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The Effects of School Desegregation on Crime

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					The Effects of School Desegregation
             on Crime

   David A. Weiner, NYC Dep’t of Ed.
   Byron F. Lutz, Federal Reserve Board
    Jens Ludwig, Georgetown & NBER
  Topic: Effects of School Desegregation
                 on Crime

• First credible (we think) estimates of court-ordered school
  desegregation impacts on crime – specifically homicides

• Use variation in timing of court desegregation orders among districts
  subject to orders 60s-80s

• Desegregation orders generate large declines in homicide rates to
  blacks and whites at time of desegregation and persistent, long-run
  declines in homicide offending for blacks

• Due in part to increase in racial integration for blacks & increases in
  education spending for whites
Why Might Segregation Matter for Crime?

• Peer effects
    – Standard Theory
    – Specific to Desegregation: alter perceptions of opportunities for
      minorities in American society & increase self esteem

• School quality
    – Sort black students into higher quality schools and increase overall
      school spending
    – Direct Effect: produce students with lower crime propensity
    – Indirect Effect: increased educational attainment alters opportunity cost
      of crime

• Ambiguous Effect on Crime : might also intensify racial tension
                Historical Background

• Brown v. Board of Education issued in 1954

• Little desegregation occurred in the 1950s and early 1960s

• Larger southern districts began desegregating after 1968 Green
  decision

• Non-Southern districts began desegregating in large number after
  1973 Keyes decision
                    Relevant Literature

• Lafree and Arum (2006), Criminology
   – Incarceration rates higher for blacks born in states with more racially
     segregated schools
   – Effect is identified from those who migrate from their state of birth




 Link
                                 Data

• Vital Statistics (VS) data on mortality

    – Census of homicide victims from 1959 to 1988 by age and race

    – But only data on victims

• Supplemental Homicide Report (SHR) data on homicide offending
    – Data from 1976 to 2002
    – Directly measures behavior, but measures arrests

• Numerous other data sources as well (census, school-level data
  collected by Welch and Light, etc.)

• Unit of Observation = County-year

Link
                        Research design

• 125 large districts identified in Welch and Light (1987)

       – 1% of all districts but 20% all students, 45% of minority students

• Most desegregation orders between 1968 and 1978 (some earlier,
  later)

• Identification comes from plausibly random timing of these court
  orders among set of districts ever subject to such orders

• Compare changes in crime across districts around time of
  desegregation orders



link
             Research design




yit      
            p
                  p   Dp ,it   i   rt   it
Distribution of 1975 Black Age 15-24
    Homicide Rates per 100,000
      .015




       .01




      .005




        0
             0        50     100       150     200
                 Histogram   Kernel Estimate
                    Research Design
•   OLS with Level of the Homicide Rate as Dep Var.

•   Proportional Response Model: Count Model

    –   Quasi-maximum likelihood (QML) count model
    –   Good consistency properties relative to other count models
        (Wooldridge 1999)
    –   Estimates a proportional response: interpret coefficients as estimating
        the percent change in the dependent variable
    –   Standard errors clustered using the robust variance estimator
        proposed by Wooldridge (1999)
                      Black, Count 15-19, Region-Year

0.6

0.4

0.2

  0
       -5   -4   -3   -2   -1    0     1     2     3    4   5   6   7
-0.2

-0.4

-0.6
                     Black, OLS Level 15-24, Region-Year

 15

 10

  5

  0
      -5   -4   -3   -2    -1     0     1    2     3       4   5   6   7
 -5

-10

-15

-20

-25

-30
                     Black, OLS Level 15-24, Region-Year

 15

 10

 5

 0
      -5   -4   -3   -2   -1     0      1     2     3      4   5   6   7
 -5

-10

-15

-20

-25

-30
                      Black, Count 15-24, Region-Year

0.3
0.2
0.1
  0
-0.1   -5   -4   -3   -2   -1    0     1     2     3    4   5   6   7

-0.2
-0.3
-0.4
-0.5
                      Black, Count 15-24, Region-Year

0.3
0.2
0.1
  0
-0.1   -5   -4   -3   -2   -1    0     1     2     3    4   5   6   7

