9/11 As a Turning Point in History What are Turning Points? • Turning Points Are Lasting Changes in the Climate of the Times • 1929 and 1941 were Turning Points • 1963 and 1987 were with the Kennedy assassination and the stock market crash Is 9-11-2001 a turning point? Cycles in Warfare • Quincy Wright found an approximately 50 year cycle between major wars between great powers • By this clock, the world is due for a major war about now • But nuclear deterrence seems to have broken this Quincy Wright cycle A Study of War (1942) • The War Against Terrorism University of Chicago may be a substitute Cycles in Global Hegemony (the dominance or leadership of one social group or nation over others) • In the past, world systems theorists say hegemonic powers have dominated for approximately 100 year cycles • But England had two cycles • By this clock, the United States should be ending a period of hegemony • The U.S.’s main rivals, Japan and the Soviet Union have retreated • The US may have a second 100 year cycle 9/11 and Global Hegemony • The 9/11 attacks were intended to end America’s global hegemony • The Islamic global empire would be the presumed successor • It seems more likely that American hegemony will continue for another century In Response to 9/11 • American military hegemony is strong • The stock market recovered from its initial shock • America is firmly in an extraverted foreign policy mood • And Western “sensate” popular culture seems irresistible Terrorism Term First Appeared? C. 1793 • Precise and specific use of the term “terrorism” originated in the French Revolution to describe actions taken by the national government against its own citizens – “Robespierre and the Enlightened Technology of Dr. Guillotine” – “The Terror.” “Working Definition” in the 1980s: Terrorism is the intentional use of terror to achieve political purposes. Who attacked? Nineteen terrorists affiliated with al-Qaeda hijacked four commercial passenger jet airliners. Each team of hijackers included a trained pilot. Who is al-Qaeda? International alliance of militant Sunni jihadist organizations. Its roots can be traced back to Osama bin Laden and others around the time of the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan in 1989. What do they want? Al-Qaeda's objectives include the end of foreign influence in Muslim countries and the creation of a new Islamic caliphate (empire). What did they do? crashed two of the airliners (United Airlines Flight 175) and (American Airlines Flight 11) into the World Trade Center in New York City crashed a third airliner (American Airlines Flight 77)into the Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia, near Washington, Passengers and members of the flight crew on the fourth aircraft (United Airlines Flight 93) attempted to retake control of their plane from the hijackers; that plane crashed into a field near the town of Shanksville in rural PA. Even Osama Bin Laden Wears a Timex Ironman Triathalon Watch and Speaks to the World on Satellite Television Before 9/11 we were in a “reactive” state of denial and inaction We didn’t we listen in 1994 when The Futurist warned that: • "Targets such as the World Trade Center not only provide the requisite casualties but, because of their symbolic nature, provide more bang for the buck. In order to maximize their odds for success, terrorist groups will likely consider mounting multiple, simultaneous operations with the aim of overtaxing a government's ability to respond, as well as demonstrating their professionalism and reach." Al Qaeda and the Intelligence Ploy - Osama’s Whereabouts • Prior to 9/11, Osama bin Laden was secretly protected by the CIA and became a US intelligence asset. – Was put on FBI’s 10 Most Wanted list in 1999. • Two months prior to 9/11 bin Laden was at The American Hospital in Dubai on July 14, 2001. – visited by the CIA section chief, yet no arrest was made. • Sept. 10, 2001, Osama is reported (by Dan Rather) to be at a Pakistani military headquarters hospital. – hospital has close ties to the Pentagon. No arrest was made.