Design Classics by pengtt

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									     Design and Market
Advanced Level Product Design:Textiles

               Fashion Design Classics
                  Fashion Timeline
                 Fashion Designers


        "The truly fashionable are beyond fashion."
 1904-1980 Cecil Beaton, English fashion photographer and costume designer
                                        Mary Quant

                    It is given to a fortunate few to be born at the right time,
                    in the right place, with the right talents. In recent fashion
                           There are three: Chanel, Dior and Mary Quant

                                   Ernestine Carter - Sunday Times

Technically she's not a model, but if you ever wore a miniskirt, or if you ever admired someone who was
wearing one, thank Mary Quant; she's the British fashion designer who made the mini the
decade's defining fashion statement.
She was born in '34, so she hit the decade at 26. Her exotic birthplace: Kent, England.
Mary Quant’s impact on the 1960’s was……...fab and fun, the fashions of the '60s were the products of a
determined revolution. In the '50s, young people had dressed in slightly modified versions of the conserva-
tive clothes their parents owned: Pop singers wore gowns, actresses wore gloves, and the most daring
thing a guy could wear was a T-shirt, a la Brando and Dean. But then came the '60s and a revolution not
just in the clothes, but also in the people who created them. A new breed of fashion designers, inspired by
                                       the energy in the streets, drawing on influences from Op and Pop
                                       Art, and watching the triumphs of the space age, invented styles that
                                       were more daring, more colorful, and more exciting than ever be-
                                       fore. The revolution's catalyst was Mary Quant. She was the hippest
                                       designer in the hippest area of the world, the unrivaled Queen of
                                       Swingin' London, and she was perfectly in sync with the spirit of her
                                       times. Sparked by her design innovations, '60s fashions exploded in
                                       bursts of crazy new colors, prints, and fabrics. Soon came other de-
                                       signers who introduced big geometric patterns, vibrant shades of
                                       purple and chartreuse, dresses made of shiny vinyl, or cellophane, or
                                       paper, dresses with pieces cut out, dresses made of metal or covered
                                       with mirrors, two-piece pantsuits, fur vests, go-go boots, prints from
                                       India, micro-mini skirts, midi skirts, maxi skirts, ruffled shirts, nehru
                                       jackets, sharp Sassoon cuts, and enormous bellbottoms to the new
                                       Mary Quant is quoted in saying, I think that I broke the couture
                                       stranglehold that Chanel, Dior and the others had on fashion, when I
                                       created styles at the working-girl level. It all added up to a democrati-
                                       zation of fashion and entertainment. ... It was very gratifying to see
                                       that not only did the mods of the sixties want my clothes, but so did
                                       the grandees and the millionaires. They had everything else ... but
                                       they hadn't any fun clothes. ... Snobbery went out of fashion, and in
                                       the shops you found duchesses jostling with typists to buy the same
                                       dresses. Fashion had become the great leveler."
                                       For nearly the entire decade, Mary was at ground zero of the fashion
                                       explosion that rocked the world. Even at the decade's end Mary kept
                                       inventing, kept igniting others with her ideas, and she even dropped
another bombshell into the fashion world in '69 — hot pants, which did
for shorts what her minis did for skirts. How fun! How creative! How
After graduating from art school, 21-year-old Mary opened up Bazaar, a
stylish new clothing shop in London in '55. Catering to urban youth, she
filled the shop with the exciting new clothes being worn by rock 'n' roll-
ers — the bell bottoms, the bright patterns, and especially the thigh-
climbing skirts. When she couldn't find the creative clothes she wanted,
she started designing them herself. Her shop was an instant success and
quickly drew a celebrity crowd of Beatles and movie stars. She'd keep
the shop open late, and people would strip and try on clothes out in the
"Good designers know that to have any influence they must keep in step
with public needs and that intangible 'something in the air.' They must
catch the spirit of the day and interpret it in clothes before other design-
ers begin to twitch at the nerve ends," she said in Blown Away; "I just hap-
pened to start when that something in the air was coming to a boil. The
clothes I made happened to fit in exactly with the teenage trend, with
pop records and espresso bars and jazz clubs."
Later she brought her touch to hosiery and home linens and skin care
products. She also wrote several books, among them her autobiography,
Quant by Quant in '66, followed by Color by Quant, The Ultimate Make-up
and Beauty Book, Classic Make-up and Beauty, and Mary Quant's Daisy Chain
of Things to Make and Do. Today her Colour Concepts boutiques, which
showcase her color-saturated make-up, are located in world capitals like
Paris, New York, and Tokyo. And Mary herself is still working in London,
with jewelry and umbrellas and bags and socks among her latest crea-
tions. The '60s may be over, but the revolution lives on.

Designer Coco Chanel was born Gabrielle Bonheur Chanel in 1883, although she would often claim that her
real date of birth was 1893, making her ten years younger. Her place of birth was also something that she
sought to disguise. Coco was born in the workhouse where her mother worked, although she asserted that
she was born in Auvergne.
Her mother died when she was six years old, leaving her father with five children, whom he quickly farmed
out to various relatives.
Gabrielle adopted the name Coco during a brief career as a singer in cafes and concert halls, between 1905-
Coco became the mistress of a rich military officer, and then a wealthy English Industrialist, and the patronage
and connections that these men provided her with enabled her to open her own millinery shop in Paris in
1910. She had soon expanded to Deauville and Biarritz.
Coco Chanel became the first designer to use jersey during the 1920s, and her relaxed, mannish clothes for
women soon became very popular with clients, who were tired of the corseted fashions of previous decades.
In 1922, she launched the fragrance Chanel No. 5, which remains popular to this day. Two years later Pierre
Wertheiner became her partner (taking on 70% of the fragrance business), and reputedly her lover.
Coco launched her signature cardigan jacket in 1925, and the following year matched its success
with her little black dress. Both items continue to be a staple part of every Chanel collection.
During World War II, Coco was a nurse, although her post-war popularity was greatly diminished by her af-
fair with a Nazi officer during the conflict.
However, she made her comeback in 1954, her style much unchanged, apart from the introduction
of pea jackets and bell-bottoms for women.
During her life, Coco Chanel also designed costumes for the stage, including Cocteau’s 'Antigone' (1923) and
'Oedipus Rex' (1937). She also designed film costumes for cinematic works such as 'La Regle de Jeu'.
A Broadway musical of her life opened in 1969, with Katharine Hepburn taking the role of Coco.
Coco Chanel worked until her death in 1971.

By the 1920s Coco Chanel was simplifying dress with her innovative forward looking ideas on
female clothes. She borrowed items normally worn by men and translated them into pared down stylish
female fashion. She made simple jersey suits and also tweed suits. However her real influence was in the
1950s and 1960s when she translated tweed into a high fashion suit that looked modern and
contrasted with the fuller dress designs and over structured suits by Dior. She actively competed
against Dior to get her message of more relaxed clothes across to the public. They may not look very relaxed
to the people of today, but they were a breakthrough in their time.
Chanel's suits were simply gorgeous. She used a range of tweeds and fine textured wool boucle
and poodle fabrics. The collarless jackets became so associated with her name that we now re-
fer to the style as a Chanel jacket. Inside her jackets were lined with contrast silk which was the
same silk she usually used for the blouse that teamed with it. The insides were weighted with
gold chain and the buttons all stamped on the back with the Chanel symbol. Edges were
trimmed with braids, velvet or ribbon. They were elegant and chic and women have continued
to wear variations of them ever since.
Such tweed suits were widely copied and translated by the shop Wallis. As a young teenager I
recall lusting after a Wallis fine tweed black, braid edged suit in Chanel style which was chain
weighted inside the jacket. It was lined inside with emerald green and had a matching Miss
Moneypenny emerald blouse. In the sixties clothes by Wallis were the epitome of high style
with many designs being made from Paris original patterns that the brand bought the right to
The house of Chanel has long used tweeds and other crepes from Linton Tweeds. The market though stag-
                   nated for Lintons in the late sixties. But in 1969 they forged ahead to change and revamp
                   their product, to include lighter weight material, a better range of dyes and use of wonder-
                   ful new textural out of the ordinary exotic yarns that enliven design. This has proved very
                   successful particularly in Japan. Ready to wear at once improved the use of materials once
                   restricted to couture use. They have an international market supplying couture houses as
                   well as Max Mara, Jigsaw, Wallis, Aquascutum, Burberry and others
                   The very word Chanel instantly conjures up images of timeless glamour and
                   enviable elegance so its not surprising that after ninety years it still reigns as
                   the world's most famous fashion label. Its founder: the petite yet diminutive Parisian
                   Gabrielle Bonheur Chanel started out designing hats for the fashionable ladies of Paris,
Deauville and Biarritz in 1909. A decade later 'Coco', as she was affectionately known, had branched out into
couture and was revolutionising the female wardrobe creating clothes from jersey - up until then a material
that was unheard of in women's fashion - and coaxing her customers out of stuffy dresses and into relaxed
trousers. It was Coco who transformed the nautical look from plain old sailor wear to stylish leisure attire
and it was she who brought us the now ubiquitous little black dress as well as androgynous and sporting chic.
In 1922 Coco launched her first fragrance: Chanel No 5 - still one of the best selling perfumes on the market
today - which then spawned a hugely successful cosmetics business. So passionate was this former nightclub
                            chanteuse about looking and feeling fabulous she continued working right up until
                            her death in 1971 - she was 86.
                            Chanel's global image is one of class, sophistication and timeless ele-
                            gance Thankfully Coco's legacy still lives on today courtesy of the crea-
                            tive genius Karl Lagerfeld. The silver haired German born designer, who is
                            never without his trademark dark sunglasses and fan, has been Chanel's fashion
                            director since 1983. The multilingual Lagerfeld, who is rumoured to be nearly 70
                            and recently loss 90lbs, has successfully steered the label into the 21st century
                            keeping it fresh, fashionable and respected. He's also built up a plethora of Holly-
                            wood heavyweights as clients and opened boutiques all over the world. Lagerfeld's
                            sharp eye and deft ability to create clothes that echo Coco's original design ethic
                            but also boast an irreverent modern edge, have been key in helping the house of
                            Chanel to confirm its place in fashion history. Collections still feature Coco's fa-
                            vourite camellia corsages but instead of being plain white and worn on a lapel
they're splashed with fuschia pink or shredded and worn on beach bags or around the waist. Coco's signature
chic tweed ensembles are also still referenced but nowadays they come in a myriad of cuts and high-octane
colours. In short Lagerfeld has kept Chanel cool yet classic and proved to other designers that
although fashion may be fickle, if you have talent and vision you can last forever.

Check out for the latest VISCOSE tweed jackets!!

                            ‘Fashion was a baby I picked up and never put down.'

Vivienne Westwood played a vital role in the emergence of Punk Rock in the 1970s and has gone on to be-
come one of the most original and influential designers of our time.
Her designs combine a fearless unconformity with a sense of tradition. She is renowned for her gentle parody
of Establishment styles, her use of very British fabrics such as Harris tweed and tartan, her re-use of historic
garments such as the corset and crinoline. Yet, her approach has always been practical, driven by a curiosity
about how things work, a process she describes as 'learning through action'.
Westwood's inventiveness spans the extremes of fashion, from the streets of London to the Parisian catwalks,
and her own evoluVivienne Westwood is one of Britain’s best known and most admired fashion designers.
She has made a major contribution to international fashion for over three decades and was awarded British
Designer of the Year in 1990 and 1991. In 1992 she was honoured with the Order of the British Empire for
her outstanding contribution to fashion.
She is respected throughout the industry and fashion world as a highly influential designer, and continues to
show her couture and ready to wear collections bi-annually in Paris.

Key designs are:

Punk clothing worn by          The 1980’s           ‘Pirate’ collections of      pieces worn by Sarah Jessica
members of the group           revolutionary        the 1980s;                  Parker as style icon Carrie in
Sex Pistols in the 1970s;      ‘mini-crini’                                     the television series Sex and
                                                                                the City,

                               Dress worn by Cam-
                               eron Diaz at the 59th      The infamous shoes in which
     Ballgown worn by          annual Golden Globe        Naomi Campbell toppled
     Linda Evangelista         awards in January 2002     over on the catwalk in 1993;
                                 Her career in fashion did not take off until she met Malcolm McLaren, later
                                 known as the manager of punk band the Sex Pistols, who was studying
                                 alongside her brother at Harrow Technical College. Friendship came first,
                                 followed by love, and, in 1974, a second child, Joe, now the purveyor of
                                 saucy scanties, was born.

                                 It was London which gave Vivienne the boost her creativity needed. After a
                                 stint selling her own jewellery in Portobello Market, she and Malcolm
                                 opened the infamous Sex boutique at the bottom end of the Kings Road
                                 where her provocative designs were sold. Then came punk. Vivienne's
                                 clothes were perfect for the youth trend: bondage trousers, slashed shirts
                                 and provocative God Save The Queen T-shirts.
                                 The monarch may not have loved it, but
                                 London was intoxicated.

                                  From notoriety eventually came respectability,
Sarah Stockbridge her favourite although her catwalk shows never failed to
muse in1991                        garner front page headlines. Remember Naomi
                                   Campbell coming a cropper in her electric
                                   blue platform heels? That was Viv. The return
of cleavage flaunting? Take a bow, Mrs W.

In the Nineties she was elected one of the top five designers of the last century,
alongside such luminaries as Yves Saint Laurent and Coco Chanel and was named
British Designer of the Year two years running, in 1990 and 1991.

In 1992, she married Andreas Kronthaler, a fashion student a quarter of a cen-
tury younger than her, whom she met when she was tutoring fashion at Vienna
University of Applied Arts. The two now share a home in Battersea, southwest
London.                                                                              Simonetta Gianfelici in the
                                                                                     carpet collection

        Her sons owns saucy underwear label Agent Provocateur.

                                                                           Linda Evangelista in Westwood’s
                                                                           famous tartan collection
                                       Louis Vuitton

Louis Vuitton began manufacturing trunks in Paris in 1854, and the company he started went on to become
one of the world's most famous makers of luxury goods, known especially for its designer luggage
pattern: a beige-on-chestnut monogram, "LV." Vuitton's high-quality travelling trunks were such a hit
that he had to expand his factory within a few years, relocating to Asniéres in 1860. As the years went by the
Vuitton line gained international recognition, thanks in part to a bronze medal at the 1867 World's Fair and a
gold medal at the 1889 World's Fair, both held in Paris. After Louis died in 1892, his son, Georges, took
the company to new heights, developing what is recognized as the first "designer label" on a
product. (Widespread copying of Vuitton patterns pushed Georges to design the distinctive "LV" mono-
gram.) Vuitton's luggage company has since become a world leader in luxury consumer goods, with products
that include travel books, perfume, distilled spirits and designer clothing.

Georges Vuitton is also credited with developing Vuitton's unique five-combination lock... In 1936, after Geor-
ges died, his son, Gaston-Louis, took the helm of the company... In 1983 the Louis Vuitton company joined
with America's Cup to form the Vuitton Cup, a preliminary competition -- called an eliminatory regatta -- for
the world's most prestigious yacht race... In 1998 Vuitton entered the world of high fashion with the
designs of Marc Jacobs.

             Louis Vuitton's symbol of quality since 1896, the Monogram canvas is lightweight, supple,
             strong and sturdy. Completely waterproof, it is highly resistant to surface scratches - perfect for
             travel and contemporary lifestyles.

             The Mini Monogram canvas gets spiced up with colour! After Blue denim, it's now available in
             Cherry and Khaki.

