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Pesticide                                                                                    Key to Pesticide Safety
Label                                                                                           and Education
April–June 2009
                                                                                       Bars All-Weather Rat & Mouse Killer (HAACO;
                                                                                       EPA Reg. No. 61282-26)—requires having a copy
             TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                         of HI-980005, valid 6/9/2008–6/8/2013—some
                                                                                       notes: • For use by or in cooperation with
                                                                                       government conservation agencies only. Use only in
Regulatory Updates ........................................1                           tamper resistant bait stations. Obtain approval prior
Invasive Snails and Slugs of Hawaii                                                    to use.     Sign-posting, reporting, and disposal
                                                                                       required as specified.
(recertification) ........................................ 2
Colony Collapse Disorder .......................... 6                                  For growers of pineapple (non-bearing)—use of the
                                                                                       pesticide Lorsban® Advanced (Dow AgroSciences;
Temperature Effects on Storage of                                                      EPA Reg. No. 62719-591)—requires having a copy
 Greenhouse, Ornamental and Turf                                                       of HI-090001, valid 3/30/2009–3/29/2014—some
 Pesticides (recertification) ........................9                                notes: • Do not apply within 365 days of harvest. •
End of Organic Arsenicals ....................... 12                                   Do not use any plant material from treated fields for
                                                                                       food or feed within one year of application. • Do not
Note Board .............................................. 13                           apply to ratoon crops. • Do not make more than 3
Previous Recertification Articles .............. 15                                    applications per plant crop. • Do not make
                                                                                       applications beyond 3 months after planting. • Do
The Pesticide Label Archives .................. 15                                     not make a second application of this product or any
                                                                                       other products containing chlorpyrifos within 30
                                                                                       days of the first application. • Do not apply more
                                                                                       than 12 pints per year or more than 4 pints per single
                                                                                       application. • Do not enter or allow worker entry
                                                                                       into treated areas during the restricted entry interval
                                                                                       of 24 hours unless PPE required for early entry is
Special Local Needs (SLN)                                                              worn. • Do not apply this product or allow it to drift
                                                                                       to blooming crops or weeds if bees are actively
NEW PRODUCT                                                                            visiting the treatment area. • This is a restricted use
For managers of forests, offshore islands, and other
                                                                                       pesticide. • This is an agricultural use pesticide and
areas to protect native and endangered Hawaiian
                                                                                       so the Worker Protection Standard applies.
plants and animals—use of the pesticide Ramik Mini

RESOURCES, 3050 MAILE WAY, HONOLULU, HAWAII 96822. The UH-CTAHR Cooperative Extension Service and the U.S. Department of
Agriculture cooperate in presenting t the people of Hawaii programs and services without regard to race, sex, age, religion, color, national origin, ancestry,
disability, marital status, arrest and court record, sexual orientation, or veteran status. The University is an equal opportunity, affirmative action institution.
                                                                Since 1850, 59 land and 22 freshwater species of
SLNs Expired or Expiring Soon                                   alien snails and slugs have become established in the
                                                                Hawaiian Islands1. Some were
For managers of irrigation systems (drip/trickle,               introduced accidentally, others
sprinkler) for agricultural crops—use of the                    for the aquarium industry, for
product Accu Tab® SI Calcium Hypochlorite                       aesthetic       purposes,      as
Tablets (PPG Industries, Inc.; 748 295)—permitted               biological control agents, or as
by the labeling HI 030008—is not allowed on or                  potential food sources. Some
after the expiration date 6/18/2008.                            are a serious threat to Hawaii’s
                                                                native snail populations. At one
                        ‫ﺾﺾﺾ‬                                     time the Hawaiian Islands had
                                                                over 750 native land snail
                                                                species. It is estimated that 75
                                                                to 90% of these species are
   RECERTIFICATION CREDITS may be earned by                     now extinct, however, in part sowerbyana, the
   certified applicators that score at least 70% on the set     due      to    destruction     or endangered
   of comprehension evaluation questions about the                                                 Oahu tree snail
   "recertification" articles in this newsletter. These         modification of the natural (pupu kuahiwi)
   articles have a title which ends with "(recertification)".   habitat,     predation     and/or
   However, credits may not necessarily be applicable for       competition from alien snails and slugs3. This article
   the following categories: Private 2, Private 3,
                                                                discusses general snail and slug biology, lists some
   Commercial 7f, and Commercial 11. The question sets
   (quizzes) are written and administered by the Hawaii         of the most damaging alien snails and slugs in
   Department of Agriculture (HDOA) staff. Ask about            Hawaii and suggests approaches to managing their
   earning recertification credits at one of these HDOA         populations.
   offices: Kauai 274-3069, Oahu 973-9424/9409, Maui
   873-3960, Hawaii 974-4143. The area code for all
   offices is 808.                                              General Snail and Slug Biology

                        ‫ﺾﺾﺾ‬                                     Snails and slugs are gastropods (class Gastropoda) in
                                                                the phylum Mollusca. With about 70,000 members,
INVASIVE SNAILS AND SLUGS OF                                    they are second only to insects in total number of
                                                                identified species. The gastropods also include
     HAWAII (recertification)                                   freshwater and marine snails, sea slugs and
Hawaii’s central location in the Pacific makes it an
                                                                                                      Adult     snails
ideal target for alien (exotic, non-native) organisms.
                                                                                                      have     coiled
Many of these species never become established, or
                                                                                                      shells, whereas
they remain virtually unknown. Others turn into
                                                                                                      most slugs are
pests, invading farms, gardens, buildings and natural
                                                                                                      without shells.
habitats. Some of the better known invasive species
in Hawaii include the Norway rat, coqui frog,
erythrina gall wasp, Formosan subterranean termite,
                                                                                                      allows slugs to
strawberry guava and the O'hia rust fungus. With a
                                                                inhabit places a large snail with its bulky shell
few exceptions, snails and slugs are not on the top of
                                                                cannot fit, such as under pieces of rock or wood.
most peoples’ pest list.
                                                                Most land snails and slugs breathe with a lung, while
                                                                most marine snails have gills. They move by sliding
                                                                on mucus secreted from a muscular foot. The mucus

