margaret by pengtt

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for a
New Age

      Margaret Meijers
 New Town High School
              Margaret Meijers
  Teacher at New Town High School, Tasmania
   • Government school for boys, 815 students – grade 7 to 10 (12-16yrs)
   • Diverse school community – wide range of multi cultural, indigenous,
     socio-economic backgrounds, academic ability, and physical and
     intellectual disabilities
• Why am I here?
• Recipient of
        Microsoft Worldwide Innovative Teacher 2006
        Teaching Australia Best National Achievement by a Teacher 2006
        Hardie Fellowship 2007
        Australian Council for Computers in Education Educator of the Year 2007 .
New Town High
  Four ‘regular’ grade 7 & 8
   Computing classes
  Online Computing Extended

Centre for Extended Learning    Online Campus (2006)
  Online Game Programming        Online Computing 8-10
   for gifted middle school       Online Games Unit 7-10
Industrial Revolution
 Late 18th early 19th
 Steam powered
 Mass production
 New industries
  developed rapidly
Profound Social Change
 Driven by
 Urbanisation
 Transport changes

 Schools established to instil attitudes of discipline,
  structure, temperance
 Latin, Greek, grammar, theology, and religion changed
  to chemistry, physics, biology
WikiPedia vs Encarta

                       2006 Pew Internet
Globalisation & Employment
 ‘Flat Earth’
 China, India joining world economy
 Lower wages, larger skilled workforce
 Much work can be done anywhere
 3 billion more workers competing for jobs
 By 2010 India will have the highest number
  of English speakers in the world
 Anything that can be done by machines will
Globalisation & Employment
 Jobs requiring science, engineering, IT growing at
  5 times rate of other jobs US Bureau Labor
 US, UK, Australia number of graduates declining
 Science and engineering represent 60% of Chinese
  bachelor degrees, but 31% in US
 Top 5 countries in international Maths scores:
    Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea China,
     Japan Grade 8, 2003 Trends in International
     Mathematics and Science Study
 More people (3.3bn) live in urban areas
  than not (for the first time in history)
 Largest cities in the world will not be
  Tokyo or New York, but places like
  Lagos and Dakar

United Nations Data
Technological Change

 Explosive expansion of speed, power,
  capabilities and connectivity
 Downward pressure on prices
 What will life be like in 30 years?
 What will be left for people to do?
Knowledge Explosion
 Amount of knowledge in the world is
  doubling every 18 months
 Half of the knowledge I learn today will be
  obsolete in 6 months
 It is no longer possible to do all your life’s
  learning at school
 We all must be lifelong learners
The Digital World
 The ability to represent so
  many things with 1’s and 0’s
  has changed the way we work and live our
  daily lives.
 The change has been dramatic
 Some have embraced it, others avoid it
Digital Natives vs Digital Immigrants
  Analogy promotes and reinforces hidden
  Technology is rapidly becoming ubiquitous
  It’s no longer about access to technology or being
   born in the right time
  It’s about having the cultural capital and
   connections to a digitally enlightened community
  Kids born into socially deprived circumstances
   may have the hardware but not the access to the
   cultural capital
Digital Revolution
 Profound impact on
   Business & Commerce
   Communication
   Travel
   Lifestyle
   Social and family structures
 But the impact on schools so far has only
 been superficial …..
Where we are now
          Still in the Industrial Age
 Factory Model – students progress, grouped
  by age, at prescribed times
 Curriculum – uniform, prescribed course of
  study for all students
 Teacher directed
Response to Changed World
Kids want community…
 to be always connected
 constant communication
 reflected through internet and mobile
 devices which are key parts of their lives
Kids want personalisation…
They want..
 to customise & control everything
 to be self directed
 to work on their terms, at their times, in
  their place
 Reflected in own media libraries, websites,
  customised devices
Kids want to express themselves…
 to have their ideas heard
 to show who they are and what they value
 to have relationships with people in other
 Reflected through music, blogging, creating
  and constructing both functional and
  artistic digital objects.
Worldwide Blog Growth

                        Source: Technorati
Blog Example
Collaborative Problem Solving
             Online Video Growth

