Vocabulary by mikesanye

VIEWS: 9 PAGES: 33

									               Vocabulary
• Revolution: change
               Modern Science
• Changed world view
  – Precise knowledge of the physical world, based on
    experimental observations with math
  – Math became a primary subject among educated
     • 1700s
• Long term importance
  – Known as the real beginning of:
     • Modern world
     • Modern mentality
• Scientific Revolution affected the West
      Scientific Thought in 1500
Aristotle’s ideas
  – Greek philosopher – 4th century
  – Motionless earth fixed at center of the Universe
  – 10 Separate spheres moved around the Earth
     • Spheres 1- 8
        –   Moon
        –   Sun
        –   5 known planets
        –   Fixed stars
     • Middle ages spheres 9-10 added
        – Account for slight changes in position of the stars over the centuries
     • Beyond 10th sphere
        – heavens, Gods Throne, Souls of the saved
        – Angeles kept spheres moving in perfect circles
Aristotle
• Aristotle’s View dominated
  thinking
  – Physics
  – Motion on Earth
• Celestial (heavens) Spheres different
  from the Sub lunar (sun/moon) spheres
  – Celestial sphere were perfect
  – Sub lunar spheres made up with four
    imperfect changeable elements
     • Light elements = air and fire
     • Heavy elements = water and earth
     • Elements motions could be
       affected by humans
 Aristotle's ideas accepted for
            2000 Yrs.
• Explained with the eyes saw
• Aristotle's view fits with the Christian
  doctrines
  – Establishes home for god
  – Establishes home for saved souls
  – Made humans center of universe
  – Aristotle’s view reinforced religious thought
                         Ptolemy (tall – 0 –ME)
•   Before Aristotle and Copernicus
•   Last greatest ancient astronomer
•   Lived in Alexandria in 2nd century
•   Achievement
    – Explain the minor irregularities in the movement of the
      planets
    – Planets traveled in a smaller orbit within a larger orbit
      around the earth
       • Allowed stargazers to track planets with greater precision
       • Changing relationship between planets determined the feature
          – Horoscopes
Ptolemy
   Copernican Hypothesis 1473-1543
• Polish clergyman
  – Studied church law and astronomy
  – Disagreed with Ptolemy
     • Challenged the Geocentric theory
        – Earth not the center of universe,
     • Heliocentric theory = Sun center of Universe
  – Theorized
     • Mathematical and speculation consideration not to get church
       mad
     • Stars and planets including earth revolved around a fixed sun
     • Cautious
        – Did not publish his theory or On the Revolution of the Heavens Spheres,
          until they year he died = 1543
            » Afraid of being ridiculed
 Consequences of Copernicus Theory
Scientific Consequences:
• Challenged the geocentric theory with his
  heliocentric theory
• Stars movement = result of earths rotation
• Destroyed reason to believe in crystal spheres
  capable of moving the stars around the earth.
• Suggested a universe of staggering size
Copernicus
• Earth was just another planet
  – Not the center of the universe
  – Destroyed Aristotle's physics
     •   Earth was different from heavens
     •   Now earth was the same as the heavens
     •   Reduced the importance of Earth
     •   Took heaven off the map
             Religious attacks
• Protestant Reaction
  – Martin Luther
  – John Calvin
     • Condemned Copernicus
• Catholic Reaction
  – Declared Copernicus hypothesis false
       Tycho Brahe 1546-1601                     (Tie-co bra)



• Agreed with Copernicus
• Born in Denmark
• Discovered a new star in 1572
  – Built observatory of his day
• Greatest contribution was his Massive Data
  – Limited math prevented him from making sense of his
    data
  – Believed
     • All the planets revolved around the sun
     • The sun and planets revolved around the earth
Tycho Brahe
        Johannes Kepler 1571-1630
                       (Jo-han-ez kep-ler)

• Brahe’s assistant
• Believed universe was built on mathematical
  relationship
• Formulated three famous laws of planetary
  motions.
  – Orbits of the planets around the sun are elliptical (Oval
    shape) rather then circular
  – Planets speed increases as it gets closer to the sun and
    slows down as it moves further away from the sun
  – Time a planet takes to make a complete orbit is related
    to its distance from the sun.
• Copernicus speculated
• Kepler proved theory mathematically
  – precise relation of a sun-centered solar system
  – Demolished Ptolemy and Aristotle’s old system
  – 3rd law almost proved the law of universal
    gravitation
Johannes
  Kepler
          Galileo Galilei 1564-1642
                          (Gal-e-leo gal-i-lay)