-0.2
-0.3
-0.4
-0.5
                       White, Count 15-19, Region-Year

0.3
0.2
 0.1

  0

-0.1   -5   -4   -3   -2   -1    0      1    2     3     4   5   6   7

-0.2
-0.3

-0.4
-0.5
-0.6

-0.7
                                 White, Count 15-19, Region-Year

0.3
0.2
 0.1
  0

-0.1   -5       -4    -3    -2      -1     0      1     2     3    4   5   6   7

-0.2
-0.3
-0.4
-0.5
-0.6
-0.7




       Link

            Link: Falsification Exercise
                                   Table 3
                         Black Homicide Victimization
                                           Levels       Proportional Response
                                                          QML         OLS Log
                                            OLS
                                                         Count        Dummy
                                             (1)           (4)          (7)

                                                    Black Age 15 - 24

Post Desegregation Years 1 - 5             -8.91
                                           (2.76)

Post Desegregation Years 6+                -10.55
                                           (3.81)

Number of observations                     3039

Region * Year Effects                        X
County-Specific Linear Trends
                                   Table 3
                         Black Homicide Victimization
                                           Levels       Proportional Response
                                                          QML         OLS Log
                                            OLS
                                                         Count        Dummy
                                             (1)           (4)          (7)

                                                    Black Age 15 - 24

Post Desegregation Years 1 - 5             -8.91         -0.14
                                           (2.76)        (0.04)

Post Desegregation Years 6+                -10.55        -0.23
                                           (3.81)        (0.06)

Number of observations                     3039           3039

Region * Year Effects                        X              X
County-Specific Linear Trends
                                   Table 3
                         Black Homicide Victimization
                                           Levels       Proportional Response
                                                          QML         OLS Log
                                            OLS
                                                         Count        Dummy
                                             (1)           (4)          (7)

                                                    Black Age 15 - 24

Post Desegregation Years 1 - 5             -8.91         -0.14          -0.13
                                           (2.76)        (0.04)         (0.05)

Post Desegregation Years 6+                -10.55        -0.23          -0.19
                                           (3.81)        (0.06)         (0.08)

Number of observations                     3039           3039          3039

Region * Year Effects                        X              X             X
County-Specific Linear Trends
                                   Table 4
                         White Homicide Victimization
                                           Levels        Proportional Response
                                                           QML         OLS Log
                                            OLS
                                                          Count        Dummy
                                             (1)            (4)          (6)

                                                    A. White Age 15 - 19

Post Desegregation Years 1 - 5             -0.48
                                           (0.50)

Post Desegregation Years 6+                -2.22
                                           (0.82)

Number of observations                      3040

Region * Year Effects                        X
                                   Table 4
                         White Homicide Victimization
                                           Levels        Proportional Response
                                                           QML         OLS Log
                                            OLS
                                                          Count        Dummy
                                             (1)            (4)          (6)

                                                    A. White Age 15 - 19

Post Desegregation Years 1 - 5             -0.48           -0.05
                                           (0.50)          (0.06)

Post Desegregation Years 6+                -2.22           -0.23
                                           (0.82)          (0.09)

Number of observations                      3040           3040

Region * Year Effects                        X               X
                                   Table 4
                         White Homicide Victimization
                                           Levels        Proportional Response
                                                           QML         OLS Log
                                            OLS
                                                          Count        Dummy
                                             (1)            (4)          (6)

                                                    A. White Age 15 - 19

Post Desegregation Years 1 - 5             -0.48           -0.05           -0.07
                                           (0.50)          (0.06)          (0.05)

Post Desegregation Years 6+                -2.22           -0.23           -0.24
                                           (0.82)          (0.09)          (0.07)

Number of observations                      3040           3040            3040

Region * Year Effects                        X               X               X
                                    Table 3
               Effect of Desegregation Plan on County Population
                                                                   (1)
                                                      A. Log of White Children
Post Desegregation Years 1 - 5                                  -0.023
                                                               (0.031)
Post Desegregation Years +6                                     0.000
                                                               (0.047)
                                                       B. Log of Black Children
Post Desegregation Years 1 - 5                                  0.053
                                                               (0.033)
Post Desegregation Years +6                                     0.074
                                                               (0.050)
Number of Observations                                             420

Region *Year Effect                                                X
                                  Table 9
     School Desegregation and Long Run Homicide Offending - Age 35 - 44
                                            Proportional Response
                                                   QML Count
                                        (3)       (4)           (5)    (6)
                                                        Black
Post Desegregation Years 25+



