Soy Sauce Production by gjjur4356

VIEWS: 379 PAGES: 40

									    Industrial Production Soy
              Sauce
            Group Members:
                  Alexander Eryuzlu
                  Yathu Kaileswaran
                  Hossam Refaei
                  Ji Xu
                  Cong Ying



1
Why soy sauce?
 Commonly used in Asia, becoming popular in Americas as a
  condiment
 129 million litres annually produced in the U.S. (~$2
  billion/year)
 Kikkoman Foods Inc. is the largest producer in the world


                                 Ride the Kikkoman Wave
Popularity in the US
    Koikuchi Shoyu PFD




4
    Koji Fermentation



5
    Koikuchi Koji Overview
    1. Cooked soybeans and roasted wheat at

       50/50 conc. (40% moisture content)

    2. Inoculated with Aspergillus Sojae/Oryzae

    3. Incubation within the perforated vats

    4. Salt solution is added




6
    Aspergillus Sojae/Oryzae
     Release enzymes to digest material

     Material is absorbed by hyphae

     Types of Enzyme produced during Koji Fermentation

       Amylolytic, Proteolytic, Peptidolytic, and Lypolytic

        enzymes

     Reproduces by sporulation


7
    Purpose of Koji Fermination
    1. Maximize enzyme production

    2. Prevent denaturation of the enzymes

    3. Avoid the presence of undesirable micro-organisms

    4. Minimize the utilisation of nutrients by the Koji molds




8
Koji Vats Perspective
     Continuous Koji processing vats




10
     Temperature profile during incubation




11
     Brine solution
      20-24% NaCl

      To kill off Apergillus Oryzae/Sojae fungi and its spores

      Adds a salty taste




12
     Brine Fermentation



13
     Brine Fermentation
      5 months ~ 6 months
      Take place in a fermentor

      Fermentor properties
       – 10, 000 Liters
       – Closed tank reactor
       – Atmosphere Pressure
       – Varied temperature (15 – 28 °C)




14
     Brine Fermentation
      Fermentor




15
     Brine Fermentation
      3 Stages in Brine Fermentation


        1. Protein and starch hydrolysis
        2. Culture of lactic acid bacteria and pH reduction
        3. Growth of yeasts and alcohol fermentation




16
     Brine Fermentation Stage 1.
      Protein and Starch Hydrolysis




17
     Brine Fermentation Stage 2.
     • Culture of Lactic Acid Bacteria and pH
       Reduction
       – Pediococcus bacteria
          Growing in a 24% salt solution, T = 15 °C
          Anaerobic
       – Initial pH value: 6.5 – 7.0
               Pediococcus
        C6H12O6              CH3CHOHCOOH + C2H5OH + CO2
        Glucose              Lactic acid   Ethanol Carbon
                                                   dioxide
       – Final pH value : ~ 5.0

18
     Brine Fermentation Stage 3.
     • Growth of Yeasts and Alcohol Fermentation
       – Saccharomyces rouxii
           •   Growing in a 24% salt solution, T = 15 °C
           •   Anaerobic
       – Reactions (T = 28 °C)
                      S. rouxii
          Amino acid                 Alcohol + Water
          Maillard reaction:
                                  S. rouxii
          Amino acid + Glucose                HEMF




19
     Cost Estimation



20
Cost Estimation: Heat Exchanger
 Floating head, shell and tube c/s



Heat Exchanger Parameters
Surface Area (m2)           100

Material            Carbon steel

Temp. (K)                   353

Pressure (Mpa)               3.2
Woods’ Correlations (Ch. 5.5)
Cost Estimation: Heat Exchanger
 Inflation factor: 4.756

   FOB c/s                         8,000
   Co                            38,051.83
   Fbm                                3.14
   Fp                               1.3204
   Fm                                    1
   ƒ(piping)                          0.46
   ψ                                   0.7
   Co(Fbm - 1)                   81,430.91
   Co(FpFm - 1)                  12,191.81
   Co(FpFm - 1)(ƒ(piping))(ψ)    3,925.761
   Total Cost ($)               135,600.30
   Error (+/-)                        40%
     Operability
          Fermentor



