matter - PowerPoint by pengtt

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									    MATTER:
is defined as anything that
       takes up space
       and has mass.


Examples of matter include
    all the elements,
  compounds, mixtures,
cow’s milk and store milk.
Matter comes in one of
     3 PHASES.
    Matter changes from one phase to another
              by these processes...


MELTING       Solid to liquid


FREEZING       Liquid to solid

                                                          Boiling
BOILING             Liquid to gas                          water
                                                         vaporizes
                                                        into steam
CONDENSATION Gas to liquid
SUBLIMATION
                          Sublimation is when a solid goes directly to
                         the gas phase, and deposition is the opposite.
                              In our class you will see solid iodine
                            sublimate to a fantastic purple gas, and
                             some of it will undergo deposition and

DEPOSITION                     form back into solid iodine again.
Depending upon who is counting, there are approximately
 114 unique substances known to man at this time. They
  are the building blocks of all substances we know of.
They are listed in the PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS.
       Atoms are the smallest part of an element.

    Examples include CARBON, HYDROGEN,
          NITROGEN, and OXYGEN.
Your teacher’s favorite element is MERCURY and
        he also really likes TUNGSTEN.
When two or more elements combine chemically to form
 a new substance, with its own UNIQUE physical and
  chemical properties, the new substance is called a
                     compound.
      Examples of common compounds include:
           TABLE SALT (sodium chloride)
        BUNSEN BURNER GAS (methane) and
          WATER (dihydrogen monoxide)
                            ALL
                           MATTER

    PURE                     physically          MIXED
                           separable into
 SUBSTANCES                                   SUBSTANCES
   (HOMOGENEOUS)                             (VARIED COMPOSITIONS)



                                                HETEROGENEOUS
      COMPOUNDS
                                                     MIXTURES
      ex: water, salt,
                                                 ex: SOUP, SALAD,
        iron oxide
                                                    CONCRETE,
          chemically                             COW’S MILK
          separable into

ELEMENTS: iron, neon,               HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURES
mercury, lead, carbon.              ex: coffee, air, STORE MILK.
 IRON becomes
      RUST…
This is a chemical
     reaction.
  The iron and
 oxygen are the
    reactants,
which chemically
 combine into a
 new substance
     with new
   properties.


                        RUST forms,
                     which is a kind of
                       IRON OXIDE.
                     The iron oxide is
                       the PRODUCT
                      of this chemical
                          reaction
    REACTANTS COMBINE TO
       FORM PRODUCTS
• Another chemical reaction you probably
  know of is called photosynthesis.
• In this reaction carbon dioxide and water
  combine to form oxygen and glucose.
• The reactants are the carbon dioxide & water.
• The products are oxygen and glucose.
 Matter Cannot Be
   Created Nor
 Destroyed in any
   PHYSICAL or
CHEMICAL CHANGE.


 In every case, the
mass of the reactants
 equals the mass of
   the products.
Match the element name with its symbol
•   sodium              •   Cl
•   potassium           •   O
•   magnesium           •   He
•   chlorine            •   Ca
•   oxygen
                        •   S
•   carbon
                        •   K
•   iron
•   helium              •   Fe
•   calcium             •   Mg
•   sulfur              •   Al
•   aluminum            •   Na
     Match the element name with its symbol
•   sodium - Na      Not all of the symbols match
•   potassium - K    up to the first letters of the
•   magnesium - Mg   element names because many
•   chlorine - Cl    elements are named from
•   oxygen - O       other languages.
•   carbon - C       Practice the symbols, or look
                     them up – NEVER GUESS !
•   iron - Fe
•   helium - He
•   calcium - Ca
•   sulfur - S
•   aluminum - Al
This slide left intentionally blank.
In the chemical reaction of the combustion of methane with
oxygen (what happens on your stove or Bunsen burner), carbon
dioxide and water are produced and heat is given off. Label the
reactants and products in the word, and the balanced chemical
equations below.




 methane + oxygen                 carbon dioxide + water + heat
   Since it is the REACTANTS that combine to form
   PRODUCTS it should be clear already that the…
   the REACTANTS ARE: methane and oxygen
   the PRODUCTS ARE: carbon dioxide & water

      HEAT is also given off during this reaction.
        Heat is a product, but it has no mass.


reactants chemically combine into products

methane + oxygen              carbon dioxide + water + heat
  REACTANTS                                 PRODUCTS
          Two types of Mixtures
Mixtures are when two or more pure
substances (elements or compounds) are
physically mixed together. They retain their
properties, they do not chemically combine.
They can mix perfectly together (like chocolate
sauce and milk) or not so well (like salt and
nickels).
Mixed perfectly the mixture is said to be
                                                   Fresh chocolate milk
HOMOGENEOUS, the same throughout.                 is homogeneous, but
                                                     if you let it sit too
                                                    long, the chocolate
If the mixture is not mixed the same              settles to the bottom,
throughout is called HETEROGENEOUS.                making the mixture
                                                       heterogeneous.
Which of these mixtures are homogeneous,
       which are heterogeneous?
• split pea soup
• apple sauce
• Mint chocolate chip
     ice cream
• tap water
• coffee with cream
• saltwater
• IV glucose solution
• Elmer’s glue
• motor oil
• Oatmeal raisin
    cookie dough        Early Chemists describe the
                          first DIRT MOLECULE.
                              (from the Far Side)
homogeneous or heterogeneous?

