grammar of english

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Tóth Csilla

                      [GRAMMAR OF ENGLISH]
                      2008/2009. I. félév
                      P 14-16 h
                      Tóth Gabriella

    1.        Language and Grammar
    2.        Morphology
    3.        Syntax
    4.        Structure of Kernel Clauses
    5.        Parts of Speech
    6.        Verbs
    7.        Tense, Aspect, Modality
    8.        Nouns
    9.        Adjectives
    10.       Adverbs, Prepositions
    11.       Clause Types
    12.       Subordination
    13.       Coordination
                                               Topic 1
                                        LANGUAGE AND GRAMMAR

6 Levels
     morphology
          o is concerned with the form of words
          o the study of the internal structure of words
     syntax
          o is concerned with the way words combine to form sentences
          o rules of sentence-formation
          o sentence structure, the placements of the words, substitution frames etc.
     phonology
          o it examines the function of sounds within the system of one particular language
          o whether certain sounds are capable of distinguishing words from each other  phonemes
     semantics
          o the study of meaning
          o word semantics / sentence semantics
          o homonyms, synonyms, antonyms etc.
     phonetics
          o the way of pronounce sounds
          o it examines the physical properties of sounds
          o how the different sounds are produced, transmitted through the air, and heard by the hearer
     pragmatics
          o for interpretation
          o additional information

    used in a number of different senses
    in narrow sense  morphology + syntax
    in broader sense  morphology + syntax + phonology + semantics
    in the broadest sense  all the 6 levels

Descriptive / Prescriptive grammar
    descriptive
            o it describes your basic linguistic knowledge
            o it explains how it is possible for you to speak and understand
            o it tells what you know about the sounds, words, phrases and sentences of your language
    prescriptive
            o it tells you how you should speak, it attempts to legislate what your grammar should be

     descriptive  prescriptive
            o descriptive – describe the facts, the standard British language
            o prescriptive – prescribe the rules
     synchronic  diachronic
            o synchronic – study language at a certain time (e.g. Medieval English)
            o diachronic – historical linguistics, studies and compares languages
                                              Topic 2

   the study of the internal structure of words and of the rules by which words are formed
   lexicon
         o lists the vocabulary items – mainly words and idioms
         o specifies how they behave grammatically, and what they mean
         o “cat”  know the part of speech + meaning + how to pronounce it
         o “hate”  know the tense + transitive
   form/sounds + meaning  they are inseparable
         o form  phonological, morphological, syntactic
         o meaning  basic, metaphorical, pragmatic
   lexeme
         o abstract units
         o e.g. cat, hate
         o tooth and teeth are different words, but forms of the same lexeme tooth
         o tooth is the singular form of tooth and teeth is its plural form
         o  inflectional property
   its two major branches
         o derivational morphology  word-formation (lexical morphology)
                  deals with the creation of new words
                  changes the meaning and the part of speech of words by applying derivations
                  derivation = the combination of a word stem with a morpheme
                  they aren’t required by syntactic relations outside the word
                          “He is kind.” / “He is unkind.”  both sentence are grammatically correct
                  they are not always productive  -hood occurs with just a few nouns – brotherhood,
                     neighborhood, but not with *friendhood, *candlehood
                  affixes (prefix, suffix)
         o inflectional morphology  inflection
                  deals with the grammatical forms of the same word
                  vary the form of words in order to express grammatical features  singular/plural,
                     past/present etc.
                  do not change basic meaning or part of speech
                  express grammatically-required features or indicate relations between different words in
                     the sentence
                  “bound morphemes”, affixes (only suffixes)
   morpheme = the smallest meaningful unit of a language
   roots = simple stems; the most elementary words, they are not analyzable into smaller morphological
   free / bound morphemes
         o free stems  stems that can stand alone as a word  friend, boy
         o bound stems  stems that can’t stand alone  -s, -ed
         o examples
                  perishable  perish – free
                  durable  dur – bound
                  unkind  kind – free
                  unbeknown  beknown – bound
   we combine morphemes into larger units  phrases + sentences

Rules of word-formations
     morphological rules determine how morphemes combine to form new words
     we can’t change the order of the morphemes (unfriendly, *lyfriendun)
     morphemes can’t connect to each word
           o un-       *unquickly, unsad, unbrave
           o –able eatable, drinkable, *goable, dieable
                    transitive words  which has an object (Vtrans + able)
                    intransitive words  which has no object
     derivational bound morphemes
           o morphemes that add new meanings to an existing word
           o sometimes the derived word is in a different grammatical class than the underived word
                    Noun  Adjective (boy + ish, virtu + ous, Elizabeth + an, pictur + esque, affection + ate,
                       health + ful, alcohol + ic, life + like)
                    Verb  Noun (acquitt + al, clear + ance, accus + ation, confer + ence, sing + er, conform +
                       ist, predict + ion, free + dom)
                    Adjective  Adverb (exact + ly)
                    Noun  Verb (moral + ize, vaccine + ate, brand + ish)
                    Adjective  Noun (tall + ness, specific + ity)
                    Verb  Adjective (desire + able, migrat + ory)
           o don’t cause a change in grammatical class
                    a + moral, auto + biography, ex + wife, super + human, mono + theism, re + print, semi +
                       annual, sub + minimal
                    vicar + age, long + er, short + est, Americ + an, Trotsky + ite, Commun + ist, music + ian,
                       pun + ster
     inflectional morphology
           o they never change the syntactic category of the words or morphemes to which they are attached
           o it doesn’t add any lexical meaning
           o represent such concepts as “tense”, “number”, “gender”, “case” etc.
                    -s (plural)
                    -s (3rd person singular)
                    ‘s (genitive)
                    -ed (past)
                    -en (part participle)
                    -ing (present participle)
                    -ing (gerund)
                    -er (comparative)
                    -est (superlative)
           o e.g. sail + s, sail + ed, sail + ing, boy + s

Morphological processes
    Compounding  compounds
          o adding two stems together
          o e.g. black + bird = blackbird, gold + smith = goldsmith
          o un|reli|abil|ity  [N[Adjun[Adj[Vreli]able]]ity]
    Affixation
          o an affix is added to a stem
          o complex stems
          o three types
                   prefix  added before the stem  re|call
                   suffix  added after the stem  happi|ly
                   infix
   Conversion
        o same form
        o empty  adjective + verb
   Suppletion
        o same lexeme, different forms
        o the derived forms of a word cannot be deduced by simple rules from the base form
        o go – went
   Blending  blends
        o two stems distorted before unified
        o e.g. chocoholic = chocolate + alcoholic
                motel = motor + hotel
                brunch = breakfast + lunch
                smog = smoke + fog
   Acronyms
        o words derived from the initials of several words
        o e.g. IBM, NASA, UNESCO, Yuppi
                Radar = radio detecting and ranging
                laser = light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation
                                                    Topic 3

      sentences-formation
      the study of the rules that govern the structure of sentences, and which determine their relative
       grammaticality  sentence structure, the placements of the words, substitution frames etc.
      units of syntax
           o sentence  the largest unit
           o word  the smallest unit
           o constituent
                     a part of some unit higher in the hierarchy
                     e.g. “The boss made a bad mistake.”

