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            about Germany after
            World War I?
Treaty of Versailles

   What is the Treaty of
    Versailles?
Answer:

   The Treaty of Versailles was one of the
    peace treaties signed after World War One
    between Germany and the Allies.
   It was signed at Versailles Palace in France.
   The three main powers on the Allied side
    were Britain, France and the United States.
The Allied Powers

   Britain: David Lloyd
    George
   France: Georges
    Clemenceau
   The USA: Woodrow
    Wilson
Treaty of Versailles

   Why do some historians argue that the seeds
    of World War Two were sown into the Treaty
    of Versailles?
Answer:

   There were many
    clauses in the Treaty of
    Versailles that were
    intended to punish
    Germany for their role
    in W.W. I and to ensure
    that they would remain
    weak for years to come.
Territorial Terms
   Alsace-Lorraine (given to France)
   Eupen and Malmedy (given to Belgium)
   Northern Schleswig (given to Denmark)
   Hultschin (given to Czechoslovakia)
   West Prussia, Posen and Upper Silesia (given to Poland)
   The Saar, Danzig and Memel were put under the control of the League
    of Nations and the people of these regions would be allowed to vote to
    stay in Germany or not in a future referendum.
   The League of Nations took control of Germany's overseas colonies.
   Germany had to return land that had been taken from Russia in the
    Treaty of Brest Levosk.
   Some of this land was made into new states : Estonia, Lithuania and
    Latvia. An enlarged Poland also received some of this land.
Military Terms

   Germany’s army was reduced to 100,000 men; the
    army was not allowed tanks
   Was not allowed an airforce.
   Was allowed only 6 naval ships and no submarines.
   The west of the Rhineland and 50 kms east of the
    River Rhine was made into a demilitarised zone
    (DMZ). No German soldier or weapon was allowed
    into this zone.
   The Allies were to keep an army of occupation on
    the west bank of the Rhine for 15 years.
Economic Terms

   The loss of vital industrial territory.
   Loss of coal from the Saar and Upper Silesia.
   Reparations: payments made by Germany to
    the countries that were hurt in the war.
   Germany was also forbidden to unite with
    Austria
General Terms

There are three vital clauses here:
1. Germany had to admit full responsibility for starting the war.
   This was Clause 231 - the infamous "War Guilt Clause".
2. Germany, as she was responsible for starting the war as stated
   in clause 231, was, therefore responsible for all the war
   damage caused by the First World War (Reparations to France
   and Belgium).
    –   The figure was eventually put at £6,600 million - a huge sum of
        money well beyond Germany’s ability to pay.
3. The League of Nations was set up to keep world peace.
German Reaction to the Treaty

   How do you think German people would
    react to this treaty?
Answer

   Obviously, Germany was unhappy with the
    terms of the Treaty.
   When they agreed to an armistice in 1918,
    they thought that they would be consulted
    about the terms.
   They were in no place to argue: they had no
    army left, they were bankrupt, and there was
    really nothing they could do: “Diktat”
The Weimar Republic: 1918 to 1933

   The government created in Germany in
    November of 1918
   Several political parties agreed to a coalition
    government in order to form a government.
   The German Democratic Party (SPD) and
    the Centre Party held 76% of the vote.
   Other small parties had small percentages of
    support.
The Structure of the Government

   In 1919 a constitution was created
    establishing a Federal Republic.
   19 states
   A President (elected)
   A Chancellor (appointed by the President)
   A Cabinet (appointed by the President) which
    had to reflect the party composition in the
    Reichstag.
However….

   What seemed a truly parliamentary system (where
    politicians are responsible to the people who elected
    them) was not truly so.
   The president had the right to dismiss the cabinet,
    dissolve the Reichstag, and veto legislation.
   Article 48, the so-called emergency clause, accorded
    the president the right to allow the cabinet to govern
    without the consent of parliament whenever it was
    deemed essential to maintaining public order.
Plagued with problems

   Serious political opposition
   Weak economy
   Inflation
   Unemployment
   Therefore unstable coalition governments
    ruled throughout the 1920s.
Specific examples of problems faced
by the Weimar Republic

   Inflation:
   In January French and Belgian troops occupied the highly
    industrialized Ruhr area because of German defaults on
    reparations payments.
   The Weimar government responded by calling upon the Ruhr
    population to stop all industrial activity.
   The government also began printing money at such a rate that
    it soon became virtually worthless.
   by the fall of 1923, wheelbarrows were needed to carry enough
    currency for simple purchases as inflation reached rates
    beyond comprehension.
Inflation

   In 1914 US $1 had
    equalled 4 marks
   By mid-1920, $1 was
    worth 40 marks
   by early 1922 about
    200 marks
   a year later 18,000
    marks
   by November 1923 --
    4.2 trillion marks.
Civil Unrest

   In addition, the country
    was racked by strikes,
    paramilitary street
    violence, and rumours
    of planned uprisings by
    both the left and the
    right
Enter Adolf Hitler….

   What do you already
    know about Adolf
    Hitler`s rise to power?
   Complete the computer
    assignment on Adolf
    Hitler to learn more and
    make your own notes.

				
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posted:4/22/2011
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