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The Age of Enlightenment Mr. Stopsky So What Was It? The Enlightenment …also known as the Age of Reason, was a period during the 17th and 18th centuries when European philosophers stressed the use of reason as the best method for learning the Truth, casting off the superstition and fear of the medieval world. Main Ideas Main Ideas • Primarily a middle-class movement. • Was an effort to discover the natural laws that govern the universe. • Led to scientific, political, and social advances. • Stressed the use of reason to question previously accepted doctrines (ideas). • Attacked superstition, ignorance, and easy acceptance of authority. • Concept of Deism flourished. Deism • God created the universe and its laws. – Examples: Universal Gravitation, Planetary Motion, Newton’s 3 Laws of Motion, etc. • After creation, God left the universe to function on its own. • God chooses not to be involved in ANYTHING! • This was considered at the time to be the most plausible scientific reasoning for the creation of the universe. Natural Rights Natural Rights • Also called moral rights or inalienable rights. • Not contingent upon the laws, customs, or beliefs of a particular society (they are universal and apply to EVERYONE). • Different from legal rights, which are codified into legal statutes by some form of legislature by a particular polity (they are culturally and politically relative). - Example: “Life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness." Education Education • Scholars wrote articles and essays, which were put together and called encyclopedias. • Encyclopedias helped spread the new “Enlightenment” ideas across Europe. • Novels became abundant, marking the first time that all people could be entertained without leaving home. Philosophers of The Enlightenment Thomas Hobbes Thomas Hobbes English philosopher • Man is born “naturally wicked” and evil. • Wrote Leviathan – idea of social contract. • Government is contract between citizens and ruler. In this contract, citizens give up rights for guarantee of peace and security. • Life without government would be “poor, nasty, brutish, and short” and lead to a “war of all against all.” • Society should give-up natural rights for the sake of protection. Any abuses of power by this authority are to be accepted as the price of peace. • The best government is one in which the ruler has absolute power. Hobbes rejects separation of power. • People don’t have the right to rebel while they agree to act as a civil society. John Locke John Locke English philosopher • Like Hobbes, believed government is a social contract between it and its people. • Unlike Hobbes, the role of government is: – to protect the rights of life, liberty, and property. – to create order in society. • Advocated separation of power. • Revolution is not only a right, but an obligation in some circumstances. • Rulers should stay in power only as long as they have the approval of the people they govern. • Unused property is a waste and an offense against nature (no excess). • He was the inspiration for the American Declaration of Independence. François-Marie Arouet – Voltaire Voltaire French philosopher • Prolific writer – 20,000 letters and 2,000 books/pamphlets. • Freedom of thought was most important: – "I do not agree with a word you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.“ • Criticized organized religion: – “If God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent Him.” • Distrusted democracy. • Believed only an enlightened monarch, advised by philosophers like him, could bring about change. • It was the king's best interest to improve the power and wealth of his subjects and kingdom. • He fought for civil rights - the right to a fair trial and freedom of religion. • Thought women were not equal to men, but should be treated well. Jean-Jacques Rousseau Rousseau Swiss philosopher • Wrote The Social Contract – Opening: “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains. One man thinks himself the master of others, but remains more of a slave than they.” • In the degenerate phase of society, man is prone to be in frequent competition while at the same time becoming increasingly dependent on others. This double pressure threatens both his survival and his freedom. • By joining together in civil society, abandoning their claims of natural right, individuals can both preserve themselves and remain free. • Material progress undermines the possibility of true friendship by replacing it with jealousy, fear and suspicion. • Inspired the French Revolution. • Thought women should be educated to be good mothers. Art & Entertainment During the Enlightenment Musical Periods Baroque Classical Romantic 1600 – 1760 1730 – 1820 1815 – 1910 Bach Mozart Beethoven Now Playing Pachelbel’s •Canon in D Baroque music • Generally complex, almost to the point of being mathematical. • Often uniformly depicts a single emotion (grief, sorrow, joy, etc.) Now Playing Bach’s •Minuet in G Johann Sebastian Bach (1685 – 1750) Johann Sebastian Bach • Church organist. • Wrote secular works for choir, orchestra, and solo instruments. • Most important figure in Baroque music. Classical Music • Less complicated than Baroque music. • Focused on melody and balance. • Invention of new instruments like the piano allowed Classical music to have a greater range of dynamics (volume - quiet/loud). Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) Now Playing Mozart’s Opera • Don Giovanni Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart •As a child prodigy, he began composing music at age 5. •Virtuoso violinist and pianist. •Wrote some of the world’s most famous operas. Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) Now Playing Beethoven •5 th Symphony Ludwig van Beethoven • Most famous and influential composer of all time. • Virtuoso pianist. • Beethoven eventually became deaf, yet he continued to compose, conduct, and perform masterpieces. Ludwig van Beethoven (cont.) Famous Works • Moonlight sonata • Für Elise • 5th Symphony • 9th Symphony (Ode to Joy) Baroque Art Baroque Art • Renaissance artists tried to show perfect people and classical themes. • Baroque artists painted real life and real people, with all of their warts, wrinkles, and bumps. • Complex paintings - realistic detail, intense emotions, and rich colors.
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