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					9/11 As a Turning Point
      in History
    What are Turning Points?
• Turning Points Are Lasting Changes in the
  Climate of the Times
• 1929 and 1941 were Turning Points
• 1963 and 1987 were with the Kennedy
  assassination and the stock market crash
   Is 9-11-2001 a turning point?
           Cycles in Warfare
• Quincy Wright found an
  approximately 50 year cycle
  between major wars
  between great powers
• By this clock, the world is
  due for a major war about
• But nuclear deterrence
  seems to have broken this      Quincy Wright
  cycle                         A Study of War (1942)
• The War Against Terrorism     University of Chicago

  may be a substitute
      Cycles in Global Hegemony
      (the dominance or leadership of one social group or nation over others)

• In the past, world systems theorists say hegemonic
  powers have dominated for approximately 100 year
• But England had two cycles
• By this clock, the United States should be ending a
  period of hegemony
• The U.S.’s main rivals, Japan and the Soviet Union
  have retreated
• The US may have a second 100 year cycle
    9/11 and Global Hegemony
• The 9/11 attacks were intended to end
  America’s global hegemony
• The Islamic global empire would be the
  presumed successor
• It seems more likely that American
  hegemony will continue for another century
        In Response to 9/11
• American military hegemony is strong
• The stock market recovered from its initial
• America is firmly in an extraverted foreign
  policy mood
• And Western “sensate” popular culture
  seems irresistible
Terrorism Term First Appeared?
            C. 1793
• Precise and specific use of the
  term “terrorism” originated in the
  French Revolution to describe
  actions taken by the national
  government against its own
  citizens – “Robespierre and the
  Enlightened Technology of Dr.
  Guillotine” – “The Terror.”
“Working Definition” in
the 1980s:
Terrorism is the
intentional use of
terror to achieve
political purposes.
Who attacked?
   Nineteen terrorists affiliated with al-Qaeda hijacked four commercial
   passenger jet airliners. Each team of hijackers included a trained pilot.
 Who is al-Qaeda?
    International alliance of militant Sunni jihadist organizations. Its roots can
    be traced back to Osama bin Laden and others around the time of the
    Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan in 1989.
What do they want?

 Al-Qaeda's objectives include the end of foreign influence in Muslim countries
 and the creation of a new Islamic caliphate (empire).

What did they do?

crashed two of the airliners (United Airlines Flight 175) and (American Airlines
Flight 11) into the World Trade Center in New York City
crashed a third airliner (American Airlines Flight 77)into the Pentagon in
Arlington County, Virginia, near Washington,

Passengers and members of the flight crew on the fourth aircraft (United Airlines
Flight 93) attempted to retake control of their plane from the hijackers; that plane
crashed into a field near the town of Shanksville in rural PA.
Even Osama Bin Laden Wears a
Timex Ironman Triathalon Watch
  and Speaks to the World on
      Before 9/11 we were in a
    “reactive” state of denial and
We didn’t we listen in 1994 when The Futurist warned that:
• "Targets such as the World Trade Center not
  only provide the requisite casualties but,
  because of their symbolic nature, provide more
  bang for the buck. In order to maximize their
  odds for success, terrorist groups will likely
  consider mounting multiple, simultaneous
  operations with the aim of overtaxing a
  government's ability to respond, as well as
  demonstrating their professionalism and reach."
  Al Qaeda and the Intelligence Ploy
     - Osama’s Whereabouts
• Prior to 9/11, Osama bin Laden was secretly protected
  by the CIA and became a US intelligence asset.
   – Was put on FBI’s 10 Most Wanted list in 1999.

• Two months prior to 9/11 bin Laden was at The American
  Hospital in Dubai on July 14, 2001.
   – visited by the CIA section chief, yet no arrest was made.
• Sept. 10, 2001, Osama is reported (by Dan Rather)
  to be at a Pakistani military headquarters hospital.
   – hospital has close ties to the Pentagon. No arrest was

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