 Oct 2005 < 25 million views per day
 Jan 2006  125 million views per day
 July 2006 700 million views per day
                                        Source: ComScore
Social Networking
 Social Networking Explained
Geocities 1996 – 200,000 users
        MySpace Registered Users

July 2007: 3.8 million Australian profiles
2006 Pew Internet
 Social utility that connects people with friends
  and others who work, study and live around
 Started at Harvard Uni in 2004
 Now 42 million users worldwide
 Over half users log in daily
 >1 billion photos
 Grew 273% in Australia between Apr and Jun
  2007 (Hitwise)
Learning with Web 2.0
 If you know how to access it, you can find most
  of what you need to know about almost
  anything online.
 There are massive international online learning
 Technologists have known this for decades, but
  other areas have now caught on.
Online University Courses
  Cat – 16
‘I can have a conversation with a
person with a PhD in whatever I
If you try and do that in real life    ‘I discuss philosophy on a
they don’t take a 16 year old girl
                                       regular basis, whereas at
seriously, but when it’s just text
based or voice based they don’t        school we’ve just started
really care how old you are, what      meeting once a month to
you look like, what colour your skin   have philosophical
is.                                    conversations for half an
It’s just about you, your ideas and    hour. I need more mental
how you can get them across to         stimulation than that
them in a way they can discuss with    really.’
Baby Boomer or Gamer?

                 >35                         <35

Which character do you more readily recognise?
Baby Boomer or Gamer?
Over 35s have not grown up with games
Early games were trivial and boring
Early gamers were nerdy isolates
1988 Nintendo
Entertainment System

 Game Revolution was born!
Video Games
Casual Games - Solitaire, Pong, Tetris, Pacman …
Serious Games
 Take up to 100 hours or more
 Are immersive virtual worlds
 Require collaboration with others
 Involve developing values, insights, and new
 Have an external environment involving
  communities of practice, buying and selling
  of game items, blogs, and developer
 Have become complex learning systems
 Are ‘hard’ fun
Game Culture
How Parents see Games
 Messages: Evil, violent, destroy your mind
 Constant fighting to get kids to stop playing
  games and do homework, go outside and
  play, get exercise.
 Demands for money to buy more games,
  better computers etc.
Television Will Rot Your Mind….
  In condemning games, are we any different from our
  parents’ generation?

  As many hours are spent playing games as the previous
  generation spent watching TV, but different things are
  being learned.

  Gamers are learning how to manipulate electronic
Put yourself in the shoes of a teenager…
Why Play Games?
 You are the centre of all attention – you are a
 You have total control – unlike TV which is
 You are always right
 You are expert and really good at what you
  do – others see this
 You can die and not get hurt
Why Play Games?
 The gameworld is simple and logical (unlike
  the real world)
 Relationships are structured and predictable
 Trial and error is always a good plan
 You are always competing, striving to get
 Young people rule
Why Play Games?
 There is a global community that transcends
  age, race and culture
 It is escapist – when you don’t like reality
  you have a game world.
Parents yell at kids to get off computers, without
understanding that their kid could be managing
            a 200 person online guild.
         19 yrs old
         Avid gamer
         Highly successful
         WoW Guild Master
          (200 members)
Real Time Strategy

‘It’s all about the strategy and doing
 things at crucial times’
‘It teaches you how to think about
 5-10 things at once and manage all
 those things at once.’
1st Person Shooters
 ‘You are very reliant on your team and the
  way you are able to execute the tactics that
  you’ve planned down to the very precise
 ‘Split second thinking, planning on the run,
  trying to get 5 people working as one unit
  instead of 5 individuals are all vital.’
 Helps you to identify and concentrate on the
  important things.
Role playing games
 ‘Teach you about persistence – if you
  have a go and set yourself to it, and use
  the social aspects such as helping out
  people so they help you out, then you
  can get there. ’
 ‘This is beneficial to real world success.’
Benefits of Games
 ‘Each genre of game helps in different areas – this is
  far more beneficial in real life than watching TV or
  reading in my opinion. ’
 ‘Reading teaches you lots of information but it
  doesn’t really help the way you actually think in a
  real world situation.’
 ‘I read, all my friends who play games read, but if
  you ask any of them, they’d say the thing that helps
  you to learn to think is playing computer games.’
Serious Games
Learning Systems
 Games are complex and effective learning systems
 People
    pay money
    to put in long hours
    to learn something really difficult
 The business world has recognised this and leverages
 this learning
                  Beth Israel Hospital