                                          The boss made a bad mistake

                                      the boss        made a bad mistake

                                                                 a bad mistake

                                    the     boss    made            a       bad     mistake

                       the boss and made a bad mistake  immediate constituents of the sentence = first
                        divided into
                     made and a bad mistake  the immediate constituents of made a bad mistake
                      the constituent structure of the sentence
           o construction
                     they are made up of units lower in the hierarchy
                     except the lowest ones  the words are not syntactic constructions because they are the
                        minimal units of syntax
                     made a bad mistake  both a constituent and a construction
      node = all the syntactic categories and words below the larger syntactic categories
           o dominate – every higher node dominate all the categories beneath it
           o immediately dominate – a node immediately dominate the categories one level below it
           o sisters – categories that are immediately dominated by the same node
      sentence = head + complements

Testing the constituents  What are the units?
     “John met a friend from Paris in London.”
     *John met a him in London. * John met a friend from Paris in there.
     substitution  pro-forms, pronouns
            o ‘a friend from Paris’  him
            o ‘in London’  there
            o ‘met’  so did
            o “He met him there.”
            o with the help of substitution
                     the part of speech can be determined  ‘John’ can only be substituted for NPs
                     the status can be determined
                     it tells whether a noun is a simple noun or a noun phrase  status of an element
     clefting
            o it be __
            o “It is the girl who ate ...” / “It is in Italy where the girl ...”
     pseudo clefting
            o “Where the girl ate pizza is in Italy.”
            o “Who ate the pizza was the girl.”
      preposing / topicalization
           o raising tone then break
           o in speech: space (intonation), in writing: comma
           o “In Italy, the girl ate the pizza.”
           o “The pizza, the girl ate in Italy.”
      question formation
           o “Who met a friend from Paris in London?”  John
           o “What did John do in London?”  met a friend from Paris
           o “Who did John meet in London?”  a friend from Paris
      passive
           o only object
           o The pizza was eaten ...

Kernel and non-kernel clauses
    examples
           o “He sliced it with a knife.”  Kernel
                    it can be described quite straightforwardly
           o “Did he slice it with a knife?”  Non-kernel
                    an interrogative clause
                    the grammar will contain rules for forming interrogatives from their declarative
                    we derive it from Sentence 1 by adding the verb do before the subject and transferring to
                       it the tense inflection which in the declarative is carried by slice
           o “The knife he sliced it with was extremely sharp.”  Non-kernel
                    subordinated clause
    the properties of the kernel clause
           o it forms a sentence on its own
                    it is not part of some larger syntactic unit
                    it is neither coordinate with, nor subordinate to, some other clause
                    a kernel clause can contain a non-kernel clause within it
                    main clause = clause which is not subordinate
           o it is structurally complete, not reduced by ellipsis
                    ellipsis = the omission of one or more elements that can be understood from the linguistic
                       or situation context)
                    e.g. “Kim went by bus and Pat by train.”  “and Pat by train” – lacks a predicator  Non-
           o it is declarative – not imperative or interrogative
                    “You are generous.”  Kernel
                    “Be generous!” / “Are you generous?”  Non-kernel
           o it is positive, not negative
                    positive: “They were helpful.”
                    negative: “They weren’t helpful.”
           o it is unmarked in respect of all thematic systems of the clause
           o unmarked sentence  the smallest declarative, positive sentence
Words can enter into two types of relations
    paradigmatic relation
           o vertical relation
           o the selection of 'this-or-this-or-this'
           o if they have the same part of speech and the same status
           o two or more elements
    syntagmatic relation
           o horizontal relation
           o how the elements related to each other
           o the combination of 'this-and-this-and-this'
           o on the basis of this we can define function (subject, predicate, object, adverbial etc.)
           o not an inherent property

                                       Syntagmatic relation
                          Librarians     are    searching   information
                            Users        are   looking for documents
                              He          is   looking for      facts

Syntactic classes
    the constituent structure of the sentence identifies all the syntactic units in the sentence  syntactic
    expressions that can substitute for one another without loss of grammaticality
    clause  the top-most unit, the sentence
    phrases
             o the classification of the larger units
             o head + dependent
             o articles, coordinators, subordinators  doesn’t form a phrase
             o dependents = the subordinate elements in the phrase
                     they are often syntactically optional
             o in the example sentence
                     the boss and a bad mistake  Noun Phrases  because they each have a Noun as their
                         major or ‘head’ element
                     made a bad mistake  Verb Phrase  because we take the verb made as the head
    head
             o the syntactically dominant element in the phrase
             o in a given class of phrase it is always filled by the same class of smaller units
                     in a NP  always filled by a noun
                     in a VP  always filled by a verb
             o word classes – the traditional parts of speech
             o in the example sentence
                     boss and mistake  Nouns
                     made  Verb
                     bad  Adjective
                     the and a  definite and indefinite article  here: ‘Determinatives’
                              ‘determinatives’ also includes words like: my, some, this
    below the lexical items (head): functional (grammatical) items  determiners, auxiliaries etc.
   many sentences are ambiguous
   the same sequence of words has two (or more) analyses of the kind we have been discussing
   “Liz attacked the man with a knife.”
          o first analysis
                   ‘the man with a knife’  1 constituent  NP  as object of ‘attacked’
                   its meaning is: “Liz attacked the man who had a knife.”
          o second analysis
                   ‘attacked the man with a knife’  3 constituents
                           ‘attacked’  predicator
                           ‘the man’  object
                           ‘with a knife’  adjunct
                   its meaning is: “Liz used a knife in her attack on the man.”

