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									AMWA Salary Survey 2004

     Analysis of Data

      Tinker Gray
     Cindy Hamilton
              Overview

• Methods
• Results
   Demographics

   Income for employees

   Regression analysis

   Pharmaceutical company

   Income for freelances

• Discussion and summary
                 Methods

• Data collection
   Between April 19 and May 7, 2004

   Through independent survey Web site

• Notification
   Mailed to all AMWA members in April 2004

   E-mailed to 4,450 members (~ 10% returned
    undeliverable)
  Definition: Employed by a company,
         individual, or institution
• You are employed
    part-time or full-time

    by a company, institution, or individual

    either hourly, salaried, or by contract.

• The employer pays social security taxes
  and deducts state and federal taxes from
  your pay.
     Definition: Freelance Work

• You do work for hire by a company or
  individual.
• You pay all of your own social security
  taxes, and state and federal taxes are not
  deducted from the pay you receive from
  your client.
      Definition: Employment

• Full-time employment:
   You work 32 hours or more per week

• Part-time employment:
   You work less than 32 hours a week
              Definition: Income

• Total income: For employees working for a
  company, institution, or individual, report your
  total income before deducting taxes.
• Gross income: For freelance work, report the
  total amount of money collected from clients.
• Net income: For freelance work, the amount of
  income before deducting taxes and retirement
  contributions and after subtracting deductible
  expenses such as insurance, subcontracting,
  and equipment.
            Methods (cont’d)

• Questions pertained to salary and work
  status for 2003.
• All questions were required to be answered.
• However, a few people stopped responding
  in the middle of the survey.
• Therefore, the total number of responses
  varied slightly for each question.
              Overview

• Methods
• Results
   Demographics

   Income for employees

   Regression analysis

   Pharmaceutical company

   Income for freelances

• Discussion and summary
  Results: Number of Responses
      By Type of Question

• Employment: 1,811
• Demographics: 1,774
• Description of work: 1,751
• Salary information: 1,735
              Demographics

• Men
     Number: 298 (17%)
     Mean age: 46.9 ± 10.3 years
• Women
     Number: 1,476 (83%)
     Mean age: 44.4 ± 10.0 years
            Predominant Chapters*
                                 Number (%)
 Chapter                     Survey      AMWA
 Delaware Valley            274 (15.6)   828 (16.6)
 New York                   196 (11.1)   652 (13.1)
 New England                178 (10.1)   505 (10.1)
 Mid-Atlantic               138 (7.8)    293 (5.9)
 Greater Chicago            112 (6.4)    293 (5.9)

*All chapters represented
      Region of Primary Work


• NY, PA, NJ, DE, Eastern Canada: 33%
• Pacific NW, CA, HI: 13%
• Southeast US, MD, DC: 11.2%
• Midwest: 11.1%
• MA, CT, RI, VT, NH, ME: 9.1%
   Highest Educational Level
               Associate’s Degree or Below
                2%
Advanced
Degree   30%
                       33%   Bachelor’s
                             Degree



           35%

          Master’s Degree
         Field of Highest Degree


•Science (33.8%)     •Communication (4.3%)
•English (14.4%)     •Public Health (3.1%)
•Journalism (5.3%)   •Nursing (2.4%)
•Pharmacy (5.1%)     •Technical Writing (2.4%)
•Medicine (4.8%)     •Other (24.3%)
  Years in Biomedical Communication
Mean number
 of years ± SD                        >25
• All: 10.6 ± 8.2          21 − 25                   <5
                                       5%
• Men: 10.9 ± 8.4                 8%
                      16 − 20
• Women: 10.5 ± 8.2             11%            28%

                                16%
                      11 − 15
                                        32%

                                            5 − 10
  Predominant Source of Income


• Employed by company or individual:
  1,215 (67%)

• Freelance work: 596 (33%)
              Overview

• Methods
• Results
   Demographics

   Income for employees

   Regression analysis

   Pharmaceutical company

   Income for freelances

• Discussion and summary
          Work Situation:
Employed by Company or Organization