 Surgeons train on video games before
 Surgeons who played 3 or more hours of
  games per week made 37% fewer mistakes
  and operated faster.
 Now warm up with games such as Super
  Monkey Ball, Star Wars Revenge Racer and
  Silent Scope.
Multi Casualty Incident Response
 Trains fire fighters in their duties and
 Range of scenarios
 Records actions
   and responses
                 Monkey Wrench
 The Monkey Wrench Conspiracy "mod" puts
  you in the role of an intergalactic secret agent
  dispatched to deep space to rescue the
  Copernicus station from alien hijackers.
 It is a complete tutorial for a complex
  technical product, designed to teach
  industrial engineers how to use new 3-D
  design software.
 A 4-CD game created by
  PricewaterhouseCoopers to teach its 24-year-
  old-average-aged auditors to understand
  derivatives on corporate balance sheets.
 Set in the future, players join the finance team
  of intergalactic mining company Gyronortex,
  where they are required to master the basics of
  hedging, swaps and options.
                         Straight Shooter!

 A first person shooter game created for
  Bankers Trust Company in which marketers
  hunt for clients in cities, airports and hotels
  around the world.
 Clients can only be acquired when the
  player has demonstrated he or she
  understands the business policies in
 Team participants are stranded on a remote
  island, with little chance of immediate
  rescue, and a variety of problems and
  mysteries to solve.
 By progressing through challenging team
  problems, groups of individuals find
  themselves communicating, collaborating
  and embracing the behaviour of highly
  effective teams.
And in Schools?
We like to think we’ve changed, but….
 Teacher still clinging on trying to being the
  expert (kids largely ignore this)
 Social networks, communications blocked
 ‘The filtering in China is less restrictive than
  many US public schools’ (Wes Fryer)
 Children largely sit in classrooms and move
  by age factory style…in boxes and groups
 Inflexible times and hours
US School Districts in 2007
 84% have rules against online chatting in
   81% have rules against instant messaging in
   62% prohibit blogging, participating in
    online discussion boards
   60% prohibit email
   52% prohibit social networking sites
Alarmingly Similar!
We look to the past, not the future
 Needs for learning have changed but we
  resolutely hang on to the past
 Who is driving and leading the digital
 Many kids are doing more learning outside
  of school than inside school
 Schools are stuck in the industrial age
What is Important in a Changed World?

  Learning how to learn

       with passion & curiosity!

                 Innovation & Creativity
What is Important in a Changed World?
  Communication skills
  Team work and collaboration

     Yet in many schools we are actively
     blocking technologies that encourage
     and support this.
I pledge that the work I have
  submitted is all my own.
Nobody has helped me with it
and I have not offered help to
        anyone else.
What is Important in a Changed World?
     Critical thinking & problem solving
     Technological Literacy
Technological Literacy

     Can you control
   technology or does
   technology control
Programming/Control Needs
 TV, DVD, HD Recorder, washing machine, mobile
  phone, mp3 player, car stereo, navigation system,
  microwave oven, bread maker, washing machine…
 Security system, air conditioner, heating, phone
  system, answering machines
 Home PC, home networks, antivirus, spam, spyware
 PC Applications: MS Word, PowerPoint, Excel,
 Internet & WWW: webpages, email, online safety and
Reading and Writing Needs
By the time they are 21, the average student will have
     10,000 hours on video games
     200,000 emails
     20,000 hours on TV
     10,000 hours on mobile phones
     Less than 5000 hours reading books