Prototype theory
     parts of speech + characteristics
     how can we define what belongs to where?
     prototype  that best represents the category as a whole
     4 criteria
           o inflectional morphology
                   noun – apple  prototypical noun (well-behaved)
                           number: singular – plural (-s)
                           genitive: the boy ~ the boy’s (of)
                   noun – louse  not prototypical (deviant)
                           plural: lice
                           because of it isn’t regular, because of its plural  deviant
           o derivational morphology
                   teach + er  teacher
                   apple + like  applelike
           o syntactic morphology
                   Noun can form a NP
                   NP  art adj*(many) P N PP PP S
                   not all nouns can have any of these (e.g. proper nouns)
           o internal structure
                   NP  Det N
                   all / each / the / a / one + dog  prototypical
                   all / the / *each / *a / *one /*two + water  not prototypical

Make more complex sentences by
    extension
          o adjuncts  can be added to practically any sentence
          o e.g. in Paris, yesterday
    omission
          o imperative
          o “Visit your mother in Paris.”
    reordering / rearrangement / addition
          o passive, question form
          o rearrangement of elements
          o “Will John visit his mother tomorrow?”
    subordination
          o subordinator: ‘that’  part of the subordinate clause
          o subordinate clause can go to the beginning and to the end of the main sentence
          o “Béla believes that Bandi is stupid.”
      coordination
           o coordinator: ‘and’, ‘then’
           o not part of either clause
           o “Béla gets up at 8 every morning then washes his face.”
      a sentence/clause can be a subject but it’s not a prototypical subject
           o That Béla solved the problem shows that he is a clever boy.

Phrase structure rules (P S-rules)
    the general structure of a sentence
            o S  NP Aux VP          e.g. “The girl will read.”
            o NP  (art) N           = NP always contain a N
            o VP  V                 = VP always contain a V
            o PP  P NP              = PP consists of a Preposition followed by a NP
            o AdjP  Adj (C)         = AP consists of an Adjective possibly followed by a Complement
    obligatory / optional elements
            o NP  (Det) N = N is obligatory, Det is optional
                                                Topic 4
                                      STRUCTURE OF KERNEL CLAUSES


       NP                  VP

     subject             predicate

    compulsory and always has a meaning (except: “It’s raining.”)
    structurally below the sentence
    it is the person or thing that the sentence is about
    form class
           o an NP or a subordinate clause
           o “That he was guilty was now clear to everyone.”
    position in interrogative clauses
           o moving the operator to the left of the subject
           o in questions the subject are preceded by question word
           o “Is your father washing the car again?”
           o if the declarative’s verb is not an operator
                    the interrogative is formed by introducing dummy do in that position
                    Did your father was the car again?
    subject-verb agreement
           o 3rd person singular -s
           o the first verb very often agrees with the subject
           o He likes it.  the verb ‘likes’ agrees with the subject ‘he’
           o if we change singular ‘he’ to plural ‘they’ we must also changes ‘likes’ to ‘like’
    imperative  subject is not obligatory
    non-finite clauses
           o “(For John) to solve the problem is difficult.”
           o subject is not obligatory
           o ‘For John’ – accusative – “him”
    Prototypical subject
           o always under the S
           o in a normal declarative sentence it is usually the first word (except: time adjunct)
           o can be added to the passive
           o in interrogative sentences  always preceded by auxiliary  nothing can enter between them
           o disappears in imperative sentence
           o can be omitted/added to a passive
           o a clause also can be a subject  but not prototypical

Subject  Object
    the subject precedes the predicator – while the object, if there is one, follows
    clause as subject  finite
           o “That John solved the problem proved that hi is a very clever guy.”
           o “To solve this problem is difficult.”
    clause as object  non-finite (infinitival form)
    pronouns
           o subject  nominative form  I, you, he, she
           o object  accusative form  me, you, him, her
       it tells you what the subject is doing, or describes the subject’s situation
       Auxiliary Verb
       Main Verb
       Operator
             o the first auxiliary verb
             o dummy operator: do, did

    what is left of the clause when we remove the subject
    contains at least a verb  the other elements depend on the verb
            o intensive  extensive
            o intransitive  transitive
    it applies to the function of a constituent
    has a main verb as its ultimate head  enters into construction with the subject  ascribe to by the
        subject some property or a role in some relation, action, event etc.

Predication  S and operator is not, only the rest

    head of a VP in predicate function
    ‘washed’  predicator
    ‘washed the car again’  predicate
    the dependents of the predicator within the VP  2 kinds
           o complements  ‘the car’
           o adjuncts  ‘again’

    structurally below the VP level, its presence depends on the verb
    it is the person or thing affected by the action or situation
    a noun phrase or a nominal clause
           o Yesterday I met a strange man.
           o She told me that we had met before.
    it usually refers to the person, thing, etc, affected by the action of the verb
           o John is patting the dog.
    it usually can be turned into the subject of a passive sentence
    referential  “I saw John.”
    can be substituted with pronouns /this/  “I gave him this book.”
    there can be 2 of them
           o Direct Object (Od)
           o Indirect Object (Oi)

    it tells you more about the subject or the object
    not referential
    express properties
    it often expresses a quality or attribute of the subject or object
          o “John was absolutely furious.”
    it tells us the identity of the subject or the object
          o “My best friend is John.”
    it normally comes after the verb
    Subject Complement (CS) / Object Complement (CO)
    they are sometimes obligatory, sometimes omissible
          o “He became ill.” “He used a drill.” “John gave a book to Mary.”  obligatory
          o “John was writing (a letter) (to Mary).”  optional
Object  Complement
    the complement normally comes after the object
           o Bad jokes make John angry.
    object turns into the subject of a passive sentence  complement doesn’t
    object – referential  complement – predicative
    John remained a nice guy.
           o predicative  Complement
           o John gives the reference
           o refers to the property of the subject  Subject Complement
    John saw a nice guy.
           o independent from John
           o has a reference  referential  Object
    other examples
           o John gave a fool a book.
                   3 Noun Phrases  S + Oi + Od
                   all are referential
           o John consider Mary a fool.
                   3 Noun Phrases
                   2 are referential + 1 is predicative
                   ‘a fool’ – predicative  predicate of Mary  Object Complement
           o it tells you more about the subject or the object
           o Subject Complement (CS) / Object Complement (CO)

    it tells you more about the action or situation, for example how, when or where it happens
    it can be: noun phrase / prepositional phrase

    optional elements
    to expand kernel sentence
    not depends on the verb
    “yesterday”
         o definite time adjunct
         o very beginning / very end
    “happily”
         o “Mary happily gave to book to John.”
         o refers to Mary
    “slowly”
         o “ Mary happily gave the book slowly”
         o refers to the action
    “Up to now John deliberately has often driven his car fast in town.”
         o up to now  definite time adjunct
         o deliberately  adverb – it refers to state or intention of subject
         o often  adverb – refers to the time of vent
         o fast  manner adverb
         o in town  place adverb (locative)
         o  1 main verb  simple sentence
                                                  Topic 5
                                              PARTS OF SPEECH

Parts of Speech (Grammar of English)
     Verb  She will perhaps say it is hers.
     Noun  Tom bought a bottle of sherry.
     Adjective  The new captain was very good.
     Adverb  She usually says they are very useful.
     Preposition  A thick carpet of snow lay on the ground.
     Determinative  The boss had a chance to get his revenge.
     Coordinator  You can have fish and chips or stew.
     Subordinator  He says that he asked whether it was free.