             Louis Vuitton has produced a new interpretation of the Monogram canvas with 33 colors that
             made the famous canvas travel through the years. With time, the canvas may slightly fade, reveal-
             ing the canvas background.

                                         Spring 2005 Marc Jacobs
                                             for Louis Vuitton

Visit for an inside as to how the products are made on their custom made video and a
trip around their travel museum.

Burberry was founded in 1856 by Thomas Burberry a former apprentice of a country draper
In 1860 the business thrived and by 1870 was producing outdoor wear for the local residents and visiting
sports people to Thomas Burberrys home of Hampshire
1880 Thomas Burberry has his major break-through with the invention of garbardine—a breathable fab-
ric made using an innovative process of making the yarn waterproof before weaving it was also
extremely durable—a patent was taken out in 1888.
1891 Thomas Burberry opened his 1st shop in London at Haymarket (now the companies head quarters)

                 In 1901 Burberry was commissioned by the war office to design a new service uniform for
                 British officers, this was named the Officers Tielocken Coat and was the fore runner to the
                 design classic; Trench Coat.
                 In 1914 Burberry adapted the military coat to the trench coat we know today.

           In 1924 the Burberry check was introduced as the lining to the trench coat and
            in 1967 the check was introduced as a fabric for bags, scarves and umbrellas, it
                               had never been seen as anything other than a lining before.

                         A modernising campaign was released in 1997 making Burberry very popular with
                         the younger fashion connoisseur. In 2000 Burberry launched its first perfume.

    On May 3, 2001 - Burberry announced the appointment of Christopher Bailey as Design
Director. Bailey, 30, joined the Burberry design team from Gucci where he had been a Sen-
ior Designer since 1996. Prior to that, he worked as a designer at Donna Karan. He holds a
                                         Master of Arts from London's Royal College of Art.
Bailey is based in London at Burberry's in-house design studio in the Haymarket. In his role,
he assumes creative direction for Burberry with a particular focus on the Prorsum designer

Burberry London, the brand's core range collection, continues to be designed by the in-house team: Deborah
Lloyd, Womenswear Designer, Michael McGrath, Menswear Designer and Giovanni Morelli, Women's Acces-
sories Designer as well as Rory O'Hanlon who recently joined Burberry as Men's Accessory Designer

                 The current face of Burberry has recently changed from British model Stella
                 Tennant to another British model Kate Moss. With the male face of
                 Burberry Brit actor Hugh Dancy.
                                        Issey Miyake

Issey Miyake, one of the Nihon's most respected and well-known designers, refers to his designs
  not as clothing, or ready-to-wear ensembles, but rather art pieces. And why not? Many of the
 designs from Miyake et al are stunningly beautiful, but not the kind of thing you'd wear to the
                              cricket, or even to dinner in some cases.
   Issey Miyake thinks differently from the more orthodox designer. Hailing from Japan, most
 would expect him to create 'art pieces' with an oriental flavour. While he will do this - and still
       does - he also creates pieces that are far more westernised than most would expect.

Born in Hiroshima, Japan, in 1938, Issey Miyake was seven years old when the USA dropped an atomic bomb
on his country.Sadly, his mother was badly burned by the bombing of Hiroshima and died four years later.
But, in an ironic twist of fate, the American occupation of Japan that occured after the attack gave a young
Issey a first-hand look at Western culture. Miyake had always wanted to be a fashion designer, and in 1959 he
enrolled in a graphic arts course at Tokyo's famous Tama Art University. Five years later - in early 1965 - he
moved to Paris to fulfil his dream and started looking for work in the Big Smoke. Right out of the blocks, Mi-
yake's talent was evident and he scored a gig with Guy Laroche in only his second year in France, which lasted
from 1966, to 1968. In the year that he ditched Laroche, he was snapped up by none other than the Givenchy
house of design. Then in 1969 he moved to New York City to work for Geoffrey Beene and two years later,
after earning a good deal of capital, he set up his first creative studio - the Miyake Design Studio, or MDS, in
Tokyo. This wasn't so much a place of design and production, but a more a laboratory of sorts, where Miyake
started experimenting with various blends of fabric and synthetic textiles. Soon after this in 1971, Miyake In-
ternational Incorporated was set up and the Japanese designer launched his first collection. It was exhibited in
both New York, where he was residing, and also in Tokyo. Miyake's first fashion show in Paris was a hit
(1973) and by '79, he had set up an arm of his design house in France.
During the '70s Miyake's work was largely conceptual - he pioneered a vast array of techniques, many incor-
porating age-old Japanese traditions - but it was the during 1980s that Miyake stirred the soul of the masses.
Creating more affordable ensembles, Issey Miyake's trademark of the 1980s was practicality.
Making use of natural fibres and other fabrics, painstakingly researched at the Miyake Design Studio in Tokyo,
his designs became hugely successful, not just in high cultural circles, either.
In the '90s Issey Miyake is largely accepted for kicking off the pleat, which today comes and goes with fashion
trends year-in and year-out. His development of the pleating theory revolved around first sewing garments,
then finishing them, and finally the pleating. From here on in, Miyake's designs would influence not just the
world of fashion, but even sport. For instance in 1992, Miyake designed the pleated jackets for the Lithuanian
team at the Barcelona Olympics

                  Pleats Please collections were first launched in 1993. Made from single pieces of high
                  quality 100% polyester fabric, the innovation behind Pleats Please are that the clothes are
                  first cut and sewn together two-and-a-half to three times larger than the finished garments.
                  Individual pieces are hand fed into a heat press sandwiched between two sheets of paper.
                  The garment then emerges with permanent pleats. This industrial process
                  allows both texture and form to be created at the same time. Vertical, hori-
                  zontal and zig-zag pleating is used to create varying effects and architectural
                  Pleats Please clothes are very functional and practical; the garments store
                  easily, travel well, require no ironing and can be machine-washed and dried
                  within minutes. Shapes are simple, colours diverse. A set of standard colours
                  is available each season, to which are added seasonal colours and prints
                                       Ralph Lauren

I am not looking like Armani today and somebody else tomorrow. I look like Ralph Lauren. And
    my goal is to constantly move in fashion and move in style without giving up what I am.
                                         -Ralph Lauren

Ralph Lauren has become the epitome of classic fashion. With product lines such as Polo/Ralph Lau-
ren for Men, Ralph Lauren for Women, Double RL, Ralph Lauren Home, and even Ralph Lauren paint, it
makes us wonder who the man behind the label really is.
Born Ralph Lifshitz on October 14, 1939, in the Bronx, New York, Ralph Lauren has come a long way from
his days of sharing a bedroom with two of his brothers. Growing up in a middle-class Jewish family, Ralph and
his three older brothers were raised by his mother, while his artist father painted houses.
Lauren's fashion sense was apparent at an early age when he would purchase expensive suits with the money
he earned working at his after-school job. Although he knew he could find his clothes at a less expensive
price, he made it a point to look stylish in his expensive threads -- and he has succeeded at looking cool in his
attire since the age of 12.
One would think that Lauren attended fashion design school, but he actually studied business at City College
in Manhattan, and dropped out short of receiving his business degree.
Student by night, Lauren would work by day at two glove companies as a salesman. He then worked for a tie
manufacturer named A. Rivetz & Co., which ultimately led to the fashion empire he leads today.
While working at A. Rivetz & Co., Lauren began designing wide ties, which spawned his first entrepreneurial
career. With his tie designs and a $50,000 loan, Lauren founded the company Polo Fashions in 1968. Along
with his older brother, he chose the name Polo because of the power, style and intrigue that the brand has
always been associated with.
The Polo brand known today as the preppy English-tweed look it conveys did not get to be a million dollar
empire because Lauren was lucky, nor because Lauren had an immaculate sense of style. Lauren not only had
an innovative mind, but he also knew that packaging and presentation were of utmost importance -- some-
thing he didn't need to learn while studying for his business degree.
In the late 60's, while Lauren was trying to develop his line of wide ties, Bloomingdale's insisted Lauren re-
move his name from the ties' label, and make his ties narrower. Not giving into the retail giant Bloomingdale's,
Lauren stuck to his guns and refused to sell to the department store under such circumstances. Suffice it to
say, the retailer came back crawling to Lauren and his ties under his terms, after having seen the brand's suc-
cess. The rest as they say, is history.
While Polo was considered the "power suit" of the early 80's, Armani had brought the Italian power
suit back in style later on in the decade, which pushed aside Polo's preppy look. Lauren had fought back
with his sophisticated line of men's shirts and suits, made of fine fabrics. He successfully catered
to the office worker who wanted to look stylish, while looking powerful in the office.
Next came Lauren's line of women's clothing, followed by his home collection line consisting of sheets, towels
and furniture in the early 80's.
It is Lauren's innovativeness, among many other traits of the model businessman, that has made him the foun-
der, designer and chairman of a $900 million company. Not only was he the first fashion designer to have his
own store, but he was the first to sell the whole lifestyle image that consumers flock to worldwide. Lauren
sells much more than clothes and home furnishings; he sells a lifestyle image of sophistication,
class and taste.
His keen business sense, ability to stand by his product at all costs and ability to prevail despite several busi-
ness failures are what make him a man whose net worth is $1 billion. A man whose car collection ranges from
a 1929 Bentley and a 1937 Alfa Romeo, to a 1938 Bugatti and a 1962 Ferrari.
A man who owns a ranch in Colorado, homes in Jamaica and Long Island, an estate in Bedford, New York to
add to his Fifth Avenue Manhattan address. A man who offers everyone the opportunity to look as
good as he does, simply by purchasing his products.
His line of clothing and home collection have the taste and snobbism -- minus the flashiness --
that make the Ralph Lauren/Polo brand timeless.
Between school and his career move into the fashion industry, Lauren served in the United States Army from
1962-1964, and married Ricky Low-Beer after his army days. He is also the father of
three children, Andrew, David and Dylan.

More than any other designer, Ralph Lauren has marketed his preppy,
English-tweed clothing as less fashion and more lifestyle. It is this image
of a refined, classic luxury that has made him one of the most successful
American designers of the last century

Spring 2005 collection

Since 1894, J. Barbour & Sons have produced clothes perfectly suited to enjoyment of life beyond the city. It is
this commitment to quality and durability that has seen the name Barbour become synonymous with the best
of country living.
Barbour is more than just clothing. For both those who make the garments and those who wear them, it is a
quiet passion for something lasting and truly authentic.
Barbour belongs to the landscape, evolved by time, weather and the shared experience of the company and
customers, who together for over a century, have developed a unique understanding of what is truly fit for
the purpose of life outdoors.

                                 Bogue farm, Galloway (once part of the lochinvar estate, celebrated by Sir
                                 Walter Scott’s tale of ‘young lochinvar’), where John Barbour was born
                                 John Barbour was born and raised on a farm in Galloway, south west Scot-
                                 land, second son of a family whose links through Scottish history can be
                                 traced back to the 14th century.
                                 No one could know better than he what was needed to protect a person
                                 from the extremes of weather that he faced tending sheep in the bleak land-
                                 scape of his home country.

At the age of twenty he left the farm to try his luck across the border in the north east of England, where in
1870 he started his business as a travelling draper. Just one year later, sufficiently confident of his future, he
married his childhood sweetheart, Margaret Haining. She gave him stability, ten children and the encourage-
ment to combine his skills and experience to start J Barbour and Sons, an enterprise which was to become
renowned throughout the world.
Barbour clothing has been made in the north east of England and the borders of Scotland ever
since. Quality has never been compromised, purpose never forgotten by the generations of
weavers, tailors and seamstresses that have made each garment.
In 1894 John Barbour established himself in the burgeoning port of South Shields, supplying oilskins and other
garments to protect the growing community of sailors, fishermen, rivermen and dockers from the worst of
the North Sea weather. Within a few years the firm became the leading supplier of oilskins on the north east
coast, not only to seafarers but to others in the surrounding country - farmers, labourers, carters, shepherds
- who earned their living outdoors in all weathers. By the beginning of the next century Barbour’s du-
rable Beacon oilskins were well known throughout Britain and beyond. From an early date Barbour
received orders from overseas, mainly at first from British colonies where the sons and daughters of the Em-
pire dwelt in every conceivable climate from the tropical to the sub-arctic.
To meet demand the company produced its first modest catalogue in 1908, promising the same
level of service which prevailed at home.
By 1912 Barbour enjoyed the custom of many other nationalities and the catalogue that year listed postage to
Argentina, Australia, Brazil, East Africa, Canada, Chile, Holland, Hong Kong, Jamaica, Newfoundland, New
Zealand, Rhodesia and Spain, and the list grew year by year.

By the very nature of its business (the manufacture of durable outdoor clothing for generations of customers
worldwide), the company’s own history is inextricably entwined with the broader events of the twentieth
From the Victorian days of opportunity and the movement of people (of which John
Barbour was one) to create new towns such as South Shields; the zenith of the British
Empire; the devastating demands of the first and second world wars, involved the
company and Barbour wearers absolutely.
In every circumstance, function, quality and service were essential to with-
stand the rigorous wear Barbour customers relied upon and were the cor-
nerstones of the company’s ability to prosper through good and bad times.
The skill of making and understanding what a garment has to provide is inherent
within the Barbour workforce. The design, cut and features have evolved over
years. There are no gimmicks, each feature and component is there for a
It is this uncompromising adherence to practicality that is appreciated by people who
really know what is needed and who recognise when a thing is functional - and right.

                            A weather-beating, practical garment that reflects all Barbour’s naval oilskin heri-
                            tage. The Mediumweight Barbour Waxed Cotton outer incorporates a Wool/
                            quilted lining for extra insulation, with a Nylon drip strip. There is an attached
                            hood with throat protector, adjustable studded cuffs, zip and toggle fastening and
                            two large bellows pockets with press-stud storm flaps.

 The saying "Form Follows Function" certainly applies to Barbour. Over time, this function &
practicality has come to define British Country Style. You’ll see these jackets on everyone from
        sheep farmers to Royalty - A Barbour jacket is an investment that's built to last.

I've had a love affair with Barbour waxed jackets for over twenty years,
so I'm absolutely thrilled to be able to represent them. I bought my first
Barbour in 1980 & it still looks like new; my second - a Border - came in
1992. This jacket has traveled tens of thousands of miles, endured pouring
rain & gale-force winds, hiked Moors, Highlands & Alps. It's my favorite
piece of clothing & it still looks fabulous. You'll find no finer quality than
If there’s one feature that distinguishes Barbour jackets more than any
other, it is their almost legendary durability. The seams in a Barbour
waxed cotton jacket are double rolled, each stitched through two thick-
nesses of fabric, ensuring that the seams are completely waterproof. Even
the thread is treated with the same secret watertight proofing formula as
the fabric itself. There's an average of 15,000 stitches and up to two hun-
dred components in each jacket. Linda Clifford

                            Converse®, America's Original Sports Company
                                         MORE than shoes.

At the turn of the 20th century, Marquis Mills Converse was in his late 30’s. He was a well-respected manager
at a footwear manufacturing firm where he’d been learning the trade since he was 21. Marquis was one of the
first to see how sports captivated the imagination of young men and women eager to make their mark on the
world. He saw, perhaps before anyone, that sports were the ideal incarnation of the American Dream. Sports
allowed any individual, regardless of his or her social status, the chance to realize their potential and become
a star. All that was required was athletic ability, a skillful mind, and the right equipment.