The Pesticide Label                                                                                         2
reduces friction and protects the foot from injury—          cantonensis. Snail populations may remain at
they can move over a razor blade without harm.               low levels or increase dramatically, littering
When the mucus dries, it forms the familiar slime            streets and walkways or covering vertical
trail. The organs of snails and slugs are grouped            structures. With a host range of over 500 plants,
together within their bodies and protected by a              including native Hawaiian species, the African
specialized outer structure called a mantle. The
mantle of snails forms the shell by secreting
calcium; as the snail grows so does its shell. Most
land snails have two sets of retractable tentacles, the
upper tipped with eyes, the lower with organs for
smell. Snails and slugs feed mainly at night on living
and dead plants, though some are predators (see              snail can modify natural habitats and probably
below).                                                      out-compete native snails2. Predatory snails
                                                             introduced for biological control of African
Most land snails and slugs are hermaphrodites,               snails (see below), have become a more serious
producing both sperm and ova. Many still mate,               threat to native species than the African snail
however, exchanging sperm with their partner. After          itself.
mating, both partners can produce eggs. The lifespan
and timing of reproductive events vary among              Asian tramp or small garden snail (Bradybaena
species. For example, the giant African snail                similaris). The small garden snail was probably
(Achatina fulica) lives 5 to 7 years and can lay a           introduced accidentally. It is a pest in gardens
clutch of 200 eggs, 5 to 6 times per year. The apple         and greenhouses, feeding on a wide variety of
snail (Pomacea canaliculata) can lay 100-600 eggs            plants, including citrus1.
in a clutch and 1 to 3 clutches per week, and has a
lifespan of 4 to 6 years. Reproduction and lifespan       Rosy wolf snail (Euglandina rosea). The rosy wolf
also vary among native Hawaiian snails. Some                 snail is a predator and the most widely
species reach reproductive maturity in less than a
year but may only live a few years. Others do not
reach reproductive maturity for 5 to 7 years but can
live almost 20 years11. Reproduction among slug
species is similar to that of snails, with life
expectancy ranging from 1 to 6 years. Natural
predators of snails and slugs include birds, frogs,
rats, toads and some insects.
                                                             introduced snail in the Pacific for the biological
Invasive Snails                                              control of the giant African snail. Its
                                                             effectiveness is suspect, however, and it is a
Giant African snail (Achatina fulica). This species          major predator of native snails, endangering the
   was introduced from Japan both by accident, and           survival of many Hawaiian species. The rosy
   intentionally as a food source and for aesthetic          wolf snail will climb trees in search of its prey,
   and medicinal purposes. The African snail is              so is a threat not only to ground-dwelling
   present on many Pacific islands and is an                 species but also to native tree snails, especially
   agricultural and garden pest as well as a public          those with slow reproductive habits3.
   nuisance. It is also a vector of the human
   parasitic       nematode,       Angiostrongylus

The Pesticide Label                                                                                  3
Cannibal snail (Gonaxis kibweziensis). This is the           food but escaped, or was released, and is now a
   second most widely introduced predatory                   major pest of wetland taro. This species
   species for control of the giant African snail.           reproduces quickly and poses a threat to native
   Because of its small size, however, it is only            aquatic vegetation in natural wetlands2.
   able to attack smaller African snails. It appears
   to live and feed on the ground, but its effects on    Orchid snail (Zonitoides arboreus). This blue-gray
   the ground-dwelling native snail population has          snail has a brownish shell and is only about 3-4
   not been documented. Its small size could lead           mm (up to about ¼ inch) in diameter. It was
   to more accidental introductions than larger snail       probably introduced accidentally from the
   species2.                                                Americas in potted orchids and has been in
                                                            Hawaii since the 1920s. The snail feeds on roots
Carnivorous snail (Gonaxis quadrilateralis).                growing from the base of orchids, making the
   Larger than the cannibal snail (G. kibweziensis),        plants unstable and unsalable. In a 1999 survey8,
   the carnivorous snail has been the third choice          44% of 64 Hawaii orchid growers reported the
   for controlling the African snail. As with G.            orchid snail as a problem costing an annual
   kibweziensis, it may present a danger to ground-         average of $503 to control and $5,708 in lost
   dwelling native snails2.                                 sales. There are no reports of the orchid snail
                                                            threatening native ecosystems. Their numbers
Brown garden snail (Helix aspera). This is a close          have increased during the 1990s, probably due
   relative of the traditional escargot (Helix              to the growth of the orchid industry2.
   pomatia) usually served in restaurants. The
   brown garden snail, also called l’escargot petit      Invasive Slugs
   gris (French = little gray snail), was introduced
   into Hawaii as a food source. It is an important      Two-stripe slug (Veronicella cubensis). The two-
   pest in many parts of the world, but does not            stripe slug was first reported on Oahu in 1985.
   thrive in the wet tropics. It is well-suited to the      Its name can be misleading, however, and it can
   drier areas of Hawaii, however, and has become           be difficult to identify. Until recently, for
   a major garden pest. Under the right conditions          example, the two-stripe slug has been mistaken
   it can reach high population levels2.                    for the brown slug, Vaginulus plebeius (Cowie,
                                                            personal communication). It may be light- or
Golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata). These            dark-brown and have two stripes on its back, but
   are large snails with yellow-green shells
   resembling apples, thus the name apple snail
   (Latin, pomum = apple). The golden apple snail
   is used in some countries as a food source for
                                  humans. Other
                                  species        of
                                  Pomacea have
                                                            the stripes can be either solid or look like spots.
                                  been introduced
                                                            Other members of the species may have a lighter
                                  to control fresh-
                                                            single stripe, or they may be white (albino). It
                                  water     weeds.
                                                            was probably introduced accidentally and can
                                  The apple snail
                                                            cause severe damage to ornamental and
                                  was brought to
                                                            agricultural plants, including taro (J Haw Pac
                                  Hawaii in 1989
                                                            Agric 9: 1-6). Two-stripe slugs are also vectors
                                  as a specialty
                                                            of the Angiostrongylus cantonensis nematode