Two major sets
    open classes
           o verb, noun, adjective, adverb
           o we can add new words to them  large number of elements
           o they are always lexical
           o new words may arise
                    various morphological processes to existing words  hospitalize = hospital + ize
                    borrowing from another language  sputnik from Russian
                    phonological resources of the language  nylon – coined in the 1930s
           o their properties
                    external properties
                            function
                            dependents
                    internal properties
                            inflection
                            lexical morphology
    closed classes
           o preposition, determinative, coordinator, subordinator
           o few member of elements
           o function/grammatical words
    it applies to subclasses too
           o e.g. subclasses of noun:
                    common nouns  open
                    proper nouns  open
                    pronouns  closed

     determiner in NP
     the, a(n), my, your, this these, which, any, some
                                                   Topic 6

Main verbs
    = lexical verbs
    heads of VPs
    the ultimate heads of Kernel sentences
    inflectional morphology  7 forms
           o finite
                   general present  “kill”
                   3rd person singular  “kills”
                           Pronunciation of 3rd person (prototypical)
                                  o kill-s  /z/  voiced
                                  o like-s  /s/  voiceless
                                  o catch-es /iz/  sub-form (sibilants)
                   past  ”killed”
                           Pronunciation of past tense (prototypical)
                                  o kill-ed /d/  voiced
                                  o like-d /t/  voiceless
                                  o aint-ed /id/  (/t/ /d/)
           o non-finite
                   -ing  “killing”
                   past perfect  “killed”
                   to + Infinitive  “to kill”
                   bare infinitive  “kill”
    Finite forms
           o reflect tense  tensed
                   present (general + 3rd person singular)
                   past
           o each determines the form of the following verb


               modal perfect progressive passive         Vmain


      Non-finite forms
          o not ideal about tense
                    -ing
                    to + infinitive
                    bare infinitive  sometimes bare infinitive = general
                    past participle (3rd form)  sometimes past participle = past
          o modals don’t occur here


               no to perfect progressive passive Vmain
Auxiliary verbs
    primary
            o be – progressive auxiliary + be – passive auxiliary
                   finite present: am, is, are (3)  not prototypical
                   finite past: was, were (2)  not prototypical
                   non-finite: to be, be (Let it be.), being, been
            o have – perfect auxiliary
                   finite present: have, has (2) – like main verbs
                   finite past: had (1) – like main verbs
                   non-finite: having, to have …  prototypical
            o do – interrogative if not auxiliary
                   finite present: do, does (2)
                   finite past: did (1)
                   non-finite: never occurs in non-finite environment
                   if do is in non-finite environment  it is the main verb do
                    always carry tense
            o non-finite environment: clauses
                   “John believes that Mary likes cats.”
                            also tensed
                            subordination
                            finite verb cluster (both are finite)
                   “Mary seems to like cats.”
                            more than 1 main verb  not simple
                            ‘Mary seems’
                                    o subordinate
                                    o clause  finite
                                    o tensed
                            ‘to like’
                                    o non-finite verb
                                    o non-finite clause
                                    o do auxiliary never occurs
    modal
            o may, must, need etc.
            o forms
                   present: only one
                   past: sometimes: may  might, will  would in reported speech
                            but not past tense
                            except: can as “be able to”
                   non-finite: isn’t  cannot occur in non-finite environments

Modal verbs in a sentence
   “The soldier may have been being tortured (when the captain entered the room).”
   5 verbs: 4 auxiliaries + 1 main verb
          o may  modal auxiliary  always the 1st
          o have  perfect
          o been  progressive
          o being  passive
          o tortured
    form of the verb following it
    only this order is possible
   finite sentence
   “The soldier seems to have been being tortured.”
          o non-finite
          o there is no modal auxiliary
       in negation / question
            o 1st auxiliary  operator
                       in question  precedes the subject  “Has John been painting the wall?”
                       in negation  precedes ‘not’  “John has not been painting the wall.”
            o or: do – introduced
       3 auxiliaries at most in non-finite verb sequences

   epistemic
         o possibility / probability
         o refers to the way speakers communicate their doubts, certainties, and guesses
         o modals: may, might, must (or with adverbials: perhaps, possibly etc.)
         o e.g. “There is no answer, he must have already left.”
   deontic
         o possibility / probability
         o refers to how something ought to be
         o e.g. “You may go at four o’clock.” “All elections shall take place on schedule.”

Word formation processes  derivational morphology
    Inflection
          o most prototypical
          o 7 forms
    Linguistic environment
          o finite verb: max 4 auxiliaries + main verb
          o non-finite: max 3 auxiliaries + main verb
    Derivation
          o teach + er
          o paint + er
          o  prototypical  base of the stem
          o auxiliaries: not derivation morphologic process, except perhaps “being”

Voice: active / passive

    grammatical category referring to the way that the time of the situation is view
    perfect / progressive

    verbs form verb phrases
    “John is nice.”
         o is  main verb, but it acts like an auxiliary
         o there is no ‘do’
    “She has a book.”
         o acts like an auxiliary
    dependents
         o non-prototypical verbs
         o modal
         o perfect
         o progressive
         o passive
Lexical classification
     intensive
             o you use in describing what the subject is or what the subject is like
             o e.g. “He is a student.” “She looks young.”
             o take Adj, NP, PP Phrases as complements (mainly Subject complement)
     extensive
             o you use what the subject is doing
             o intransitive  doesn’t take object
                       e.g. sleep, work, dance
             o transitive  take an object
                       monotransitive
                              takes only 1 object
                              NP  “John likes Mary.”
                              sentence  ”John thinks that she is a nice girl.”
                              prepositional verb  look at (V Prep O)
                              phrasal verb  look up
                                     o V Prep O  for negations (nothing) or
                                     o V O Prep  always for pronouns
                       ditransitive
                              takes 2 object
                              indirect / direct
                              “John gave Mary a book.”
                       complex transitive
                              take 1 object and 1 complement of the object
                              “They called him John.”

