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Melbourne History

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Melbourne History Powered By Docstoc
					History of Australia

How and why we’re like we
                     are…
Settlement of Melbourne
 Learning              Success Criteria
 Intentions              State reasons why the
                         area was settled
   Reasons for the       Recount the process of
   settlement of the     settlement and major
   Melbourne area        events through this
                         process
   History of the
                         Know the leading
   settlement of
                         figures in the
   Melbourne             settlement and
                         development of
                         Melbourne
Terms to remember
                         Free settlers
 Governor
                           People who settled in
   Person who controls     Australia by choice
   the administration
                         Pasture
   and running of a
   particular society      Good land for raising
                           stock as it has plenty
 Colony                    of grass
   A settlement whose    Treaty
   ruling authority is     A formal agreement
   linked to or            between two or more
   controlled by           states, as in reference to
   another country         terms of peace or trade.
Melbourne
 Early Days: Melbourne started as
 an illegal settlement. Despite
 opposition from the government in
 Sydney, sheep farmers from Van
 Diemen's Land (Tasmania) crossed
 Bass Strait in search of new
 pastures.
 All information from the following site unless otherwise stated:
     http://www.museum.vic.gov.au/marvellous/
In May 1835, a syndicate led by
John Batman explored Port Phillip
Bay, looking for suitable sites for
a settlement. Batman claimed to
have signed a 'treaty' with
Aboriginal leaders, giving him
ownership of almost 250,000
hectares of land. Three months
later, another syndicate of
farmers, led by John Pascoe
Fawkner, entered the Yarra River
aboard the Enterprize,
establishing the first permanent
settlement.
New South Wales Governor Richard
Bourke declared Batman's treaty illegal
and the settlers to be trespassers. But
within two years, more than 350 people
and 55 000 sheep had landed, and the
squatters were establishing large wool-
growing properties in the district.
Bourke was forced to accept the rapidly
growing township.
Terms to remember
 Ethnic                Shanty
   Relating to a         A roughly built hut
   particular racial     or shelter
   group               Racism
 Free born               Discriminating
   Describes someone     against a particular
   who was born in       people on the basis
   the colonies, not     of their race
   deported as a
   convict
Aboriginal Melbourne: In 1837,
which was within two years of
European settlement, Governor
Bourke sent troopers from Sydney
to establish order in the new
township.
Interaction between settlers and
Aboriginal people was officially
discouraged. Corroborees, which
often attracted many white
onlookers, were outlawed.
Mounted troopers patrolled the
edge of town.
Corroboree on Emerald Hill, 1840.
Artist: W.F.E Liardet
Source: State Library of Victoria
When men, women
and children from
local clans gathered
in Melbourne in the
spring of 1840 they
were rounded up
and imprisoned.
Fences, laws and
guns secured the
settlers' new claim
on the land.
Measuring a Town: When Governor
Bourke visited the new settlement
in 1837, it was clear that there
had been little progress with the
initial land survey of the area.
Bourke selected Robert
Hoddle, the senior
surveyor from Sydney,
to take up the chain and
theodolite for the
government. On 4
March, Hoddle and
Bourke rode over the
area on horseback and
traced the general
outline of the township.
Terms to remember
 Cartographer            Constabulary
   A map maker             Police force
 Bounty                  Emancipist
   A sum of money          A convict pardoned
   paid to a free          for good behaviour
   settler to cover        before serving a
   much of the cost of     full term of
   the migrant’s sea       punishment
   journey
On 7 March, Bourke directed
that the town be laid out, and
on the 9 March the governor
named the settlement
'Melbourne' after the British
prime minister of the day. By
the end of April, Hoddle's
plan of Melbourne was lodged
at the government survey
office in Sydney.
Not all have agreed that the plan of
Melbourne is actually the work of
Robert Hoddle. Governor Bourke,
Robert Russell and William Lonsdale
have also been credited with
Melbourne's grid design. Whatever the
verdict, the 1837 grid of wide and
narrow streets remains Melbourne's
dominating historic memento of
European settlement.
Collins Street, town of
     Melbourne, New
  South Wales, 1839.

Source: State Library
      of Victoria
Gold Rush Town: Immigrants leaving
Britain in 1852 bought more tickets to
Melbourne than to any other destination
in the world.The new arrivals chased a
single dream - gold. Thousands arrived
daily. Lodging houses and hotels were
packed to bursting point. Makeshift
houses of iron, timber and canvas
sprang up on the city's edge.