The Pesticide Label                                                                                  4
    which causes meningeal encephalitis in humans.        Educating the people of Hawaii about the potential
    Ingestion is usually from uncooked vegetable          impacts of invasive species, however, could increase
    leaves harboring the slug, or food dishes in          the success of quarantine efforts.
    which the slug is only partially cooked. Even the
    slime trail of the two-stripe slug may contain        Eradicating a newly introduced species is possible if
    living nematodes10.                                   it is identified and contained early. Success in
                                                          eradicating the giant African snail on the islands of
Semi-slug (Parmarion cf. martensi). This slug has         Tuvalu and Kosrae and the freshwater snail Pila
  a flat, teaspoon-shaped partial shell and was first     conica on Palau have been reported4. However,
  reported on Oahu in 1996 and Hawaii Island in           eradication from even small areas (less than 1 km2)
  2004. Its identification has yet to be confirmed,       has met with short-lived success once snail or slug
                                                          populations have become established.

                                                          Controlling snail or slug pest populations is possible
                                                          on a small scale using some these suggestions:

                                                              •   Eliminate daytime hiding places under
                                                                  boards and rocks, litter, groundcover, etc.
                                                              •   Reduce humidity and wet surfaces by
    but it looks similar to the species P. martensi,
                                                                  controlling watering.
    hence the name P. cf. martensi (cf., meaning              •   Routinely handpick the pests from small
    compare, refers to this similarity). This semi-               areas; wear a rubber glove and drop them
    slug is not as much of a garden pest as the two-              into soapy water or a plastic bag.
    stripe slug, though it has been found on lettuce          •   Place traps (small flat boards, tarps, etc.)
    and papaya fruits. It has a tendency to climb and             around the area then collect and destroy the
    will seek out rich food sources, including bird               pests they attract.
    food and pet food. The semi-slug also carries the         •   Exclude pests from small areas with barriers
                                                                  of copper flashing or copper screen at least 6
    A. cantonensis nematode. In a survey of semi-
                                                                  inches high; copper reacts with slime,
    slugs and two-stripe slugs (about 75 of each)                 creating an electric charge.
    collected on the island of Hawaii, 75% of the             •   Apply copper sulfate to plant stems, pots,
    semi-slugs carried A. cantonensis, while only                 planter boxes; it can repel snails and slugs
    25% of the two-stripe slugs were infected2. The               for up to one year.
    climbing behavior of semi-slugs makes it easier           •   Caffeine at concentrations of 1 to 2% were
    for them to come into contact with people and                 effective in tests against the orchid snail and
    transmit disease. A greater danger, however, is               two-stripe slug7
                                                              •   Domestic fowl, such as chickens or ducks,
    semi-slugs crawling into a water supply and
                                                                  penned in target areas will eat the snails and
    releasing their nematodes.                                    slugs (as well as plant seedlings!).
                                                              •   Chemical baits: 1) wet area to encourage
Management of Snails and Slugs                                    pest activity; 2) apply bait in late afternoon
                                                                  or evening; 3) apply in strips where snails
As with all exotic species, the best way to control               reside, or between sheltered areas and target
snails and slugs is by exclusion—preventing their                 areas;     4)    pesticides    used     include
initial entry into the country or into an area. This is           metaldehyde, methiocarb and iron phosphate
usually attempted through government quarantine                   (read labeling for directions, including
programs, which are expensive and far from perfect.               toxicity to pets and the environment)
                                                              •   Baits are most effective if used with some of
Accidental introductions are bound to occur.
                                                                  the other methods listed above5.

The Pesticide Label                                                                                    5
DISCLAIMER: Chemicals mentioned in our articles are for           pesticides used both in hives and in the field. This
information purposes only, they are not recommendations.
Always follow labeling directions for any pesticide product.      article discusses the symptoms and possible causes
                                                                  of a serious threat to honey bees termed Colony
References                                                        Collapse Disorder (CCD).
1. Cowie, R.H. 1998. Biodiversity and Conserv. 7: 349-368.
2. Cowie, R.H. 2000. In, Invasive species in the Pacific: A       Commercial insect pollination services worldwide
   technical review . . . (SPREP).
3. Cowie, R.H. 2001. Biological Invasions 3: 119-136.             were valued at $217 billion in 20085; bee pollination
4. Cowie, R.H. 2005. American Malacol. Bull. 20: 95-103.          is worth about $15 billion annually to the U.S.
5. Flint, M.L. 2003.
                                                                  economy alone2. Without bees most fruits and
6. Furutani, S.C. and Arita-Tsutsumi, L. 1998. J Haw Pac Agric    vegetables would be more expensive, or unavailable
   9: 1-6                                                         altogether. Even meat and dairy products would be
7. Hollingsworth, R.G., and Armstrong, J.W. June 2002. Nature
   417: 915.                                                      affected since cattle are often fed bee-pollinated
8. Hollingsworth, R.G. and Sewake, K.T. 2002.                     clover. For example, apples are a $45 million crop in
9. Hollingsworth, R.G. et al. 2007. Pacific Science 61(4): 457-   Pennsylvania and 90% of the pollination is by bees.
   467.                                                           Without bees the annual earnings would drop to
10. Pest Alert. 2006. USDA-APHIS, PPQ, Program Aid No.            about $5 million. While beeswax and honey are
11. Rundell, R.J. and Cowie, R.H. 2003. Journal of Mollusk        valued at over $1 million in Hawaii, and rearing and
   Studies 69: 288-289.                                           selling queen bees is worth many times that, crop
12. Wikipedia. Snail. Viewed on 6 March 2009 at                             pollination is more important by far. In Hawaii alone
                                                                  squash, melons, mangos, avocados and other crops
                          ‫ﺾﺾﺾ‬                                     worth about $126 million annually are pollinated by

