The Unification of Italy (PowerPoint)

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					           Revolutions of 1848
Revolutions of 1848
           Revolutions of 1848

• Origins of 1848
• All of Europe save Britain and Russia
   long-term causes
      -impact of Industrial and French Revolution
      -growth of middle-class and industrial
       -Europe in transition
  – Emerging and entrenchment of “Isms”
         Revolutions of 1848

• short-term causes
     -demographic and economic crisis
     -industrial and agricultural depression
     -land hunger, unemployment, urban
          squalor, seigneurial jurisdiction,
          property qualifications.
          Revolutions of 1848
• Inflexible Government
       a. France
            -Louis Philippe, the bourgeois monarch
            -republican versus radical demands
            -the banquets of 1847-48
            -Louis Blanc and the National
            -the 'June Days'
            Republicanism run amok, again and a
             new Napoleon
         Revolutions of 1848

• "Germany"
    -the quest for a reformed and unified
    - Emigration
    - Seigneurial stranglehold
    - Material over humanitarian needs
            Revolutions of 1848
• IV. The Turning Point that Failed to Turn?
• -liberalism, nationalism, and socialism here to stay
• -some important concessions and reforms (slavery)
• -middle-class a force to be reckoned with from now on
• -rift not only between upper and middle-class, but between
  middle-class and lower as well
• -with reform thwarted, lower orders (workers and women)
  begin to organize socialist, trade union, and feminist
• -national unity not in the cards for Germany
             Crimean War

• Decay of the Ottoman Empire, a
  development fraught with explosive
  implications for the European balance of
• Control of the straits between the Black Sea
  and the Mediterranean Sea.
              Crimean War

• The Russians moved toward the
  establishment of a unilateral protectorate
  over the Ottoman Empire.
• Britain and France viewed the possibility of
  Russian control of the straits as a threat to
  their own interests in the Middle East, and
  many in those countries despised Russia as
  the despotic enemy of liberalism.
                  Crimean War
• The immediate pretext for Russian intervention was a
  dispute between Roman Catholics and Orthodox Christians
  over control of the holy places in Palestine, which was part
  of the Ottoman Empire. In December 1852 the Ottoman
  sultan, responding to French pressure, decided in favor of
  the Roman Catholics. Nicholas, the protector of
  Orthodoxy, quickly dispatched a mission to Constantinople
  (now İstanbul, Turkey), aiming at a new settlement in
  favor of the Orthodox and a treaty guaranteeing the rights
  of the Orthodox population of the Ottoman Empire.
                Crimean War
• The European powers attempted to arrange a
  compromise, but this proved futile. On October 4,
  confident of British and French support, the
  Ottoman government declared war.
• On November 30 a Russian attack destroyed the
  Ottoman fleet at the Black Sea port of Sinope,
  resulting in a public outcry in Britain and France.
  In March 1854, after Russia ignored their demand
  to evacuate Moldavia and Walachia, Britain and
  France declared war.
             Crimean War

• The allies then decided on a campaign
  against Sevastopol' in the Crimea,
  headquarters of Russia's Black Sea Fleet.
• Finally, on September 9, 1855, Sevastopol'
  fell, but only after Austria threatened to
  enter the war did Russia agree to make
             Crimean War

• The Treaty of Paris, signed on March 30,
  1856, was a major setback for Russia's
  Middle Eastern policy.
               Crimean War
•   “Charge of the Light Brigade,”
•   The British nurse Florence Nightingale
•   Break up of the Congress of Vienna
•   The myth of Russian might was laid to rest
•   Breakup of the old coalition permitted
    Germany and Italy to free themselves from
    Austrian influence and emerge as nations in
    the decade that followed.
                Italian Unification

Italy was divided into
fragments at the Congress of
Reason - Italians supported
Napoleon and hated
Results: Restored Austrian
domination on peninsula
                    Italian Unification
There were three obstacles to
1. Austrian control of Lombardy
and Venetia
2. Papal States cut the North off
from the South –control by France
3. Existence of several
independent states:
1. Kingdom of Sardinia
2. Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
3. Duchies of Tuscany, Parma, and
(all under Habsburg control)
                    Italian Unification

Nationalism before 1848
-Limited to aristocracy and middle
-Carbonari - the largest
Nationalistic secret society.
Romantic Republicans. Giuseppe
Mazzinni was its leading
         Italian Unification