Arguments of verbs
    “give”  requires: subject, object, preposition  who gives, what, to whom  3 place predicates
    “rain”  no argument at all  1 element
    “sleep”  who sleeps  1 place predicate
    “hate”  who hates, whom  2 place predicates
    “meet”  2 elements

Non-subject arguments
    complements (except the Subject)
    e.g. give  2
                                                 Topic 7
                                        TENSE, ASPECT, MODALITY

    simple tenses
          o present  now
          o past  before now
          o future  after now
    speaker ___(topic)___ listeners          + place      & time
        “I”                    “you”          “this, that”    “now”
    deictic elements  require knowledge of the circumstances of the utterance, to be interpreted
    event time / speech time (always “now”) / reference time
    time of action = action time
          o past  precedes speech time
          o present  coincidences with speech time
          o future  follows speech time
    perfect tenses
          o form: aux + main verb
          o present perfect
                    reference time can be the present
                    “John has been living in Paris up to now.”

                           AT                 ST / RT
           o past perfect
                  past in the past
                  “John said he had visited his mother the day before.”

                            AT           RT             ST
           o future perfect
                  future in the future
                  action started & finished in the future

                               ST         AT          RT
      in English present and past forms  past  non-past
      there is no future form but constructions

    event is completed or not
    not deictic
    progressive  non-progressive
    stative  dynamic verbs
          o stative
                  they have no duration and no distinguished endpoint, not progressive
                  not used in progressive
                  expresses states
                  perception: smell
                  existence: be
                  emotion: like
                  cognition: know
                  possession: have
            o dynamic
                  shows continued or progressive action on the part of the subject
                  can be used in progressive
                  process: sleep, work
                  momentary: kick, jump
                  achievement: die, arrive
                  accomplishment: take off, paint a picture

    “John worked yesterday.”  “John was working yesterday.”
         o 2nd – longer process, but not relevant difference
    “John kicked the door.”  “John was kicking the door.”
         o 2nd – repetitiveness  relevant
    “Old man died last week.”  “Old man was dying last week.”
         o 2nd – in the process, either dead or healthy again
    “The plane landed.”  “The plane was landing.”
         o 2nd – not entail that the landing was completed
    “has painted a picture”  “has been painting a picture”
         o 1st – ready
         o 2nd – entailment – isn’t ready

Tense-Aspect Interaction  Simple Present
    non-progressive
    sing 3rd –s
    regularity, not use non-stative verbs
    general truths, timetable
    historic present = we use present to tell a story in the past
    sport events

Present Progressive (be + -ing)  now and at the moment
                                                    Topic 8

3 major subgroups of Noun
    common
           o most prototypical
           o derivational morphology
           o e.g. book, tree
    proper  Béla
    pronouns

Another group
    generic
           o they are of interest for their semantic properties
           o they capture 'essential' properties, are timeless, and are context-free
           o e.g. „Tigers are fierce.”
    non-generic
           o existential  indefinite
           o specific  definite / indefinite

      case
            o nominative vs. genitive
            o Saxon Genitive: ‘s  possess, pre-nominal position
            o ‘of’ structure
      number
            o singular vs. plural (-s)
            o irregular plurals
                    alternation (f  v) +s (e.g. knife – knives)
                    sound change (e.g. mouse – mice)
                    singular form = plural form (e.g. deer)
                    ending –en (e.g. ox – oxen)

    Noun always the head of a NP
    Subject  “A dog was barking.”
    Object  “She bought a dog.”
    Possessors  “The King of England’s head is bald.”
    Object of a Preposition  “I gave a book to the King of England.”
    Complement of a preposition  “I was attacked by a dog.”
    Subject Complement  “John is a nice guy.”
    Object Complement  “John considers Peter a nice guy.”
    Predicative  That’s a dog.

Syntactic environment
    those elements that can occur in a NP
            o determiner
            o numerals
            o modifiers
            o pre-nominal complements
            o NOUN
            o post-nominal complements
            o modifiers
   Determiners
       o types
               pre-determiner (all, both, what...)
               central-determiner (possessive, demonstratives...)
               post-determiner (only, same...)
       o max. 3 determiners
               but you can’t always have 3 determiners
               e.g. ‘each’  can’t be further determiners
       o 7 central determiners
               definite article          the
               indefinite article        a, an
               demonstratives            this, that, these, those
               possessives               my, your, his, her, its, our, their (not possessive pronouns!)
               interrogative             what, who
               relatives                 which, whatever, whichever
               indefinites               some, any, enough, no, every, each, either, neither
   Modifiers
       o pre-modifier
               lot of modifiers: +Mod
               in a noun phrase it is placed after determiners but before the noun
               all of them can be related to complements in sentences with a linking verb
               types of pre-modifiers
                       adjectives  He’s rented a delightful cottage. ( The cottage is delightful.)
                       participles  He’s rented a crumbling cottage. ( The cottage is crumbling.)
                       nouns  He’s rented a country cottage. ( The cottage is in the country.)
               the order of Adjectives: evaluation  size  physical quality  age  colour  participle
                   origin  material  type (e.g. the recently escaped criminal)
       o post-modifier
               occur after the head in a noun phrase
               types of post-modifiers
                       relative clause  Did you see the girl who was sitting in the corner?
                       prepositional phrase  Did you see the girl in the corner?
                       relative clause  The professor I met yesterday told an interesting story.
                       non-finite clause equivalent to relative clause  Did you see the girl sitting in the
                       adverbs  The way out is over there.
                       adjectives  There’s something odd about her.
                       appositive clause  The fact that she’s good-looking is not the only reason why I’d
                          like to meet her.
                       clauses of time, place, manner and reason  We visited the house where Mozart
                          stayed in 1789.
   Complements
       o PP  “teacher *of English+”
       o sentential complements
               “The idea *that...                  only declarative
               “The question *whether...           only interrogative
   complements  modifiers
       o complements are always closer to the Noun than the modifier
       o complements are part of the meaning
       o “the English teacher”
               a teacher from England  modifier
               a teacher who teach English  complement
                       “teacher of English” – PP
Complement – Object - Subject
    Object – Direct / Indirect
    “John remained a nice guy.”
         o predicative  Complement
         o John gives the reference
         o refer to the property of the subject  CS
         o you can’t have a demonstrative “this”
    “John saw a nice guy.”
         o independent from(?) John
         o referential  has a reference  Subject or Object
         o you can have a demonstrative “this” instead of ‘a nice guy’
    “John gave a fool a book.”
         o 3 Noun Phrases (S + Oi + Od)
         o all referential
    “John consider Mary a fool.”
         o 3 Noun Phrases
         o 2 are referential – 1 is predicative
         o ‘a fool’ – predicative – predicate of Mars  CO