24
          Operability Window
          7.5


           7


          6.5


           6
                                Month 1
          5.5
     pH




                                                Temperature transition                   Months 2-6
           5


          4.5


           4


          3.5


           3
                13   14   15   16   17    18   19    20   21   22    23   24   25   26      27   28   29

                                                    Temperature ⁰C

25
Process Operability
 Flexibility
   Degrees of freedom: temperature and pressure

 Reliability
   Temperature and pressure control for production

 Efficiency
   Proper management

 Dynamics
   Temperature control (+/- 0.5 ºC)
     Safety



27
      Safety Issue
• Basic Process Control Diagram

• Pressure Safety Interlock System (SIS)
• Temperature Safety Interlock System (SIS)
• Safety Relief Valve
• Workplace Containment
• Emergency Response
  Note:
  •Fermentor is very expensive
  Equipment!
  •Fermentation is a biological
  Process!
                          Dissolved Oxygen
                          Level DO2


                                 AA

           Air Flow                               Air Flow




                      T

                                             P
                                    Closed
                                    Tank

Heating Stream                               PH
                               Dissolved Oxygen
                               Level DO2


                                      AA

             Outlet Air Flow                            Inlet Air Flow


                                                                     PC
Pressure HAZOP SIS
• Fail Close Valve at                                   PAH
Inlet Air Flow                                    PA1                PY
• Fail Open Valve at
Outlet Air Flow
                                                  PA2
• Filter at Outlet Air
Flow Channel
• Extra Pressure Sensor
                         AA


                 TAH

         TY        TA1        Temperature HAZOP SIS
                              • Fail Close Valve at Heating
         TC        TA2        Stream Inlet Channel
                              • Extra Sensor to Measure
                              Temperature of Fermentation
                              Tank
Heating Stream
                          Dissolved Oxygen
                          Level DO2


                                 A Alarm !!
                                   A
                              Pressure Exceeds
           Air Flow                                   Air Flow
                            Maximum Allowable
                                    Level!
                      T

                                                 P



Heating Stream                                   PH
           Air Flow
                          AA

                                    Air Flow
Safety Relief
Valve
                      T

                               P




Heating Stream                 PH
 Overall SIS Diagram
                           Dissolved Oxygen
                           Level DO2
                                                                    Inlet Air Flow
          Air Flow
                                   AA

              >                               Safety Relief
TAH     TY           TA1                      Valve                     PC

        TC           TA2
                                                              PAH              >
                                                   PA1                  PY


                                                   PA2
  Heating Stream


                                                   PHA
Workplace Containment
  • Fermentation        is a biological
  process
   -- Employees should follow biosafety manual
  during operation and handling equipments and
  biological agents.
  • All microorganisms in soy sauce production
  belongs to Class I biological risk agent
                                                 Class I Biological Risk
  •Personal Protection:                          Agent:
                                                 Has no or minimal risk
  1. Protective coating and gloves               to cause health problem
  2. Eye protection equipments                   to adult human

  3. Mouth, nose covering
Workplace Containment
     Plant Environment Protection
    Safety Tank that covers the fermentation tank
    Emergency Response
• Shut down fermentation process
• Isolate the problematic tank
• If leaks to the work environment,
evacuate all workers locate in workplace
• Shut down all electric devices to prevent
fire
• Decontaminate the leaked liquid by
killing all microorganisms with chemicals
     Troubleshooting




38
                                                               Temperature too low
                                   Heat Exchanger


                                                      Soy bean cooking temperature too low
                                  Koji Vat                Incorrect fungi concentration
                Process
                                                        Incorrect temperatures
                Flow                                                                Aerator damaged

                          Fermentor                 Temperature too high
                                                                                    Heating coil damaged
                                                     Temperature too low

                                             Not enough salt in Brine solution
Contaminated
Soy Sauce
                       Koji vat

                                                  Contaminated

                          Fermentor                  Contaminated fermentor
      Control Errors                                 pH level changes not accounted


                              Incorrect readings                  Faulty sensors

                                                                  Incorrect calibration
     Questions?
40

								
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