• Professor of Mathematics (1589)
• Challenged all old ideas about motions
• Greatest Achievement
  – Elaboration and consolidation of the Experimental
    Method
     • Instead of speculating what might happen
     • Experimented what DID happen
     • Gravity produced acceleration of movement
  – Law of inertia
     • Rest was not natural state of objects
     • Instead object continues in motion forever unless stopped by
       external force
Galileo Galilei
• Applied the experimental method to
  astronomy
• Created own Telescope
  – Discovered
     • 4 moons of Jupiter
     • Sun had sunspots
     • speculated moon surface not smooth or spherical,
       but full of inequalities
     • Planets not embedded in crystal spheres
     • Heaven and earth nor made of different matter
        – Supported Copernicus theory
                               Religion
• Started to give way to Science
• Pope Urban VIII allowed Galileo to write
  – Possible systems of the world as long as he did not
    prejudge which one actually existed.
     •   Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World 1632
     •   Disagreed with Aristotle and Ptolemy
     •   Defended Copernicus
     •   Written in a arrogant manner = Got Church MAD
          – Tried for Hersey during the papal Inquisition
          – Imprisoned and threatened with torture
          – Recanted
     • Trial will be the symbol of conflict between religion and
       conflict.
         Issac Newton 1642-1727
• English
• Untied the experimental and theoretical-
  mathematical sides of modern science
• Mathematical Principals of Natural Philosophy
  – Principia
  – Demonstrate “the frame of the System of the World”
     • Laid foundation to physics
  – 3 Laws concerning motion
     • Law of Universal Gravitation
        – Every body in the universe attacks every other body in the universe
          in a precise mathematical relationship
        – Keeps the planets in orbit
Sir Issac
Newton
              Causes of Scientific
                  Revolution
                  Long-term Causes
• Medieval Ages
  contributed                          • Navigation problems
  – Permanent Universities               – First European navigational
                                           manual
     • Professors
                                              • Helps captains chart positions
     • Student Bodies
                                                more accurately
         – Lawyers
                                                  – Reliable maps
         – Doctors
                                                  – Reduce risk of international
         – Church leaders                           trade
     • Great path leaders studied or
       taught at universities          • Developed new scientific
• Renaissance recovery                   instruments
                                         –   Telescope, Barometer
  – Greek Mathematics
                                         –   Thermometer, Pendulum
     • Improved European math
                                         –    air pump, Clock, microscope
  – Patronage of wealthy                 –   Accurate observations led to new
     • Supported scientific                  knowledge.
      Francis Bacon / 1561-1626
• English politician and writer
• New Knowledge had to be
  pursued by experimental
  research
• Contribution:
   – Formalize the empirical
     method
   – General theory of inductive
     reasoning = Empiricism
     (experiments)
   – Result in highly practical
     useful knowledge
   – Make nations $$$ & powerful
          Rene Descartes / 1596-1650
• French Philosopher
• Math
  – Geometrical, spatial figures
    could be expressed as
    algebraic equations and vice
    versa
• Greatest Achievement
  – Develop his vision into a
    whole philosophy of
    knowledge and science
  – Doubt everything, use
    deductive reasoning from
    self-evident principles to
    obtain scientific laws.
  – Cartesian Dualism
                    Religious Causes
All religions below Opposed Copernican System until 1630
• Catholics
– Less hostile
– After the counter-Reformation
      • Science died in Italy
      • France it survived
• Protestants
– Denmark
– Netherlands
– Supported of science, not United no religion influence to
  create barrier
• Jewish
                    Religion
• Eventually Religion played less of influence in
  science
  – Unable to enforce religious unity
   Causes of Scientific Revolution
• International Scientific Community
  – Linked together by common interest and shared
    values
     • Expansion of knowledge = primary goal of this
       community
     • rewards depended on their success = Science be came
       competitive causing scientific advancement inevitable
• Modern Scientific Method
  – Introduced new knowledge about nature
  – New way to obtain new knowledge
     • Theoretical and experimental
Consequences of Scientific Revolution
 • Few Consequences for:
   – Living standards
   – Economic Life
 • Scientific revolution
   – Intellectual revolution

								
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