Countable / Uncountable Nouns
    Count Nouns
           o have two forms  singular + plural
           o plural form
                   -s
                   ending in ‘-ss’, ‘-ch’, ‘-s’, ‘-sh’, ‘-x’  -es
                   ending in ‘-o’  add –s, some add -es (photos, pianos  heroes, potatoes)
                   ending in ‘-y’  change to ‘-ies’
                   irregular plural (children, men, women, teeth, feet, mice)
           o can be used with numbers
           o singular nouns  can’t be used alone  always take a determiner (a, another, every, the)
           o if count noun is the subject
                   singular count noun takes a singular verb (“My son likes playing football.”)
                   plural count noun takes a plural verb (“Bigger cars cost more.”)
    Uncount Nouns
           o mass nouns
           o have only one form, and take a singular verb
           o often refer to
                   substances                   coal, food, ice, iron, rice, steel, water
                   human qualities              courage, cruelty, honesty, patience
                   feelings                     anger, happiness, joy, pride, relief respect
                   activities                   aid, help, sleep, travel, work
                   abstract ideas               beauty, death, freedom, fun, like, luck
           o some uncount nouns in English have plurals in other languages
                   advice, baggage, luggage, equipment, furniture, homework, information, knowledge,
           o some uncount nouns end in ‘-s’ and therefore look like plural count nouns  they usually refer to
                   subjects of study            mathematics, physics
                   activities                   athletics, gymnastics
                   games                        cards, darts
                   illnesses                    measles, mumps
           o when uncount nouns is the subject of a verb  it takes a singular verb
           o they are not used with ‘a’, or with numbers
    deviant case
           o chicken  meat  chickens  animal
           o water  waters  geographical terms: lakes, rivers
           o hair  hairs  pieces of hair
      sometimes
           o uncount  when they refer to something in general
           o count  when they refer to a particular instance of something
      inner agreement in NP between Determiner & Noun
           o few + countable N
           o less + uncountable N
           o all + plural N
           o one + singular countable N
           o the + insensitive
      outer agreement between Subject & Verb
           o verb is singular / plural
           o depends on the subject
           o formally singular, semantically plural: people, police etc.

Proper Nouns
    Inflection
          o number: no singular-plural opposition
          o case: genitive – bare
    Derivation: normally no
    Environment
          o NP  N
          o no rich internal structure no determiners, no adjectives, no post-modifiers
          o only non-defining relative clauses
    Function
          o subject
          o direct / indirect object
          o object of preposition  “behind Mary”
    proper names. by definition referential
    family names
          o “the” + plural
          o “the Kennedys”
          o adjectives can precedes them

    personal pronouns
         o subjective: I, you, he, she, it, we, they
         o objective: me, you, him, her, it, us, them („She knows me well.”)
         o can take modifiers: „you there”, „we in the group”
         o inflection
                 number: singular / plural
                 not genitive  bare
                 person: 1st, 2nd, 3rd
                 case: nominative  accusative
                          nominative  when subject
                          accusative  when object / object of PP
                 gender: 3rd person singular  masculine / feminine / neutral
         o derivation: no (at least difficult)
         o function
                 pronouns are heads of NPs
                 cannot be predicative (Co, Cs)
         o syntactic environment

           poor            N          relative clause

    not productive        ‘you’      only non-defining

        o interpretation of pronouns
               I, you
                        defined on the basis of speech situation
                        speaker __(topic)__ listener
                        deictic elements

                    he
                         previous information is needed
                         “John was here.”  John – antecedent
                         “He was late.”  he – anaphor  not deictic (not speech situation but previous
         o anaphora & antecedent
                 “he” is an anaphor  can’t be interpreted without previous context
                 “John” is an antecedent  occurs in previous context (previous sentence, main clause)
                 “John” + “he” – same referent, same number/gender/person
   reflexive
         o myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves
         o inflection
                 number: singular / plural
                 person: 1st, 2nd, 3rd
                 case: no (subjects can’t be reflexives)  only 1 form
                 gender: in 3rd person singular – masculine / feminine / neutral
         o derivation: no (but internal structure: 2 units – my + self)
         o function
                 object  “John saw himself in the mirror.”
                 object of PP  “He bought a book for himself.”
                 stressing the subject – emphatic function  “I, myself, did the job.”
         o syntactic environment: nothing
         o interpretation
                 can’t be understood without an antecedent
                 “John saw myself.”  not antecedent
                 “I saw myself.” or “John saw himself.”
                  the same grammatical features again (person, number, gender) + the same referent
         o reflexive pronouns are always anaphoric
                 “John, believes that Mary likes him, /*himself is bad/
                 “John believes that Mary, likes *her / him
                         both are anaphoric but the antecedent of person pronoun can’t be in the same
                            minimal clause  further away
   reciprocals
         o each other, one another
         o inflection
                 number: plural
                 person: no
                 case: no
                 gender: no
         o derivation: no; complex items
        o function
                 object
                 object of PP
        o environment: nothing
        o interpretation:
                 they are anaphoric, need antecedent
                 behave like reflexives
   possessives
        o my, your, his, her, its, our, their
        o genitives of a personal pronoun
        o 2 forms: my  mine
                 my  singular / plural, 1st/2nd/3rd, one form
                 mine  singular / plural, 1st/2nd/3rd, one form
        o gender: 3rd person singular  masculine / feminine / neutral
        o derivation: closed class

        o function
                 my  determiner / possessor in NP
                 mine
                         complement of preposition  “a book of mine”
                         Cs  “This book is mine.”
        o syntactic environment: nothing
        o interpretation
                 mine, yours  deictic
                 him, hers  behaves like personal pronouns, need an antecedent
   demonstratives
        o this, that, these, those
        o inflection
                 number: singular / plural
                 person: no
                 case: no  one form
                 gender: no
        o derivation: no
        o function
                 always determiners in NPs
        o syntactic environment: nothing
                 except: “Those, who live in Paris, are fortunate.”
                          non-defining relative clause
                         because demonstratives are definite
        o when refers to an event  only in singular
                 “John visited his enemies and that was a mistake.”  has an antecedent
        o interpretation
                 this  closer to the speaker
                 that  further away from the speaker
                 deictic category
   interrogatives (who, what, where) + relatives (who, which, whom, whose)
        o inflection
                 number: no  one form
                 person: no
                 case: only who  whom  if preceded by preposition
                         Who did you give to book to?
                         To whom did you give the book?
        o derivation
                relatives: simple / complex
                       simple  who, what
                       complex  in headless relative clauses
                               o not preceded by a noun
                               o “Whatever you want, …”
        o function
                relatives: subordinators (introduce a clause)
        o syntactic environment: nothing
        o interrogatives  case (subjective/objective/genitive)
                „Who is your favourite writer?”  subjective, personal
                „Who(m) did you greet?”  objective
                „Whose is this cup?”  genitive
        o relatives