In 1908, Marquis founded the Converse Rubber Shoe Company to supply the day’s sporting
shoes. Marquis’s vision took a quantum leap in 1917 when he introduced the
world’s first performance basketball shoe, the All Star. Marquis then made his
next move; in 1918, he recruited a young basketball player, salesman, and the
game’s first ever player endorser, Chuck Taylor.
Chuck Taylor, who would go on to represent Converse between 1918 and 1968, figured
prominently in the evolution and popularization of basketball worldwide. In 1969, he en-
tered basketball’s Naismith Hall of Fame.

Throughout the 20th century, Converse again and again introduced to generations innovative footwear that
defined sports footwear categories and became standard issue equipment. Beyond its sports origins, Chuck
Taylor All Star shoes, popularly known as “Chucks,” have since transcended generational cultural and socio-
economic boundaries. It has evolved beyond performance into an American and global youth symbol of origi-
nality and individuality. Converse began to find its way into popular culture in the 1940’s when America’s
youth began sporting their “Chucks” off the court. Today, “Chucks” are worn by artists, musicians, trend
setters and pop culture icons. At the same time, Chuck Taylor shoes are not tied to boundaries. Converse
resonates across generations and is imbedded in society. In nearly a century, and more than 750 mil-
lion shoes later, the soul of Chuck Taylor lives on in every product Converse makes.

Converse is a story of legends, heroes, and innovators tied together by the love of sport. Estab-
lished by Marquis Mills Converse in 1908, Converse is an American athletic shoe brand with
nearly a century of authentic sports history and footwear innovation under its laces.
Through innovations, leadership, and contributions to the evolution and popularity of basketball, tennis, foot-
ball, baseball, and track, Converse has forever fused itself with the heritage and soul of American sports. Its
rich history includes the shoe that revolutionized the game of basketball, witnessed the birth of rock and roll,
and would later become an icon worldwide, the Chuck Taylor® All Star®. Converse Sports Performance,
Sports Lifestyle, and Sports Classics are built upon the pillars of American sports heritage.
Sports Performance The soul of Converse is the soul of basketball itself. This rich legacy, spanning the
evolution of basketball as we know it today, serves as the foundation of Converse’s sports performance offer-
ing. The Converse basketball collection features some of the most popular and storied basketball shoes of all
time, as well as a new generation of sports performance shoes for on-court play, each originating from the
DNA of the Converse All Star, the world’s first performance basketball shoe introduced in 1917.
Sports Lifestyle Converse is the originator of sports-inspired lifestyle shoes, bringing the essence of sports
style to everyday lifestyles. From a stroll to the local coffee shop in the morning to the hottest nightclub in
town, the Converse Sports Lifestyle collection speaks to the achievement, originality, and self expression of
those who wear them.
Sports Classics Chuck Taylor, nicknamed “Mr. Basketball”, evangelized the sport of basketball for nearly a
half-century, bringing the ideals of originality, creativity, and self expression to the world through his eyes. The
original canvas and rubber classic Converse All Star, with the Chuck Taylor name and endorsement added in
1923, is a global icon. More than 750 million pairs of All Star shoes have been sold in 144 countries.
                                Fashion Time Line
c500-400BC Before the rise of Rome, the Etruscans had the most powerful nation in ancient Italy. The
Etruscans (who called themselves the Rasenna) inhabited central Italy and greatly influenced the Romans in
terms of language, architecture and even fashion (evidence points to the toga as an Etruscan invention). Un-
fortunately, no Etruscan literary works survive, so most documentation comes from Greek and Roman liter-
ary sources as well as archaeological evidence. Their military and political power was eroded over the course
of the 5th century BC with Rome rising as the dominant power on the peninsula in the 4th century BC.
1310 May 20, Shoes began to be made for both right and left feet.
1553 Apr 29, A Flemish woman introduced to England the practice of starching linen.
1687 Feb 19, Johann Adam Birkenstock, composer and sandal designer, was born.
1715 May 4, A French manufacturer debuted the first folding umbrella.
1733 Feb 27, Johann Adam Birkenstock (46), composer and sandal designer, died.
1778 Jun 7, George Byran "Beau" Brummell, English wit, was born. He influenced men's fashion and intro-
duced trouser to replace breeches.
1784 Jun 16, Holland forbade orange clothes.
1809 Mar 4, Madison became 1st President inaugurated in American-made clothes.
1818 May 27, American reformer Amelia Jenks Bloomer, who popularized the "bloomers" garment that
bears her name, was born in Homer, N.Y.
1818 Henry Sands Brooks began H. & D.H. Brooks & Co. in mostly rural Manhattan. It became a key military
supplier during the Civil War. A 2nd store opened in 1928 and operations grew to the well known chain
known as Brooks Brothers.
1819 Jul 9, Elias Howe (d.1867), inventor of the sewing machine, was born in Spencer, Mass. Howe, a ma-
chinist, developed his sewing machine in 1843-45 and patented it in 1846. Although Howe's machine sewed
only short, straight lines, tailors and seamstresses saw it as a threat to their jobs. Unable to market his ma-
chine in America, Howe took it to Britain where he sold the rights to an English manufacturer in 1847. Upon
his return to the United States, Howe discovered that his patent had been infringed upon by other sewing
machine manufacturers, such as Isaac Singer. After a lengthy court battle, Howe's patent was upheld and roy-
alties from sewing machine sales made him a wealthy man.
1826 May 29, Ebenezer Butterick, inventor (tissue paper dress pattern), was born.
1846 Lt. Harry Lumsden in the heat of India’s Punjab dyed his PJs a tawny color. They were made of cotton
and called khaki in Hindi.
1848 Britain introduced khaki uniforms for British colonial troops in India.
1849 Apr 10, Walter Hunt, a mechanic, patented the safety pin in NYC. He sold rights for $100. Hunt’s
other inventions included a new stove, paper collar, ice-breaking boat, fountain pen and nail-making machine.
1853 Levi Strauss, Bavarian-born dry goods merchant, arrived in California. and Co. He got his start peddling
tough canvas pants to California gold miners. When his canvas ran out he switched to serge de Nimes, which
evolved into denim. [See 1873, 1874]
1857 Apr 21, Alexander Douglas patented the bustle.
1857 Jun 2, James Gibbs, Va., patented a chain-stitch single-thread sewing machine.
1873 Levi Strauss and Jacob Davis patented the rivets that adorned their miners' work pants.
1874 May 20, Levi Strauss began marketing blue jeans with copper rivets at $13.50 per doz.
1875 Jul 23, Isaac Merritt Singer (63), inventor (sewing machine), died.
1877-1957 Edna Woodman Chase, American fashion editor: Fashion can be bought. Style one must possess.
1882 Jun 6, An electric iron was patented by Henry W. Seely in NYC.
1883 Aug 19, Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel (d.1971), French fashion designer, was born: "My friends, there are
no friends."
1885 May 19, Jan Matzeliger began the 1st mass production of shoes in Lynn, Massachusetts.
1887 Mar 13, Chester Greenwood of Maine patented earmuffs.
1892 Abercrombie & Fitch, clothing retailers, began operations.
1895 May 24, Samuel I. Newhouse, US millionaire publisher (Parade, Vogue, Glamour), was born.
1896 Mar 31, Whitcomb Judson patented a hookless fastening (zipper) in Chicago.
1896 Sep 10, Elsa Schiaparelli, French fashion designer, was born.
1896 Brooks Brothers introduced button down collars after observing polo players button down their collar
points to keep them from flapping during play.
1899 Jan 24, The rubber heel was patented by Humphrey O'Sullivan.
1904 Aug 18, [Francis] Max Factor (d.1996), cosmetics manufacturer (Max Factor), was born. His father,
Max Factor (d.1938), was born in Lodz, Russia, in 1877 and came to the US with his family in 1902.
1904-1980 Cecil Beaton, English fashion photographer and costume designer: "The truly fashionable are be-
yond fashion."
1905 Jan 21, Christian Dior, fashion designer (long-skirted look), was born in Normandy, France.
1905 Jul 2, Jean-Rene Lacoste, tennis champ, alligator shirt designer, was born in France.
1907 Oct 28, Edith Head, fashion designer for MGM, was born.
1908 Jul 1, Estee Lauder, CEO of Estee Lauder's cosmetics, was born.
1908 Marquis Mills Converse founded the Converse shoe company. In 1917 the All-Stars basketball shoe
was introduced. In 1923 it was renamed the Chuck Taylor All-Star. In 2003 the company was sold to Nike.
1909 Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel opened her 1st shop, a millinery, in Paris.
1910 Coco Chanel (1883-1971), French fashion designer, moved to Rue Cambon, Paris.
1914 May 18, Pierre A Balmain, fashion designer (1940's "New Look"), was born in France.
1914 Nov 20, Emilio Pucci, fashion designer (Neiman-Marcus Award-1954), was born in Naples.
1917 Jun 16, Irving Penn, fashion photographer, brother of film director Arthur Penn, was born.
1919 May 25, Madame C.J. Walker (51), wealthy cosmetics manufacturer, died. In 2003 Beverly Lowry au-
thored "Her Dream of Dreams: The Rise and Triumph of Madame C.J. Walker."
1921 Guccio Gucci (1881-1953) and his wife, Aida, opened their 1st store in Florence following a number
of years in London. Their son, Aldo, later built the Gucci brand into a global snob-appeal powerhouse. In
2000 Sara Gay Forden authored "The House of Gucci."
1922 Jun 22, Bill Blass (d.2002), fashion designer, was born in Fort Wayne, Ind.
1922 Jul 7, Pierre Cardin, fashion designer (Unisex), was born in Paris, France.
1922 Aug 8, Rudi Gernreich, designer (1st women's topless swimsuit, miniskirt), was born in Vienna, Austria.
1923 May 25, John Weitz, spy, author, fashion designer (Friends in High Places), was born.
1923 May 28, US Attorney General said it is legal for women to wear trousers anywhere.
1923 Aug 3, Anne Klein, fashion designer (Anne Klein II), was born.
1923 Coco Chanel launched Chanel No. 5 perfume in Paris.
1923 Barney Pressman pawned his wife's wedding ring in NYC to lease a Seventh Ave. store selling dis-
counted men's suits. In 1993 Barney's opened a $270 million Madison Ave. showcase store.
1924 Feb 20, Gloria Vanderbilt, fashion designer, was born.
1927 Feb 21, Hubert de Givenchy, fashion designer, was born in Beauvais, France.
1927 Aug 30, Geoffrey Beene, dress designer (8 Coty Awards), was born in Louisiana.
1928 Jan 17, Vidal Sassoon, hair stylist/CEO (Vidal Sassoon), was born in London.
1928 Dec 13, The clip-on tie was designed.
1928 "Levi's" became a trademark. Walter Haas Sr. succeeded Sigmund Stern, the nephew of Levi Strauss, as
1929 Jan 26, San Francisco police took Frances Orlando (19) to the Bush Police Station because she was
dressed in men's clothing.
1931 Ellery J. Chun (d.2000 at 91) designed the 1st Hawaiian aloha shirt for mass-production and sale at his
family’s store in Honolulu. He put a trademark to the aloha shirt name in 1936.
1931 Willis & Geiger Outfitters were awarded a US Army & Air Force contract for A-2 flight jackets.
1932 Apr 23, Halston, [R Halston Frowick], fashion designer (1972 Hall of Fame), was born.
1932 Sep 11, Valentino, fashion designer for Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, was born in Milan, Italy.
1934 Feb 11, Mary Quant, fashion designer (Chelsea Look, Mod Look), was born in Kent, England.
1934 May 23, Wallace Carothers manufactured the 1st nylon, polymer 66.
1937 Feb 16, Wallace H. Carothers, a research chemist for Du Pont who invented nylon, received a patent
for the synthetic fiber. It would replace silk in a number of products and reduce costs. [see 1930] In 2000
Susannah Handley authored "Nylon: The Story of a Fashion Revolution."
1938 Levi Strauss & Co. registered its cloth pocket tab as its trademark.
1939 Oct 14, Ralph Lauren, fashion designer (Chaps), was born.
1939 Bra makers first started using cup sizes.
1940 May 15, Nylon stockings went on general sale for the first time in the United States.
1942 Nov 19, Calvin Klein, fashion designer (Calvin Klein Jeans, CK), was born in Bronx, NYC.
1945 Jun 27, Norma Kamali, dress designer (Costumes for the Wiz), was born in NYC.
1945 Peter Haas Sr. joined Levi. He later became president.
1946 Jul 5, The bikini bathing suit, created by former civil engineer Louis Reard, made its debut during a fash-
ion show at the Molitor Pool in Paris. Model Micheline Bernardini wore the skimpy two-piece outfit. Its name
correlated with the July 1 American atom bomb test on Bikini Atoll. Réard wanted his design to have a similar
explosive affect. According to New York Times columnist William Safire, the swimsuit caused more debate,
concern and condemnation than the atomic bomb.
1946 Dec 2, Gianni Versace, fashion designer (Versace), was born.
1947 Christian Dior premiered his 1st post was collection. It was dubbed "The New Look" and "Bar" suit for
1948 Oct 2, Donna Karan, fashion designer (Coty Award-1977), was born in Forest Hills, NY.
1950 Hazel Bishop (d.1998 at 92) formed Hazel Bishop Inc. to manufacture and market her kiss proof lipstick.
It was introduced in the summer at $1 a tube.
1950 Martha Matilda Harper (b.1857), Canadian-born hair-care businesswoman, died. She was probably the
1st person to perfect the franchise system of business organization.
1951 May 8, Dacron men's suits were introduced.
1951 Armi Ratia, Finnish designer, expanded her husband's printing business into a fashionable "total work of
art" business (Gesamtkunstwerk) that became "Marimekko."
1952 Emilie Flöge, Viennese fashion designer, died. She was a long time companion of Gustav Klimt. Dr.
Wolfgang Fischer later authored "Gustav Klimt and Emilie Flöge, An Artist and His Muse."
1953 Jan 17, In SF 40 leading fashion models formed the Professional Fashion Models of SF and demanded a
$5 fee for fitting time and rehearsals.
1957 Oct 24, Christian Dior (52), French fashion magnate and inventor of the postwar "New Look," died in
Italy. He was succeeded by his favorite assistant, Yves Saint Laurent.
1960 Marc Bohan took over Dior as a fashion designer for jet setters.
1960 A Vatican rule that required women to wear head coverings in Catholic churches was repealed.
1962 Mar 1, K-Mart opened.
1969 Mar 11, Levi-Strauss started to sell bell-bottomed jeans.
1969 Apr 1, Helena Rubinstein (89), US cosmetic manufacturer, died.
1969 Aug 31, Andrew Phillip Cunanan, serial killer, was born. His victims included fashion designer Gianni
1969 Katherine Hepburn starred in "Coco," a Broadway musical based on Coco Chanel's life.
1969 Donald and Doris Fisher founded the Gap in San Francisco. In 2004 Fisher authored "Falling Into the
Gap: The Story of Donald Fisher and the Apparel Icon He Created."
1970 Aug 25, Claudia Schiffer (fashion model), was born.
1970 Madge Short (d.1998 at 80) and Jane Saunders (50) co-founded The Body Shop in Berkeley. The name
was sold to Britain’s Anita Roddick in 1987 for $3.5 million.
1971 Jan 10, Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel (87), French fashion designer, died.
1971 Bebe, the SF-based women’s fashion retailer, was founded as a boutique.
1971 Levi went public.
1972 Nike Shoes began production.
1975 Aug 24, Charles H. Revson (69), US cosmetic magnate, died.
1975 Foot Locker, a division of Woolworth Stores, opened its 1st outlet.
1977 Yves St. Laurent launched the perfume Opium.
1978 Apr 2, Velcro was 1st put on the market.
1983 Karl Lagerfeld became a designer for Chanel.
1984 Levi introduced its "501 Blues" ad to jump-start jeans sales under CEO Robert Haas, the great-great-
grandnephew of founded Levi Strauss.
1984 Nike signed a 5-year contract with Michael Jordan. The Air Jordan basketball shoe was released in 1985
for $65.
1985 Apr 21, Rudi Gernreich (62), US designer (miniskirt), died.
1985 Bernard Arnault bought Dior and took the company out of bankruptcy court.
1986 Levi Strauss & Co. introduced Dockers, a line of roomy khakis aimed at baby boomers.
1987 LVMH, a fashion and luxury goods group, was created. Its initials stood for Louis Vuitton (leather lug-
gage), Moet (champagne) and Hennessy (cognac).
1990 Mar 26, Designer Halston died in San Francisco at age 57.
1990 Jun 2, Frederick Mellinger (76), founder of Fredericks of Hollywood, died.
1990 Jun 22, Florida passed a law that prohibited wearing a thong bathing suit.
1992 Nov 29, Emilio Pucci (78), Italian fashion designer (Jackie Kennedy), died. In 2000 his firm was acquired
by LVMH Moet Hennessy Louis Vuitton.
1993 Maurizio Gucci sold his remaining stake in Gucci to Investcorp, a Bahraini firm.
1994 The Gap opened its Old Navy discount clothing store in Colma, Ca.
1995 Mar 27, In Italy Maurizio Gucci (46), businessman, was shot to death in Milan. He was the last family
member to have held shares in the Gucci fashion company, now part of the Bahrain-based Investcorp. In 1997
police arrested his former wife, a psychic, a doorman, and two hitmen for their roles in the murder. In 1998
Patrizia Reggiani Martinelli (50) was convicted and sentenced to 29 years in prison. The psychic got 25, the
doorman got 26, the driver got 29 and the gunman got life.
1995 Feb 3, IBM in fashion shed its dress code in favor of casual wear.
1995 Oct 10, Paolo Gucci, entrepreneur and accessories designer, died at 64.
1996 Jun 7, Max Factor, hairstylist, died at age 91. He started the Max Factor makeup company that was
bought out by Proctor and Gamble in 1991. In March ‘96, the Max Factor Museum of Beauty in Hollywood
shut down.
1996 Aug 28, In Poland Agnieszka Kotlarska, fashion model, was knifed and killed by a thief outside her
1996 John Galliano, British designer, became chief designer for Dior. In 1999 he introduced the saddle bag
1996 Levi Strauss & Co. went private again after the company bought nearly 1/3 of its stock for $4.3 billion.
1997 Jul 15, Gianni Versace, Italian fashion designer, was shot to death outside his home in Miami Beach, Fla.
Police were searching for Andrew Philip Cunanan, 27, of San Diego as the primary suspect. Suspected serial
killer Andrew Phillip Cunanan, was found dead eight days later.
1997 Jul 22, More than 2,000 people gathered in Milan, Italy, for a memorial Mass for slain fashion designer
Gianni Versace; the mourners included Princess Diana and singer-songwriter Elton John.
1997 Jul 23, The search for Andrew Cunanan, the suspected killer of designer Gianni Versace and others,
ended as police found his body on a houseboat in Miami Beach, Fla., an apparent suicide.
1999 Feb 22, Levi Strauss, falling victim to a fashion generation gap, announced that it would close 11 of 22
US plants and lay off 5,900 factory workers.
1999 Jun 8, The WSJ covered the thong as a fashion statement on page 1.
1999 Aug 9, Four large apparel corporations settled out of court in a suit to end sweatshop labor in Saipan.
Nordstrom, J. Crew, Cutter & Buck and Gymboree agreed to pay $1.25 million to reimburse workers for
recruitment fees and to set up a program to monitor island contractors.
1999 Karen Kozlowski and Meg Cohen Ragas authored "Read My Lips: A Cultural History of Lipstick."
1999 Gucci under CEO Domenico De Sole purchased Yves St. Laurent for $1 billion. Gucci invited Pinault-
Printemps-Redoute (PPR), a French retail group, to buy a substantial stake in the company to prevent a hos-
tile takeover.
2001 Oct 1, Conde Nast said it would end its Mademoiselle (b.1935) fashion magazine would be published
for the last time in November.
2002 Jun 12, Bill Blass (79), fashion designer, died in New Preston, Conn.
2003 Mar 5, Sir Hardy Amies (93), Savile Row designer and self-described snob, died.
2003 Mar 11, Benetton, an Italian retailer, said it planned to attach salt-grain sized microchip transmitters to
clothing at its 5,000 stores.
2003 Jul 9, It was reported that processed fish skin was making it in the fashion world. The Scottish fashion
company Skini recently launched a line of salmon-skin bikinis.
2003 Sep, Carlo Benetton sold his 11,000 acre Buffalo Ranch to the state of Texas for use by the prison sys-
2003 Michael J. Silverstein and Neil Fiske authored "Trading Up: The New American Luxury." It described a
"new kind of emotional engagement" for consumers and business leaders.
2003 Gladys Perint Palmer authored "Fashion People."
2004 Jan 24, Helmut Newton (83), fashion photographer, died in a car accident in LA.
2004 Feb 25, Tom Ford presented his last Gucci collection.
2004 Apr 24, Estee Lauder (b.1906), cosmetics pioneer whose pots of potions and tubs of moisturizers have
turned the clock back for millions of faces across the globe, died in NYC.
2004 Jun 11, Egon von Furstenberg (57), a Swiss-born aristocrat known as the "prince of high fashion,” died
in Rome.