• Number of respondents: 1,324
• Full-time: 1,192 (90%), including 104
  respondents who do part-time freelance work
• Part-time: 132 (10%), including 79
  respondents who do part-time freelance work
                Educational Level*
 Degree                  Women                    Men
                       n     %               n          %
 Associate’s           22     2              1          0.5
 or below
 Bachelor’s           346         38         59         30
 Master’s             320         35         64         32
 Advanced             215         24         73         37
*Employed full-time by company or organization
               Mean Income
        By Educational Level and Sex*
                      Women                      Men
Degree              n    Mean               n      Mean
Associate’s         22        63,368        1    55,000
or below
Bachelor’s          346       65,200       59    73,356
Master’s            320       71,515       64    83,596
Advanced            215       83,603       73    94,053
*Employed full-time by company or organization
              Primary Employer
                         University or
              Other      Medical School
                  14%   10%
       CRO
             7%
Research or
                                  Pharmaceutical
Education 5%                  34% Company
    Health 7%
    Care Org 12%
Communication
                      8% 3%
or Advertising Co
                Journal or Association or
                Publisher Professional Society
        Income by Primary Employer

Employer          n    Mean     Median   Mode
Pharmaceutical 386 87,418       82,000   72,000
Communication 133 82,084        80,000   85,000
or advertising
Clinical research 89   71,194   65,000   75,000
organization

Other           136 68,903      66,500   75,000
       Income by Employer (cont’d)
Employer             n    Mean Median Mode
Association or       38   61,210 54,756 46,000
professional
society
University or        100 58,423 53,500 48,000
medical school
Research or educa-   56   58,584 52,000 42,000
 tion organization
Journalism or        85   57,777 53,000 28,000
 publishing
Health care          75   60,324 57,000 57,000
 organization
                 Income by Region*
Region                     n     Mean     Median    Mode
Outside US and            53    77,820     76,000 100,000
Canada
NY, PA, NJ, DE,          312 80,807        75,000   75,000
Eastern Canada
AK, WA, OR, CA, HI, 152 81,627             74,500   72,000
Western Canada
MA, CT, RI, VT, NH,  89 79,421             82,000   86,000
ME
WI, MI, OH, IN, IL  142 74,632             72,450   60,000
*Employed full-time by company or organization
         Income by Region (cont’d)
Region                n    Mean     Median   Mode
KY,TN, NC, VA, WV, 130 67,877       63,750   75,000
MD, DC
ND, SD, NE, MN, IA    38   61,066   57000    36,000
AL, MS, GA, FL SC     65   65,169   59,000   40,000
KA, OK, TX, MO,       74   55,375   53,756   28,000
AR, LA
ID, MT, WY, NV, UT,   46   56,604   57,000   39,000
 CO, AZ, MN
            Income by Job Category*
Category                n      Mean      Median   Mode
Supervision or         140    99,386     93,500   75,000
administration
Writing                267    76,123     75,000   75,000
(primarily)
Writing/editing        313    72,600     70,000   45,000
(equal mixture)

Editing                232    59,216     55,000   50,000
(primarily)
*Employed full-time by company or organization
     Income by Job Category* (cont’d)
Category                n         Mean       Median Mode

Clinical                3        81,666      85,000   N/A
practice
Research and            3        62,333      65,000   N/A
teaching
Research and            91       70,144      65,000 60,000
writing
Teaching                5        73,000      68,000   N/A
Other                   47       76,825      72,800 40,000
N/A = No two answers the same
* Employed full-time by company or organization
        Income by Employment Level*


Level                    n     Mean      Median Mode

Entry                   49    48,495 38,000 35,000

Middle
 No supervision 426 63,244 59,000 52,000
 Supervision    201 74,239 70,000 55,000

*Employed full-time by company or organization
     Income by Employment Level* (cont’d)

Level                    n      Mean      Median Mode
Senior
 No management 222 79,155 75,000 65,000
 Management    178 99,452 97,250 75,000
Education                16    66,818 64,500     N/A
Other                    8    103,437 77,000     N/A

N/A = No two answers the same
*Employed full-time by company or organization
 Mean Income by Company Size
Number of Employees    n     Mean
< 50                  144   73,476
50 – 100              101   72,526
101 – 200             90    67,947
201 – 300             59    67,807
301 – 500             65    73,790
> 500                 636   75,725
   Mean Income and AMWA Certification

Certification                            n            Mean
None                                    909          71,066

Core Curriculum*                        229          76,038

Advanced                                43           77,034

*Certification versus no certification, P = 0.0036
          Income in Relation to Inflation

• Mean income
   2002 Survey                          $67,351
       2004 Survey reported             $74,016
        by full-time employees
        at companies or
        organizations
• Inflation over 2 years                 4.1%*
• Increase in income                     9.9% (5.8% more
                                           than inflation)
*www.Inflationdata.com – Inflation calculator
              Overview

