Use of Animals in Research - Ethics and Imperatives by gjjur4356


									Animal Care Approvals

        Animal Policy & Welfare Program
                 Research Ethics Office
                    University of Alberta
Animal Care Committees
          Must function in each
           University or institution that
           uses animals.
          At large institutions, several
           ACCs may review research.
          For the University of Alberta,
           there are three Animal Care
           and Use Committees:
            • ACUC for Biosciences
            • ACUC for Health Sciences
            • ACUC for Livestock
Organizational Structure for Animal Ethics
and Facilities at the University of Alberta
    Animal Care & Use Committees
 Review Protocols for:
   • Research (Biomedical, Agricultural, Wildlife)
   • Teaching (Labs, demonstrations)
   • Testing (Drugs, equipment, products)
 All users of animals for any purpose (on or off-
  campus) must have their research protocol approved
  prior to commencing.
  Categories of Invasiveness
“Protocols must be submitted to an appropriate
review committee for all studies and courses which
involve the use of vertebrates and some
invertebrates in Categories B through E.
Cephalopods and some other higher invertebrates
have nervous systems as well developed as in
some vertebrates, and may therefore warrant
inclusion in Category B, C, D, or E.”

                  - Canadian Council on Animal Care
             Category A
Experiments on most invertebrates or on
live isolates (does not require review by the
Animal Care and Use Committee).
• The use of tissue culture and tissues obtained
  at necropsy or from the slaughterhouse.
• The use of eggs, protozoa or other single-celled
                    Category B
Experiments which cause little or no discomfort
or stress.
• The short-term and skilful restraint of animals for purposes of
  observation or physical examination.
• Blood sampling; injection of material in amounts that will not
  cause adverse reactions by the following routes: intravenous,
  subcutaneous, intramuscular, intraperitoneal, or oral, but not
  intrathoracic or intracardiac (Category C).
• Acute non-survival studies in which the animals are
  completely anesthetized and do not regain consciousness.
• Approved methods of euthanasia following rapid
                   Category C
Experiments which cause minor stress or pain of
short duration.
• Cannulation or catheterization of blood vessels or body
  cavities under anesthesia.
• Minor surgical procedures under anesthesia, such as
• Short periods of restraint or food and/or water deprivation.
• Behavioral experiments on conscious animals that involve
  short-term, stressful restraint.
• Exposure to non-lethal levels of drugs or chemicals.
A Note Regarding Category C
Such procedures should not cause significant
changes in the animal's appearance, in
physiological parameters such as respiratory or
cardiac rate, or fecal or urinary output, or in
social responses.
During or after Category C studies, animals must
not show self-mutilation, anorexia, dehydration,
hyperactivity, increased recumbency or
dormancy, increased vocalization, aggressive-
defensive behavior or demonstrate social
withdrawal and self-isolation.
               Category D
Experiments which cause moderate to severe
distress or discomfort.
• Major surgical procedures conducted under general
   anesthesia, with subsequent recovery.
• Prolonged (several hours or more) periods of physical
• Induction of behavioral stresses.
• The use of Freund's Complete Adjuvant (see CCAC
   Guidelines on Acceptable Immunological Procedures).
Other Examples of Category D
 Induction of anatomical and physiological
  abnormalities that will result in pain or
 The exposure of an animal to noxious
  stimuli from which escape is impossible.
 The production of radiation sickness.
 Exposure to drugs or chemicals at levels
  that impair physiological systems.
A Note Regarding Category D
 Procedures used in Category D studies
 should not cause prolonged or severe
 clinical distress.

        Category E
According to University Animal Policy
and Welfare Committee (UAPWC)
policy, procedures which cause
severe pain near, at, or above the
pain tolerance threshold of
unanesthetized conscious animals
are not permitted.
     Animal Use Protocol (AUP)
     Application Review Process

 Animal Care and Use Committee: Health
  Sciences meets monthly (10x/year).
 Deadline for Submission (3 weeks prior).
 Submit application electronically.
 Follow instructions on the webpage.
After the Protocol Review

1. Full approval (best option)
2. Major revisions required
3. Minor revisions required
4. Defer decision to a later date
 Certificate of Approval
Issued with all applicable funding
sources specified.
• Approval can apply to more than one
• A single grant can apply to more than
  one Animal Use Protocol (AUP).
• Expires in one year.
      Annual Report
 Required for renewal.
 On the fourth year, the Annual
  Report must be accompanied by an
  updated Animal Use Protocol (AUP)
 Breeding colonies require a separate
  Minor Modifications
The following are accepted by email:
• Add/Delete Funding Source
• Add/Delete Personnel
• Change Protocol Title
• Personnel Training Update
• Request to Extend Protocol Expiry Date
• Request for Increase in Animal
  Numbers for Breeding Colonies ONLY
  Release of Funds (ROF) Process
When funds are available but the animal work is
scheduled for a future date:
1. Complete the Application for a Release of Funds
2. Submit the application to the Research Ethics Office
  (REO) and if approved, a Release of Funds Agreement
  will be forwarded to the PI for signature.
3. Once the signed agreement has been returned, REO will
  advise the Research Services Office (RSO) that the PI can
  be given access to funding referenced in the application
  and agreement.
                  University of Alberta
            Research Policies and Procedures

I. Animal Ethics Policy
    A. Administration of Animal Research
       Procedure (Roles and Responsibilities)
    B. Animal Ethics Review Procedure
    C. Animal Euthanasia Procedure
    D. Animal Maintenance:
       Special Requests for Alternate Animal Holding/Housing Procedure
II. Animal User Training Policy
                Institutional Animal User
            Training Program (IAUTP), Part I*

Principles of Laboratory
  Animal Science & Ethics
Core Topics Include:
  Animal Care Mandate,
  Biosafety, Biosecurity,
  Introduction to Pain
  Management, Legislation
  and Compliance, Non-
  Experimental Variables,
  Occupational Health &
  Safety and the Three R’s
 *All Principal Investigators and their
  personnel are required to participate.
    Institutional Animal User
Training Program (IAUTP), Part 2*

                 Species-Specific or
                 Animal Handling Courses:
                   Cat, guinea pig, mouse,
                   rabbit, rat, summer
                   rabbit/rat, plus aseptic
                   techniques, necropsy and
                   individual techniques.
                 * The Research Ethics Office (REO)
                       maintains the database for
                    training / certifications for both
                       Part I and Part II courses.
Contacts for More Information
 I. Animal Care & Use Committees
   1. Livestock:       Doug Korver, Chair,
   2. Biosciences:     Fred Colbourne, Chair,
   3. Health Sciences: Nadia Jharoudi, Chair,

 II. Animal Facility Directors
   1. AFNSAS:         Craig Wilkinson, Director of Animal Care, AFNS
   2. BSAS:           Don McKay, Director
   3. HSLAS:          Greg Parks, Director

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