1997 Richard Avedon, American fashion photographer: I think charm is the ability to be truly interested in
other people.

1997 Stephen Jay Gould (d.2002): In the heat of immediate enthusiasm, we often mistake transient fashion for
permanent enlightenment.
                                            Tom Ford
                           Born in Texas in 1962, Tom Ford went on to become arguably the most influential
                           designer of the last decade. Having initially trained as an actor, he studied interior
                           architecture at Parsons School of Design until 1986, and went on to take positions
                           at Perry Ellis and Cathy Hardwick, before joining Gucci in 1990.
                           Ford was hired by Gucci's then creative director Dawn Mello as chief women's
                           ready-to-wear designer, and later appointed design director. When, in 1994, Gucci
                           was acquired by a Bahrain-based investment firm called Investcorp, Ford was pro-
                           moted to creative director and moved to Milan with his partner, journalist Richard
                           In his first year at the helm, he was credited with putting the glamour back into fash-
                           ion introducing Halston-style velvet hipsters, skinny satin shirts and car-finish metal-
                           lic patent boots. In 1995, he brought in French stylist Carine Roitfeld and photogra-
pher Mario Testino to create a series of new, modern ad campaigns for the company. By 1999, the house,
which had been almost bankrupt when Ford joined, was valued at about $4.3 billion. "We didn't even have a
photocopier at one stage," he admits. "We didn't have any paper." In 2000, Ford was named Best International
Designer at the first VH1/Vogue Awards in New York.
After Gucci bought a controlling stake in Yves Saint Laurent, Ford was appointed creative director of YSL,
too, and communications director of the house's ready-to-wear business, while continuing to design for
Gucci. A mighty challenge certainly, but Ford was adamant he could keep the two labels distinct. "Historically,
[Gucci] is Sophia Loren. Yves Saint Laurent is Catherine Deneuve. They're both sexy," he told British Vogue in
February 2001. "It's just that Gucci is a little more obvious than Saint Laurent. The YSL woman might tie her
boyfriend up and drip hot wax on him before they have sex, for instance. The Gucci woman is just going to
have sex."
Ford believes that he owes his success not to talent, but to his energy. He admits to sleeping just two or
three hours per night, keeping post-it notes beside the bed in case he wakes up with an idea. "There are many
more talented designers than me," he once told an audience at the V&A in London. "But I have a lot of drive
and won't let it go." He also credits his "mainstream" appeal. "I'm lucky, I have mass-market tastes," he says.
"When I say I like a shoe, generally thousands of people will like it. Thank God, because I would have been a
very unhappy person if I hadn't had this kind of success."
But others see it quite differently, saying that Ford's secret is the combination of a fine commercial sensibility
and a genuine feel for fashion: in his former role at Gucci, he designed shoes, watches, luggage and men's and
womenswear as well as planning the company's advertising campaigns and overseeing the development of
their two new fragrances, Envy and Rush.
Celebrity fans of Ford's style include Madonna, Bianca Jagger and Trudie Styler ("Well, he's perfect, isn't he?
He's like Sting, he doesn't do small talk. He doesn't always give very much of himself, so you want more.").
But Ford's ultimate sign of approval came from his mother, who was heard to demand her YSL discount card
after watching his first runway show for the house.
In April 2004, Ford parted company with the Gucci group after he and CEO Domenico de Sole, who is cred-
ited as Ford's partner in the success story that is Gucci, failed to agree with PPR bosses over creative control
of the Group. His final show for YSL was a celebrity-studded affair as fans, including fellow designers Diane
Von Furstenberg, Valentino and Stella McCartney gathered to support and celebrate Ford's work.
Having made no secret of the fact that he didn't expect to be designing forever, Ford was rumoured to be
making a beeline for Hollywood when his Gucci reign came to an end. Included on his list of lifetime to-dos
are having children (although work commitments and his longtime partner Richard Buckley are currently con-
spiring against him) and making a film. "That is the ultimate design project," he says.

"You don't just get to design what people wear, but you design the whole world and whether
characters get to live or die. There is a permanence to film that fashion lacks." Ford on film

To resuscitate itself, Estee Lauder has signed a deal with uber-designer Tom Ford to create a line of Estee
Lauder branded fragrances as well as a Tom Ford brand. Estee Lauder Brand President hopes Ford can do for
his company what Ford did for ailing Gucci, turning Gucci around from near bankruptcy to a $4.3 billion pow-
erhouse. WPP Group's JWT will be on hand to help.
                            Born in Hamburg in 1938, Karl Lagerfeld emigrated to Paris at the age of 14. He
                            was to go on to become one of the most celebrated designers this century has

                            In 1955, at the age of just 17, Lagerfeld was awarded a position at Pierre Balmain,
                            after winning a competition sponsored by the International Wool Secretariat (the
                            coat he had designed for the contest was later put into production by Balmain). In
                            1958, he left to take up a job with Jean Patou, which gave him an invaluable knowl-
                            edge of couture but apparently very little pleasure. After just one year, he quit to
                            work as a freelance designer for such fashion houses as Krizia, Charles Jourdan
                            and Valentino. By 1964, he had grown so disillusioned with the world of haute
                            couture that he left Paris altogether to study art in Italy.

In 1967, Lagerfeld returned to fashion, joining Fendi as a design consultant. In the Seventies, however, his
name was more closely associated with the house of Chloe, where he was given carte blanche to produce
exquisite floaty and feminine ready-to-wear collections which claimed to rival contemporary couture. His
1972 Deco collection, which consisted of black and white prints and clever bias-cutting, brought him world-
wide acclaim. He produced his last collection for Chloe - now designed by Phoebe Philo - in 1983 to move to
Chanel (though he did return briefly in 1993, to replace outgoing designer Martine Sitbon).

At the same time as taking on the title of director of collections and ready-to-wear at Chanel, Lagerfeld
launched his own-name label, now synonymous with strong tailoring, combining easy-to-wear cardigan jackets
in his favourite bright colours and softly shaped knitwear to create what he describes as "intellectual sexi-
ness". Meanwhile his designs for the super-chic French fashion house, a fusion of pre-war Chanel and contem-
porary trends, carried the label to the pinnacle of high fashion in the Eighties and Nineties. Notable moments
of his career at Chanel include teaming the traditional box jacket with denim mini skirts in 1991, combining
club-influenced black fishnet bodystockings with the traditional Chanel camellia placed cheekily over the
breasts and matching hefty lace-up boots with flowing georgette skirts and leather jackets. By 1997, Vogue had
crowned him the "unparalleled interpreter of the mood of the moment".

Despite moving from label to label, Lagerfeld has managed to retain a sense of his own style throughout his
career. His success lies in an ability to make a bold statement and he is never afraid to try something new. He
has also maintained a sense of humour throughout his designing that has produced such legendary pieces as a
shower-dress, with beaded water streaming down the front; a car-dress with a radiator grille and fender, and
a multitude of outstandingly eccentric hats, from armchairs to cream cakes, translating Chanel trademarks
such as the quilted handbag into a range of seasonal must-haves, including the handbag earring, the handbag
hat, the doll-sized shoulder bag, the quilted hip bag, the quilted Alice band and the outsize baguette bag.

He also enjoys a range of outside interests, including languages (he speaks fluent German, English, French and
Italian and has expressed a desire to learn Spanish), illustration, antiques and photography (he was responsible
for producing Visionaire 23: The Emperor's New Clothes, a series of nude portraits, starring South African model
David Miller) and describes himself as an "intelligent opportunistic" and "professional dilettante".

                                 "What I enjoy about the job is the job."
                               Christopher Bailey
               Christopher Bailey was born in West Yorkshire, England in 1972, his father was a carpenter
               father and his mother was a visual designer for Marks and Spencers. His grandmother was
               Italian, from whom he believes he got his love of fashion. At 18 years old, he won a place in a
               two-year fashion course at the Royal College of Art in London.
               Fortune favoured him when Donna Karan visited the college and asked him to work for her. In
               1990 he joined her house in New York and remained there for 2.1/2 years. He was the right-
               hand man to Peter Speliopoulos, who was designing for Donna Karan. He says he learned a
               great deal at that time.
In 1993, Tom Ford met him and offered him a place with Gucci and Christopher ended up working 5.1/2
years with Ford, from 1995 to 2001. He feels his time under Tom Ford was very valuable and he learned a lot.

Being at heart British, Christopher then wanted to work with a designer in the U.K. His opportunity came
when Rose Marie Bravo, the owner of Burberry, offered him the design job. He joined Burberry in June 2001.
You can read all about the house of Burberry by clicking here.
His runway debut for Burberry was a relaxed presentation in a Milan palazzo that had playfulness as well as a
return to Burberry's British roots. He has built on that concept while revamping the influences with contem-
porary silhouettes, fabrics and finishes.
Bailey has also overseen the start-up of Burberry's immense 57th Street New York flagship store, opened in
Fall 2002. This will enable Burberry and Bailey to move into the US market with a bang.

Bailey presented his Spring/Summer Prorsum 2003 collection for Burberry in Milan in September 2002.
He picked up the military/sport theme and managed to make something really different, matching cashmere
jog pants with mesh jackets. He used the new Burberry check scaled up in soft green, on a shrunken jacket
that looked like an old friend.

Bailey showed his Autumn/Winter 2003 collection for Burberry at the London Fashion
Week during February 2003.
Burberry is one of the largest and most broadly based fashion brands in the world. Bailey
used flashbacks from the 1980's for his Fall show. He didn't use the famous Burberry plaid
much, but he made a printed nylon raincoat with an English country scene on it. Plenty of
neat little jackets and stretch-chiffon dresses were shown. He also came up with some cool
sweaters in blocks of New Age stripes.
He also showed his own collection in the same week.

                                                                                Spring/Summer Prorsum 2003
                                        Marc Jacobs
                     Marc Jacobs was born in New York in 1960, the son of two theatrical agents. His father
                     died when he was only 7 years old. He went to live with his grandmother, who taught
                     him how to knit. He attended Parsons School of Design, and in his final year (1984) cre-
                     ated a collection of handknit sweaters (made by his grandmother) which won him the
                     Perry Ellis Golden Thimble award. He spent his formative years shuttling between school
                     and Studio 54, the Manhattan Disco.
                     After graduating, he designed under his own label for two years, creating irreverent take-
                     offs of 60's hippie style clothing and versions of patchwork and gingham.
                     In 1984, he became the youngest designer ever to be awarded the Council of Fashion
                     Designers of America's prize for new talent.