COLONY COLLAPSE DISORDER                                          Until recently, commercial beekeepers in the U.S.
                                                                  maintained 2.6 million hives and provided services
Bees are not here just to provide honey for biscuits              to growers across the country. A blueberry grower in
and tea. The crops they pollinate account for one-                Maine recently paid $900,000 to have his crop
third of the food produced in the U.S.—one out of                 pollinated. He could not depend on the low, sporadic
every three mouthfuls we eat1. In late 2006,                      pollination of the relatively few wild bees in the area
                                                                  to pollinate his huge crop. Almond acreage in
                                                                  California has been increasing every year as their
                                                                  bee populations have been declining. It is predicted
                                                                  that by 2010 every commercial honey bee in the
                                                                  country will be needed to pollinate the almond crop2.
                                                                  What will this mean to other growers in the U.S.? If
                                                                  they have to
                                                                  rely        on
                                                                  by wild bees
                                                                  or       local
                                   Courtesy Kyle Anderson
beekeepers around the world began reporting                       yields will be
excessive colony losses. In the U.S., some have                   drastically
testified to hive losses of 50 to 90%2. One of the                reduced.               The business of transporting hives
alleged causes is exposure of honey bees to

The Pesticide Label                                                                                             6
Symptoms of CCD                                           •   Type of food and method of feeding. The
                                                              kind of food and the way bees are fed vary
The onset of CCD is sudden—hives that appeared                greatly among beekeepers reporting CCD,
healthy a few weeks before are found abandoned,               but no relationship between these factors
with no adult bees, living or dead, in or around the          and bee survival has been established.
hive. Except for a few worker bees and a queen,
most of the bees are gone. The hive, however, is still    •   Bee management. The way beekeepers
full of honey and pollen, with eggs, larvae and pupae         manage their hives depends on their budget,
still maturing in the frames. A final indicator of this       how the bees are used (honey, pollination),
disorder is the absence of beetles, wax moths, and            what chemicals are used in or around the
robber bees from other hives that would usually feed          hive, etc.
on a recently abandoned hive.                                 As     with
                                                              food and
Indications of a colony about to collapse include: 1)         feeding,
not enough bees to maintain the colony; 2) few older          hive
bees; 3) the remaining bees are reluctant to eat food         manageme
offered by the beekeeper; and 4) the presence of a            nt    varies
queen2.                                                       greatly and
                                                              is       not      2003 Natl. Geographic Society
This disorder may not be new. An old name for a
                                                              considered     a     factor,   though     poor
syndrome similar to CCD was “disappearing
                                                              management can increase the severity of any
disease”. Other names for the syndrome included
                                                              disease or disorder.
spring dwindle disease, fall dwindle disease and
autumn collapse. Whether this disease is new or not       •   Source of queen bees. The millions of
the cause, or causes, must be identified before a cure        queen bees produced in the U.S. each year
is possible.                                                  come from only a few hundred breeder
                                                              queens. This lack of genetic diversity can
Possible Causes of CCD                                        make the offspring of these queens less able
                                                              to adapt to and survive changes in the
Many causes for Colony Collapse Disorder have
been suggested based on either symptoms, anecdotal
information, or on the results of preliminary             •   Chemicals in the hive. Using chemicals to
research. In most instances, the suggested causes are         control mites, moths and diseases inside the
not consistently found in all cases of CCD—an                 hive can have sub-lethal effects on worker
essential element of a correct diagnosis. The leading         bees, drones, and the queen, even if used
hypotheses as of late-2007 were2:                             according to labeling instructions. Penn
                                                              State University4 collected beeswax from
    •   Established pests and diseases. American
                                                              hives across the U.S. and in 88 samples, 20
        and European foulbrood, chalkbrood,
                                                              different    pesticides   were     detected.
        Nosema apis (see below), Varroa mites,
                                                              Fluvalinate and coumaphos were found in
        tracheal mites and small hive beetles do not
                                                              all samples and chlorpyrifos in 68 samples.
        produce symptoms of CCD. They could
                                                              Fluvalinate has been a front-line treatment
        intensify the disorder, but are not being
                                                              for the varroa mite for more than 20 years.
        pursued as a primary cause.
                                                              Reformulations and its replacement in the
                                                              early 1990s with tau-fluvalinate, however,

The Pesticide Label                                                                                7
       have changed its LD50 (lethal dose that kills        their effects on bees, no causal relationship
       50% of the test bees). The LD50 dropped              between pesticides and CCD has been
                                                            established. Nonetheless, they may be one of
                                                            several stressors leading to a suppression of
                                                            the bees’ immune system and increased
                                                            susceptibility to CCD4.