Gold brought both progress and
problems. Sudden wealth transformed a
small port town into a frantic world
centre. The wharves were constantly
jammed with shipping, cargo and
migrants disembarking. Society seemed
to be turned upside down as diggers
drank champagne from buckets and
Irish maids paraded in silks and
diamonds
Queens Wharf, Melbourne, West End, 1857.
Artist: S. T. Gill Source: State Library of Victoria
The authorities feared disorder. New
civic buildings - the Customs House,
Post Office, Treasury and Parliament -
publicly displayed state power.
By 1861, Melbourne was a city of 125,
000 people. Gas street lighting, regular
piped water and solid buildings gave the
city a more permanent appearance. The
instant city was maturing.
1880s Melbourne: Visitors to Melbourne
in the 1880s were amazed. Here in the
Southern Hemisphere was a city larger
than most European capitals. In just a
decade the population had doubled,
racing to half-a-million. Citizens
strutted the streets, bursting with pride
as their city boomed.
Collins Street looking east from Elizabeth Street, late 1880s.
Photographer: Charles Rudd
Source: State Library of Victoria
While Sydney was seen as slow and
steady, Melbourne was fast and
reckless. Ornate office buildings up to
12 storeys high rivalled those of New
York, London and Chicago. Money was
poured into lavishly decorated banks,
hotels and coffee palaces. Towers,
spires, domes and turrets reached to
the skies.
By 1891 the high times were coming to
an end. Banks closed their doors,
stockbrokers panicked and thousands
lost jobs, homes and savings. Some
escaped unscathed but many were
plunged into hardship.
It was a dramatic fall, and a far more
sober and cautious Melbourne faced the
new century.
A particular feature of the city's
boom years were the temperance
hotels, known as coffee palaces. A
small number of hotels (such as
the Tankard Family Hotel in West
Lonsdale Street), had always
refused to sell alcohol, but the
coffee palaces were much grander.
The opening of the two most
extravagant temperance hotels -
the Grand in Spring Street (now
the Windsor Hotel) and the Federal
on the corner of Collins and King
Streets - coincided with the 1888
Exhibition.
The Federal Coffee
Palace, Collins
Street - c 1890
There were six 'accident proof'
lifts, gaslights, electric service
bells, and an ice-making plant in
the basement to keep kitchen
supplies fresh, and to cool the
lemonade and ginger beer. The
Federal was licensed in 1923 and
demolished in 1973.
Melbourne has more decorative
cast iron than any other city in the
world. By the 1880s it symbolised
the city's brash image virtually
every new balcony and verandah
was draped in an 'iron petticoat'.
This cast iron decoration is from the Federal
Coffee Palace, built in 1888 as a temperance
(alcohol free) hotel with over 500 rooms. It
was demolished in 1973.
John Ruskin, a noted English
architecture critic, derided cast
iron as 'cheap and vulgar'.
Melbourne could not have cared
less. Over 40 local foundries were
kept busy, melting and casting
pig-iron bars that arrived as ship's
ballast. By 1900, the foundries had
registered 161 different designs.
Terms to remember
 Flogged               Morals
   Severely whipped      Principles that
 Foundered               distinguish
                         between right and
   To hit rocks or a     wrong
   reef
                       Prostitution
 Iron gang
                         The act of
   Group of convicts     providing sexual
   who worked            favours in return
   chained together      for money
In the 1880s, Melbourne
had as much stench as
style.
Scraps, slops, urine and
faeces flowed through the
streets in open gutters.
Diseases such as
diphtheria and typhoid
flourished.
Believing that bad air from low-
lying areas would make them ill,
wealthier residents built on higher
ground and took to using smelling
salts.
Following a public outcry
and numerous
government inquiries,
the Melbourne and
Metropolitan Board of
Works was formed in
1891 to build an
underground sewerage
system.
Melbourne had become a wired
city by 1910. Networks of pipes
and cables coursed underground,
drooped across streets and snaked
up buildings. Increasingly the city
was seen as a machine, tended by
its engineers.
The new systems changed the way
the city worked. Stockbrokers and
lawyers could telephone their
clients. Clerks were elevated to
their offices in lifts - Melbourne
already had over 1000 by 1907
Timetables regulated the comings
and goings of suburban
commuters. Usage of suburban
trains and trams doubled between
1898 and 1917.
Swanston Street looking South from Little
Collins Street, 1915.
Flinders Street Station became the
city's new gateway. From 1910,
the clocks above the entrance to
this Edwardian baroque
masterpiece acted as pacesetters
for the tens of thousands of people
who passed beneath daily.
Flinders Street Station during the First World War.