(Andrew Bonamici, 2005)
TextHELP Read and Write
Phonetic Spell Checker
*NEW* Screenshot Reader
*NEW* Study Skills Toolbar
*NEW* Summarise Tool
Word Prediction
Speaking Dictionary
Word Wizard
Homophone Support
Web Highlighting
One-click Scanning
Speech Maker
Daisy Reader
Fact Finder
Fact Folder
Fact Mapper
Speech Input (XP & 2000 only)
Pronunciation Tutor
User Definable Toolbar
Talking Books
                 Wide range of titles
                 Anytime, anywhere
Programming/Control Needs
 TV, DVD, HD Recorder, washing machine, mobile
  phone, mp3 player, car stereo, navigation system,
  microwave oven, bread maker, washing machine…
 Security system, air conditioner, heating, phone
  system, answering machines
 Home PC, home networks, antivirus, spam, spyware
 PC Applications: MS Word, PowerPoint, Excel,
 Internet & WWW: webpages, email, online safety and
New Demands & New Tools

 Video games teach all these skills.
 You (& kids) need to know the difference
 between good and bad games and how to
 leverage the good ones for learning,
 entertainment or relaxation.
One Laptop per Child
(OLPC) Program
 Goal – ‘to provide opportunities to explore, experiment
  and express themselves’
 Aimed at 2 billion children in developing world
 Designed for “learning learning”
 For children to control the machine, not the machine
  to control the child
 Mass production beginning this month
 Imagine the impact of 2 billion connected kids with a
  hunger for learning!

 Interactive stories, animations, games, music
  and art
 control technology
 design, create & share
 Tiny computer that makes things spin, light up and
  play music
 Lights, motors, sensors
 Program them to react, interact and communicate
 Designed for making artistic creations
 Modern package, continually
  being upgraded
 Drag and drop interface + built
  in C like programming language
 Suited to high school and
  capable primary students
Children’s Comments
Squeak E-toys
 Media authoring tool
 Share and create with others
 Explore new realms of computing and media
 Environment to explore Maths & Science
 Create simulations and models to test theories
 The idea is not to teach children specific
  mathematics or science but how to think like a
  mathematician or scientist.
Seymour Papert

Scratch, PicoCrickets, Game Maker,
Squeak support….
                    thinking creatively
                    communicating clearly
                    analyzing systematically
                    using and controlling
                     technologies fluently
                    collaborating effectively
                    designing iteratively
                    learning continuously
 More ideas at
Heutagogy In
Pedagogy Out
Heutagogy In!
 Self-determined learning
 Appropriate in 21st century
 Focus on the development of individualised,
  independent learning
 Using multimedia, virtual learning
  environments, online assessment and social
Tom Friedman
 Take courses offered by your favourite
  teachers, no matter what the subject
 ‘I don’t remember what they taught me, but
  I remember being excited about learning it.’
 It is not the facts they imparted, but the
  excitement about learning they inspired.
                                    Tom Friedman ‘The World is Flat’ p303
 Students should be active participants in their own
 Learning how to learn, unrestricted by time, place, age
 To be creative with the skills they possess
 Flexible and adaptable in familiar and novel situations
 Work independently and with others
 Working with and controlling technology to achieve
  their goals
Model for 21st Century Learning
Jay Lemke (University of Michigan)
3 relatively independent, but loosely integrated components:

Individual workstations
 Multimedia (audio and video)
 Access to global information resources
 Access to intelligent learning assistants (human and
 Networks and communication groups for interaction and
  collaboration (both stable and ad hoc)
Model for 21st Century Learning
Learning centres
 face-to-face individual and group interaction with
  peers, older and younger students, and specialist
  teachers and counsellors
 where skills can be learned through use of specialized
  materials and equipment
Visits, and placements in real-world settings
 to observe and participate in economic, technical,
  artistic and recreational activities with adults
Knowsley District UK
 closing all of its eleven existing secondary schools
  by 2009
 will reopen as seven state-of-the-art, round-the-
  clock, learning centres
 no formal classes, no timetables
 ‘They will be given their day’s assignments in
  groups of 120 in the morning before dispersing to
 internet cafe-style zones in the learning centres to
 carry them out.’
for a
New Age?

Margaret Meijers

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