                                                        •   Genetically modified crops. There is no
                                                            evidence of a direct relationship between
       from 65.85 µg/bee (relatively non-toxic to           GM crops and CCD. However, seeds of GM
       honey bees) in the 1980s, to 8.78 µg/bee             plants are sometimes dipped in systemic
       (moderately toxic), and recently to 0.2              insecticides that are later detected in the
       µg/bee     (highly   toxic)    (see   EPA            plant’s nectar and pollen. This phenomenon,
       Reregistration Eligibility Decision 2005).           however, could also apply to non-GM
       Some suspect that the sub-lethal effects of          plants.
       chemicals in and around the hive may play a
                                                        •   Varroa and viruses. Varroa mites are the
       part in CCD.
                                                            major killer of honey bees worldwide. In the
   •   Chemicals in the environment. Toxic                  U.S. since 1987, from 17 to 40% of the bee
       chemicals contacted by foraging bees and             population has been killed annually by the
       other non-target species include insecticides,       varroa mite. Therefore the mites, the viruses
       fungicides and herbicides applied to crop
       plants. Honey bees may also drink
       contaminated water or pick up household or
       commercial chemicals by contact or by

                                                            they carry, and the chemicals applied to
                                                            control them (e.g. fluvalinate), have been
                                                            considered possible causes of CCD.
                                                            However, there have been colonies with
       breathing them. Frazier and colleagues4              CCD in which the varroa population was
       collected pollen samples from across the             under control. Varroa destructor was found
       U.S. and analyzed them for 171 chemicals             on Oahu in April 2007 and in Hilo in August
       and several active metabolites, which are            2008. This mite is the main threat to honey
       sometimes more toxic than the original               bees in Hawaii and the target of a major
       chemicals. They found 46 different                   eradication campaign in the Hilo area.
       pesticides in 108 pollen samples, an average         Attempts to eliminate it from Hilo by
       of 5 per sample; one sample had 17 different         destroying the hives of wild bees were
       pesticides and only 3 were without                   unsuccessful. During a 15-day period in
       pesticides. Though France banned the use of          January 2009, the miticide fipronil was
       eight neonicotinoide insecticides because of         distributed in 200 bait stations, along with

The Pesticide Label                                                                            8
        hive destruction, in the hopes              of    Subsequent studies by the University of Bonn, the
        exterminating the remaining mites7.               French Government and the registrant, Bayer AG,
                                                          for behavioral effects caused by Gaucho were
    •   Nutritional fitness. Poor nutrition has been      negative. The ban, however, remains in effect. In
        implicated as a cause of CCD, but results so      2008, Germany also banned the use of
        far are inconclusive. As with most                neonicotinoids as a seed treatment when they were
        organisms, malnutrition can weaken the            linked to a severe bee decline. Bayer AG said the
        bees’ immune system, making them more             problem arose when farmers failed to use a fixative
        susceptible to pests and environmental            that binds the chemical to the seed coat, allowing the
        stressors.                                        insecticide to drift into the environment and injure
                                                          the bees3.
    •   New pests and diseases. Nosema apis is a
        microsporidian (spore-forming, single-celled      References
        parasite) known for years to inhabit the
        digestive system of honey bees. In 2006 a         1. Beattie-Moss, M. Colonies in Collapse. Viewed 23 February
                                                               09 at
        new species, N. ceranae, was identified and       2. Ellis, J. 2007. Colony collapse disorder (CCD) in honey bees.
        when its population inside the bees increases       Viewed on 19 Feb. 09 at
        the bees leave their colonies and never           3. Environmental News Svc. 2008. Viewed 3 March 09 at
        return. The role of this species in CCD is
        unclear, but it may be important. Another           01.asp
                                                          4. Frazier, M. et al. 2008. What have pesticides got to do with it?
        newly discovered disease is caused by the           American Bee Journal, June 2008: 521-523.
        Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV). It was      5. Mid-Atlantic Apiculture Research and Extension Consortium
                                                            webpage. Viewed on 23 February 09 at
        found in 25 of 30 colonies (85%) with CCD,
        but only 1 of 20 (5%) healthy colonies.           6. Reimer, N. The buzz on bees. Honolulu Advertiser. 1 July
        IAPV has not proved to be the causal agent          2007.
                                                          7. Varroa mite in Hilo. 21 February, 2009. Big Island News.
        of CCD to date, but may be an important
        factor. It could also be useful as a marker, or                              ‫ﺾﺾﺾ‬
        biological indicator, of the disease1.

Summary                                                       TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON
                                                              STORAGE OF GREENHOUSE,
The consensus at the time of this article is that there
are several factors responsible for CCD. A number
                                                               ORNAMENTAL AND TURF
of studies suggest that the immune system of                   PESTICIDES1 (recertification)
commercial honey bees has been weakened, making
them more susceptible to maladies, such as CCD.           Temperature extremes in the pesticide storage
Decreased immunity may be caused by low genetic           facility pose several problems. The normal
variability, poor nutrition or conditions in the hive,    temperature range recommended for storing liquid
certain chemicals used on bees or present in the          pesticides is usually 40 to 100 degrees Fahrenheit,
environment, mite infestations or the presence of         although some pesticide labels state a specific
other sub-lethal pests and diseases.                      temperature range for maintaining optimal shelf life.
                                                          The purpose of this guide is to provide a quick
In 1998, France banned use of the neonicotinoid           reference for specific storage information and
insecticide, Gaucho (imidacloprid), following a           temperature requirements, if relevant, for many
decline of bee colonies that began in 1994.

