   and Mayella Ewell as the main witnesses
                   for the prosecution?
               How does the town react to Tom‟s                     Teacher note:
                   death? „Seventeen bullet holes in him‟            Students should be given the opportunity to read
                   pp259-260.                                        the complete novel.

This learning sequence can be accessed through the Society and History curriculum document at www.education.tas.gov.au   6
UGs                   Learning opportunities                                 Teacher notes and assessment

1, 2     A study of extracts from the novel To Kill a
                                                                     Teacher note:
         Students read about the Court case in chapters              The Court case is best read aloud so that the
         17–20. They explore what happens during the                 issues, key points of notice, questions etc can be
         court case. Students can use the following focus            discussed while reading.
                                                                     Repetition for emphasis; powerful imagery; using
            How does Atticus cast doubt on Mayella
                                                                     pauses and gestures for dramatic effect; making a
             Ewell‟s credibility? [chapter 18]
                                                                     personal appeal to the audience – we; appealing
          What was Tom‟s evidence? [chapter 19]
                                                                     to emotion etc.
          Does Mr Gilmer respect Tom? Support your
             answer with evidence from the text.                     Compassion is a strong feeling and understanding
          What are the significant aspects of Atticus‟              of another person‟s suffering.
             summing up and plea to the jury? There are              Compassion can help prevent prejudice.
             five main arguments. [pp224-227]
          What persuasive techniques does Atticus use
             in his speech to the jury?
          What is compassion?
          How does Atticus show compassion in his
             speech to the jury where he pleads for them
             to overcome prejudice when they
             considered their verdict? [chapter 20]                  Assessment for learning
          Why is Jem so upset at the verdict? [p233]                Assess students‟ ability to work with others.
         Students record their responses to the focus                Students:
         questions and share their findings.                              contribute considered, fair viewpoints
                                                                             about the Court case
         Students consider:
                                                                          acknowledge others‟ contributions to the
                 What understanding does Scout come to                      group
                  about prejudice? [„In the secret courts of              report their findings to others
                  men‟s hearts, Atticus had no case. Tom                  reflect on their contribution to the
                  was a dead man the minute Mayella Ewell                    success of the group task
                  opened her mouth and screamed.‟ p265]
         Students read the section from pp298 to 306.                Teacher note:
         They can work in pairs to explore the following:            Emphasise the concepts of ethics, honour and
          Why did Heck Tate insist that Bob Ewell fell              courage.
             on his own knife?
          What was Atticus‟ reaction to this? What                  Refer to Chapter 9 when Atticus instructs the
             did he believe should happen? What does it              children that they must never shoot a
             tell us about his character?                            mockingbird with their gun as well as reinforcing
          Do you think he was right to cover up the                 the symbolism which compares Boo and the
             truth like this?                                        mockingbird.
          Why is the book/film called To Kill a
             Mockingbird? How is this used symbolically?             Provide students with informal teacher feedback
          What does Scout finally understand as a                   about their responses to these issues.
             result of Boo saving Jem? [ „You never really
             know a man until you stand in his shoes and
             walk around in them‟ p308.]

This learning sequence can be accessed through the Society and History curriculum document at www.education.tas.gov.au    7
UGs                   Learning opportunities                                   Teacher notes and assessment

2, 3,    A fair and just society                                     Teacher note:
4, 5     Students explore the principles that they think             To help students improve their skills there would
         are important in a fair and just society. They              need to be explicit teaching/revision on the
         identify several key principles and then pose the           writing process including:
               Was Maycomb a fair and just                                    brainstorming
                   community?                                                  planning and drafting
         Students either complete an extended written                          editing and revising
         reponse or negotiate an alternative performance
         to answer these questions. For example, an                  Assessment of learning
         essay or a spoken / dramatic performance.                   Assess students‟ ability to understand the
         Emphasise the importance of students using                  concepts of fairness and justice. Students will:
         evidence to support their opinions.                                   discuss the concepts of fairness and
                                                                                justice as presented in the novel/film
         Use examples of how to brainstorm and use a
         concept map for planning.                                             demonstrate their understanding by
                                                                                creating an extended text with a clear
         Students can conference their drafts with a                            sense of audience and purpose
         partner and give warm / cool feedback.                                provide evidence to support their views

         Students complete one of the following:
2, 3,             Describe a similar event you may have             Teacher note:
4, 5               shared with one of the characters in the          An extended journal entry enables students to
                   novel/film.                                       make connections between the text and their
                  Compare an incident in To Kill a                  own lives and link to the introductory activities.
                   Mockingbird with a current event.
                                                                     Assess students‟ ability to write reflectively in
                  The story is set in a small town in
                                                                     their journals. Students:
                   southern Alabama during the
                   Depression of the 1930s. Reflect on                     make connections between their own
                   what aspects of the story seem to be                       lives and Alabama in the 1930s
                   particular to that place and time? Are                  explore the concepts of empathy,
                   there aspects of the story which are                       fairness and justice
                   universal, cutting across time and place?
                   How is society today similar to and               These are mainly individual tasks but students
                   different from those in Maycomb?                  could negotiate to work in a small group.
                  Atticus tells Scout, „You never really
                   understand a person until you consider
                   things from his point of view – until you
                   climb into his skin and walk around in it.‟
                   Is „walking around in someone else‟s
                   skin‟ a good way to understand another
                   person‟s point of view or behaviour?
                   Explain your view.