Guisseppe Mazzini
-"Heart of Unification” -- The
Nation State
-Created and led Young Italy
-1831 founded “Young Italy
Society”, Revolutionary group to
break control of Austria
-Spread nationalism and
-Goals: Education and insurrection
       Camillo Cavour
• Prime Minister of Piedmont – Cavour
• Piedmont was buffer between France and Austria
• Only region to survive the pressures to
  restore a monarchy and maintain it
• King Victor Emanuel replaces King Charles Albert
  and appoints Cavour P.M. in 1852
• Known as "the brain" of unification
• Used "real politik“ – playing off Fr. And Austria
• -#1 goal was unification of Italy
                 Italian Unification
• New Pope Pius IV started
  reforms to stop revolutions but
  only resulted in increased
  tension - 1846
• -Intensity culminated in
  Revolutions of 1848
• 1. First revolution in Kingdom of
  2 Sicilies
• 2. One in Papal States -
  November 1848
• 3. Sardinia revolted against
  Austrian occupation of Italy
               Opening Victories
• War against Austria
• -Cavour wanted to secure support of Napoleon III of France
• -Cavour and Napoleon III agree secretly to a war against
• Austria
• -Spring 1859 - Cavour led Austrians to declare an ultimatum
• demanding disarmament of Sardinia --->France and Italy
• declare war on Austria
• -The Austrians defeated at Battle of Magenta and Battle of
• Solferino
           Coming on Side

• 1859 – Parma, Modena, Tuscany and the
  Romagna provinces voted to unite with
  Garibaldi and Southern Unification

• Garibaldi and Southern Unification
• -Garibaldi was called "the sword" of
• unification because he used force to unify
• southern Italy.
• -Garibaldi's Red Shirts
• -May 1860: Attained Sicily with just over
• 1000 volunteers->RED SHIRTS
• -September 1860: Then the Red Shirts
• conquered Naples, Palermo
  Garibaldi and Southern Unification

• -Garibaldi continued conquering the rest of
  Southern Italy
• -Sardinia remained neutral until…
  Garibaldi was about to enter Rome
• -Sardinia did not want to anger France
  So Cavour met Garibaldi at Rome
            Unification Complete
• Completion of Italian Unification
• Cavour, under permission of Napoleon III, invades
   Papal States (2/3 vote to join Sardinia)
• Naples and Sicily voted to join Sardinia,
• completing southern unification
• -March 17, 1861: an all Italian parliament
• proclaimed the Kingdom of Italy
• -First King: Victor Emmanuel
• -First Prime Minister: Cavour
       German Unification
• The Holy Roman Empire at the Peace of
  Westphalia, 1648, recognizing over 300
           independent states.
          German Unification
• By the start of the French Revolution in 1789,
 many of the German states had consolidated and
Prussia (Brandenburg) had grown greatly in size
                   and strength.
    German Unification
• Napoleon's conquests consolidated
several German states and created the
     Confederation of the Rhine.
          German Unification
• The German Confederation was formed by the Congress of
Vienna in 1815 consisting of 38 states including German-speaking
  Austria. The Confederation was dominated by Klemens von
   Metternich and Austria and designed to limit the growth of
German nationalism which Metternich regarded as destructive to
                      the Austrian Empire.
             German Unification
• Napoleon's conquests destroyed the Holy Roman Empire (1806)
  and unified many western German states in his Confederation of
  the Rhine.

    An upsurge of German national consciousness to unite
    and oppose foreign rule:
• Johann Fichte
•   the Grimm brothers and
• Ludwig van Beethoven
• Prussia gained popular support as the powerful
  German state which had compromised the least with
  Napoleon and the French. Prussia gained much
  territory especially in the Rhineland as a result of the
  Napoleonic Wars.
             German Unification

• The German Diet, the legislature of the German Confederation,
  passed Metternich's Carlsbad Decrees to suppress nationalism,
  1819. Nationalist demonstrations were banned and the student
  groups, the Burschenschaften, were suppressed. Metternich and
  the Austrian Empire clearly opposed any effort at the unification
  of Germany.