      •split pea soup………… homogeneous
      •apple sauce……………. homogeneous
 •Mint chocolate chip ice cream….. heterogeneous
      •tap water……………….. homogeneous
       •coffee with cream…. homogeneous
       •saltwater……………… homogeneous
      •IV glucose solution… homogeneous
      •Elmer’s glue………….. homogeneous
       •motor oil……………… homogeneous
•Oatmeal raisin cookie dough……….. heterogeneous
Hydrogen and oxygen react chemically to form water. How much
water is formed if exactly 4.8 grams of hydrogen combines
completely with 38.4 grams of oxygen? ____


If 28.0 grams of nitrogen will combine chemically with hydrogen,
to form 34.0 grams of ammonia (ammonia = NH3 ) exactly how
many grams of hydrogen are required for this reaction? ___


If 24.0 grams of carbon chemically combine with 2.0 grams of
hydrogen to form acetylene, how many grams of acetylene is
made? ___                 all three answers at the END of slide show
Mixtures are physical blends of matter.
Mixtures are not chemical compounds.
Mixtures retain the properties of the substances that are in them.
They can be separated by physical means.
The different physical properties of the matter are used to
separate them (such as Boiling and Freezing Points, and Density).


    Go slowly through the next few slides and
                            THINK.
Distillation apparatus: what’s it for & how does it work?

                 In the round bottomed flask at left is a
                 MIXTURE, for instance it is SALT WATER.
                 The salt is mixed into the water, but it is not
                 a new chemical compound.


                                   Because the salt and
                                   the water have different
                                   physical properties
                                   specific to their kind of
                                   matter, we can use this
                                   difference to separate
                                   them physically using
                                   their different boiling
                                   points.
Distillation apparatus: what’s it for & how does it work?
                                Heating the salt water to
                                102ºC, the water boils into
                                steam.
                                The salt would require MUCH
                                MORE heat to vaporize, so as
                                the steam escapes out the top
                                of the tube and goes into the
                                condenser tube, the salt is left
                                behind in the round bottomed
                                flask.


                                The MIXTURE IS NOW
                                SEPARATED. Using
                                differences in physical
                                properties to separate a
                                mixture.
Distillation apparatus: RESULTS
                 The law of conservation of
                 matter says:
                 Matter cannot be created or
                 destroyed in any physical or
                 chemical process.


                 If you started with 120 grams
                 of salt water (made from 100
                 grams of water and 20 grams
                 of salt), You end up with 100
                 grams of water in the flask at
                 right, and the 20 grams of salt
                 get left behind in the round
                 bottomed flask.
Distillation apparatus: RESULTS

                  You use the difference between
                  physical properties, such as
                  boiling point in this case, to
                  separate mixtures with physical
                  means.


                  This could work for ANY two or
                  more substances you put into
                  the round bottomed flask, that
                  had different boiling points.


                  For example, this is how you
                  separate gasoline from crude
                  oil using the different boiling
                  points for each kind of oil
                  product.
You can separate iron filings from sand just by using a magnet.
    The mixture is just a blend of different kinds of matter.
You can separate a mixture with a physical method this simple.
FILTERS can separate
mixtures too, but they can
only remove solids from
liquids.


Here it looks liked chopped
KIWI fruit is being filtered
and only Kiwi Juice will end
up in the beaker.


Mixtures like salt water, or
coffee (which are both
SOLUTIONS) cannot be
filtered apart, you need the
distillation apparatus.
Paper Chromatography
is another way to separate
mixtures from each other.
Putting drops of colored ink
from markers onto filter paper
and then allowing the water
to flow through the paper will
result in the inks being
separated in to the different
colors that blend together to
make the colors.
Most single color markers are
really mixtures of several
                                 water
colors.
  Soon the water flows upwards
  and separates out the different
  colors of ink that make up the
  mixture of colors that appears
  blue to our eyes.                               water
                                                  flows
                                                    up




The colors breaking into rainbows above left is what will happen to
the color dot at right as the water flows through it. The water will
separate the colors of the mixture and the least dense colors will
move the furthest.
Chromatography is another way to separate mixtures from each
other using different densities of colors to move fast or slow through
filter paper.
Hydrogen and oxygen react chemically to form water. How much
water is formed if exactly 4.8 grams of hydrogen reacts completely
with 38.4 grams of oxygen? 43.2 grams


If 28.0 grams of nitrogen will combine chemically with hydrogen,
to form 34.0 grams of ammonia (ammonia = NH3 ) exactly how
many grams of hydrogen are required for this reaction? 6.0 grams


If 24.0 grams of carbon chemically combine with 2.0 grams of
hydrogen to form acetylene, how much acetylene is made?
26.0 grams

								
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