As well as work, entertainment
drew people to the city. About ten
cinemas were operating by 1913,
mostly in Bourke Street. The
mechanised, jerky look of early
films reflected the tempo of the
city.
For more than a century the grand
Edwardian baroque building of Flinders
Street Station has dominated
Melbourne's southern boundary. The
design was selected by an architectural
competition held in 1902, and the red
brick and golden cream stucco building
was constructed between 1905 and
1910
Terms to remember
 Squatter               Flannel
   Someone who lives      A soft material
   on land or in          usually made from
   premises without       wool
   permission           Ticket of leave
 Stocks                   A document which
   Wooden structure       gave a well-
   built to hold feet     behaved convict
   (and sometimes         the right to operate
   hands) as a            more or less freely
   punishment
Trains had been arriving at Flinders
Street since 1854. The present building
is the most spectacular of a number
that have stood on the site. Stretching
along Flinders Street for more than a
city block, and boasting grand archways
and an expansive ballroom, it is public
architecture on a majestic scale - a
symbol of the importance of railways to
the growth of the city and its suburbs.
Flinders Street Station has become
far more than a place of transit.
Meeting 'under the clocks' is a
Melbourne institution, and the
building arguably remains the
city's principal landmark. Recently
refurbished and repainted, Flinders
Street Station is as resplendent
today as ever.
Melbourne's earliest telephone
connection was installed in 1879.
Australia's first telephone
exchange opened a year later in
Collins Street. At that stage there
were only enough subscribers to
fill a single page.
By 1886, a dozen women telephonists
answered calls at a larger exchange in
Wills Street. In 1887, Melbournians
made 8000 calls each day, mostly
during business hours. The early
subscribers were mostly wealthy -
banks, solicitors, insurance companies,
auctioneers, printers, importers,
brokers and merchants.
The new invention was to have far-
reaching implications for the shape of
the city. Taller buildings appeared,
made possible by easy communication
between floors. Most striking was the
forest of poles and wires that spread
along the city streets. But the army of
errand boys and letter carriers who had
scurried between city offices
disappeared - rendered obsolete by the
new invention.
Motorised vehicles made their first
appearance in Melbourne about 1900.
At first they were praised for being
faster and cleaner than horses.
However, their noise, speed and fumes
frightened horses and left pedestrians
ducking for cover. People complained of
'road hogs' who recklessly sped through
the streets endangering all in their
path.
To control the motorised horde, in 1916
Melbourne City Council had imposed
new restrictions. Vehicles had to travel
on the left-hand side of the road in not
more than two lanes. When stopping, a
hand or a whip had to be raised. In the
following years hand signals for turning
were imposed, along with time
restrictions on parking.
Initially considered a toy for the
wealthy, the ownership of motor
vehicles increased most markedly
after the First World War.
Registrations of motor cars, trucks
and cycles doubled between 1917
and 1922, reaching a total of
44,750
The first cable tram in Victoria operated
along Flinders Street to Richmond in
                    five and a
1885. WithinQuickTime™ years, trams were
ferrying people between the city and
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inner suburbs along 65 kilometres of
tram tracks. The driving power for the
underground cables came from engine-
houses positioned at intervals along
each route.
By 1916, these trams were carrying
more than one hundred million
passengers a year to and from the inner
and middle suburbs, at speeds
averaging 15 kilometres an hour,
including stops. Major shopping strips
such as Sydney Road, Puckle Street,
Glenferrie Road and Chapel Street
boomed.
The first electric tramway opened
in 1906, and the gradual
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and 1930s. The last cable tram -
running along Bourke Street to
Clifton Hill - ceased operation in
1940.
While many cities in the world,
including most Australian capitals, were
scrapping their tram systems from the
1950s, Melbourne not only retained its
trams but continued to update the fleet.
Melbourne's tracks and tramcars were
in good order and the city is well-suited
to trams, being relatively flat with wide
streets.
That no-one in authority ever made the
order to get rid of them was one of the
better non-decisions ever made by
bureaucrats.
Trams are here to stay - although the
familiar sound of 'Tickets please'
disappeared with conductors in 1998.
Images can deceive. As Melbourne
neared its centenary year in 1934,
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idyllic views across the Yarra River
presented a city of 'unrivalled
loveliness' in postcards, posters
and even rugs.
Looking south down Russell Street, 1930s.
This tranquil image belied what was
actually happening in the streets of
               QuickTime™ In
central Melbourne.and a 1930 the Great
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Depression hadsee this hard. One-third of
the workforce lost their jobs, and there
was little social security. Men and
women wandered the streets, surviving
on greasy soup and the odd sermon
doled out by fund-starved charities.