This learning sequence can be accessed through the Society and History curriculum document at www.education.tas.gov.au    8
UGs                   Learning opportunities                                  Teacher notes and assessment

2, 3,    Creating Texts                                              Teacher note:
4, 5     Students complete one or more of the following:             Provide explicit focussed teaching as required on:
                  Prepare a collage to provide a visual                      visual texts (collage, poster)
                   representation of your views on                            point of view
                                                                              argumentative and discursive essays.
                  The court scene in the book/film of To                     scripts and monologues
                   Kill a Mockingbird describes the same
                                                                              editorial cartoons
                   event from five different points of view
                   with varying objectivity and                               songs and poems
                   persuasiveness. Choose one of the
                   following situations and describe it from         Remind students to use these steps in their
                   three different points of view. This may          writing process:
                   be done as a piece of writing / play
                   script or series of monologues. If you                     planning
                   choose one of the „dramatic‟ options                       drafting
                   you will need to present it to the class                   conferencing / feedback
                   as your concluding activity.
                                                                              revising / refining
                  o    an incident in a shop where the
                       assistant believes a migrant has
                       stolen an item                                Assessment of learning
                  o    a brawl during a football game where          Develop clear assessment criteria with students
                       a racist comment is made                      for particular concluding activities. Develop
                  o    a school yard argument over the               rubrics with students to make assessment
                       special „privileges‟ received by              criteria clearer.
                       disabled students
                  o    a qualified 50 year old was not given         Assess concluding activities according to how
                       a job because of age                          well students:
                 Create an editorial cartoon that                            understand intolerance, prejudice, justice
                  expresses your opinion about justice or                      and stereotyping
                  discrimination                                              understand how competing values affect
                 Develop an original song which outlines                      ethical decision-making
                  your views on one of the issues                             create texts with a clear sense of
                                                                               audience, purpose and form
                 Write a series of poems in response to                      understand the role of context in
                  some of the issues                                           constructing and interpreting texts
                 Design a poster that helps people                           deliberately transform texts for effect
                  understand prejudice, stereotyping or
                 Negotiate an alternative with the teacher

This learning sequence can be accessed through the Society and History curriculum document at www.education.tas.gov.au   9
UGs                   Learning opportunities                                 Teacher notes and assessment

1, 3,     Design a Bill of Rights                                    Teacher note:
4, 5      Working in groups, students have the task of               Provide students with informal feedback during
          drafting ten principles that will be the basis for a       the cooperative group work. Students critique
          constitution or a Bill of Rights for a new country.        each others‟ lists of ranked principles.
          Consider what they would include. Remind them
                                                                     A learning journal and an evaluation at the end of
          to use positive language.
                                                                     the task would be useful to provide evidence to
          Students rank the principles in order of                   assess the understanding of each group member.
          importance and justify their views.
                                                                     Assessment of learning
          Students prepare a detailed written reflection             Assess students‟ ability to demonstrate through
          about their learning during the unit.                      their written reflection:
                                                                            an understanding of the unit goals
                                                                            how their thinking about discrimination,
                                                                             justice and rights has developed and

1, 2,     Independent Inquiry about a contested
3, 4, 5   idea or issue
                                                                     Teacher note:
          Students (individually or in a group) explore an
          issue where there is controversy about individual          This is an extensive task so some students will
          or group rights.                                           need more support than others.
          Students negotiate the form of the response, e.g.
          an essay, a debate, a short play script or an              Basic questions – such as „What is‟… – are useful
          interview panel to present the various points of           to structure the research so the students find
          view. The issues investigated could include the            factual information they need to help answer the
          examples of discrimination discussed earlier in            key question.
          the unit. Some other possibilities include:
               Human rights violations such as those                There needs to be an explicit discussion about
                  occurring in Tibet and Burma                       plagiarism and the importance of providing a
               The death penalty                                    bibliography. Students maintain a record of their
                                                                     sources of information as they go. See
               Civil liberties
                                                                     „Recording‟ on page 2 of „Inquiry and the
               Australia‟s immigration policy
                                                                     Research Project‟ (access from online version of
               Reconciliation                                       unit)
          Students design their own inquiry question about
          the issue.