                                          Subjective    Objective     Genitive
                        Personal          who           whom          whose
                        Non-personal      which         which         whose
                        Neutral           this          that
   indefinite
        o some, any, more, no one, everybody, many, one
        o one  ones
                inflection
                        number: singular / plural
                        person: no
                        case: no
                        gender: no
                derivation: no
                function
                        substituted in the position of a noun
                environment: nothing
        o no, every, some - + -body, -thing, -where
                inflection
                        number: only singular
                        person: no
                        case: no
                        gender: no
                derivation: complex
                function
                        subject
                        object under certain conditions
                syntactic environment
                        can only be followed by defining relative clauses  “Anybody who lives in Paris is
                        sometimes: adjectives  anything interesting / nothing important
                                                  Topic 9

AdjP  Adj

    mostly modifiers in NPs
    “The big black hairy dog.”
          o modifier
          o independent
    “The solid gold watch.”
          o gold – noun, golden – adjective
          o ambiguous
                   solid: watch or gold
                   1) the solid gold watch  the watch is solid
                   2) the (solid gold) watch  the gold is solid
    attributive use
          o modify N in a NP
          o precedes the noun
    postpositive use
          o adjectives follow the noun  “A bottle *full of water+.”
          o not so common, except
                   something interesting
                   nothing interesting
                    indefinite pronouns
    predicative use
          o “John is *afraid of dogs+.”
          o “John is [good at Maths+.”
          o “John is *nice+.”
          o “John considers Mary *very clever+.”
          o AdjP is part of the predicate  Cs & Co
          o ‘nice’  can easily be used in all 3 functions
          o ‘afraid’  only predicative use
          o main / principal  only attributive use

     luck  lucky  luckily (adverb)
     test  testable  testability (noun)
     base form – comparative form – superlative form
     three-term paradigm
           o absolute  tall, good, bad
           o comparative  taller, better, worse
           o superlative  tallest, best, worst
     syntactic
           o one-syllabic
           o two-syllabic  happy, clever, narrow
           o three-syllabic  unhappier
     aren’t used if stem is a verb (e.g. tired, worried)
     but
           o main  not analytic & not synthetic  not be graded
           o set-theoretical  not analytic & not synthetic  not be graded
           o English  not be graded either, not gradable  not be used with ‘very’ (degree adverb)
Internal structure
     AdjP  Adj PP            afraid of dogs
             o ‘of dogs’  complement
     (I’m) sure + that… (sentential complement (declarative)  finite +T
     (I’m) unsure + interrogative  finite +T
     “Ed is very keen *on me to see the manuscript+.”
             o SD –T  non-finite
     ambiguity
             o “The lamb is too eager to eat.”  too hard for me to eat
             o “The lamb is too eager to eat.“  it is the lamb that is eager to eat
     AdjP  Adv Adj PP/S
             o Adv – functions as modifier  extremely, very etc.
                                              Topic 10
                                        ADVERBS, PREPOSITIONS

    can modify basically anything but nouns
    not homogenous  heterogeneous class
    a-adverbs
          o generally refer to directions
          o e.g. abroad, ashore
          o not –ly
          o isn’t modified (very suddenly)
    Function
          o more, most, very  can modify but they can’t be modified
          o suddenly, happily  very-, extremely-
                  “The storm started very suddenly.”
                           modifies the verb
                           ‘very’  separately: not modifies verbs
          o often  very-, extremely-
                  although not ending
          o most prototypical ones (-ly)
                  AdvP  Adv
                  Adv – most, more, very  not prototypical
                  “The weather changed very suddenly.”
          o adverbs can modify adjectives
                  extremely interesting
    Prototypical adverb
          o modify
                  verbs
                  adjectives
                  other adverbs  extremely suddenly
          o right / straight on the table
                  modify Prepositions
                  only these two can
          o mostly adjuncts
          o sometimes: complements  adverbs
    Derivation
          o happi + ly
          o here, not  one form, can’t be modified
          o fast  adjective + adverb
    Inflection
          o adverb with –ly
                  can be graded
                  more & most
                  “He solved the problem more happily than me.”
          o here, not, ashore  can’t be graded
          o fast, hard
                  “John drives his car faster than Henry.”
                  “This work is very hard.”  predicate use of adjectives
                           adverbs cannot be used predicatively
                           adjectives don’t modify verbs
                  “He works very hard.”  adverb
      Syntactic environment, internal structure
           o “very happily”
           o usually: not complement, except:
                    “John solved the problem very independently of me.”
                    ‘very’  modifier
                    ‘independently ‘ adverbs
                    ‘of me’  complement
                    Adv  very Adv PP
      Types of Adverbs
           o manner adverb  fast, happily
           o negative adverb  not
           o place adverb  here, there
           o time adverb  yesterday
           o a-adverb  abroad, ashore
           o frequency  usually
           o modal  necessarily, probably
           o degree adverb  more, most, very
           o duration / process  while

    Derivation
          o some complex: into, forward
          o but usually don’t
    Inflection: no
          o few adverbs modifying them  “right on the table”
    Function
          o head of PP
          o Prepositional Phrase  dependents
                   adjunct  “John met Mary in Paris after 10 o’clock.”
                   complements to verbs  put the book on the table; He gave a book to her.
                   in NP
                          complement to noun  “King of France”
                          modifier to noun  “King with long legs”
                   in AdjP  afraid of spiders; keen on reading
                   in AdvP  independently of me
                   after another PP  “I want you out of my room.”
                          out  preposition
                          of my room  PP
    Internal structure
          o PP  P NP  under the table
          o PP  P PP  out of my room
          o PP  P S
                   after John left – finite, declarative
                   for John to solve the problem  non-finite, declarative
          o PP  P  John came in.  intransitive prepositions
                                                  Topic 11
                                                CLAUSE TYPES

Sentence types
    simple  1 main verb (Kernel)
    complex  2 clause: main + subordinated  has a function
           o can be complement clause or that-clause
           o always finite clause
           o non-finite clauses  adjuncts / complements
    compound  2 clauses with identical status

Kernel sentence
    S  NP VP
    VP  V
           o intensive  “John is nice.”
           o intransitive  “Henry was sleeping.”
           o transitive (mono-, di-, complex)