In 1988, he joined PERRY ELLIS where he became known for a youthful, witty style which showed confident
use of colour and spare silhouettes. He created a red and white tablecloth check ensemble embroidered with
black ants, and a Freudian 'slip' imprinted with Freud's face. He was also well-known for his 1992 'grunge' col-
lection which in fact caused he and Perry Ellis to part company.
He left Perry Ellis in 1993, He went back todesigning under his own label. He favours sensuous fabrics such as
angora, cashmere and mohair and will occasionally surprise with neon rubber separates and laminated se-
quined jeans. In 1997, he was voted Womenswear Designer of the Year by the CFDA.
In 1997, he won the design job at Louis Vuitton, the elegant French luggage maker. He has introduced modern
pop and kisch into their sedate image. Stella Tennant, fashion model, said "Marc's shows are always fun to do -
and I love his clothes."
He also makes what the New York Times calls his 'caviar clothes' for the up market women. Here Naomi
Campbell is wearing powder grey cashmere vest and flat fronted trousers. Rich women in the 30's are at-
tracted to his witty update of the Vuitton brand that has been carried by generations before them.
Robert Duffy is Jacobs business partner, who has worked with him from his earliest days at Perry Ellis. Louis
Vuitton is owned by LVMH of Arnault Bernard, the same owner of Givenchy and Dior. LVMH appointed Ja-
cobs to the helm of Vuitton giving him responsibility for launching the ready-to-wear collections, and adding
new accessories to the existing lines.
Marc Jacobs has now moved to Paris, although he prefers working in his New York studio. His Paris studio is
just steps away from the Louvre and Notre Dame Cathedral. He says "Paris is a splendid city but it lacks New
York's energy, it has no youth culture."
Marc Jacobs is just the person to propel the 154 year old company into the future. Vuitton, an impeccable but
rather conservative leather-goods house, is now one of the world's most sought-after fashion labels.
In the year 2000/2002, the city of New York decided to honour 24 American fashion designers by placing
bronze plaques along the pavement of 7th Avenue, the great street of fashion in New York. This has been
called the "FASHION WALK OF FAME." Marc Jacobs was one of those honoured with a plaque.

               Spring/Summer 2003
               Marc showed his own Spring/Summer 2003 collection at the New York Fashion Week in Sep-
               tember 2002, which was greeted with aclaim. This dress is from that collection.
               He had a 1950's theme, with lady-like dresses and pencil slim skirts and gave some dresses a
               sly sexy lingerie look.

Autumn/Winter 2003 Ready-to-Wear
New York - February 2003
The outfit on the right is one from the Autumn/Winter collection.
This season Marc was feeling very mod. He showed a colour-splashed ode to pop and the 60's
Courreges space-age designs. Minidresses and jumpers in patchwork came dashing down the
runway. Silver fur-trimmed parkas and boxy wool jackets are this seasons must-have outerwear.
Even his evening gowns were cheerful and chock-full of energy and colour.
                Spring/Summer 2004
                Marc Jacobs's collection for this season was shown during New York Fashion Week in Sep-
                tember 2003. An outfit from the show is shown here on the left
                He carried on the romance with the fifties, opening with cotton suits with cropped trousers or
                rolled-up shorts. He followed with a selection of sun-bleached floral patterned dresses. There
                was a touch of twenties flapper glamour in jeweled chiffon minidresses.
                If you would like to see the reviews and pictures of Marc's collection for Louis Vuitton, click
                New Face
                It has been announced the Juergen Teller, the famous photographer, has shot the next set of
                Jacobs ads using the face of British actress Charlotte Rampling.

                                                                                Fall/Winter 2004
                     The Fall collection was shown during New York Fashion Week in February
                2004. Marc is the favourite not only in New York, but for the whole world. His
  pastel coloured tweed coats, his printed and pin-tucked silk blouses, lace-covered dresses all
  in superb fabrics and whispery soft colours made the audience rave. His evening gowns were
                                                       tumbling cascades of chiffon in jewel tones.
                 Oscar Night February 2004
                 Sophia Coppola was the first American woman nominated for the Best Direc-
                 tor Academy Award. She lost that, but won the Oscar for the Best Original
                 Screenplay for her film "Lost in Translation". She is great friends with Marc
                 Jacobs and wore his beautiful gown shown on the left, on the Oscar Awards
                 Night in February 2004.
                 Staying with LVMH
                 In May, Marc Jacobs confirmed that he had signed a new contract with LVMH
                 for ten years. He issued an emotional statement that Bernard Arnault had
                 helped him considerably and his loyalty was never in question. We will therefore be seeing his
                 designs at Louis Vuitton for many years to come.
                 In August 2004, Marc celebrated the opening of his latest US store in Boston. The theme was
                 the Olympics which were going on at the time, and Marc himself was decked out in fencing
                 kit. This year he will open stores in Los Angeles, Shanghai and Chicago.

                                                                             Spring/Summer 2005
   During New York Fashion Week in September 2004, Marc Jacobs presented his Spring collec-
                                               tion. A dress from the show is pictured on the right.
    His usual front row full of celebrities greeted a collection of eye-delighting colours like parrot
   blue, azure, hot pink and purple (sometimes in the same outfit) on first-rate sportswear which
   will be seen on the streets next spring. For parties, he went for shredded and stitched organza
             ruffle dresses, decoated so densely that looked like the plumage of a bird of paradise.
In early October, Jacobs presented the collection for Spring 2005 for the house of Louis Vuitton.

         Fall/Winter 2005
         The Marc Jacobs Fall/Winter collection was shown during New York Fashion Week in
         February 2005. These were clothes for girls who lead fairy tale lives, and his audience
         included many of them such as Uma Therman and Drew Barrymore. He presented
         nubby black jackets and mid-calf length floating navy skirts. He is experimenting with
         volume this season and Trapeze line coats hung from shoulders. Another theme was embellishments
         and he tried tattered collars on jackets and knit caps veiled with lace.
                                        Phoebe Philo

               Although British Phoebe Philo was born in Paris in 1973. Her father was a property developer
               and her mother a graphic designer. She graduated in 1996 from Central St. Martins fashion
               college in London, a training ground for Alexander McQueen and John Galliano, before her.
               In 1997, she joined the Paris house of Chloe (click here for more details) and worked as num-
               ber two to Stella McCartney. In April 2001, when Stella left to start her own label, Phoebe
               Philo took over as chief designer for Chloe, a French house started in the 1950's known for
               it's ultra-feminine frilly romantic clothes.

She presented her first collection for Chloe, for Spring/Summer 2002 and it was a wild success. Here is one of
the dresses from the collection. She has now proved that she has the creative ability to run Chloe on her
own. Over the years, there have been rumours that many of the successes of Chloe have been due to the
designs of Phoebe rather than Stella but that can now all be forgotten.
Phoebe has many plans for Chloe, including boutiques for lingerie and perfumes, as well as swimwear. She
wants to have a boutique in every major city in the world.
Phoebe Philo presents the Chloe collections every season during Paris Fashion Week. To read all about
Chloe click here.
On a personal note, Phoebe and her partner art curator Max Wigram, had a baby girl Maya in early 2005.

Designer of the Year
At the British Fashion Awards in November 2004 in London, Phoebe was named Designer of the Year. She is
credited with increasing sales at Chloe by 40 percent since last season.

                Spring/Summer 2003
                Phoebe presented the Chloe Spring/Summer 2003 collection in Paris in October 2002 which
                was very well received. On the left is an outfit from that collection.

                                                                             Fall/Winter 2003
                     Phoebe Philo presented the Chloe Fall collection during Paris Fashion
                           Week in March 2003. The outfit on the right is from that show.
                  Chloe has now reached the half century mark. To celebrate the 50 year
                anniversary, they have set up a new London superstore, which symbolizes
                    the airy lightness of a brand that is as girlish as it's name. It is feminine,
                  sexy, young and with a sense of gracefulness. This store will be followed
                     in 2003 by one in Monte Carle and a second Paris boutique as well as
                      stores in Hong Kong, Milan and Tokyo. Ultimately a penetration into
                                                                               China is planned.

              Spring/Summer 2004
              During Paris Fashion Week in October 2003, Phoebe Philo showed her
              Chloe collection for next Spring. An outfit from this collection is shown on
              the left.
              Phoebe exercised her knack for sexy designer denim. She worked in dressy Frenchified eyelet
              and lace that has been a signature of this label since the 60s. She presented Fiorucci-era banana
              prints for off the should tees and swimsuits. She herself was a great model dressed in Chloe
              jeans and a gauzy blue top.
                    Fall/Winter 2004 ready-to-wear
                    Phoebe Philo presented her Chloe Fall collection in Paris during Fashion Week in March
                    2004. She showed town and country styling, masculine trousers, camel coats (like that
                    shown on the right), cable knits and fifties style dresses. She always cuts with a careful eye
                    for how the back view will look. Her wide-leg cuffed trousers were flattering, a point she
                    proved by wearing a pair at the end of the show. He showed many of her favourite tops,
                    gathered under the bust camisoles, which lighten up pants or jeans. Philo has a breezy cool
                    grasp of what young women really want to wear.

                                                                        Spring/Summer 2005
                      During Paris Fashion Week in October 2004, Phoebe Philo showed her
                       Chloe collection for next Spring. A dress from this collection is shown
                                                                                      on the left.
                      Phoebe has understood exactly what women want to wear in summer.
Ultra-light fabrics, volume with pleats, flat layers or ruffles, easy shapes and soft greens and
     blues. The waves and colours of the sea were in her loose satin dresses, washed silks,
                   tiered skirts and tiny jackets. The show was as fresh and light as a breeze.

         Autumn/Winter 2005
         Phoebe Philo's Autumn/Winter collection for the house of Chloe was shown
         during Paris Fashion Week in March 2005. One of her soft creations with beribboned neckline is
         shown on the right. Chloe always has an easy flow, an effortless blend of prettiness and style. She
         had to leave her work 3 months ago to have her daughter Maya, and so her design team took the
         bows, with Phoebe in the front row. The clothes were the usual Chloe best sellers, canvas Victoirian
         jackets, cool navy and black coats, wide leg pants, soft chiffon dresses
                                       John Galliano

              In 1961 Juan Carlos Antonio Galliano was born in Gibraltar of Spanish parents Anita and Juan
              Carlos Galliano. In 1966 his parents emigrated to London with Juan and two daughters. He
              attended Wilsons Grammar School and excelled in languages. While doing his A levels, he took
              up textiles and put together a portfolio to present to St. Martins College of art. He was ac-
He experimented with bias cutting, reviving and refining it. He worked with Tommy
Nutter, in Savile Row, London's famous tailors street. He noticed that sleeves swung
forwards, as if cut on the curve, so that you could really move your arms. He began
cutting sleeves in a spiral so that his armholes could be neat and even cut trousers
on the bias to make legs look slender.
During 1983 at the Victoria and Albert Museum costume archives,they allowed John
to spend time sketching and examining dresses by Vionnet and other classic design-
ers and he kept this research secret.

In 1984 his graduation collection at St. Martins was 8 garments called "Les Incroy-
ables" a fantastic, impeccably produced series of garments based on French Revolu-
tionary garments of the 1790's. Joan Burstein of Browns, snapped up all the dresses
and put them in her window. They sold out at once, one was bought by singer Diana
Ross. John was offered a job in New York, but just as he was leaving, Joan Burstein
called him for a repeat order. He and his friends made the garments at top speed and he was on his way to
In 1985 while designing clothes for the album cover of Malcolm McLaren's Madame Butterfly, he met Amanda
Grieve (later Lady Harlech) who was a fashion stylist noted for originality. They worked together on a series
of exotic collections with names like "Afghanistan repudiates Western Ideals" and "Fallen Angels" or "Blanche
du Bois" or "Lucid Game". She has remained his great friend and a muse who takes an active part in his crea-
tive process, accessorising his extraordinary clothes with frail twiggy birdsnest hats and shoes like 18th cen-
In 1986 Galliano created a scissor dress cut to cross in front of the body to form a basque at the hip. In 1988
he created a disappearing lapel on a jacket, followed by an L-shaped skirt and a "winking" seam which opened
at intervals to expose flesh.
In 1988 he was named British Designer of the Year.
During the late 80's, he worked out of a studio in Parsons Green, London and worked hard, sleeping under
his cutting table. He found himself adrift, and packed up and left for Paris. There a friend lent him studio space
and Andre Leon Talley, creative director of American Vogue, took him under his wing and introduced him to
everyone important in Paris.
In 1989, he started presenting collections of slinky bias cut Dresses. In 1992 John Galliano presented his
"Princess Lucretia" collection with extravagant crinolines.
                          His 1994 collection was financed by John Bult, Swiss Chairman of Paine Webber In-
                          ternational, an investment bank. It was held in the Paris mansion of Portuguese social-
                          ite Sao Schlumberger. She has been dressed by Dior and Chanel, but says "Galliano is
                          a great designer". The show made fashion headlines and had buyers rushing to order.
                          Galliano says "we had time to show only 17 outfits but each was perfect.
                          He did a trunk show in New York for Bergdorf Goodman and Galliano fever was at
                          such a pitch, that super models Naomi Campbell, Lindia Evangelista and others did his
                          show. Linda said " If I had money I'd back him."
                          In 1995, John Galliano presented his "Back to the 40's" Collection. He also dressed
                          Diana, Princess of Wales in a dark blue lace-edged evening gown.

                       Bernard Arnault, president of LVMH, owns the couture houses of Lacroix, Dior and
                       Givenchy. The aristocratic Hubert de Givenchy had run his house for 43 years but
                       Arnault wanted a radical update so he chose Galliano to revitalize Givenchy. Galliano
and Givenchy share one thing, their dedication to their craft. Galliano tried for years to express his complex
ideas of cutting and draping against great odds. Those who expected Galliano to trash Givenchy were wrong.
Among daytime clothes were several homages to the old master, suits with belted jackets, one charming
dress with bows on the pockets and he even named a sleek black gown "Audrey Hepburn" after Givenchy's
famous client.
In 1996 Galliano's two collections for Givenchy were great successes. Then another surprise, after only one
year, Bernard Arnault moved Galliano over to Dior. In his Autumn/Winter 1997 collection, he dresses his
models in beaded dog collars going back to those worn by Queen Alexander 90 years ago.
Galliano Style
                       He has managed to balance fantasy and classicism, which is very difficult to achieve. Gal-
                       liano raids history for ideas. From the Highlands of Scotland to the Russian steppes,
                       from thirties style sleek evening gowns, to kilts, tulle ball gowns, farthingales, frock
                       coats, hourglass silhouettes, even 1940's gangster garb.
                       His interpretation is unique, with a highly defined sense of the theatrical, and his techni-
                       cal skills are thoroughly modern. He has trained himself in the craft of fashion, not only
                       the art.