          To formulate a key question students should                Assessment of learning
          firstly address basic questions such as:                   Establish the criteria for assessing this task.
                What is the issue? When did it begin?
                Who is involved?                                    Assess the extent to which students show an
                Are there sides to the issue? If yes, what          understanding of the issues of human rights and
                    are there any points of agreement /              discrimination through this task.
                What steps, if any, have been taken to              Provide students with clear feedback about their
                    resolve the issue?                               findings as well as their final assessment.
                Have individuals and groups been
                    affected by their lack of rights? If yes,
          Students complete their independent inquiry and
          present their findings to the class.

This learning sequence can be accessed through the Society and History curriculum document at www.education.tas.gov.au   10
  Notes to the Teacher

  This learning sequence includes a large number of possible activities. Teachers should select, adapt,
  substitute or omit sections/activities as appropriate.

  These activities provide opportunities for informal teacher assessment of student progress and peer and
  student self-assessment of ongoing group work and concluding tasks.

  Resources to support this learning sequence from the Department of Education Library and Information
  Centre (DELIC) Media Collection, available at:

  Harper, L. (1960) To Kill a Mockingbird. Harper Collins, ISBN: 0-06-019499-5
  To Kill a Mockingbird. (1962) [motion picture] Universal Pictures, USA.
  Babakiueria (1984) [video] Australia.
  Many texts could be used to explore the concept of justice, discrimination and rights e.g. novels, films,
  poems, newspaper articles, cartoons or short stories.
  See the Society and History K-10 syllabus and support materials, Secondary resources section for more
  Universal Declaration of Human Rights: http://www.un.org/Overview/rights.html [accessed 25 September,
  Amnesty International:
  http://web.amnesty.org/pages/aboutai-index-eng [accessed 25 September 2007]
  http://www.amnesty.ca/about/history/h_g.shtml. [accessed 25 September 2007]

  History and meaning of the Lady of Justice:
  http://commonlaw.com/Justice.html. [accessed 25 September 2007]
  http://www.statue.com/lady-justice-statues.html [accessed 25 September 2007]

  Background information to growing up in the 1930s in USA:
  http://www.slc.k12.ut.us/webweavers/jillc/mbird.html [accessed 25 September 2007]

  Bennett, B. and Rolheiser-Bennett, C. (1991) Co-operative learning – Where heart meets mind. Toronto,
  Educational Connections, ISBN-10: 0969538804

This learning sequence can be accessed through the Society and History curriculum document at www.education.tas.gov.au   11
  Inquiry and research
  Key questions
  Key questions require you to use your judgement and determine your own answer to the based
  on your research. Answers to key questions require sound research from more than one source.

  Initial Planning
  1. Defining the topic
         What do you already know about the question / topic?
         What do you need to know – questions, main words or underlying ideas?

  2. Basic questions
         Write down some basic questions that can help guide your research. These can be “What
          is…” questions that provide factual information to help answer the key question.
         Be prepared to refine your basic questions during your research.

  Finding Information
  1.    Where you can find information:
                  interviews                                            books
                  magazines                                             brochures
                  guest speakers                                        videos
                  internet                                              atlases
                  encyclopaedias                                        newspapers
                  magazines                                             pictures
                  diagrams                                              CD-ROMs

  2.       Check the suitability of your sources. Look for keywords in areas such as
              table of contents
              index
              chapter headings and subheadings
              diagrams, pictures
              first sentence of a paragraph
              when skimming and scanning

  1.       Keep main words and basic / key questions in mind while you work.
  2.       Read all the useful information before making notes.
  3.       Think about the information carefully. Is it relevant?
               Does it relate to your main words?
               Does it help answer your key question or basic questions?
  4.       Is the source of the information reliable?

This learning sequence can be accessed through the Society and History curriculum document at www.education.tas.gov.au   12
               Is the information from a specialist source?
               Can the information be verified by more than one source?
               Can contradictions in information be resolved by cross checking?
  5.       Consider opposing opinions on an issue.
  6.       Note down any pictures, maps, diagrams, tables etc that will be useful in answering your
           key question. Note source (and page if relevant).

  1.   Use basic questions or key words as headings for your notes. Use a different page for each
  2.       Record your sources of information as you go.
           Remember, for an internet address you need to record:
           Author‟s last name, first name. “Title of the item” [Online] Available
           http://address/filename, date of document or download.
  3.       Record only the information you need to know to answer your question.
  4.       Jot notes rather than copying out entire sections of a text. This helps avoid plagiarism.
  5.       Make sure you have sufficient information to answer the key question. If not, add some
           more basic questions and do further research.