Post Desegregation Years 20 - 24


Post Desegregation Years 25 - 29



Post Desegregation Years 30+

Number of observations                 2643      2643           2643   2643
Region * Year Effects                   X         X              X      X
1960 County characteristics * Year                X                     X
Effect
                                  Table 9
     School Desegregation and Long Run Homicide Offending - Age 35 - 44
                                            Proportional Response
                                                   QML Count
                                        (3)       (4)       (5)       (6)
                                                    Black
Post Desegregation Years 25+           -0.14    -0.13
                                      (0.07)    (0.06)

Post Desegregation Years 20 - 24


Post Desegregation Years 25 - 29



Post Desegregation Years 30+

Number of observations                 2643      2643       2643     2643
Region * Year Effects                   X         X          X        X
1960 County characteristics * Year                X                   X
Effect
                                  Table 9
     School Desegregation and Long Run Homicide Offending - Age 35 - 44
                                            Proportional Response
                                                   QML Count
                                        (3)       (4)        (5)      (6)
                                                    Black
Post Desegregation Years 25+           -0.14    -0.13
                                      (0.07)    (0.06)

Post Desegregation Years 20 - 24                            -0.03     0.02
                                                            (0.04)   (0.05)

Post Desegregation Years 25 - 29                            -0.17    -0.10
                                                            (0.08)   (0.06)

Post Desegregation Years 30+                                -0.18    -0.15
                                                            (0.13)   (0.09)
Number of observations                 2643      2643        2643     2643
Region * Year Effects                   X         X           X        X
1960 County characteristics * Year                X                    X
Effect
                                  Table 9
     School Desegregation and Long Run Homicide Offending - Age 35 - 44
                                            Proportional Response
                                                   QML Count
                                        (3)       (4)      (5)        (6)
                                                     White
Post Desegregation Years 25+           -0.16    -0.18
                                      (0.08)    (0.09)

Post Desegregation Years 20 - 24                           0.01      0.02
                                                          (0.05)    (0.05)

Post Desegregation Years 25 - 29                          -0.16     -0.17
                                                          (0.09)    (0.09)

Post Desegregation Years 30+                              -0.10     -0.09
                                                          (0.13)    (0.13)
Number of observations                 2643      2643     2643      2643
Region * Year Effects                   X         X         X         X
1960 County characteristics * Year                X                   X
Effect
             Mechanisms
• School Racial Integration – Reber (2004)

• Local Publics Goods




 Link
     Changes in Local Public Goods

• Census Bureau’s Census of Governments Finances


• Panel: 1972, 1977, 1982, 1987


• All expenditures on given type of public good within the county (i.e.
includes county governments, school districts, etc.)
                          Table 8
    Effect of Desegregation Plan on Local Public Good
                                      (1)          (2)
 A. Ratio of Education Expenditures to Population age 5 -
Post Desegregation Years 1 - 5        0.17
                                     (0.09)

Post Desegregation Years +6           0.16
                                     (0.09)

Post Desegregation                                0.18
                                                 (0.09)
Number of Observations                419         419
Region * Year Effect                   X           X
                          Table 8
    Effect of Desegregation Plan on Local Public Good
                                      (1)          (2)
      B. Ratio of Police Expenditures to Population
Post Desegregation Years 1 - 5        0.19
                                     (0.28)

Post Desegregation Years +6          -0.23
                                     (0.44)

Post Desegregation                                0.25
                                                 (0.27)
Number of Observations                419         419
Region * Year Effect                   X           X
  Connection Between Mechanism and
              Homicides

• Calculate change in the mechanism from one year prior to
  desegregation to four years after - 5 year changes

• Interact these changes with the post vector

• Cannot be interpreted in a causal manner: suggestive evidence
      Black Homicide Victimization Interactions
                                 QML Count
                          (1)        (2)        (4)
Post Deseg. Years 1 - 5


