We begin this chapter by explaining the importance of Internet recruiting. Then alternatives to recruitment are
explained. Next, we explain the external and internal environment of recruitment.
The recruitment process is then described followed by a discussion of internal recruitment methods. Then we
explain external sources of recruitment and identify external recruitment methods. Next, an applicant tracking
system is described. Then we describe how recruitment methods and sources are tailored to each other. The final
portion of this chapter is devoted to explaining recruitment for diversity.
Recruitment: The process of attracting individuals on a timely basis, in sufficient numbers and with appropriate
qualifications, and encouraging them to apply for jobs with an organization.
Contingent workers: Described as the “disposable American workforce” by a former Secretary of Labor, work as
part-timers, temporaries, or independent contractors.
Professional employer organization (PEO): Off-site human resources department that puts a client firm’s
employees on its payroll, then leases the employees back to the company.
Promotion from within (PFW): The policy of filling vacancies above entry-level positions with employees
presently employed by a company.
Employee requisition: A document that specifies a particular job title, the appropriate department, and the date
by which an open job should be filled.
Recruitment sources: Various locations in which qualified individuals are sought as potential employees.
Recruitment methods: The specific means by which potential employees are attracted to an organization.
Job posting: A procedure for communicating to company employees the fact that a job opening exists.
Job bidding: A technique that permits individuals in an organization who believe that they possess the required
qualifications to apply for a posted job.
Advertising: A way of communicating the firm’s employment needs to the public through media such as radio,
newspaper, or industry publications.
Employment agency: An organization that assists firms in recruiting employees and also aids individuals in their
attempts to locate jobs.
Internet recruiter: Also called cyber recruiter, is a person whose primary responsibility is to use the Internet in
the recruitment process.
Job fair: A recruiting method engaged in by a single employer or group of employers to attract a large number of
applicants for interviews.
Internship: A special form of recruitment that involves placing students in temporary jobs with no obligation either
by the company to hire the student permanently or by the student to accept a permanent position with the firm
Executive search firms: Organizations retained by a company to search for the most qualified executive
available for a specific position.
Contingency search firms: A search firm that receive fees only upon successful placement of a candidate in a
Retained search firms: Search firms that are considered as consultants to their client organization and serve on
an exclusive contract basis.
Applicant tracking system (ATS): A system that automates online recruiting and selection processes.
Recruitment is the process of attracting individuals on a timely basis, in sufficient numbers, and with appropriate
qualifications, and encouraging them to apply for jobs with an organization.
Internet recruiting has gone from a hot, but unproven, recruiting approach to an integral, measurable part of the
ALTERNATIVES TO RECRUITMENT
A firm should consider its alternatives before engaging in recruitment.
OUTSOURCING—The process of transferring responsibility for an area of service and its objectives to an
CONTINGENT WORKERS—Also known as part-timers, temporaries, and independent contractors,
comprise the fastest growing segment of our economy.
PROFESSIONAL EMPLOYER ORGANIZATION (EMPLOYEE LEASING)—Using this approach, a firm
terminates some or most of its employees; a leasing company then hires them, usually at the same
salary, and leases them back to the former employer, who becomes the client.
OVERTIME—Perhaps the most commonly used method of meeting short-term fluctuations in work
EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT OF RECRUITMENT
LABOR MARKET CONDITIONS—When the unemployment rate falls nationwide, some business firms
have implemented creative approaches to recruitment; when the unemployment rate in an organization’s
labor market is high, the firm’s recruitment process may be simplified.
LEGAL CONSIDERATIONS—Nondiscriminatory practices in recruitment are absolutely essential.
CORPORATE IMAGE—If employees believe that their employer deals with them fairly, the positive word-
of-mouth support they provide is of great value to the firm.
INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT OF RECRUITMENT
The organizations own practices and policies also affect recruitment.
HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING—Examining alternative sources of recruits and determining the most
productive sources and methods for obtaining them often requires planning time.
PROMOTION POLICIES—An organization can stress a policy of promotion from within its own ranks or a
policy of filling positions from outside the organization.
THE FIRM’S KNOWLEDGE OF EMPLOYEES—An advantage of internal recruitment is that the
organization is usually well aware of its employees’ capabilities.
NEPOTISM—Policies related to the employment of relatives.
THE RECRUITMENT PROCESS
RECRUITMENT—The process of attracting individuals on a timely basis, in sufficient numbers and with
appropriate qualifications, and encouraging them to apply for jobs with an organization.
EMPLOYEE REQUISITION--A document that specifies job title, department, date the employee is
needed for work, and other details.
DETERMINE WHETHER QUALIFIED EMPLOYEES ARE AVAILABLE WITHIN THE FIRM OR MUST
BE RECRUITED FROM EXTERNAL SOURCES
Recruitment sources: The places where qualified individuals can be found.
Recruitment methods: The means by which potential employees can be attracted to the firm.