  Organise and synthesise information
  How will you develop the answer to the question?
  1.       Plan:
               Which information should be included? Does it answer the question?
               How can I organise this information?
               List the main questions/ideas in a logical order.
               Based on the key question and your research / response, decide which product type
                would be most suitable:
                research paper                            museum display
                multimedia presentation                   assignment
                essay                                     video
                talk                                      performance
                brochure                                  newspaper article

  2.       Draft:
               Your introduction must consider the key research question.
               There should be a paragraph about each main idea. Each paragraph must have a topic
               Remember: if you quote (use someone‟s exact words), copy (use their figures or tables,
                illustrations or photos), paraphrase (use their ideas in your own words) or summarise
                (use a brief account of their ideas) – you must acknowledge the source in a footnote,
This learning sequence can be accessed through the Society and History curriculum document at www.education.tas.gov.au   13
                endnote and bibliography. Failure to do this is plagiarism and unsound research; being
                able to check sources is a fundamental requirement of research.
               Number any maps, diagrams etc and explain their relevance in your answer.
               Your conclusion should sum up your decision or plan that answers your key question.
  3.       Edit draft:
               Have you answered the key question? If you have been unable to answer it, can you
                redraft the question or provide a sound explanation as to why you cannot answer it?
               Is all the information relevant?
               Find and highlight your topic sentences. Add any that are missing.
               Read work aloud to check expression and punctuation.
  4.       Present your research
            the layout of the page/s or display
            headings? Subheadings?
            borders? Columns?
            illustrations? Pictures? Maps? Diagrams? Tables?
           Complete task ready to be handed in.
  5.       Add (if applicable)
            cover page (optional)
            table of contents
            word count
            appendix
            a bibliography.

  Evaluation – Consider a few sentences about each of the following questions:
   1. Did you organise your time effectively?
    2.   Did you find enough information?
    3.   How effective were you at selecting relevant information?
    4.   Did you record your information in note form?
    5.   Did you organise your presentation effectively?
    6.   Did you use your own words?
    7.   What did you do well?
    8.   What do you need to improve on for next time?
    9.   Were the basic questions and the key question appropriately useful or challenging?

This learning sequence can be accessed through the Society and History curriculum document at www.education.tas.gov.au   14
                       Inquiry: designing questions for research
  Devising a key question
  Once you have chosen your area of research you should focus your task with a key question – your answer
  will enable you to show your understanding of the issue being researched. This must not be a What is……?
  question that requires you to find information. These are basic questions that can help you to find the facts
  and help you answer your key question.
  A key question has no direct answer that can be found in a book or from the Internet. You have to do
  research and work out your own answer based on the information you find. You may need to undertake
  some preliminary reading before refining your focus and designing your key question. You should negotiate
  this with your teacher before beginning your research.
  Basic questions – some possibilities:
          What is the issue? When did it begin?
          Who is involved?
          Are there sides to the issue? If yes, what are there any points of agreement / disagreement? (A
           Venn diagram might be useful to show this.)
          What steps, if any, have been taken to resolve the issue?

  Note: Plagiarism means copying someone else‟s work without acknowledgment. It includes copying
  passages from print texts as well as the Internet. If you copy any section you must use quotation marks
  and a footnote; paraphrasing an idea also needs to be acknowledged by a footnote. Making brief notes
  from sources rather than copying sections helps prevent plagiarism. It is also a good idea to write down
  details of all sources as you go (including page numbers or dates of accessing sites etc) so you can
  accurately acknowledge sources in footnotes and include a detailed bibliography.

  You may choose to present your research as a report or essay or negotiate an alternative that will show
  how effectively you can gather, interpret, organise and analyse the key question.
  The presentation should include: maps, graphs, statistical data, flow charts, timelines, etc as appropriate.

  Assessment will be based on:
     Use of an appropriate key question
     Accuracy of research
     Use of a variety of primary and secondary resources
     Originality – absence of plagiarism and acknowledgement of all sources of information.
     Bibliography (see separate sheet)
     Understanding of the issues, values and attitudes
     Using evidence and information to create an effective argument or opinion
     Logical organisation and structure
     Effective communication of ideas
     Use of maps, statistical data, graphs, tables, flow charts, timelines etc as appropriate

This learning sequence can be accessed through the Society and History curriculum document at www.education.tas.gov.au   15
  Appendix 1

                                                                    Opinionaire: What Is justice?

  In the first column, please indicate your own opinion: do you agree (A) or disagree (D) with the statement. In the following columns, record the
  answers of three other students from a different class (You could do this in Home group), a staff member and a parent

                                                                                You         Student 1       Student 2    Student 3    A staff   A parent       Total
                                                                                                                                                           A           D

       The most important thing you can do in a family is

       A child learns more from personal experience than
       being told.

       The knowledge of the older generation is no longer
       relevant today.

       Girls are treated less fairly than boys in our society.

       Reconciliation should mean saying sorry to Aborigines
       for past injustices.

This learning sequence can be accessed through the Society and History curriculum document at www.education.tas.gov.au                                            16

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