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									Proposal Writing

Partos December 2008
    Before you start writing up..
•   Project identification and initial
    stakeholder analysis
•   Problem and needs (situation)
•   Development of shared vision and
    participatory design amongst
    stakeholder groups – getting from
    where we are now to where we want
    to be.
                                         EC proposal writing
Compile the Logical framework
•   Participatory LFA can help achieve
    consensus of stakeholders.
•   Defines all key components of the
    project in one place.
•   Used throughout the Project Life
    Cycle, it provides basis for M & E as it
    identifies key indicators of success at
    each level
                                           EC Proposal Writing
      From LFA to Project
Draw from the problem analysis to define
• Beneficiaries and stakeholders
• Project rationale
From the logical framework get details for
• Objectives, results and activities
• Budget information
• Monitoring and evaluation
                                         EC Proposal Writing
                                                 EC Logical framework matrix
             Intervention logic                  Objectively verifiable indicators      Sources and means      Assumptions
                                                                                        of verification

Overall      What are the overall broader        What are the key indicators related    What are the sources
objectives   objectives to which the action      to the overall objectives?             of information for
             will contribute?                                                           these indicators?

Specific     What specific objective is the      Which indicators clearly show that     What are the sources   Which factors and
objective    action intended to achieve to       the objective of the action has been   of information for     conditions outside the
             contribute to the overall           achieved?                              these indicators?      beneficiary’s
             objectives?                                                                                       responsibility are
                                                                                                               necessary to achieve
                                                                                                               that objective?
Expected     The results are the outputs         What are the indicators to measure     What are the sources   What external
results      envisaged to achieve the specific   whether and to what extent the         of information for     conditions must be met
             objective.                          action achieves the expected           these indicators?      to obtain the expected
                                                 results?                                                      results on schedule?

Activities   What are the key activities to be   Means: What are the means              Sources of             What pre-conditions are
             carried out and in what sequence    required to implement activities?      information about      required before the
             in order to produce the expected    E.g. personnel, equipt, training,      action progress?       action starts?
             results? (Group activities by       studies, supplies, operational         Costs:                 What conditions outside
             result)                             facilities etc.                                               the Beneficiary’s direct
                                                                                                               control have to be met
                                                                                                               for implementation of
•   Once you have defined your activities,
    cost them out and make a first draft of
    the budget
•   Do this before you start writing up your
    concept note/full proposal
•   This will enable you to realistically
    assess the resources you require.

                                          EC Proposal Writing
Use the EC Evaluation Grid to understand
 what messages you need to communicate

• The EC evaluate your concept notes and full
  applications using an evaluation grid.
• Points are awarded out of 50 for concept
  notes and 100 for full proposals.
• Keep the grid in front of you as you write
         Relevance Section
One of the most important parts of your
   project document.
You must convince the EC that your
   project responds to:
• Clearly defined problems
• Addresses clearly expressed needs
   that have been identified in a
   participatory process.
• The objectives of the budget line       EC Proposal Writing
      Project stakeholders
•   Key stakeholders are all those who have
    an influence in or are important in your
    project’s success.
•   Target group(s) are those people or groups
    who will be immediately, positively affected
    by the project at the purpose level.
•   Final beneficiaries are those who benefit
    from the project in the long term, at the level
    of sector or community

                                                EC Proposal Writing
Describing target groups/beneficiaries
•   Are they clearly defined? Give numbers
•   Include a statement of their economic and
    social roles/positions and geographic
•   Other relevant information e.g. age,
    education/skills levels, ownership or access
    to resources.
•   A gender breakdown is vital to ensure that
    the needs of men, women, girls and boys
    are addressed.
                                              EC Proposal Writing
          Problem statements
•   Describe the problem and its causes. How
    does it affect men and women, nationally,
    regionally or locally as appropriate. Address
    the social, economic, political, physical or
    cultural context as it relates to the problem.

•   Why was this particular problem chosen for

                                                EC Proposal Writing
Involvement of stakeholders
•   How was the problem identified? E.g. focus
    group interviews, facilitated participatory
    meetings ( PRA etc)
•   Who was involved in identifying the problem
    and what role did they play e.g. groups or
    individuals in the community including
    potential beneficiaries, government,
    partners etc

                                             EC Proposal Writing
Match with donor objectives
•   The project document must show that
    it fits with the donor’s own objectives
    for their budget line.
•   You must show that your project is in
    line with the relevant Country or
    Regional Strategy .
•   Refer if appropriate to PRSP (Poverty
    Reduction Strategy Papers)
                                              Proposal Writing
      Cross-cutting themes
Whenever possible, contribute to these
  e.g. gender equality, human rights and
  democracy, the protection and
  promotion of children’s rights,
  integration of environment questions,
  respect of rule of law and fight against

                                     EC Proposal Writing
   The Action & its effectiveness (1)
Points to get across:
•   The activities are appropriate, practical and
    consistent with objectives and results
•   The activities will have measurable results
    and outcomes.
•   Appropriate methodologies used
•   The roles and responsibilities of partners
    and other stakeholders in implementation
    are clear.
•   Activities are cost effective I.e. the best way
    of achieving the results.
                                                 EC Proposal Writing
    The action and its effectiveness (2)
• Second section: Use the Results level of the
Information includes:
• Concrete results (what EC mean by outputs)
• Impact: how project will improve situation of
   target groups and their technical and
   management capacity
• Replication and extension of activities
• Critical path analysis ( in the full document)
  NEW: Critical path analysis.

A requirement of the full proposal:
Indicate clearly the sequence of and links between
  all different activities in an appropriate Project
  Management form identifying the critical path for
  implementing the action.
Some other formats add Start to Start, Start to
  Finish and Finish to Finish.
A project management tool that:
• Sets out all the individual activities that make up a
  larger project
• Shows the order in which activities have to be
• Shows which activities can only take place once
  other activities have been completed
• Shows which activities can be undertaken
  simultaneously, thereby reducing overall time taken
  to complete the project
• Shows when certain resources will be needed

Concept note covers Involvement role of partners and
   other stakeholders and their attitudes.
Information required for the full document:
- Methods and reasons for choice
- Previous actions? Part of larger action?
- Monitoring and evaluation
- Organisational structure and team
- Means e.g. equipment etc
- Synergies with other activities
       Achieving sustainability
How will the benefits of the project last beyond
   the funding period?
Analyse sustainability under following points:
• Financial: Funding required?
• Institutional: Structures in place to allow
   activities to continue?
• Social/cultural: Behaviour change
• Policy: e.g. changes in law, codes of good
You need to show that strategies have been
   built into the project activities to ensure
                                               EC Proposal Writing
         Risk assessment
•     A good risk analysis would include a
    range of risk types including physical,
    environmental, political, economic and
    social risks.
•   Outline the main risks to the success of the
    project accompanied by relevant mitigation
    measures. Can categorize as high, medium
    and low.

                                              EC Proposal Writing
    Monitoring and evaluation
    The process of review, and frequency. How often
     will reports be produced.
    Who will monitor?
    The project may constitute a steering committee to
     oversee M & E. How will different project
     stakeholders participate?
    Visits from the NGO? Visits from donors?
    Who will evaluate? Independent evaluators? When
     are the evaluations planned?
    What will be the evaluation methodology.

                                                     EC Proposal Writing

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