Formative Assessment Strategies - PowerPoint

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					Formative Assessment
      Workshop at Qatar University
                  April 27-28, 2009
                Dr. Karma El Hassan
                        OIRA, AUB.
Outline
• Assessment for Learning
• Purposes of Assessment
• Principles and uses of formative assessment
    Definition
    Steps & cycle
    Key features
• Role of effective feedback
• Formative assessment
  tools/techniques/strategies.
• Classroom assessment techniques (CATs).
• Use of formative assessment results for
  improvement
                                                2
Assessment for Learning
• A process of collecting information and data to
    Provide feedback for instructors to
         improve teaching methods
         evaluate extent of attainment of goals/objectives
         determine extent of student learning
         Measure efficacy of teaching methods
    Provide feedback to students on
       extent of their learning
    Provide students with
       Grades
       Motivation
       Ability to diagnose their strengths & weaknesses



                                                              3
Curriculum, Instruction, Assessment

• The three primary components of any course
  are
    the curriculum (the "content"),
    the instructional methods used to deliver the
     curriculum, and
    the assessment techniques with which our
     success in attaining course goals is evaluated
• These three components are bound together by
  the goals set for the course.
• The importance of setting course goals--
  articulating them and writing them down--
  cannot be overstated

                                                      4
Course Development Road Map
               Course Development
                     Formalize
                        
                    Course Goals

                    Refine  into

                     Measurable
                      Student
                     Outcomes
                           Assign
                  Level of Expertise
                        Select


 Curriculum                            CATs
                 Design  & deliver
              Instructional Methods


                         Conduct

                    Assessment
                                              5
Course Development Road Map
• Formalize course goals, then "directions" are as
  follows:
    translate goals into Measurable Student
     Outcomes
    determine Levels of Expertise required to
     achieve outcomes
    select both Curriculum and Classroom
     Assessment Techniques
    choose and implement Instructional Methods
    conduct Assessment and evaluate--were
     measurable student outcomes realized?
    Use results to provide feedback to students and
     to improve learning


                                                       6
Characteristics of Effective
Assessment in Higher Education               (Angelo
& Cross, 1993)

• Focuses on the processes as well as on the
  products of instruction.
• Assesses what we teach – and what we expect
  students to learn.
• Actively involves both teachers and students.
• Uses multiple and varied measures.
• Provides information for improving learning.
• Is carried out at various key points.

• Provides useful, timely feedback

• Is an intrinsically educational activity
                                                       7
Purposes of Assessment

• Educational assessments serve following
  purposes:
    To support learning (formative)
    To certify achievements of learners (summative)
    To diagnose learning difficulties
    To evaluate quality of programs, curricula,
     institutions, etc.




                                                       8
  Characteristics of Formative and
  Summative Classroom Assessment

Characteristics             Formative                                    Summative
Purpose                     Provide ongoing feedback to improve learning Document student at the end of an
                                                                         instructional segment
When Conducted              During instruction                           After instruction
Student Involvment          Encouraged                                   Discouraged
Student Motivation          Intrinsic,mastery-oriented                   Extrinsic,performance-oriented
Teacher Role                To provide immediate,specific feedback       To measure student learning and
                            and instructional correctives                give grades
Cognitive Levels Emphasized Deep understanding,application,and reasoning Knowledge and comprehension
Level of Specificity        Highly specific and individual               General and group-oriented
Structure                   Flexible,adaptable                           Rigid,highly structured
Assessment Techniques       Informal                                     Formal
Effect on Learning          Strong,positive,and longlasting              Weak and fleeting


                                                                                                  9
Formative Assessment

• Set of skills and activities undertaken by
  instructors to provide feedback to students to
  enhance their motivation and learning.
• Formative assessment helps support the
  expectation that all children can learn to high
  levels and counteracts the cycle in which
  students attribute poor performance to lack of
  ability and therefore become discouraged and
  unwilling to invest in further learning.
• Promotes a culture of success not clouded by
  talk about ability, competition, and comparison
  with others.
                                                    10
Formative Assessment Steps
• Formative assessment involves establishing
    Where learners are in their learning.
     Engineering effective
       Classroom discussions
       Tasks
   To elicit evidence of learning.
    Where they are going. Clarifying
       learning intentions
       Criteria for success
    What needs to be done to get there.
       Identifying gap
       Providing feedback that moves learners forward.
       Make necessary instructional adjustments

                                                          11
Formative Assessment Cycle



 Feedback to Students
                                               Instructional Correctives
   Immediate
                                                   Next Steps
   Specific
                                                   Student Activities