Post Deseg. Years 6+


Post Deseg. Years 1 - 5
* Δ Exposure Index
Post Deseg. Years 6+
* Δ Exposure Index
Post Deseg. Years 1 - 5
* Δ Dissimilarity Index
Post Deseg. Years 6+
* Δ Dissimilarity Index
Post Deseg. Years 1 - 5
* Δ Ed. Expend. Per
Pupil
Post Deseg. Years 6 +
* Δ Ed. Expend. Per
Region * Year Effects       X
Desegregated after
1972
Number of observations    3039
      Black Homicide Victimization Interactions
                                 QML Count
                           (1)       (2)        (4)
Post Deseg. Years 1 - 5 -0.12
                         (0.05)
Post Deseg. Years 6+       -0.19
                          (0.06)
Post Deseg. Years 1 - 5    -0.47
* Δ Exposure Index        (0.18)
Post Deseg. Years 6+       -0.69
* Δ Exposure Index        (0.20)
Post Deseg. Years 1 - 5
* Δ Dissimilarity Index
Post Deseg. Years 6+
* Δ Dissimilarity Index
Post Deseg. Years 1 - 5
* Δ Ed. Expend. Per
Pupil
Post Deseg. Years 6 +
* Δ Ed. Expend. Per
Region * Year Effects       X
Desegregated after
1972
Number of observations    3039
      Black Homicide Victimization Interactions
                                 QML Count
                           (1)        (2)       (4)
Post Deseg. Years 1 - 5 -0.12       -0.10
                         (0.05)     (0.05)
Post Deseg. Years 6+       -0.19    -0.18
                          (0.06)    (0.08)
Post Deseg. Years 1 - 5    -0.47
* Δ Exposure Index        (0.18)
Post Deseg. Years 6+       -0.69
* Δ Exposure Index        (0.20)
Post Deseg. Years 1 - 5              0.12
* Δ Dissimilarity Index             (0.11)
Post Deseg. Years 6+                 0.24
* Δ Dissimilarity Index             (0.16)
Post Deseg. Years 1 - 5
* Δ Ed. Expend. Per
Pupil
Post Deseg. Years 6 +
* Δ Ed. Expend. Per
Region * Year Effects       X         X
Desegregated after
1972
Number of observations    3039       3039
      Black Homicide Victimization Interactions
                                 QML Count
                           (1)        (2)        (4)
Post Deseg. Years 1 - 5 -0.12       -0.10       -0.08
                         (0.05)     (0.05)     (0.07)
Post Deseg. Years 6+       -0.19    -0.18       -0.20
                          (0.06)    (0.08)     (0.09)
Post Deseg. Years 1 - 5    -0.47
* Δ Exposure Index        (0.18)
Post Deseg. Years 6+       -0.69
* Δ Exposure Index        (0.20)
Post Deseg. Years 1 - 5              0.12
* Δ Dissimilarity Index             (0.11)
Post Deseg. Years 6+                 0.24
* Δ Dissimilarity Index             (0.16)
Post Deseg. Years 1 - 5                         -0.03
* Δ Ed. Expend. Per                            (0.11)
Pupil
Post Deseg. Years 6 +                           0.11
* Δ Ed. Expend. Per                            (0.14)
Region * Year Effects       X          X         X
Desegregated after                               X
1972
Number of observations    3039       3039      1433
       White Homicide Victimization Interactions
                                  QML Count
                            (1)        (2)       (3)
Post Deseg. Years 1 - 5    -0.06
                          (0.05)
Post Deseg. Years 6+        -0.23
                           (0.09)
Post Deseg. Years 1 - 5     0.20
* Δ Exposure Index         (0.34)
Post Deseg. Years 6+        -0.04
* Δ Exposure Index         (0.31)
Post Deseg. Years 1 - 5
* Δ % white in deseg
school
Post Deseg. Years 6+
* Δ % white in deseg
Post Deseg. Years 1 - 5
* Δ Ed. Expend. Per
Pupil
Post Deseg. Years 6 + *
Δ Ed. Expend. Per Pupil
Region * Year Effects        X
Desegregated after 1972
Number of observations     3040
       White Homicide Victimization Interactions
                                  QML Count
                            (1)        (2)       (3)
Post Deseg. Years 1 - 5    -0.06      -0.06
                          (0.05)     (0.07)
Post Deseg. Years 6+        -0.23     -0.21
                           (0.09)    (0.10)
Post Deseg. Years 1 - 5     0.20
* Δ Exposure Index         (0.34)
Post Deseg. Years 6+        -0.04
* Δ Exposure Index         (0.31)
Post Deseg. Years 1 - 5               -0.04
* Δ % white in deseg                 (0.06)
school
Post Deseg. Years 6+                  -0.20
* Δ % white in deseg                 (0.10)
Post Deseg. Years 1 - 5
* Δ Ed. Expend. Per
Pupil
Post Deseg. Years 6 + *
Δ Ed. Expend. Per Pupil
Region * Year Effects        X         X
Desegregated after 1972
Number of observations     3040      3040
       White Homicide Victimization Interactions
                                  QML Count
                            (1)        (2)        (3)
Post Deseg. Years 1 - 5    -0.06      -0.06      -0.05
                          (0.05)     (0.07)     (0.07)
Post Deseg. Years 6+        -0.23     -0.21      -0.17
                           (0.09)    (0.10)     (0.16)
Post Deseg. Years 1 - 5     0.20
* Δ Exposure Index         (0.34)
Post Deseg. Years 6+        -0.04
* Δ Exposure Index         (0.31)
Post Deseg. Years 1 - 5               -0.04
* Δ % white in deseg                 (0.06)
school
Post Deseg. Years 6+                  -0.20
* Δ % white in deseg                 (0.10)
Post Deseg. Years 1 - 5                          -0.30
* Δ Ed. Expend. Per                             (0.14)
Pupil
Post Deseg. Years 6 + *                          -0.44
Δ Ed. Expend. Per Pupil                         (0.13)
Region * Year Effects        X         X          X
Desegregated after 1972                           X
Number of observations     3040       3040      1433
                   Implications, part 1
•   Can school desegregation orders starting in late 1960s explain part of the
    decline in the black homicide rate?
                                             Homicide rates for people aged 15-24
                        120