                        His garments have a tremendous sense of romance and whimsical charm, coupled with
                        precision tailoring. His exquisite slip dresses, floating ball gowns or exotically tailored
                        suits, float above fashion, remarkable in their unashamed loveliness.
                        He also depends on a team of superbly artistic designers for his accessories, Stephen
                        Jones for hats, Manolo Blahnik for shoes, Odile Gilber for hair styles and Stephenie
                        Marais for make up. They all seem to adore him and his clothes. John also gives chances
to young designers to work with him. Parisienne Vanessa Bellanger is one of his assistants at present.
For Spring 2001 John Galliano as always, came out with a dramatic show, getting his inspiration from cartoon
characters. He made the models walk the runway in tribes in clothes with great sex appeal.
2001 Late in the year, John Galliano was awarded a C.B.E. by Queen Elizabeth of England, for his services to
fashion. When word got out, there was great speculation as to what outrageous clothes he would wear for
the ceremony. However, he was quite sober, only wearing the customary morning coat made by Brioni but
without a shirt underneath. It was the eve of his 41st birthday.
Each collection is more sumptuous and creative than the previous one. His autumn/winter 2002 was also a
wild success. The Dior look is Bohemian and reminiscent of flower-children of the 60's in multi-coloured
flowing chiffon dresses.
Spring/Summer 2003
              In addition to the Dior collection, Galliano presented his own Spring/Summer 2003 collection in
              Paris in October 2002 which was very well received. This is an outfit from that collection. The
              collection was tremendously colourful and the inspiration was the 80's club icon Leigh Bowery.

                                                                          Fall/Winter 2003
               On the right is an outfit from the Fall collection, shown during Paris Fashion
                Week in March 2003. It is using the same runway set-up. Galliano's inspira-
              tion for this collection was 1940's style suits in a Technicolour palette. Exag-
                gerated hourglass shapes with huge bow bustles made waists look tiny and
                                                                        shoulders enormous.

                     Spring/Summer 2004
                     During Paris Fashion Week in October 2003, John Galliano showed
                     his own collection for next Spring. A dress from this collection is
                     shown on the left.
                     The inspiration this season is Brooke Shields in "Pretty Baby". This
                     enabled the not-so-innocent fantasies to be presentedas cream puffs and frills. Transpar-
                     ent sleeves, white stockings and suspenders and a two-foot hairdo were followed by
                     rosebud-print corsetry, fluttery panties and all manner of coquettish bows, rosettes and
                                               Fall/Winter 2004 ready-to-wear
      John Galliano presented his own label Fall collection in Paris during Fashion
           Week in March 2004. An outfit from the show is pictured on the right.
    Crinolines exploded with ruffles and towering constructions appeared on the
 heads of his models. This particular outfit shown on the right, has coca-cola cans
on the hat. In fact some of the models looked rather like bag-ladies wearing their
 whole wardrobe at one time. But Galliano believes in fun and spectacle, and this
collection was certainly that, he didnt leave out anything seen in the world today.
     Some of the garments will convert to saleable items on hangers, such as tiny
    form-fitting jackets, some in embroidered chamois leather. Bugle-boy military
    spencers and 18th century-style bustiers in shearling will sell well. Some great
                 knits were shown such as a cream cardigan with fluffy pom-poms.

             Spring/Summer 2005
             During Paris Fashion Week in October 2004, John Galliano showed his own collection for next
             Spring. An outfit from this collection is shown on the left.
             John's show this season was like a children's birthday party. All the models wore fluffy toy slip-
             pers, cute little straw hats, and carried balloons. Even John when he took his bow, carried a
             bunch of silver balloons out onto the catwalk with him. The romantic dottiness was standard
             Galliano, and the psychedelic prints and lush clothes matched the setting. The basic idea for the
             show was a sort of British Woodstock gathering.

                                                                               Autumn/Winter 2005
                 Galliano showed his Dior collection, which you can see by clicking through. John's
  own Autumn/Winter collection was shown during Paris Fashion Week in March 2005. He used
many inspirations, one was from the French aristocracy from the time of Marie Antoinette, which
    can be seen on the right. On the left is another outfit from the show, which has a much more
modern feel to it using wide leg pants reminiscent of the Hollywood silver screen look of the thir-
    ties. The jaunty beret and the sexy chiffon top complete the look. The models performed in a
  genuine film studio, in clothes slightly larger than life to fit with the current favourite of volume.
One of his chiffon dresses was fluttering with butterflies while a duvet coat was white and soft as a
                                                                                              snow drift.
                         JEAN-PAUL GAULTIER
               Jean-Paul Gaultier is one of the most talked about and influential couturiers in the world. His
               designs are always unusual and controversial and he is the darling of the fashion press.
               In 1952 Jean-Paul Gaultier was born in Arcueil, near Paris. He studied at the Lycee d'Arcueil.
               When only 14, in 1964 he started sketching his fashion ideas on paper. For 2-3 years, he con-
               tinued this and then in 1969 he sent designs to all the majordesigners. In 1970 on his birthday,
               24th April, he got his first response from Pierre Cardin inviting him to work with him for a year
               In 1971 Gaultier joined Jean Patou, the famous couture house, as Asst. to Michael Gomez, then
Angelo Tarlazzi. In 1973 he joined Jacques Esterel. Then in 1974 he returned to Pierre Cardin looking after
his store in the Philippines, where he designed clothes for Imelda Marcos.
In 1976 Gaultier started to manufacture the first electronic jewellery with his collaborator, Mr. Francis
In 1976 in October, he presented his first collection under his own name, at the "Palais de la Decouverte"
comprising articles such as furnishings, table sets in plaited straw.
In 1977 he started his own firm, for couture. In 1978 his first collection with partner Kashiyama. He held
twice-yearly collections of feminine wear, the most important of which, were:
Autumn/Winter 1979-1980 James Bond collection of mini-skirts, 60's looks, imitation leather, ski-pants and
Autumn/Winter 1980/1981 High Tech collection showing designs based on canned foods, rubbish bags, and
Spring/Summer 1981 Paper Summer collection using imitation wood and non-woven garments.
Autumn/Winter 1981/1982 The Sorceress collection This was of classic black designs based on horsewomen
of antiquity.
In 1981 Gaultier changed his partner and Kashiyama went back to Japan, where he still produces Gaultier
products under licence for Japan and the Far East. Sales in Italy were handled by Gibo for woven goods and
Equator for knits.

In 1984 Gaultier achieved recognition world wide with his men's collection "men in skirts" In Brigitte Bardot's
famous film "God Created Woman" men wore trousers like pencil skirts. This inspired his collection.
His 1985 Autumn/Winter collection included a Dalmation spotted hat and black and white suit. In 1987 Gault-
ier presented a silver Christmas dress of silver stretchy fabric, in icy design with futuristic sleeves.
In 1987, he won the French Fashion Oscar Award.
Finally, in 1988 his Spring/Summer collection was termed well-balanced by the press, it was a combination of
suits and sportswear ideas with his characteristic twist on convention.
In 1988 Gaultier launched his jewellery line. In 1989 his collection had several designs with a corset theme. In
1990 he designed an outfit based on the artist Degas' painting of a ballet dancer.

                            In 1990 Gaultier designs for Madonna for her world tour to promote her 'Blonde
                            Ambition ' album.
                            In 1993 Gaultier launched his perfume "Haute Perfumerie". His 1994 collection
                            showed garments suitable for Mongolian climate, yet he tempered the arctic look
                            with searing colours and printed shirts. Other outfits in 1994 include the Oriental
                            look, in crushed velvet, a tuxedo in navy wool, and linen jackets.

                              In 1996 Gaultier designed all the costumes for the film "Fifth
                              In 1996 He presented his cowboy designs along with other
                              outfits and also a layered look of multi-coloured scarves.
                              Gaultier's Fall/Winter 1997 collection melds innovative
                              shapes with sumptuous, often richly detailed materials. The
                              effect is striking, and very cutting edge.
In 1997 Gaultier Jeans were made in Tencil. His 1997 collection included a sumptuous gown with huge tulle
skirt and embroidered overskirt. Also a dragon dress in red crepe with boned printed bustier.
For Fall 2002 he says: "I wanted to make men more sensitive, more sensual, more seductive and women more
expressive in their clothing, more daring." He designed garments based on the roman toga, the sari, the ki-
mono, 70's rock stars wearing ruffled shirts, and many more inspirations.
Gaultier does not like primary colours, he prefers ivory and half tones. His images are tiny but sacrilegious, his
cut a little better, his vision breathtaking. He is a designer who has made his reputation by attaching 12" coni-
cal breasts to Madonna and putting men in Lycra jumpsuits covered in small diamond shape mirrors.
As his fantasies wing their way down the runway, you see Backless T-shirts, cutaway jackets with more space
between than fabric, a riot of prints, insanely skirted mens pants and beautiful women.
Very little is what one would expect. This sets him apart from other controversial designers. He starts with
some classic point, something people are familiar with like a blazer, or a chemise, then he deforms it, knots it,
stamps on it, but retains its classic shape.
Gaultier's vision of 21st century clothing is spray-on disposable clothes, seamless and without openings. To
take it off, one would pull firmly and throw away.
According to Gaultier, our clothing has not changed drastically up till the 20th century, and styles and con-
struction have not kept pace with advances in technology. He says changes are imminent. He will probably be
the designer putting them into practice.

                Jean-Paul Gaultier presented his Spring/Summer 2003 collection during Paris Fashion Week in
                October 2002 which was very well received. This is an outfit from that
                collection. His inspiration this time was the mobile sculptures of Alexan-
                der Calder, a concept he worked into a frenzy of visual quips about
                strings and suspension.
                                                  Haute Couture - Spring/Summer 2003
                 Gaultier presented a mother-of-pearl collection for Haute Couture Spring
                       2003 in Paris in January 2003. His mastery of couture made his show
                   gleaming with spider's webs, Pocohontas in Africa look, a flowing bustier
                 robe in a Degas print and a remarkable Panama hat which became a cardi-
                     His show was full of surprises, and the crowd whooped it up. 2 French
                                       first ladies were present M. Chirac and M. Pompidou.
                  Jean-Paul has taken over the YSL mantle as the king of Paris Couture and
   he even used YSL's favourite model Laetitia Casta, to close his show in a pearl-buttoned
                                                                         mini wedding dress.

                  Fall/Winter 2003 Ready-to-Wear
                  Jean-Paul Gaultier's Fall show, held during Paris Fashion Week in March 2003, was first of all
                  a play on dolls clothes or kiddy wear.
                  He toyed with the baby-doll look but then went into the great pieces that show his work. A
                  lot of these were furs, like a big knitted sweatshirt pulled over a short cheerleader skirt. His
                  signature striped jersey with a swathed neck and wide sleeves reminded us of his couture
                  collection. His olive ski jacket with webbing straps and clips is a Fall classic.

                                                               Oscar Night 2003
    For Oscar night 2003, in March, Nicole Kidman who won Best Actress award,
wore Jean-Paul Gaultier's black gown with slipping shoulder straps. It is shown here
                                                                         on the right.

Hermes have financed Jean-Paul Gaultier since 1999, to the extent of 35 % of his company. In May 2003, they
announced that Gaultier would become the chief designer at the house of Hermes, replacing Martin Margiela.
Gaultier will design for them beginning with Fall/Winter 2004. This is the first time that Jean-Paul has designed
for any house, other than his own label.
                     Jean-Paul Gaultier staged a retrospective exhibition in London at the Victoria and Al-
                     bert Costume Museum, in May 2003. It showed all the creative garments of his career,
                     and was a great success.

                                                          Haute Couture - Fall/Winter 2003
                                                                                Paris, July 2003
                      Jean-Paul presented hooded high-heeled bodysuits in cobra skin, lace and
                        one showing a glowing heart connected to a map of red veins. A patch-
                      work version was accessoried with a skateboard. One of the creations is
                                                                              shown on the right.
                     There were also elegant skirt suits in leather and soft tweed and corseted
                        bustier dresses. His technical brilliance and unique imagination made his
                                                         show one of the best of Couture week.

            Spring/Summer 2004
            During Paris Fashion Week in October 2003, Jean-Paul Gaultier showed his collec-
            tion for next Spring. An outfit from this collection are shown on the left.
            He showed some wearable suede and leather suits and he also reprised some of
            his favourite obsessions, one of course the corset which continues to inspire and thrill him. The
            structure of his exquisitely crafted pieces was completely different to all the other collections
            this spring, full of floaty sweet nothings. His frothy chiffon dresses were beneath corset casings
            or long languid aprons on flashy cowgirl boots. His trademark body stockings with tattoos were
            worn beneath wafting parkas nobody does a pinstriped suit like he does.

                                                  Haute Couture Spring/Summer 2004
             Gaultier is an enthusiastic showman, and in January 2004 in Paris, he showed
           his latest collection. It included exotic materials like lizard skin and transparent
            python, even plain old black wool but showed all his magic. Leather bodysuits
              were worn under black suits with asymmetric lapels and he presented many
  minis. Here is one of his most beautiful dresses worn by Liya Kebede, a deep red velvet
                                                      gown lined with chartreuse georgette.

                     Fall/Winter 2004 ready-to-wear
                     Jean-Paul Gaultier presented his Fall collection in Paris during Fashion
                     Week in March 2004. A dress from the show with Egyptian hiero-
                     glyphic prints down the front, is shown on the left. In addition to a
                     few live models, Jean-Paul hung life-sized puppets from the ceiling,
                     wearing his creations. The puppeteers twirled these marionettes around on the cat-
                     work, striking poses. Gaultier showed some of his own greatest hits, which looked just
                     as good now., A heavy herringbone tweed coat swathed in fox fur, a navy caban and an
                     aviator jacket, as well as his favourite tough distressed leather,
                     Aran knitwear and corset lacing.

                                                           Haute Couture Fall 2004
                        Gaultier brought some of the influence of Hermes (where he is
                         at present the designer) to his own Haute Couture collection,
 with a wild gallop through the world of horsemanship. His main interest this season
   was Capes and our picture shows a knitted Arran ensemble over riding boots. He
also made a YSL homage blue sik velvet cape, seen by YSL muse Catherine Deneuve
   sitting in the front row at Gaultier's show. Many full length gowns, one in plunging
                                              black were also masterpieces of Couture.
               Spring/Summer 2005
               Jean-Paul Gaultier presented his own collection for the Spring season during Paris Fashion
               Week in October 2004. A splendid colourful outfit of Farsi Paijamas with a ruffled top, from
               this collection is shown on the left.
               Jean-Paul's imagination never fails to come up with a splendid show. Bohemian girls dressed
               like gypsies twirled their way down the catwalk. Colours were rich, blood reds, dusky yellows
               and the cut exquisite. He mixed mannish jackets and trench coats with explosions of vintasge
               lace and ethnic prints, so that the clothes seemed to be on fire.

                                                   Haute Couture Autumn/Winter 2005
                   During January 2005, the Haute Couture shows for Autumn/Winter 2005
                took place in Paris. Jean-Paul Gaultier again took Africa as his inspiration, and
                 daubed paint on his models. His superb tailoring and artfully pleated dresses,
                     along with rich earth colours and tribal beauty ensured a very successful

Even the wedding dress at the end of the show, shown here on the left, was made of a shield
 worked into an African sculpture (rather like those on Easter Island) revealing a saucy ivory
                                                                     bikini behind the model.

           Autumn/Winter 2005
           Jean-Paul's Autumn/Winter collection was shown during Paris Fashion Week in March 2005. On
           the right is one of his most beautiful creations, Gemma Ward in a floor length gown drooping
           with Swarovski crystals, with a bodice of ruffles and a cummerbund. His collection combined
           Shakespear and Punk Rock. Some of the collars harked back to Elizabethan ruffs. He used his
           usual creativity to show a mix of tight fitting pythn skin pants, jodhpurs with wide belts, vast
           capes in fur, and tube dresses in velvet. Even a Dr Seuss fur top hat appeared.
                             Tim Ford/Alessandra Fachinetti/Frida Giannini

                  For more than a century, the house of Gucci has been associated with leather goods. In
                  1898 Guccio Gucci left Florence in Italy to go London, where he worked as maitre d'hotel
                  at the Savoy Hotel. He was captivated by the look of the glamorous luggage used by the
                  guests. So in 1905 he returned to Italy and started selling saddles and saddlebags, and was
                  quite successful.