                   Evaluations of Student Progress
                      Informal Observation
                      Questioning
                      Student Self-Evaluations
                      Peer Evaluations




                                                                       12
Key Features of Formative
Assessment
• Blends assessment and instruction, therefore
  assessment for learning.
• Linked to a learning progression that clearly articulates
  the sub goals of the ultimate learning goal.
• Essential components include:
    Clear targets and criteria for success
    High quality feedback linked to goals & criteria for
     success
    Ongoing interaction with students regarding learning
     goals, outcomes, achievement, and adjustment in
     learning activities.
    Student engagement in self- and peer-assessment.
        • In self-assessment, students monitor their own learning
          against criteria
        • In peer-assessment, students analyze each other’s
          performance against the criteria and provide
          constructive feedback to each other. Act as Instructional
          resources for one another.
     Use of results to adjust teaching                          13
Effective Feedback
• Feedback given as part of formative assessment helps
  learners
    become aware of any gaps that exist between their
      desired goal and their current knowledge, understanding,
      or skill and
    guides them through actions necessary to obtain the
      goal .
• Most helpful type of feedback
    Is linked to learning outcomes & criteria for success
    Focuses on task not the student
    provides specific comments about errors
    provides specific suggestions for improvement, and
    encourages students to focus their attention thoughtfully
     on the task, the process, and learning strategies rather
     than on simply getting the right answer.
                                                          14
Effective Feedback
•   Use reflective non-evaluative descriptive
    feedback that
       Is immediate
       gives details of why answers are correct or wrong.
       tells learner what has been achieved,
       specifies a better way of doing something,
       provides prompts to enable improvements
       gets learner to suggest ways to improve.
       describes /demonstrates acceptable performance
       Identifies strengths & weaknesses (vs. like/dislike)
       Is tailored to particular student
•   Feedback can be public or private, oral or written.

                                                        15
Effective Feedback

• “Formative assessment does make a difference
  and it is the quality, not just the quantity, of
  feedback that merits attention. By quality of
  feedback, we have to understand not just the
  technical structure of feedback (accuracy,
  comprehensiveness, appropriateness) but also
  its accessibility to the learner (as a
  communication), its catalytic and coaching
  value, and its ability to inspire confidence and
  hope”.
                        Black and William (1998).


                                                16
Formative Assessment Techniques

•   Main means of conducting FA:
      teacher observation
      classroom questions and discussion
      analysis of tests and homework
      Assignments, projects, games & simulations,
       interviews/conferencing.
•   Choice of tasks for classroom work and homework is important.
      Justified in terms of the learning aims that they serve,
      Novel and varied in interest, offer reasonable challenge,
       help students develop short-term self-referenced goals,
       focus on meaningful aspects of learning.
      Best work when opportunities for pupils to communicate
       their evolving understanding are built into the planning.
      This will initiate the interaction through which formative
       assessment aids learning.

                                                               17
FA Strategies

• Invite students to discuss their thinking about a question or
  topic in pairs or small groups, then ask a representative to
  share the thinking with the larger group (sometimes called
  think-pair-share).
• Present several possible answers to a question, then ask
  students to vote on them.
• Ask all students to write down an answer, then read a
  selected few out loud.
 Have students write their understanding of concepts
  before and after instruction.
• Ask students to summarize the main ideas they've taken
  away from a lecture, discussion, or assigned reading.


                                                           18
FA Strategies
• Have students complete a few questions at the end of
  instruction and check answers.
• Interview students individually or in groups about their
  thinking as they analyze cases.
• Assign brief, in-class writing assignments.
•   Frequent short tests are better than infrequent long
    ones.
• New learning should be tested within about a week of first
  exposure.
• Portfolios may be used to analyze growth and progress
  over time.



                                                             19
Questioning as FA
• Ask questions that require students to think, explain, and
  justify their answers and not those involving factual
  information.
• Allow ‘wait’ time after asking question giving students
  time to respond and to think.
• Try to involve all of learners in response (refer to previous
  strategies)
• Some examples of questioning level
    Is it always true.....?
    How many different ways can you find to ...?
    What is same and what is different about ....?
    What is wrong with this statement?
    What other information is needed to solve this
     problem?