                        100




                        80
Deaths/100,000 people




                        60




                        40




                        20




                         0
                              1950                 1960                  1970                   1980
                                                                  Year
                              Black M ales   Black Females   White M ales       White Females          Cumulative Desegregation Orders
                                          Homicide rates for people aged 15-24
                        120                                                                                  120




                        100                                                                                  100




                                                                                                                   Cumulative Desegregation Orders
                        80                                                                                   80
Deaths/100,000 people




                        60                                                                                   60




                        40                                                                                   40




                        20                                                                                   20




                         0                                                                                   0
                              1950             1960                 1970                   1980
                                                             Year
                          Black M ales   Black Females   White M ales      White Females          Cumulative Desegregation Orders
                    Implications, part 2
•   Previous results might misstate distributional and social welfare implications
    of desegregation
     – Our results: 2 fewer homicides per 100,000 whites
     – Around 10 per 100,000 fewer homicides to blacks
     – Cohen et al. (2004), WTP per homicide $9.7m
     – So benefits of around $200 per white youth in county and $1,000 per
        black youth in county
          • By comparison, avg. per pupil spending in US over our study period
            probably around $4,500
                         Contributions

• Non-Academic outcomes
   – Could significantly alter conclusions about welfare arising from literature
     on academic outcomes:
      • Perry Preschool, crime impacts 2/3 of benefits

   – Also could change assessment of distributional consequences of policy


• Econometric Identification

• Long-run Effects of Desegregation

• Mechanisms

 back
                                    Data

• Unit of Observation = County-year
   –    Note school districts were subject to court orders
   –    But Vital Statistics data at county level
   –    For around 1/3 of cases, district=county
   –    District enrollments account for around ½ of school-age population in
        our counties


• We examine homicide rates and therefore require annual population
  counts by county
   – In non-census years, these are imputations, with adjustments, produced
     by the Census Bureau
   – If these fail to capture “white flight” then our estimates will be biased
     downward – we will understate the homicide rate because of
     mismeasurement in the denominator
 back
                             Table 1
                      Descriptive Statistics
              Full Sample           1960        1970   1980

                   Homicide rates per 100,000

Total             10.8               6.6        11.3   14.0
Total white       6.3                3.3        6.1    9.1
Total black       37.8               31.1       44.7   41.2
White 15-19       5.7                2.3        5.0    9.7
Black 15-19       29.0               20.3       37.1   25.8
White 15-24       7.6                3.4        5.8    12.4
Black 15-24       45.2               29.2       60.0   47.1
                             Table 1
                      Descriptive Statistics
              Full Sample           1960        1970   1980

                   Homicide rates per 100,000

Total             10.8               6.6        11.3   14.0
Total white       6.3                3.3        6.1    9.1
Total black       37.8               31.1       44.7   41.2
White 15-19       5.7                2.3        5.0    9.7
Black 15-19       29.0               20.3       37.1   25.8
White 15-24       7.6                3.4        5.8    12.4
Black 15-24       45.2               29.2       60.0   47.1
                             Table 1
                      Descriptive Statistics
              Full Sample           1960        1970   1980