                    In 1922 he opened his store for leather goods and accessories decorated with an equestrian
                    motif. In 1932 Guccio Gucci created the loafer shoe with a gilded snaffle. These are the only
                    shoes to have found a place in New York's Museum of Modern Art.
In 1938 a Gucci boutique was opened in Rome, then in 1949 a Milan boutique was opened.
Boutiques followed world-wide, looked after by Guccio's four sons Aldo, Ugo, Vasco and
Rudolfo. In the 1950's Gucci's "Flore" scarf was popularised by Grace Kelly.
In 1983 Rudolfo died of cancer, Maurizio his son, inherited his share and took over running
the business. In 1989 Maurizio became President of Gucci. He said that there was only one
standard - the best. He had a 50% share in the company. The other 50% was sold to Invest-
corp of Bahrein.
During the 90's, there was a lot of bad feeling between Maurizio Gucci and Investcorp which
resulted in litigation. In 1991 Gucci posted a loss of $ 37.8 million which was a great shock.

Tom Ford
In 1990, Tom Ford was asked to join Gucci and together with Dawn Mello, the Executive vice-president, they
cut back expenses by reducing products and reorganised the company completely. By 1992 the company be-
gan to do better financially and Tom Ford's design of a snaffle clog was a hit.
In 1995 Maurizio Gucci was murdered. His wife was convicted of his murder.
In 1995, Tom Ford's "Jet Set" collection with velvet hipsters and satin bodyshirts in jewel colours, was the
sexiest of the season He went on with such success that the company turned around and is now operating
very successfully.
In 1996-97 Tom Ford's "Euro Hippies" and Studio 54 collections were very successful. Now each season,
Gucci gets better and better. Tom Ford's approach has proved to be perfect and right up to now, Gucci is
one of the most profitable Italian designer houses, being a million dollar concern.
In 2001 GUCCI under the leadership of Tom Ford, financed Stella McCartney to start up her own label, leav-
ing Chloe. She brought out her first collection in Spring/Summer 2001 to great applause. GUCCI has also
bought out Yves St. Laurent ready-to-wear line Rive Gauche, and has given the design leadership to Tom

             Spring/Summer 2003
             Tom Ford presented his Spring/Summer 2003 collection for Gucci in Milan in September 2002.
             This is an outfit from that collection. Tom says SHORT. Using lustrous fabrics, he draped and
             wrapped his gorgeous girls in clothes that navigated the Gucci line between innovation and vul-
             garity. Ford integrated fine workmanship into abbreviated silhouettes.

                                                                                         Fall 2003
            Tom Ford for Gucci show was held during Milan Fashion Week in March 2003. On
                                                              the right is an outfit from the show.
              His "short" of last season dropped dramatically to below the knee for Fall/Winter
                   2003. There was an emphasis on dramatic upstanding collars and voluminous
              sleeves, with erotic lingerie beneath. Skirts and dresses called up thoughts of cor-
               setry. For evening gowns had cutout zones of sparkling mesh and frilled bra tops.
Others snaked to the floor held in place with complex straps. Ford bases Gucci's entire show on
                                          new ways of showing sexy clothes season after season.
             Spring/Summer 2004
             During Milan Fashion Week in October 2003, Tom Ford showed the Gucci collection for next
             Spring. An outfit from the show is shown on the left.
             Ford made the Gucci girl "eye-candy" in silky track pants with a sporty ribbon down the side and
             sloppy, semi-sheer tees. He also showed a delicious spring jacket, feminine, body-hugging with
             tiny pleated fans forming a peplum at back.

             His evening looks included glitter snakes - serpentine crystal motifs wound around the body or
             up the arm on dresses. He explained this motif "the snake is about temptation, most of us want
             tobe tempting, a little bit seductive." A picture of the Gucci snake dress is shown on the right.

A Surprise - Tom Ford leaving
In November 2003 Tom Ford announced that in April, when his contract with Gucci comes up for renewal,
he would be leaving Gucci. Domenico de Sole, who has handled the administrative side of Gucci and YSL
alongside Tom Ford, also announced that he would be leaving in April 2004.
Gucci and YSL Rive Gauche are owned by the French conglomerate Pinault Printemps-Redoute. Serge
Weinberg is the CEO of PPR.

                                                             Fall/Winter 2004 ready-to-wear
 Tom Ford presented his last Gucci collection in Milan during Fashion Week in February 2004. It
 was a very emotional occasion. He took a look back at the glamour of his last ten years, making
Gucci the embodiment of sexual confidence. There were sequined mermaid gowns, arrogant fox-
     stoled chiffon dresses, and crystal-sprinkled goddess gowns. He left to thunderous applause.

           Oscar Night February 2004
            Charlize Theron was awarded the Oscar for Best Actress for her role in "Monster"
            and on the Awards Night, she wore the dress shown on the right, designed by Tom
                                                                             Ford for Gucci.

                                                                 New Designer at Gucci
            In March 2004, it has been announced that the new Creative Director of Gucci
            Womenswear is Alessandra Facchinetti (shown here on the left). She was born
               in Bergamo, Italy in 1972 and graduated from the Istituto Marangoni in Milan.
            Her father is famous Italian musician Roby Facchinetti and her brother is a D.J.,
    television star and singer. Her career began with Prada, where she became Brand Co-
  ordinator for their Miu Miu line. She joined Gucci in 2000 and has worked for four years
                  alongside Tom Ford, who found her a talented perfectionist in making the
                                                         luxurious garments for which the house is renowned.

             Spring/Summer 2005
             During Milan Fashion Week in September 2004, Alessandra Facchinetti presented her first Gucci
             collection. A pretty outfit from the collection is shown on the left.
             The new designer was respectful of the Gucci legacy, showing skinny pants and narrow jersey
             skirts. She also added flourishes of her own, especially the African/Indian theme mixing crocodile
             and ostrich worked on tulle. Rich colours from crimson or emerald green were used for velvet
             collars and the same jewel shade for bags. The colour palette was very attractive.
           Autumn/Winter 2005
           Alessandra Fachinetti presented her second Gucci collection for Autumn/Winter, during Milan
           Fashion Week in February 2005. She is still maintaining the Sexy image established by Tom Ford
           over so many years. There were plenty of beautiful garments, including a tailored coat wioth em-
           broidery in relief, red carpet gowns with lattice of bodice decoration, a peacock green coat with
           lighter shades of blue peeping from a lace collar. Alessandra has however got a more womanly,
           gentle romantic image for Gucci which showed through. Ruffled blouses on tight pants and razor-
           sharp pencil skirts are looks for the boardroom rather than the bedroom.

                                                                 Surprise announcement
  After only one year, and two collections, Alessandra Fachinetti has decided to leave Gucci
    and has resigned. "Disagreements with management" has been mentioned as the reason.
      Gucci has announced that Frida Giannini (shown here on the right) will be taking over
womenswear design. Frida was looking after the Gucci accessories line for two seasons, with
 great success. Prior to joining Gucci she spent 5 years designing at Fendi. Frida was chosen
     by Time magazine in April 2005, as one of the 100 most influential people in the world
                     MATTHEW WILLIAMSON
               Mathew Williamson was born in Manchester, England in 1972. After graduating from St. Mar-
               tin's in London, he started his early life with a back-packing tour of Mexico and Guatemala,
               soaking up the colours and designs and a brilliant colour palette which became useful in later
               life. He made 17 trips to India learning techniques for the intricate embroidery that features in
               his work. Alongside these trips, he freelanced with Monsoon for two years.

                In 1996, he launched his own label, showing a collection of fluid, bias-cut dresses and skirts as
                well as cashmere twinsets. The use of sweaters over such dresses suggests a nonchalant glam-
our, which allows his clothes to pass smoothly from day to evening wear. He called his first collection
"Electric Angels". Every piece was handcrafted.
Filmy fabrics, dusky pastels, lots of pretty details, delicate lace and opalescent organza thick with embroidery,
scattered with beads are the kind of dainty garments that are so popular with his clientele.
In Fall 2001, Williamson opened his first London boutique.

            Spring/Summer 2003
            Williamson presented his Spring/Summer 2003 collection at the New York Fashion Week in Sep-
            tember 2002, which was greeted with aclaim. This dress is from that collection.
            He also presented a knitwear collection for Scottish cashmere company Ballantyne which is a
            conservative traditional brand who wanted Williamson to pep things up a little.

                                                  Autumn/Winter 2003 Ready-to-Wear
                                                              New York - February 2003
                           The outfit on the left is one from the Autumn/Winter collection.
              Williamson has never been one to run from colour and this season was no ex-
              ception. Flared corduroy pants and very mini skirts were worn with flueores-
              cent shoes and belts and vintage Missoni-like patterns made the clothes richly
                                         hued. Eastern-inspired bird prints closed the show.

              Spring/Summer 2004
              Matthew Williamson's collection for this season was shown during New York
              Fashion Week in September 2003. An outfit from the show is shown here on
              the right.
              Englishman-in-New York signature bright colours and ultra-feminine designers
              are undisputed, but Matthew manages each season to do something different
              with it. In this collection he combined summertime sassiness with tropical, ethnic-inspired kaf-
              tans and jewelled evening wear. Bright white mini skirts and rolled up trousers were belted with
              thin satin belts. Pastel floral prints appeared on trousers and nicely shaped open jackets. The
              designer's first attempt at footwear appeared in this collection, which looked

                                                                        Fall/Winter 2004
The Fall collection was shown during New York Fashion Week in February 2004. This was
    Matthew's 5th shown in New York, and once again he managed to inject bohemia with
 new vital energy. He was inspired by Nepal and made fringed woollen kaftans over skinny
jeans in long boots. Large crochet fisherman sweaters were covetable. For evening he pre-
   sented shimmering velvet bias cut skirts worn under jackets and multi-coloured layered
                                              chiffon creations like that shown on the left.
    In July 2004, Halle Berry wore Mathew's rainbow silk dress for the premier of her new
                                                                        movie "Catwoman".
              Spring/Summer 2005
              During New York Fashion Week in September 2004, Matthew Williamson presented his Spring
              collection. A dress from the show is pictured on the right.
              Matthew presented very feminine dresses with an ethnic edge to cut the sweetness. He used
              rainbows of colour and subtle embellishment on floating fabrics. Most of them were full skirted,
              with pretty smocking at the waistline. Perfect for summer.

                                                                                    Fall/Winter 2005
                  The Fall/Winter collection was shown during New York Fashion Week in February
             2005. Matthew's clothes had rather a masculine touch this season. His cashmere turtle-
                  necks were matched with pants in grey flannel or Lurex Jacquard. While pants have
                never been his strong suit, this season he is showing very well-tailored ones, long and
                 wide-cut over peep-toe sandals. But his flair for the feminine side also showed up on
empire-line minidresses and flowing butterfly hem gowns, lace trim on silk capes and delicate embroi-
                                                                              dery on a capelike jacket.
                      ALEXANDER McQUEEN
                                             "England's Bad Boy"

                 Alexander McQueen was born in England in 1970. He was the youngest of 6 children
                 brought up in Stepney. His father was a taxi driver. In 1986 he left school, and headed for
                 Savile Row, the famous tailoring street of London. There he mastered the art of tailoring. He
                 spent time working for theatrical costumers Bermans and Nathans. He also worked for Koji
                 Tatsuno, the Japanese designer and for Romeo Gigli, the Italian designer.
                 In 1993 McQueen took his M.A. in Fashion Design from Central St. Martins College, Lon-
                 don. His studies were financed by his aunt Renie Holland.
                 His degree fashion show, captured the imagination of stylist Isabella Blow, who nurtured and
                 encouraged the young designer, passing on inspirational material and clients. She also al-
lowed him to live and work from her house in Elizabeth Street, London.
McQueen changed his first name from Lee to his second name Alexander, because he felt it sounded better
for a couturier.
From the Spring of 1994 McQueen has managed to produce a collection every season, even though he had no
money. His mother Joyce recalls that he borrowed money from her to buy materials for making up his de-
signs. She would sit up all night stringing beads and dyeing materials.
He dressed his models in dishevelled hair and tattered lace for his 1995/6 collection "Highland Rape".

1996 saw the introduction of the infamous "Bumsters" low-waisted trousers, which his mother really disliked
because of the bottom cleavage. Alexander McQueen said "The clothes I design are strong - they are meant
to build confidence".
In 1996 Alexander McQueen was named British Designer of the year in 1996 which
was a great honour for the young designer, just starting out. During this year, he was
picked by the manufacturer Onward Kashyiama, which has backed his business finan-
cially ever since and licensed his name in Japan. McQueen has invested the money in a
house in Islington, London.
The jeweled manacles held models like exotic slaves in his Spring/Summer 1997 collec-
tion "Bellmer la Poupee".
In 1997 Bernard Arnault who owns Dior, Givenchy and Lacroix, approached Alexander McQueen with a pro-
posal that McQueen should take over Givenchy since John Galliano, was taking over Dior. Initially McQueen
refused. Bernard Arnault, who is very passionate about fashion, tried his best to convince McQueen to ac-
cept. Eventually he did agree to take over Givenchy from Spring/Summer 1997. His monetary package was
reported at 2 million pounds.

                                                So, it has come to pass, that McQueen, son of working class
                                                British parents, and speaking no French at all, is sitting at a
                                                huge white desk in a vast studio overlooking the Ave George
                                                V in Paris, proud possessor of the title of creative director of
                                                Givenchy, a house whose hallmarks were bows, polka dots,
                                                and lady-like clients like Audrey Hepburn.

                                              In his 1997 Givenchy collection, he has used a very unusual
                                              type of eye make-up, rather like cats, and he also used sheer
                                              transparent printed materials in a Chinoiserie manner.
In his 1998 show, a disabled model, who has two false legs, wore his dresses, and looked beautiful in them.
In the Spring 1999 show, the models and dresses were all sprayed with paint. It caused rather an uproar.
At the end of 1999, Alexander McQueen opened his first store in London, at Conduit Street, near the Japa-
nese designers.

Alexander McQueen's collections for Givenchy have included golden eagles embroidered by Lesage, rose pet-
als pressed into sheer organdie, pure gold material woven for a bolero jacket, feathers painstakingly layered
like a bird's wing onto a catsuit and other unique weird styles. But he has not forgotten that he must play the
Givenchy game, if he is to succeed.
At the end of the day, Givenchy is 200 million light years away from what he does at
McQueen. One is London, the other Paris.
He says " It is two different aesthetics and it is hard to be both at the same time. McQueen
is about our times and Givency is about allure, femininity, aloofness and seduction. They do
not employ me to do bumsters."
McQueen's view of French fashion is frank "What is missing is French chic, I''ll bring French
chic to Paris. I like about 25 % of what Givenchy did, I look back at it and think - move on
This is about showing people that I can do a beautiful collection, that I don't have to shock
people all the time. Paris couture started with WORTH who was English and it will begin
again with Alexander McQueen who is English too."
He has managed to continue to design in his funky, youthful modern manner at his own
house of McQueen while also producting the elegant, expensive, beautiful creations at Givenchy. This takes a
real effort, but so far he is succeeding. He will probably get better as he gains more experience even though
these two houses are so different.
                                                           McQueen himself has said, that he would not accept
                                                           any financial share-holding in his own McQueen label
                                                           company. He says that this wholly owned company
                                                           would enable him to continue to design unusual, radi-
                                                           cal, cutting-edge clothes, which might not be accept-
                                                           able at a well-established house like Givenchy. He
                                                           wants to be able to put out into the market, his own
                                                           unique and unusual ideas, without any restrictions.
                                                           In the year 2000, Alexander McQueen suddenly left
                                                           Givenchy. He is continuing to design clothes under his
                                                           own label. His replacement at Givenchy is British de-
                                                           signer Julien MacDonald.
                                                           Alexander McQueen opened his first American show-
                                                           room in New York in September 2002. Here is a pic-
                                                           ture of it.