                                                             20
Classroom Assessment Techniques
(CATS)
• CATs are generally simple, non-graded, in-class activities
  designed to give instructor and students useful feedback
  on the teaching-learning process as it is happening.
• A good strategy for using CATs is the following:
    Decide what you want to assess about your students’
     learning from a CAT.
    Choose a CAT that provides this feedback, and can
     be implemented easily in your class.
    Explain the purpose of the activity to students, and
     then conduct it.
    After class, review the results, determine what they
     tell you about your students’ learning, and decide
     what changes to make, if any.
    Let your students know what you learned from the
     CAT and how you will use this information.

                                                          21
Variations of CATs

1. Background Knowledge Probe
2. Minute paper
3. Muddiest point.
4. Retellings and/or one-sentence summary
5. Pros and con lists
6. Think pair share
7. Response chaining




                                            22
1. Background Knowledge Probe
• A sort, simple questionnaire given to students
  at the start of a course, or before introduction of
  a new unit, lesson, or topic.
• A few focused questions about concepts
  students need to know to succeed in a course.
• It is designed to uncover students’ pre-
  conceptions.
• Data can be helpful in planning subsequent
  sessions and in identifying supplementary
  resources or assistance that might be needed.
• A variation is misperception check.

                                                    23
2. Minute Paper
• The instructor simply stops class two or three
  minutes early and asks students to respond
  briefly to the following two questions:
    "What was the most important thing you learned
    during this class" and
    "What important question remains unanswered
    for you?"
• A quick and extremely easy way to collect
  information on what students have learned
  though focusing mostly on recall.
• Helps students focus more effectively during
  lectures, if used repeatedly.

                                                   24
3. Muddiest Point

• A simple and quick CAT to assess where
  students are having difficulties.
• Asking students to jot down a quick response to
  one question:
    What was the muddiest (most unclear, most
     confusing) point in the lecture, reading,
     assignment, etc.?
• Instructor can make use of responses
    to focus next class session and
    To identify which points to emphasize



                                                 25
    4. Retellings and/or One-sentence
    Summary
• Retellings are new accounts or adaptations of a
  text that allow students to consider information
  and then summarize, orally, what they
  understand about this information.
• Elements in retelling:
      Key Ideas
      Details
      Sequence
      Conclusion
      Delivery




                                                 26
4. Retellings and/or One-sentence
Summary
• Students are asked to summarize a large
  amount of information into a one-sentence
  summary
• Quick and easy way to assess students’ ability
    to organize information
    summarize their understanding
    Express ideas in their own language




                                                   27
5. Pros and Con Lists


• Students create a list of pro and con outcomes
  to a question or situation presented by the
  instructor.
• Students demonstrate depth of knowledge by
  identifying two sides of an issue.
• Helps students develop analytical skills and
  Promotes higher-order thinking
• Particularly useful in humanities, social science,
  or in applied fields where multiple solutions to
  problems are possible.


                                                   28
6. Think Pair Share


•   Think-Pair-Share and Write-Pair-Share
•   Think or write about your answer individually.
•   Pair with a partner and discuss your answers.
•   Share your answer (or your partner’s answer)
    when called upon




                                                     29
7. Response Chaining
• Response chaining begins by asking a question to which
  a specific student responds.
• The instructor then asks the class as a whole to vote
  regarding the accuracy of the student’s response using
  three options:
   Correct, Partially Correct, or Incorrect.
• The instructor selects a student who has voted correctly.
• If the original student’s response was incorrect, the
  instructor asks the newly selected student to make the
  necessary corrections in the first student’s response.
• If the original response was partially correct, the
  instructor asks the newly selected student to identify what
  was correct about the response and what was incorrect
  and provide the missing correct information
                                                           30
Use of Formative Assessment Data

• Once you have collected the students' responses, sort
  and analyze the data.
• Look for any patterns. What is the most common
  response?
• Identify where students are in the learning goals’
  progression, and that indicates NEXT STEPS.
• Share at least some part of that analysis with your
  students.
• Initiate instructional adjustments like
    Reteaching and scaffolding
    Trying alternative instructional approaches
    Offering more opportunities for practice & extending
       experience
    Promoting dialogue, communication and reflection.


                                                            31
Last Thoughts
•   Implementing formative assessment requires fundamental
    changes & presents a challenge.
•   Two basic issues: Nature of teacher’s beliefs
      about learning
      About potential of students’ abilities
•   Improving formative assessment would impact several essential
    elements:
      the quality of teacher/pupil interactions,
      help for pupils to take active responsibility for their own
        learning,
      the particular help needed to move pupils out of the trap of
        "low achievement," and
      the development of the habits necessary for all students to
        become lifelong learners
•   Avoid the only real danger in classroom assessment--too much
    data and not enough time or experience to know what to do with
    those data.


                                                                 32

				
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