The Pesticide Label                                                                                              9
commonly used greenhouse, ornamental and turf             • Do not contaminate other pesticides, fertilizer,
pesticides (see table on following page).                 water, food or feed by storage.

Temperature extremes in storage can reduce the            • Keep containers tightly closed, dry and at a
effectiveness of pesticides. Freezing of liquid           moderate temperature in a locked, well-ventilated
pesticides can result in the active ingredients           place that is out of the reach of children.
separating from the solvents or emulsifiers, which
may lead to crystallization or coagulation of the         • Store products in original containers only. If
pesticide. Some pesticides may be thawed and              storage information cannot be found on the label,
reused after being frozen by rolling, shaking or          contact the manufacturer of the pesticide. The
otherwise agitating the container to resuspend its        following information was taken from the “storage
contents. Call the manufacturer for advice on reusing     and disposal” section of the respective pesticide
specific pesticides that have frozen. Also note that      labels.
the freezing point of many pesticides is lower than
32°F due to the hydrocarbon solvents and inert
ingredients present. At the other extreme, excessive
heat can cause pesticides to volatilize and drift away
from the storage site. Some pesticides are
flammable. Temperature extremes can also damage
the integrity of the pesticide container. Freezing
temperatures can cause glass, metal and plastic
containers to break. High temperatures can cause
plastic containers to melt and glass containers to

As a rule, wettable powders and granules are not
affected by low temperatures. Moisture is the
greatest factor affecting their storage as it can cause
caking that may reduce the effectiveness of the
pesticide. Products formulated in water-soluble
packets have a high affinity for moisture and become
brittle when frozen. Brittle packets may break open
when handled, so store these products in a warm, dry

Before storing pesticides, read the “storage and              Weather-protected pesticide storage room
disposal” section of the pesticide label. Many
pesticide labels provide specific storage information.    1
                                                            The above item was extracted from an article of the
The following precautions should be used in the           same name written by Fred Fishel, Dept. of
storage of all pesticides:                                Agronomy, University of Missouri-Columbia. It
                                                          appeared in the Bulletin IPM1012, March 2002 and
• Do not store near heat, sparks or open flame.           is available at

The Pesticide Label                                                                                 10
The following table is based on the article by Fred Fishel (above), but is restricted to pesticides registered for use
in Hawaii. It is not a complete list. Always check the pesticide label for storage recommendations.
                   HERBICIDES                                             HERBICIDES
       Product               Do Not Store                     Product                Do Not Store
Acclaim Extra            above 100 F/below 10 F         Manage                  above 120 F or under
                                                                                moist conditions
Atrazine 4L                 below 0 F                   Millenium Ultra         below 32 F
Basagran T/O                do not allow to freeze      Momentum Premium        above 28 F, agitate
                                                                                before using
Basamid Granular            above 95F                   Outrider                above 120 F or under
                                                                                moist conditions
Chaser                  below 10 F                      Pendulum 2G             above 120 F
Chaser 2 Amine          below 10 F                      Pendulum 3.3 EC         below 40 F
Confront                below 28 F                      Pendulum WDG            above 120 F
Dimension               below 32 F                      Pre-M 3.3 EC            below 40 F
Eliminate Liquid        below 32 F                      Prograss                below 34 F
Four Power Plus         below 35 F                      Tri-Power Selective     below 32 F
Goal 2XL                below 32 F                      Trimec Classic          keep from freezing
Horsepower              below 32 F                      Trimec Plus             keep from freezing
Illoxan 3EC             below 20 F                      Triplet                 below 32 F
Image 1.5 LC            below 32 F                      Turflon Ester           below 28 F
Image Consumer Conc. below 32 F                         Vantage                 below 32 F/above 100 F
Kerb WSP                below 32 F
                 INSECTICIDES                                              INSECTICIDES
         Product              Do Not Store                       Product               Do Not Store
Astro                   below 40 F                      Gnatrol                   between 59 & 86 F
Azatin XL               above 100 F/below -20F          Scimitar GC               protect from freezing
Conserve SC             avoid freezing                  Scimitar WP               below 32 F
DeltaGard T&O 5SC       avoid extreme temps.            Sevin SL                  above 100 F
Dursban 50W             above 122 F for                 Triac 70                  below 40 F
                        extended periods
Dursban Pro             above 122 F/below 32 F
                        for extended periods
                  FUNGICIDES                                                FUNGICIDES
         Product              Do Not Store                     Product                Do Not Store
Basamid Granules        above 95 F                      Fungo 50 WSB              above 122 F, moisture,
Bayleton 50                 below 32 F                  Systemic Fungicide           below 32 F
Camelot                     above 32 F                  Systhane WSP                 below 40 F
Dithane (T/O, Rainshield)   avoid heat, moisture        Triact 70                    below 40 F
Flowable Mancozeb           below 32 F                  TwoSome Flowable             avoid freezing