   The "Zollverein" (a tariff union of German states led by
   Prussia and excluding Austria) was formed, 1818-1844.
   The Zollverein brought increasing trade and
   communication among the many German states. It
   also made Prussia the leader in the national
   cooperation movement.
        German Unification

• The ouster of Metternich during the
  Revolt of 1848 weakened Austrian
  control over the German Confederation.
  The revolt intensified German
  nationalism and weakened the Austrian
  Empire by raising the consciousness of its
  subject nationalities.
           German Unification
• After threats from both Austria and Russia and
  believing the Prussian army too weak, Frederick
  William IV rejected the liberal constitution and crown
  of united Germany.
• This defeat, known as the "humiliation of Olmütz",
  caused many liberals, including the major leaders of
  the movement, to flee the German states. The
  leadership of the nationalist movement passed into
  conservative hands.
            German Unification
• The successes of the Italians in their defeat of Austria
  in 1859-1860 encouraged the growth of German
  nationalism. It also increased support for the
  "Kleindeutsch" faction that supported Prussian
  leadership of the nationalist movement over that of
  Austria, the "Grossdeutsch" faction.

  The Prussian army was reformed beginning
  in 1860 bringing new strength and
  confidence in that nation's military.
            German Unification
• Otto von Bismarck was made Chancellor of Prussia in 1862.
• Bismarck's goal was to create a united German Empire with the
  King of Prussia as its Emperor (Kaiser).

  Bismarck dismissed members of the Prussian lower
  house, the "Landtag" in 1863 in a conflict over finances
  and army reforms. Using the strength of the nation as
  the core issue, Bismarck strengthened the Prussian
  monarchy in the process.
German Unification
              German Unification
• Austria and Prussia defeated Denmark in 1864 in a war to secure
  the provinces of Schleswig-Holstein. According to the settlement,
  Schleswig and Holstein were to be ruled jointly by Prussia and
  Austria. The war unified liberals and conservatives on the issue of
  German nationalism.
Arguments over the joint governing of Schlesswig and Holstein brought war
between Prussian and Austria in 1866. Prussia defeated Austria in the "Seven
Weeks War".
The Treaty of Prague pushed Austria out of the German unification movement
           German Unification
• The new North German Confederation was formed
  uniting all of the northern German states under
  Prussian domination. The southern German states still
  remained sovereign and independent.
• The formation of the Dual Monarchy of Austria-
  Hungary in 1867 further weakened Austria. Hungary
  had the power to make decisions on warfare and had
  gained the right to refuse to fight in any war for
  German nationalism or territory.
                 The Ems Telegraph
• “After the news of the renunciation of the Prince von Hohenzollern
  had been communicated to the Imperial French government by the
  Royal Spanish government, the French Ambassador in Ems made a
  further demand on His Majesty the King that he should authorize
  him to telegraph to Paris that His Majesty the King undertook for all
  time never again to give his assent should the Hohenzollerns once
  more take up their candidature. His Majesty the King thereupon
  refused to receive the Ambassador again and had the latter informed
  by the adjutant of the day that His Majesty had no further
  communication to make to the Ambassador."
          German Unification
• In July 1870, France declared war on Prussia. The
  French declaration of war invoked the German alliance
  and the southern German states united with Prussia
  against France. This Prussian-led alliance of German
  states fought and decisively defeated France.
           German Unification
    The German Empire was proclaimed in the
    Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles on
    January 18, 1871. King William (Wilhelm) I of
    Prussia became first "Kaiser" (emperor) of the
    united German Empire.
        The Dual Monarchy

• The Habsburg Empire one the last
  remaining Dynastic, Absolutist and
  Agrarian states
• 1848 Rev. - Reassertion of Absolutism
• Francis Joseph (1848-1916) Attempts to
  impose a centralized administration.
• Reacted to events – X “Realpolitik”
              Dual Monarchy
• Loss of Russian ally
• Defeats at hands of France and Piedmont
• Struggle to put together new political reality
• 1860 - October Diploma – federation among
  states, local diets dominated by wealthy, single
• 1861 February Patent – Bicameral parliament,
  Riechsrat (Appointed and indirect election)
• When Riechsrat not in session – emperor ruled
• Magyars refused to participate
         The Dual Monarchy

• Ausgleish -- Compromise of 1867 -- Dual
  Monarchy in essentially two different states
• Trialism -- Czechs
• Ethnic nationalism dissent ripping apart the
             Third Republic
• Napoleon III – Authoritarian era –
• 1851-1860 and Liberal 1860-1870
• With defeat at the hands of Prussia – Second
  Empire comes to an end
• In settlement with Prussia, France lost Alsace-
  Lorraine and paid $$$
• Division between Paris and rest – Paris Commune
  (March 1871)
• Battle in Paris 20,000 killed
• By 1873 – Full Republic proclaimed