                  Spring/Summer 2003
                  Alexander McQueen presented his Spring/Summer 2003 collection during Paris Fashion
                  Week in October 2002 which was very well received. This is an outfit from that collection.
                  McQueen has shed 30 pounds in weight, and also shed his bad boy image. The most shock-
                  ing thing about his show, was the old-fashioned romance and solid commercial appeal. He
                  had floaty dresses in vibrant colours, with creamy ruffles and micro-shorts with flowing
                  coats. There was none of the usual anger and aggression. He has really grown up.

                                                                       Fall/Winter 2003
                     Alexander McQueen presented his Fall collection during Paris Fash-
                                                                 ion Week in March 2003.
                        It also happened to be his 34th birthday, and he celebrated with a
                    wonderful party which was also for the introduction of his new per-
                     fume KINGDOM. He must also be happy that Karl Lagerfeld, in the
    April edition of Vogue, mentioned that McQueen was a very good designer. Praise
                 indeed. McQueen's inspiration for this collection was Tibet with snowy
                shearling parkas, Eurasian ethnic prints, reminding us of a nomadic jour-
                 ney across the tundra. His clothes were embroidered, painted and em-
                  bellished to look like Samurai armour, Russian dolls and tribal ceremo-
                nial dress. He even had a fake snowstorm. It was tremendously creative
                                                                                as always.
               Spring/Summer 2004
               During Paris Fashion Week in October 2003, Alexander McQueen showed his collection for
               next Spring. A dress from this collection is shown on the right.
               His show was an exuberant hilarious dancehall involving dancers, models and the audience. Eve-
               ryone was dancing on the arms of sailors, dressed in fishtailed silver lame, cha-cha dresses and
               gowns with spangled bodices and huge feathered skirts. The climax was when one dancer in a
               silver sequined gown expires on stage and is carried off by MacQueen himself to thunderous
He turns down YSL
In February 2004, Alexander was offered YSL Rive Gauche after Tom Ford leaves, but he has declined the job
as he wants to concentrate on his own label.

              Fall/Winter 2004 ready-to-wear
              Alexander McQueen presented his own label Fall collection in Paris during Fashion Week in
              March 2004. On the left is an outfit from the show. His intention this season, he said, was to
              strip away all theatrics and focus purely on design. His show looked like a kind of rebirth. He
              sent out a parade of nude-coloured outfits in tweed, double-faced cashmere, leather, suede,
              jersey and chiffon pared down to familiar shapes of jumpsuits, hourglass coats, and nipped-waist

                                                                            Black Night
               To celebrate five years of the American Express Centurion Card, Alexander
               McQueen put on a "Black" Fashion show at Earls Court Exhibition Centre in
               Central London on June 3rd, 2004. A picture from the show is shown on the

                Spring/Summer 2005
                During Paris Fashion Week in October 2004, Alexander McQueen showed
                his own collection for next Spring. An outfit from this collection is shown
                on the left.
                His inspiration was a chessboard, and he used it to show 36 looks from his past collections.
                He reviewed all his greatest moments from sharp tail coats, Japanese kimonos, sci-fi body-
                suits, moulded corsets and flounced skirts. They looked even better the second time around.

                                                                    Autumn/Winter 2005
   Alexander's Autumn/Winter collection was shown during Paris Fashion Week in March
  2005. He put out a market friendly collection of gripping jackets and hobbling skirts, pat-
     terned knits, pompons and ponchos which reminded of Peru. It was essentially retro,
  powerful in its vision of Hollywood as part of the past. The precise cutting of suits, coats
 and day dresses went back to the glamour of the gowns in an era when women's sensual-
                                                           ity was the most important thing.
                                 Stella McCartney
                 Stella McCartney was born in London in 1971, the daughter of Paul McCartney, member of
                 the Beatles singing group. She was born and brought up on the family's rambling organic
                 farm. According to her father, she is fantastically musical and the real comedienne of the
                 family, and very hard-working.
                 Stella has always been fascinated by fashion. As a teenager, she was always mixing up bits and
                 pieces for antique clothing markets with Cerruti or Lacoste, or whatever she could find in
                 her mother's cupboards. At the age of 13, Stella constructed her first jacket. At 15, she was
apprenticing at Christian Lacroix and soon after was awarded a place at St. Martins.

After graduating from Central St. Martins, London, she did a short, unofficial, apprenticeship with Edward
Sexton, a Savile Row tailor.
Stella was appointed Chief Designer at the house of Chloe, taking over from Karl
Lagerfeld. She started with the Autumn/Winter 1997 collection, and has been an
astounding success. A Chloe boutique has opened in London, though it is hoped that
Stella can have more control on the London end than she does on the Paris end. The
rather elderly staff at Paris Chloe are pretty rigid about underclothes on the models,
and see-through dresses (they are against them).
Stella McCartney is a strict vegetarian and PETA supporter like her mother Linda,
who died in 2000. She had a contract with Chloe that she need never work with fur
or leather. All the shoes are made of vinyl or plastics, all the bags and belts of fabric
or raffia.
Her soft romantic clothes have been very successful at Chloe. For the Spring 2000
collection, she has created several designs with cut-work rhinestone necklines and

                                        In the year 2000, Stella McCartney was approached by Tom Ford of
                                        Gucci, with an offer of financial support so that she could set up her
                                        own label. She agreed to this, and left Chloe. Her assistant at Chloe,
                                        Phoebe Philo, took over the designing at Chloe.
                                        Stella was looking for an artist to illustrate her new venture. She saw a
                                        1972 sketch made by British artist David Remfry, and after seeing his
                                        work, decided that he was the one. In 2002 Remfry prepared the
                                        McCartnery adverts which appeared in all the leading fashion maga-
                                        zines. The sketches were so eye-catching and sexy that they blew the
                                        whole industry away. Here is one. If you want to know more about
                                        David Remfry click here.
                                        Stella launched her new house with the Spring 2002 collection, pre-
                                        senting clothes emblazoned with rhyming Cockney slang, that had the
                                        punchy tang of a hit from the word go. She got her label off to a
                                        snappy start in front of Domenico de Sole, the boss of the Gucci
                                        group, and McCartney's partner.
                                        Her brand new 4000 sq ft store in Manhattan opened in September
               2002, housing her ready-to-wear, shoe and accessories collections. It has an inlaid pool running
               the length of the store and walls of hand-painted fabric. There was a fabulous party to cele-
               brate the opening.

               Spring/Summer 2003
               Stella McCartney presented her Spring/Summer 2003 collection during the Paris Fashion Week
               in October 2002 which was very well received. This is an outfit from that collection.
               Reviewers felt that there was a lot more polish and softness about the show. Vintage inspired
               lingerie, one of her favourite themes, was threaded throughout the show. Puffy satin bomber
               jackets appeared and some garments were a fusion of sport and chinoiserie.
                 Fall/Winter 2003
                 Stella showed her Fall collection during Paris Fashion Week in March 2003. On the right is
                 an outfit from the show. It is one of the pretty silk pastel coloured cocktail frocks, this one
                 with a big roll neck collar.
                 Stella covered up her models more this season, taking subtle cutouts from slimline dresses
                 and only letting an occasional slash neck on a jacket or a ribbed knit slip over both shoulders.
                 She presented tailored silk trench coats and delicate strapless bustiers, with panels of silk and
                 satin, worn over fitted back trousers and sexy pencil skirts. She has now left the "rock chick"
                 behind and has a new image.
                 The financial results for Stella's new company for the first year of operation, were not very
                 good. It suffered losses of 2.7 million pounds. However GUCCI, who own her label, have
                 absolute faith in her and said that they have high hopes for her future.

Marriage and Parenthood
In August 2003, Stella married her long-time love publisher Alasdhair Willis. The setting was a castle on the
island of Bute, in the river Clyde, in Scotland, loaned to them by the Marquis of Bute (racing driver Johnny
Stella's father, former Beatle Paul McCartney paid around 2 million pounds, as father of the bride. Security
arrangements were tight for a great many celebrity guests such as Madonna and family, Kate Moss and family,
Liv Tyler, Tom Ford, Hugh Grant and many others. The dinner was strictly vegetarian. Stella designed her
own wedding gown, using as inspiration the one worn by her mother when she married in 1969.
In February 2005, the couple had a baby boy just before Stella will be presenting her Fall/Winter 2005 collec-
tion in Paris. they have called him Miller Alisdhair James Willis.
New Los Angeles store
Stella took time out from preparations for her Spring/Summer 2004 collection in Paris, to fly over to the
United States for the opening of her new Los Angeles store. It was a starry affair with celebrities like Demi
Moore, Kirsty Hume, Quincy Jones and Pamela Anderson there to help her celebrate.

             Spring/Summer 2004
             During Paris Fashion Week in October 2003, Stella McCartney showed her collection for next
             Spring. A dress from this collection is shown on the left.
             She sent out strong colour, acqua, spearmint, jade, lemon and pink and made cool graceful ele-
             gant clothes. Filmy skirts of petal-like chiffon layers were artfully blown by wind machines. Sharp
             sexy pants came with chiffon tops hung from latex straps. The McCartney show was fully self-
             confident and she is all grown up now.

                                                              Oscar Night February 2004
                Annie Lennox, the British singer earlier with the Eurythmics, wore the gown
              shown on the right, designed by Stella McCartney, on the Oscar Awards Night
                                                                           in February 2004.

               Fall/Winter 2004 ready-to-wear
               Stella presented her Fall collection in Paris during Fashion Week in March
               2004. An outfit from the show is pictured on the left.
               She put huge satin and nylon quilted coats rather like duvets, over her slinky
               dresses. But then this is for a cold winter coming up. Her jersey dresses and
               satin skirts were fluid without overwhelming the body. Her close-fit houndstooth tweed jack-
               ets in pale caramel and pink tones were attractive, with khaki pants tucked into 70s style
               boots. She also presented chunky Peruvian sweaters and some very good accesssories, which
               is a challenge for someone who never uses leather or animal products.
               In September 2004, it was announced that Stella has formed a collaboration with Adidas to
               design a new collection of stylish, high-tech gym wear after working with experts for ideas for
               runners, swimmers and athletes.
                Spring/Summer 2005
                During Paris Fashion Week in October 2004, Stella McCartney showed her collection for
                next Spring. A dress from this collection is shown on the right.
                She has a very loyal clientele and lots of friends, who all turn up at her shows. Plenty of easy
                breezy voluminous dresses and oversized blouses in pastel colours, set the mood for a casual
                summer. Macrame at the neckline and soft sashes at the hips were designed in her own im-
                age, with the memories of a 1070's childhood.

                GUCCI appoints new CEO
                In late November, Stella's owners GUCCI appointed a new CEO for Stella McCartney. He is
                Marco Bizzari (born 1962) a well-experienced financial and managerial man. He is expected
                to push the profits up even higher.

                                                                               Oscar Night
                                                                     February 27th 2005
On Oscar night Gwyneth Paltrow, a good friend of Stella's, wore the designer's beautiful skin-
                                                       colour gown shown here on the left.

           Autumn/Winter 2005
           Stella's Autumn/Winter collection was shown during Paris Fashion Week in March 2005, although
           she wasn't there to enjoy it in person, being in a hospital bed after the birth of her son Miller. She
           worked right up to the end, and included all the season's favourites volume, tweed and the bubble
           skirt. Japan and Balenciaga both seemed to have been in her mind, when designing this collection.
           One boxy elongated sweater pulled over a loose silk dress, in pink, has established her perfectly
           pitched approach to dressing. She will always be popular for her sexy flirty skin colour pink little
           dresses, but she has designed many other lovely garments such as this tweed dress with fur collar
           worn with knee high sixties boots.

Stella tries the High Street
High Street fashion giant H&M announced in May 2005 that Stella McCartney is about to design a 40 piece
collection for them in the Autumn. They find her designs modern, cool, classic and wearable.
Who is designing for which house?
                   House + Designer
               Aquascutum        +   Michael Hertz
                     Azzaro      +   Vanessa Seward
                         Blass   +   Michael Vollbracht
                  Balenciaga     +   Nicolas Ghesquiere
                    Balmain      +   Christophe Lebourg
            Bottega Veneta       +   Tomas Maier
                   Burberry      +   Christopher Bailey
                      Byblos     +   Stephano Citron, Greg Myler, Federico Piaggi
                     Cerruti     +   David Cardona
                     Cardin.     +   Sergio Altieri
                   Cacharel      +   Clements Rebiero
                     Carven      +   Pascal Millet
                      Chloe.     +   Phoebe Philo
                    Capucci      +   Sybilla and Bernhard Wilhelm
                     Chanel.     +   Karl Lagerfeld
                      Celine     +   Roberto Menicetti
                        Daks     +   Tiziano Mazzilli & Louise Michielsens
                        Dior.    +   John Galliano
                  Perry Ellis    +   not known
                         Exte    +   Sergio Ciucci (possibly also Antonio Berardi)
               Jacques Fath      +   Lizzy Disney
              Louis Feraud       +   Mathias Heitzler
                 Ferragamo       +   Graeme Black
                        Gucci    +   Frida Giannini
                      Genny      +   Josephus Thimister
                  Givenchy.      +   Riccardo Tisci
                         Gres    +   Koji Tatsuno
                    Herrera      +   Herve Pierre
                    Hermes       +   Jean-Paul Gaultier
                    Halston      +   Bradley Bayou
                       Jaeger    +   Bella Freud
                Calvin Klein     +   Francisco Costa
                      Kenzo      +   Antonio Marras
                        Krizia   +   Hamish Morrow (has now resigned)
                       Leger.    +   Jerome Dreyfuss
                    Leonard      +   Chatenet (husband/wife
                      Lanvin     +   Alber Elbaz
                     Lacoste     +   Christophe Lemaire
              Guy Laroche        +   Herve Leroux
                      Loewe      +   Jose Selfa
               Issey Miyake      +   Naoki Takisawa
           Claude Montana        +   Stephane Parmentier
                  Moschino       +   Rosella Jardini
                   Mulberry      +   Nicholas Knightly
                        Pucci    +   Christian Lacroix
                        Prada    +   Fabio Zambernadi
                      Pringle    +   Stuart Stockbridge
             Paco Rabanne        +   Patrick Robinson
                 Nina Ricci..    +   Nils Larsson
                     Rochas      +   Olivier Theyskins
                   Scherrer      +   Stephane Rolland
                 Mila Schon      +   Marc Heimuth
                   Trussardi     +   Jeremy Scott
                    Torrent      +   Julien Fournie
                     Ungaro      +   Vincent Darre
     Diane von Furstenberg       +   Nathan Jensen
                    Vionnet      +   Maurizio Pecoraro
                     Vuitton     +   Marc Jacobs
                      Worth      +   Giovanni Bedin
          YSL Rive Gauche        +   Stefano Pilati

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