The Pesticide Label                                                                                         11
        ORGANIC ARSENICALS                               dietary risk from potentially contaminated food and
                                                         drinking water did not meet the food safety standard.
                                                         During 2007 and 2008, interested parties submitted
According to an article released on 10 February          data indicating that no inorganic arsenic is likely to
2009, EPA has reached a voluntary agreement with         remain in the meat or milk of animals fed cotton by-
the producers of the organic arsenicals MSMA             products treated with MSMA, or in food crops
(monosodium methanearsonate), DSMA (disodium             grown in fields from which MSMA-treated cotton
methanearsonate),       CAMA        (calcium    acid     had been harvested. Based on this new information,
methanearsonate), and cacodylic acid and its sodium      EPA has provisionally allowed reregistration of
salt. These pesticides will all be removed from the      MSMA for use on cotton. If data to confirm these
market over the next few years, with the exception       assertions is not presented by 2010, however, its use
of MSMA on cotton. In most instances newer, lower        on cotton will be cancelled. Cotton growers have
risk herbicides are available.                           documented the increasing spread of Palmer
                                                         amaranth, or pigweed, a glyphosate-resistant and
According to the agreement, uses on residential          economically significant pest, which currently only
lawns will be cancelled by the end of 2009. For          MSMA controls.
products to be phased out later, and for use on
cotton, new use and mitigation measures will be          EPA is also rescheduling the Registration Review of
added to protect water resources from                    MSMA for 2013. At that time, the risks and benefits
contamination. They include:                             of MSMA will be reevaluated and consideration
                                                         given to new toxicity information and the
 •      By mid-March, the registrants must submit
     voluntary cancellation requests for all uses,       availability of new, lower-risk herbicides that should
     other than the use of MSMA on cotton.               be available.
 •      By the end of 2009, many existing uses will
     be phased out and canceled including use on         This article is based on an EPA publication for
     residential lawns, forestry, non-bearing fruit      release on 10 February 2009. For more detailed,
     and nut trees, and citrus orchards.                 current          information,         go           to
 •      Over the next 4 years, uses on golf courses,
     sod farms, and highway rights of way will be
     phased out, promoting transition to alternatives.   _arsenicals_fs.html

                                                         Also see our article in the July to December 2008
These actions follow EPA’s 2006 Reregistration
                                                         copy of “The Pesticide Label” entitled Pesticide
Eligibility Decision (RED), which determined that
                                                         Shelf Life (p. 14)
all uses of organic arsenicals were ineligible for
reregistration. Over time, these pesticides are                                ‫ﺾﺾﺾ‬
converted to the more toxic inorganic arsenic in the
soil and can contaminate drinking water via soil
runoff. At the time, EPA also believed that inorganic
arsenic could enter the human food supply through
the meat and milk of animals fed cotton by-products
treated with MSMA. EPA determined the combined

The Pesticide Label                                                                                 12
                                               NEWS BOARD

ALERT: Sweet Potato Weevil                                the weevil entered Hawaii, its host range, or its
                                                          distribution on Oahu and within the State.
A new sweet potato          Courtesy of Hawaii DOA
weevil was discovered in                                  If you suspect the sweet potato weevil at your farm,
Waipio,      Oahu       on                                please contact the local agriculture extension office.
November 14, 2008.
Grubs were reared on
sweet potato tubers to the                                Insecticide Chalk
adult stage and identified
by Dick Tsuda (UH                                         Insecticide Chalk, also known as "Miraculous
Insect         Diagnostic                                 Chalk" or "Chinese Chalk", is an illegal product.
Clinic), Bernarr Kumashiro (Hawaii Department of          You may have seen the
Agriculture) and Al Samuelson (Bishop Museum).            chalk in a neighborhood
                                                          store or sold on the street
In January 2009, the weevil was identified as
                                                          for about $1 a box. It is
Blosyrus asellus (Olivier). HDOA Entomologists
                                                          mostly imported illegally
Ron Heu and Cheryl Young, along with USDA Pest
                                                          from China and often bears
Survey Specialist Yolisa Ishibashi, made a trip to a
                                                          a label in both English and Chinese. Sometimes, like
sweet potato farm in Waipio to examine the new
                                                          on the label we show here, the manufacturer makes
Blosyrus asellus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
                                                          claims that the chalk is "harmless to human beings
infestation. According to Cooperative Extension
                                                          and animals" and "safe to use." These claims are
Service Agent Steve Fukuda, damage to the tubers is
                                                          untrue and dangerous. Because insecticide chalk
caused in the soil by the weevil grubs creating
                                                          looks just like regular chalk, children often take it in
grooves or channels along the surface of the young
                                                          their hands, write with it and put it in their mouths.
tubers while feeding. As the tubers mature, the
                                                          The active ingredient in Insecticide Chalk is a
grooves enlarge. Although the tubers can still be
                                                          chemical called deltamethrin, which is one of the
eaten, the surface damage is unsightly and will cause
                                                          most toxic of the pyrethroid pesticides. Insecticide
marketing problems. It appears the damage is serious
                                                          chalk should be avoided at all times.
and will be a problem for sweet potato growers
throughout the state.                                     EPA is particularly concerned about insecticide
                                                          chalk because children may mistake the insecticide
According to Dick Tsuda, laboratory observations
                                                          for blackboard chalk. Overexposure to some
indicate that the tubular Blosyrus eggs are laid along
                                                          chemicals found in samples of insecticide chalk can
                              the narrow tips of the
                                                          provoke serious health effects, including vomiting,
                              leaves with the sides of
                                                          stomach pains, convulsions, tremors, and loss of
                              the leaves folder over or
                                                          consciousness. Serious allergic reactions are also
                              "pinched" to hide and
                                                          possible. Several children have been hospitalized
                              protect the eggs. Cheryl
                                                          after eating insecticide chalk.
  Courtesy of Hawaii DOA      Young's        laboratory
                              observations     indicate   Dispose of any supplies of insecticide chalk safely
that the adults create small notches along the sides of   — either return the product to the retailer where it
the leaves when feeding. It is still not known how        was purchased, or contact a local hazardous waste
                                                          facility to arrange for disposal.