The widely promoted image of the
'Garden City' and 'Queen City of
the South' emphasised the idea of
Melbourne as a very British city. A
visit by the Duke of Gloucester,
son of George V, the ageing king,
provided a reassuring
strengthening of Melbourne's
imperial connections.
The presented view of Melbourne's
history stressed the 'myth of the
pioneer', embodied in the person of
John Batman. Elevated to heroic status,
he was reinvented as a courageous
pioneer whose life exemplified the
rewards of self-improvement. Such a
portrayal ignored Batman's dubious
'treaty' with local Aborigines and the
less savoury details of his personal life.
Melbourne's indigenous people
were excluded from this
triumphant view of Melbourne's
past. The centenary celebrations
now seem dated, but the image of
Melbourne as a conservative city
largely influenced by Britain has
been more enduring.
Host to the Olympic Games in
1956, Melbourne was transformed
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in the years that followed.
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Buildings grew taller, traffic got
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thicker, and new arrivals brought
new ideas.
Many old buildings, with their
stone gargoyles and cast-iron
lacework, tumbled under the
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wrecker's ball. The central city
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rang with the din of jackhammers.
Glass and steel skyscrapers
reached into the air - symbols of
enterprise.
Immigrants from continental
Europe brought their distinctive
cultures to the city. New flavours
were added to the arts. European-
style cafes gave the city pockets of
sophistication.
But Melbourne was still a '9 to 5'
city. Hordes of cars from the
suburbs jammed city streets in
rush hours. As soon as offices
emptied, streets were deserted.
Nevertheless, the blueprint of
today's Melbourne was in place.
Construction of significant
buildings in the city halted during
World War Two, due to restrictions
on materials and government
controls on building size. The
wartime skyline continued to be
dominated by St Paul's Cathedral
spire and the commercial beacon
of the T & G Tower.
Postwar prosperity heralded a
building boom that, combined with
new building technologies, saw the
first appearance in Melbourne of
modernist glass office boxes.
The height and sleek design of ICI
House symbolised progress,
modernity and efficiency.
Majestically situated on an island
site at the corner of Albert and
Nicholson Streets, the building
became a new symbol of corporate
power in postwar Melbourne. It
still stands today.
The staging of the Olympic Games in
Melbourne in 1956 is often viewed as a
turning point in the social, cultural and
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architectural development of the city.
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Olympic fever enveloped Melbourne and
Australia, leaving countless collective
memories and arguably a more mature,
sophisticated nation.
The Olympics was an event of
such magnitude in Melbourne that
homes became family archives for
the ephemera of Olympic
experiences and memories.
Olympomania spread like wildfire,
flooding the market with
souvenirs.
In their desire to present a
uniquely Australian imagery to the
international public, designers
incorporated indigenous motifs into
both modern and more traditional
graphic styles.
The crisis sharpened the divide
between the right and the left of
politics - violence frequently
followed demonstrations. The rich
made the poor angry; the poor
frightened the rich.
Amidst this tension, Melbourne
endured. With many rickety buildings
deemed a fire hazard and demolished,
the city took on a more uniform and
permanent appearance. The finest
interwar buildings - built to the height
limit of 132 feet, plus a parapet - were
commercial. Beside them, public
buildings and churches looked smaller
and older.
In 1934, as Melbourne planned to
celebrate the centenary of
European settlement, it seemed to
some that there was little to
celebrate. The financial strains of
the depression, unemployment
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all undercut claims of unbridled
progress.
Perhaps because of such troubles,
the organisers of the centenary
celebrations tried doubly hard to
be positive. The themes of the
celebrations were conservative,
reflecting the desire of some
Melburnians for security in
troubled times.
http://210.15.209.254/why_melbourn
e/why_melbourne/index.html
The price for Melbourne

In 1835,
John Batman and his associates paid
members of the Wurundjeri clan 40
blankets, 30 axes, 100 knives, 50
scissors, 30 mirrors, 200 handkerchiefs,
100 pounds of flour, and six shirts for
Melbourne (the government later
refused to recognise the deal). Batman
returned to Launceston boasting "I am
the greatest landowner in the world”
Back to slideshow
Long before Melbourne became the City
of Melbourne, it was called Batmania,
Bearbrass, Bearport, Bareheap and
Bearbury. Some of these names were
derived from the Aboriginal name for
the area which was Berren or Bararing,
plus there was the Big Miam Miam (as
they termed the Town plenty of white
Bread).Back to Slideshow

				
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