                   Homicide rates per 100,000

Total             10.8               6.6        11.3   14.0
Total white       6.3                3.3        6.1    9.1
Total black       37.8               31.1       44.7   41.2
White 15-19       5.7                2.3        5.0    9.7
Black 15-19       29.0               20.3       37.1   25.8
White 15-24       7.6                3.4        5.8    12.4
Black 15-24       45.2               29.2       60.0   47.1




 back
                    White, OLS Level 15-19, Region-Year

3
2
 1
0
-1   -5   -4   -3   -2    -1    0     1     2     3       4   5   6   7
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
-7
-8
                      White, OLS Level 15-19, Region-Year

3
2
 1
0
-1     -5   -4   -3   -2    -1    0     1     2     3       4   5   6   7
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
-7
-8




     back
                Segregation Measures
•   Dissimilarity Index – assess sorting of students
              1 n bit wit
          Dt  *  
              2 i 1 Bt Wt
    •   bit and wit refer to the number of black and white students,
        respectively, at school i at time t

    •   Bt and Wt refer to the total number of black and white students,
        respectively, in the school district

    •   ranges from 0 to 1, with 1 denoting complete segregation

    •   Interpretable as the percent of black students who would need
        to be reassigned to a different school for perfect integration to
        be achieved given the districts overall racial composition

•   Racial Composition changes measured by enrollment by race at
    district level (`reverse white flight’)
               Segregation Measures
• Exposure Index

                         n
                   1            wit
           E dt 
                  Bdt
                         bit * t
                        i 1      it

   • ti is the total enrollment at school i
   • Interpretable as the percent of white students in the average
     black student’s school
   • For a given district, it ranges from 0 to the percent of white
     students in the district as a whole
   • It can be viewed as a measure of the extent of contact between
     the two races
   • Changes reflect the net effect of changes in both sorting
     between schools and changes in the district racial composition
                  Black-White Dissimilarity Index, Region-Year

0.15
 0.1

0.05
   0
-0.05   -5   -4     -3   -2    -1   0    1     2    3     4      5   6   7

 -0.1

-0.15
 -0.2

-0.25

 -0.3
                    Black-White Exposure Index, Region-Year

  0.2

 0.15

  0.1

0.05

   0
          -5   -4    -3   -2   -1   0    1    2    3    4     5   6   7
-0.05

 -0.1




        back
                             Motivation
• 1954 Brown decision launches one of most important social policy
  changes in 20th century America

• Most of the existing literature focuses on academic outcomes;
  limited research on the impact of court-ordered desegregation on
  economically important outcomes other than education
   – Very large social costs of crime (~$2 trillion / year)

• Important because of recent wave of dismissals of court-ordered
  desegregation plans
                     15


                                                                            South
Number of Counties




                     10




                     5




                     0
                          1960          1965    1970       1975      1980           1985

                                               Implementation Year
                                 link
                     15


                                                              South   Non-South
Number of Counties




                     10




                     5




                     0
                          1960   1965    1970       1975       1980       1985

                                        Implementation Year
                   Falsification Check

• Mortality from Illness

• Should not be affected by the mechanisms (peer effects, school
  quality, police spending, etc.) by which desegregation influences
  homicides

• General check on identification strategy and specifically on issue of
  possible measurement error in the denominator for whites

• Age 15 – 19 mortality from illness is 13.0 per 100,000, compared to
  10.7 for homicides
                                        Table 5
                        Falsification Test, Death From Illness
                                        Level              Proportional response
                                      OLS Level       QML Count            OLS Log
                                         (1)                (3)            Dummy
                                                                             (3)

                                                   A. White 15 - 19

Post Desegregation Years 1 - 5         -0.70             -0.06             -0.06
                                      (0.57)            (0.04)            (0.03)

Post Desegregation Years 6+            -0.51             -0.03             -0.02
                                      (0.85)            (0.06)            (0.05)

Number of observations                 3040              3040              3040

                                                   B. Black 15 - 24

Post Desegregation Years 1 - 5         -0.32             -0.04             -0.01
                                      (1.71)            (0.04)            (0.03)

Post Desegregation Years 6+            2.49              0.04              0.04
                                      (2.87)            (0.05)            (0.05)

Number of observations                 3039              3039              3039

Region * Year Effects      link         X                 X                 X

				
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