INTERNAL RECRUITMENT METHODS
Management should be able to identify current employees who are capable of filling positions as they become
JOB POSTING AND JOB BIDDING
Job posting: A procedure for informing employees that job openings exist.
Job bidding: A technique that permits individuals in the organization who believe that they
possess the required qualifications to apply for the posted job.
EMPLOYEE REFERRALS—Employees can serve an important role in the recruitment process by
actively soliciting applications from their friends and associates.
EXTERNAL RECRUITMENT SOURCES
At times, a firm must look beyond its own borders to find employees, particularly when expanding its workforce.
The following needs require external recruitment: (1) to fill entry-level jobs; (2) to acquire skills not possessed by
current employees; and (3) to obtain employees with different backgrounds to provide a diversity of ideas.
HIGH SCHOOLS AND VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS—Organizations concerned with recruiting clerical and
entry-level operative employees often depend on high schools and vocational schools.
COMMUNITY COLLEGES—A number of community colleges are sensitive to the specific employment
needs in their local labor market and graduate highly sought-after students with marketable skills.
COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES—Potential professional, technical, and management employees are
typically found in these institutions.
COMPETITORS IN THE LABOR MARKET—When recent experience is required, competitors and other
firms in the same industry or geographic area may be the most important source of recruits.
FORMER EMPLOYEES—Today, smart employers try to get their best ex-employees to come back.
UNEMPLOYED—Individuals who are unemployed, regardless of the reason, often provide a valuable
source of recruitment.
PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES—Society benefits when people with disabilities are recruited and hired.
The economy becomes stronger and the government supports fewer people.
OLDER INDIVIDUALS—Older workers, including those retired, may also comprise a valuable source of
MILITARY PERSONNEL—Using this source may make sense to many employers because these
individuals typically have a proven work history, are flexible, motivated, and drug free.
SELF-EMPLOYED WORKERS—These individuals may provide a source of applicants to fill any number
of jobs requiring technical, professional, administrative, or entrepreneurial expertise.
EXTERNAL RECRUITMENT METHODS
Recruitment methods are the specific means through which potential employees are attracted to the firm.
ADVERTISING—A way of communicating the employment needs within the firm to the public through
media such as radio, newspaper, television, industry publications, and the Internet.
EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES—An organization that helps firms recruit employees and, at the same time,
aid individuals in their attempt to locate jobs.
Private employment agencies: Best known for recruiting white-collar employees, offer an
important service in bringing qualified applicants and open positions together.
Public employment agencies: Operated by each state, receive overall policy direction from the
U.S. Employment Service.
RECRUITERS—The most common use of recruiters is with technical and vocational schools, community
colleges, colleges, and universities.
JOB FAIRS— a recruiting method engaged in by a single employer or group of employers to attract a
large number of applicants for interviews.
VIRTUAL JOB FAIRS—A job fair that is an online event.
INTERNSHIPS—A special form of recruiting which involve placing a student in a temporary job.
EXECUTIVE SEARCH FIRMS—Organizations that seek the most qualified executive available for a
specific position and are generally retained by the company needing a specific type of individual.
Contingency search firms: Receive fees only upon successful placement of a candidate in a job
Retained search firms: Considered as consultants to their client organization, serve on an
exclusive contract basis.
PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS—Associations in many business professions such as finance,
marketing, information technology, and human resources provide recruitment and placement services for
WALK-IN APPLICANTS—If an organization has the reputation of being a good place to work, it may be
able to attract good prospective employees without extensive recruitment efforts.
OPEN HOUSES—Firms pair potential hires and managers in a warm, causal environment that
encourages on-the-spot job offers.
EVENT RECRUITING—Attend the events that the people you are seeking go to.
SIGN-ON BONUSES—Some firms are offering sign-on bonuses to high-demand prospects.
APPLICANT TRACKING SYSTEM
Automates online recruiting and selection processes.
TAILORING RECRUITMENT METHODS TO SOURCES
For recruitment efforts to be successful, they must be tailored to meet the needs of each firm.
RECRUITMENT FOR DIVERSITY
Any organization that seeks diversity must implement recruitment and other employment programs that assure
women, minorities, and those with disabilities of inclusion in decision-making processes.
ANALYSIS OF RECRUITMENT PROCEDURES—To ensure that its recruitment program is
nondiscriminatory, a firm must analyze its recruitment procedures.
UTILIZATION OF MINORITIES, WOMEN, AND INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES—Recruiters should
be trained in the use of objective, job-related standards for they occupy a unique position in terms of
encouraging or discouraging minorities, women, and the disabled to apply for jobs.
ADVERTISING— Recruiting ads need to focus on diversity to help to attract more employees from
EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES—An organization should emphasize its nondiscriminatory recruitment
practices when utilizing employment agencies.
PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES—The government has established programs which make it beneficial to
hire people with disabilities.
OTHER SUGGESTED RECRUITMENT APPROACHES—There are numerous other approaches
companies can use recruit minorities and/or female employees.