Positive sentences
     declarative
            o | S | aux | V (P) O |

           o adjuncts
           o “The boy hit a cat in the street.”
      interrogative
           o wh-questions (open questions)
                    contain interrogative pronoun
                    “Who hit the cat in the street?”  S                   no auxiliary
                    “What did the boy hit in the street?”  O
                    “Where did the boy hit the cat?”  A                   wh + aux + subj …
                    “What did the boy do?”
           o yes-no question
                    displacement of auxiliary; if there isn’t – insert one
                    “John has painted the house”  “Has John painted the house?”
      imperative
           o 2nd person
           o “Go home.“
           o “You go home.”  more stressed
           o 1st and 3rd person: “Let me go.” “Let’s go.”
      exclamative
           o “What a nice pair of shoes!”  what + Noun
           o “How nice your sister is!”  how + Adjective

Negative sentences
    declarative
           o ‘not’ before an auxiliary  “The boy did not hit the cat.”
           o positive  “I saw nobody.” – “I did not see anybody.”
           o “In no way will I do it again.”
                    adjunct
                    auxiliary must follow, then subject negative
      questions
           o “Who did Mary meet in the park?”
                    “Who didn’t Mary meet in the park?”
                    “Who did Mary not meet in the park?”
      imperatives
           o do not + V  2nd person
           o let ( ) not + V  1st and 3rd person
           o or: Don’t let ( ) + V
      exclamatives
           o usually there is no negative

     active / passive
     only transitive verbs can be passivized
     “John hit a cat.”  “A cat was hit (by John).
           o original subject becomes optional
           o emphasize the performers
     stative verbs can’t  like, hate, know
           o *”Mary was liked by John.”
     reciprocal / reflexive pronouns as objects: can’t
           o “John and Mary hit each other.”  *”Each other were hit by Mary and John.”
           o “John hit himself.”  *”Himself was hit by John.”
     imperatives: rare  “Be prepared for the job.”
     questions: can be
                                             Topic 12-13
                                    SUBORDINATION. COORDINATION.

     main coordinators: and, or
     they can join units at all levels in the constituent hierarchy
            o Clauses  *It was raining and I didn’t have an umbrella.+
            o Phrases  [John and his father] were quarrelling as usual.
            o Words  You can go [with or without] a guide.
     less central coordinators: but, both, either, neither, nor, not

     main subordinators
            o that  I know that it is possible.
            o whether  I wonder whether it is possible.
     function  to mark a clause as subordinate
            o that – declarative subordinator
            o whether – interrogative subordinator
     less central subordinators
            o if
            o for

   “John met Mary in the park and they went home.”  coordination
         o ‘and’  coordinator
         o not part of either clause
         o *“And they went home John met Mary in the park.”
         o *”They went home and John and Mary met in the park.”
   “It was important for John that he could solve the problem.”  subordination
         o ‘that’  subordinator
         o part of the subordinate clause
         o “That he could solve the problem was important for John.”
         o subordinate clause can go to the beginning and to the end of the main sentence
   complex sentences
         o main clause + subordinate clause
         o subordinate clause has a function in the main clause
                  the object: “John believes that Mary is nice.”
   “*That John solved the problem+ proved *that he is very talented+.”
         o subordinate clause: complement clause
   “*After John left the party+ he went home.”
         o subordinate clause: adjunct clause
   defining / non-defining relative clauses
         o adjunct clauses to nouns
         o “My friend *who is a doctor+ lives in Paris.”
   verbless clauses
         o “*With flowers in his hand+, he arrived in Paris.”
Non-finite subordinate clauses
    to-infinitive
            o “I want *to leave, now.+”  complement clause
            o “To be or not to be.”  adjunct clause
    bare infinitive
            o “John helped *Peter do the homework].”  complement clause
    -ing
            o “I forgot [opening the door].”  complement clause
            o “*After leaving the party+ John went home.”  adjunct clause
    3rd form
            o “*Arrested+ John went to prison.”

Declarative  “John believes that Mary is nice.”

     “I wonder whether John visited Mary.”  yes/no question
     “I wonder who John visited.”  wh-question
     wonder, unsure  take questions
            o “Who do you think [that Mary visited]?”

    “I told you *to leave+.”  infinitival form
    negative  “I told you not to leave.”

     “I told you *what a nice coat you bought+.
     negation
           o deny, not know  turn sentence / clause negative
           o “I deny that I saw John+.”

    and
           o   can coordinate all major constituents + also non-finite clauses
           o   NP  tables and chairs
           o   PP  up and down
           o   AdjP  beautiful and intelligent
           o   AdvP  kindly and gently
    but, if
           o   can coordinate only clauses

Subordinate clause
    not always subordinated to verb
    N  fact, idea, question  that / whether (if) clause
    Adj  interesting + that, sure + that, unsure + whether
    P  declarative clauses
    “After John left the party, he went home.”
Relative clauses
     adjunct clauses to nouns
     restrictive / non-restrictive
            o preceded by a noun
            o restrictive
                     “My brother *who lives in Paris+ is a doctor.”
                     used to identify the person
                     noun: can’t have names + personal pronouns
                            subject who, what
                            object  who, ø , that
            o non-restrictive
                     “My brother, *who lives in Paris+, is a doctor.”
                     additional information
                     noun: can’t have indefinite pronouns
     free / sentential
            o free
                     you don’t have a noun, not preceded it a noun
                     “What he didn’t know was my name.”
            o sentential
                     refers to another clause
                     “John was happy which surprised me.”

Coordinated clauses
    comparative clauses  “John is as clever as I (am).” “John is cleverer than I (am).”
    tags
            o positive  “John is clever, is he?” “John isn’t clever, isn’t he?”
                     to keep up communication
                     don’t expect reaction
                     same polarity
            o negative  “John is clever, isn’t he?” “John isn’t clever, is he?”
                     expecting an answer
                     different polarity
Syntactic operations
    extraposition
            o “It seems important to me *that you passed the exam+.  “That you passed the exam seems
               important to me.”
            o  preposing the clause
            o you cannot use it with any verbs seem, appear, obvious, interesting
    topicalization
            o “I don’t like detective stories.”  “Detective stories, I don’t like.”
            o  intonation break, contrasting meaning
    clefting
            o “John met Mary in the park.”  “This is John who met Mary in the park.” “It is Mary who John met
               in the park.” “It is in the park where John met Mary.”

Existential constructions
     “Three books are on the table.”  “There are three books on the table.”
             o ‘three books’  only one existential can have
             o *all the books, *John’s books
             o ‘there’  subject
                     “Are there three books on the table?”
                      immediately preceded by auxiliary
     “There is a book on the table”