Management Information System Process Map by fbx82765

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									   Lesson-11 Information System Development
• Describe the motivation for a system development process in terms of the
  Capability Maturity Model (CMM) for quality management.
• Differentiate between the system life cycle and a system development
  methodology.
• Describe eight basic principles of system development.
• Define problems, opportunities, and directives—the triggers for systems
  development projects.
• Describe the PIECES framework for categorizing problems, opportunities,
  and directives.
• Describe the traditional, basic phases of system development. For each phase,
  describe its purpose, inputs, and outputs.
• Describe cross life cycle activities that overlap all system development
  phases.
Lesson Map
Process of System Development

A system development process is a set of
activities,  methods,     best   practices,
deliverables, and automated tools that
stakeholders (Lesson 7) use to develop and
maintain information systems and software.
    The CMM Process Management Model
The Capability Maturity Model (CMM) is a framework to assess
the maturity level of an organization’s information system
development and management processes and products. It consists
of five levels of maturity as measured by a set of guidelines called
the key process areas.
   – Level 1—Initial: System development projects follow no prescribed process.
   – Level 2—Repeatable: Project management processes and practices are
     established to track project costs, schedules, and functionality.
   – Level 3—Defined: A standard system development process (sometimes called a
     ―methodology‖) is purchased or developed, and integrated throughout the
     information systems/services unit of the organization.
   – Level 4—Managed: Measurable goals for quality and productivity are
     established.
   – Level 5—Optimizing: The standardized system development process is
     continuously monitored and improved based on measures and data analysis
     established in Level 4.
Capability Maturity Model (CMM)             RISK
                                                                                  Level
                                                                                    5
                                                                               OPTIMIZED


                                                                       Level
                                                                         4
                                                                     MANAGED



                                                             Level
                                                               3
                                                           DEFINED


                                                   Level
                                                     2
                                             REPEATABLE




                                   Level
                                     1
                                  INITIAL
                                                              COMPETITIVENESS
      Life Cycle versus Methodology
• A system life cycle divides the life of an information
  system into two stages, systems development and
  systems operation and support.

• A system development methodology is a very formal
  and precise system development process that defines
  (as in CMM Level 3) a set of activities, methods, best
  practices, deliverables, and automated tools that
  system developers and project managers are to use to
  develop and maintain information systems and
  software.
              A System Life Cycle
                      Conversion




LIFE CYCLE STAGE                     LIFE CYCLE STAGE


System Development    Lifetime        System Operation
                                        and Support
                        of a
       using
System Development    System                 using
                                    Information Technology
    Methodology




                     Obsolescence
Principles of System Development
• Get the owners and users involved.
• Use a problem-solving approach.
• Establish phases and activities.
• Establish standards.
• Justify systems as capital investments.
• Don’t be afraid to cancel or revise scope.
• Divide and conquer.
• Design systems for growth and change.
Phases of a Representative Methodology
         Overlap of System Development
                     Phases
                                                         2004                       2005
ID            Task Name
                                 May   Jun   Jul   Aug      Sep   Oct   Nov   Dec   Jan

1    Project management

2    Preliminary investigation

3    Problem analysis

4    Requirements analysis

5    Decision analysis

6    Design

7    Construction

8    Implementation

9    Operations and support
    Project Identification and Initiation

• Problems are undesirable situations that prevent
  the organization from fully achieving its
  purpose, goals, and/or objectives.
• Opportunities are chances to improve the
  organization even in the absence of specific
  problems.
• Directives are new requirements that are
  imposed by management, government, or some
  external influence.
The PIECES Problem-Solving Framework
P   the need to improve performance
I   the need to improve information (and
          data)
E   the need to improve economics, control
               costs, or increase profits
C   the need to improve control or security
E   the need to improve efficiency of people
                and processes
S   the need to improve service to customers,
          suppliers, partners, employees, etc.
FAST System Development Phases
       Cross Life Cycle Activities
Cross life cycle activities are activities that
overlap many or all phases of the methodology.

  – Fact-finding

  – Documentation and presentation

  – Feasibility analysis

  – Process and project management
Sharing Knowledge via a Repository
                         A    repository is a
                         database where system
                         developers    store all
                         documentation,
                         knowledge,           and
                         products for one or more
                         information systems or
                         projects.

								
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