The Pesticide Label                                                                                   13
This article by US EPA viewed on 5 May 09 at                     decades. IPM is based on routinely scouting the field   for pests and disease, then applying alternative
                                                                 control methods to avoid or reduce the use of
Note: an insecticidal chalk containing tralomethrin
                                                                 pesticides. When scouting indicates the need for a
instead of deltamethrin is available in child-proof
                                                                 pesticide, the minimum amount to control the
packaging and is registered for use by US EPA
                                                                 disease is recommended, according to label
(Reg. No. 75015-1-82197).
                                                                 directions. If reapplication is required later, a
                           ‫ﺾﺾﺾ‬                                   pesticide with a different mode of action is
                                                                 suggested. In contrast to this approach, one of the
                                                                 Technical Managers for the manufacturer of
Reaction to “Plant Health” Labeling                              Headline® states, “Too often, growers wait until they
                                                                 spot disease in their fields before spraying, which is
A letter was sent to the US EPA in February 2009 to              too late to achieve superior disease control and
protest the supplemental labeling of pyraclostrobin              increases the risk of yield loss. By planning ahead
(Headline®) for its “plant health” properties1.                  and using Headline®, growers can proactively help
Supplemental labeling is issued when new uses of a               protect their crops from disease, stress, and
product have been approved after the most recent                 challenging       weather       conditions2”.    This
label was printed. Aside from its fungicidal                     recommendation, to use a fungicide in the absence
properties, the supplemental label states that                   of disease, in addition to its originally labeled use,
Headline® has many plant health benefits, including:             would be a severe setback for IPM and the
improved host plant tolerance to the yield-robbing               environment. Another major concern is development
environmental stresses of drought, heat, cold, hail              of pest resistance not only to pyraclostrobin, but to
and frost, and ozone damage3. The fungicide is also              the whole group of strobilurin fungicides. Use of
said to improve nitrogen utilization, stalk strength of          pesticides when there is little or no pest pressure in
corn and wheat, soybean seed quality, and increase               the field is not recommended by the Fungicide
plant tolerance to bacterial and viral infections.               Resistance Action Committee4.
The manufacturer states that Headline® is the most               The authors of the letter believe the plant health
researched fungicide on the market with over 6,000               claims made for this product are excessive and urge
field trials on more than 500,000 acres2. According              EPA to reconsider the supplemental labeling. There
to the plant pathologists, agronomists and IPM                   is a supplemental label allowing the use of
managers that authored the letter, however, there is             Headline® in Hawaii for its plant health properties
little publically available information to support               from 2008-20103.
these claims. The few controlled experiments
conducted at Land Grant Universities have detected               References
no significant advantages to applying this fungicide,            1. Brown-Rytlewski, D. and Vincelli, P. 2009. Letter from
                                                                    Universities to EPA. Viewed on 11 May 09 at
except those that result from improved disease            
control. The authors agree fungicides can have a                    epa%20letter2-13%20.pdf
                                                                 2. BASF. 2009. BASF introduces April as plant health month.
physiological effect on plants, but nowhere near as                 Viewed on 11 May 09 at
great as the new labeling suggests1.                                room/press-releases/current-press-releases/basf-introduces-
There are several reasons for not using pesticides for           3. BASF. 2008. Headline fungicide, Hawaii Supplemental Label
                                                                    No. 9131.92supp, EPA Reg. No. 7969-186.
their possible plant health properties. Reducing the             4. Brent, K. and Hollomon, D. 2007. Fungicide resistance in
overall use of pesticides has been the main goal of                 crop pathogens: How can it be managed? FRAC Monograph
                                                                    No. 1. Fungicide Resistance Action Committee, ISBN 90-
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for the past five                  72398-07-6.

The Pesticide Label                                                                                               14
January–March 2009—Disposal of Pesticides and Pesticide Containers (p. 2), Pesticide Resistance (p. 3), Poly
  Tanks (p. 8).
July–December 2008—Gaseous Pesticide Formulations (p. 2), Fumigants (p. 5), EPA’s New Regulations for Soil
  Fumigants (p. 10), Pesticide Shelf Life (p. 14).
April–June 2008—Reducing Spray Drift: Windbreaks and Buffer Zones (p. 5).
February–March 2008—Pesticide Labels (p. 4), Engineering Controls for Pesticide Exposure (p. 7).
October 2007–January 2008—What is a Pesticide (p. 3), Special Hazards of Restricted Use Pesticides (p. 5),
 Supervising Noncertified Applicators of Restricted Use Pesticides (p. 9).
June–September 2007—Agricultural Use and Non-Agricultural Use Labeling Statements (p.3), Employee
  Protection from Pesticides (p.6), Pesticides and Skin Problems (p.10).
May 2007—ASAE 572 Spray Droplet Classification (p.3), Mechanics of Drift (p.5).

        Archived issues of “The Pesticide Label” available for free download at

This newsletter is published by the Extension Pesticide
                                                             Mention of a trademark, company, or proprietary name in
Editors: Fred Brooks                                         this newsletter does not constitute an endorsement,
         Charles Nagamine                                    guarantee, or warranty by the University of Hawaii
                                                             Cooperative Extension Service or its employees and does
For information on pesticide programs, please contact:       not imply recommendations to the exclusion of other
                                                             suitable products or companies.
                   Charles Nagamine
     Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences          Caution: Pesticide use is governed by state and federal
             3050 Maile Way, Gilmore 310                     regulations. Pesticides and pesticide uses mentioned in
            University of Hawaii at Manoa                    this newsletter may not be approved for Hawaii, and their
                  Honolulu, HI 96822                         mention is for information purposes only and should not be
                                                             considered a recommendation. Read the pesticide’s
Telephone: (808) 956-6007 (Nagamine)
E-mail:                                  labeling to ensure that the intended use is included on it
Web edition:                                                 and follow all labeling directions.

The Pesticide Label                                                                                        15