The Age of

    Mr. Stopsky
So What Was It?
      The Enlightenment

…also known as the Age of Reason,
was a period during the 17th and 18th
centuries when European
philosophers stressed the use of
reason as the best method for
learning the Truth, casting off the
superstition and fear of the medieval
Main Ideas
             Main Ideas
• Primarily a middle-class movement.
• Was an effort to discover the natural
  laws that govern the universe.
• Led to scientific, political, and social
• Stressed the use of reason to question
  previously accepted doctrines (ideas).
• Attacked superstition, ignorance, and
  easy acceptance of authority.
• Concept of Deism flourished.
• God created the universe and its laws.
  – Examples: Universal Gravitation, Planetary
    Motion, Newton’s 3 Laws of Motion, etc.
• After creation, God left the universe to
  function on its own.
• God chooses not to be involved in
• This was considered at the time to be the
  most plausible scientific reasoning for the
  creation of the universe.
Natural Rights
               Natural Rights
• Also called moral rights or inalienable
• Not contingent upon the laws, customs, or
  beliefs of a particular society (they are
  universal and apply to EVERYONE).
• Different from legal rights, which are
  codified into legal statutes by some form of
  legislature by a particular polity (they are
  culturally and politically relative).

 - Example: “Life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness."
• Scholars wrote articles and essays,
  which were put together and called
• Encyclopedias helped spread the new
  “Enlightenment” ideas across Europe.
• Novels became abundant, marking
  the first time that all people could be
  entertained without leaving home.
 Philosophers of
The Enlightenment
Thomas Hobbes
           Thomas Hobbes
             English philosopher

• Man is born “naturally wicked” and evil.
• Wrote Leviathan – idea of social contract.
• Government is contract between citizens
  and ruler. In this contract, citizens give up
  rights for guarantee of peace and security.
• Life without government would be “poor,
  nasty, brutish, and short” and lead to a
  “war of all against all.”
• Society should give-up natural rights for
  the sake of protection. Any abuses of
  power by this authority are to be accepted
  as the price of peace.
• The best government is one in which the
  ruler has absolute power. Hobbes rejects
  separation of power.
• People don’t have the right to rebel while
  they agree to act as a civil society.
John Locke
               John Locke
              English philosopher

• Like Hobbes, believed government is a
  social contract between it and its people.

• Unlike Hobbes, the role of government is:
  – to protect the rights of life, liberty, and
  – to create order in society.

• Advocated separation of power.
• Revolution is not only a right, but an
  obligation in some circumstances.

• Rulers should stay in power only as long
  as they have the approval of the people
  they govern.

• Unused property is a waste and an
  offense against nature (no excess).

• He was the inspiration for the American
  Declaration of Independence.
François-Marie Arouet –
              French philosopher

• Prolific writer – 20,000 letters and 2,000
• Freedom of thought was most important:
  – "I do not agree with a word you say, but I will
    defend to the death your right to say it.“
• Criticized organized religion:
  – “If God did not exist, it would be necessary to
    invent Him.”
• Distrusted democracy.

• Believed only an enlightened monarch,
  advised by philosophers like him, could bring
  about change.

• It was the king's best interest to improve the
  power and wealth of his subjects and kingdom.

• He fought for civil rights - the right to a fair trial
  and freedom of religion.

• Thought women were not equal to men, but
  should be treated well.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
              Swiss philosopher
• Wrote The Social Contract
  – Opening: “Man is born free, and everywhere
    he is in chains. One man thinks himself the
    master of others, but remains more of a slave
    than they.”
• In the degenerate phase of society, man is
  prone to be in frequent competition while
  at the same time becoming increasingly
  dependent on others. This double
  pressure threatens both his survival and
  his freedom.
• By joining together in civil society,
  abandoning their claims of natural right,
  individuals can both preserve themselves
  and remain free.

• Material progress undermines the possibility
  of true friendship by replacing it with
  jealousy, fear and suspicion.

• Inspired the French Revolution.

• Thought women should be educated to be
  good mothers.
Art & Entertainment
     During the
              Musical Periods
Baroque Classical Romantic
1600 – 1760      1730 – 1820    1815 – 1910
    Bach          Mozart       Beethoven
Now Playing
•Canon in D
          Baroque music

• Generally complex, almost to the
  point of being mathematical.

• Often uniformly depicts a single
  emotion (grief, sorrow, joy, etc.)
Now Playing
•Minuet in G
Johann Sebastian Bach
    (1685 – 1750)
    Johann Sebastian Bach

• Church organist.
• Wrote secular works for choir,
  orchestra, and solo instruments.
• Most important figure in Baroque
          Classical Music

• Less complicated than Baroque music.
• Focused on melody and balance.
• Invention of new instruments like the
  piano allowed Classical music to have
  a greater range of dynamics (volume -
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
 Now Playing
Mozart’s Opera
• Don Giovanni
 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

•As a child prodigy, he began
 composing music at age 5.
•Virtuoso violinist and pianist.
•Wrote some of the world’s
 most famous operas.
Ludwig van Beethoven
Now Playing
•5 th   Symphony
    Ludwig van Beethoven

• Most famous and influential composer
  of all time.
• Virtuoso pianist.
• Beethoven eventually became deaf,
  yet he continued to compose,
  conduct, and perform masterpieces.
Ludwig van Beethoven (cont.)

Famous Works
• Moonlight sonata
• Für Elise
• 5th Symphony
• 9th Symphony (Ode to Joy)
            Baroque Art
• Renaissance artists tried to show
  perfect people and classical
• Baroque artists painted real life
  and real people, with all of their
  warts, wrinkles, and bumps.
• Complex paintings - realistic detail,
  intense emotions, and rich colors.

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