• Methods
• Results
   Demographics

   Income for employees

   Regression analysis

   Pharmaceutical company

   Income for freelances

• Discussion and summary
     Analysis of Factors Affecting
               Income

• Regression analysis with interaction was
  performed for respondents who worked
  full-time at companies or organizations.
• Regression analysis shows factors that
  are predictive of income level.
  Factors Considered in Analysis

• Educational level (less than bachelor’s,
  bachelor’s, master’s, or any advanced
  degree)
• Sex
• Years in biomedical communication
• Age
     Regression Analysis (cont’d)
• Like employers on basis of average income
   Group 1: Pharmaceutical company or
    communications or advertising firm
   Group 2: All other employers (university or
    medical school, association or professional
    society, journal or publisher, health care
    organization, and research organization)
• AMWA certification (of any kind)
       Results of 0 Regression Analysis
               in 1058 subjects
   High correlation between age and years
    experience, so years experience was used
    for analysis.
   AMWA certification was not significant in
    model.
   Men earn more than women, even when they
    have similar experience and education.
   R2 = 0.5123, so model explains 51% of
    variance in income.
       Regression Analysis (cont’d)
      Associate’s degree or less = $19,768
                       +
$23,562 for being employed by pharmaceutical or
      communications or advertising firm
                      +
        $1,263 each year of experience
      +                 +                  +
    $8,452           $16,904            $25,356
  Bachelor’s         Master’s          Advanced
   Degree            Degree             Degree
                          +
               $7,969 for being male
             Overview

• Methods
• Results
   Demographics

   Income for employees

   Regression analysis

   Pharmaceutical company

   Income for freelances

• Discussion and summary
           Pharmaceutical Company:
Mean Income by Experience and Education
                                Men / Women

Years of            Advanced             Master’s
experience           Degree              Degree
<5                85,340 / 78,075      74,600 / 70,425
5 to 10          107,777 / 96,626      91,333 / 77,678
11 to 15        128,000 / 107,500        * / 78,584

>15                       */*           * / 112,200
* Less than 5 responses
      Pharmaceutical Company:
   Mean Income by Employment Level
Employment Level    Men      Women
Entry              68,250    58,937
Middle
 No supervision     86,582   73,371
 Supervision       105,538   92,209
Senior
 No supervision     97,416   92,755
 Supervision       125,100   119,015
         Pharmaceutical Company:
          Mean Income by Region
Region                n     Men      Women
AK, WA, OR, CA, HI,   85   108,117   91,029
Western Canada
WI, MI, OH, IN, IL*   74   71,875    81,144
NY, PA, NJ, DE,       128 102,721    84,964
Eastern Canada
*66 women; 8 men
             Closing the Income Gap
            Between Men and Women

         100

          80

    %      60
Difference
          40     30     27
                                22
                                       17
          20

           0
                1989   1994   2002    2004
                        Survey Year
              Overview

• Methods
• Results
   Demographics

   Income for employees

   Regression analysis

   Pharmaceutical company

   Income for freelances

• Discussion and summary
     Work Situation: Freelance

• Freelance work: 818 respondents
   Full-time: 376 / 818 (46%)

   Part-time: 442 / 818 (54%)

• Years experience: 12.4 ± 8.5 years
     (range: 1 to 46 years)
• Employ others: 19 / 694 (3%)
• Subcontract jobs: 134 / 694 (19%)
           Mean Freelance* Income
         By Educational Level and Sex
                       Women                Men
Degree           n     Gross / Net   n    Gross / Net

Bachelor’s 66 77,018 / 56,596        18 88,278 / 58,944

Master’s        79 86,636 / 66,044   10 85,100 / 66,500

Advanced        54 113,879 / 79,594 18 125,611 / 93,331

*Full-time freelance
     Net Freelance* Income by Job Category
 Job Category           n    Mean Median       Mode
 Writing               145   77,529 69,000     80,000
 (primarily)
 Editing               27    37,238   31,000   10,000
 (primarily)
 Writing and           49    57,160   50,000   30,000
 editing (equal
 mixture)
 Research and          14    52,728   50,500 100,000
 writing
 Other                 5     45,200   50,000   65,000
*Full-time freelance
             Mean Freelance* Income
           In 2004 Versus 2002 Survey

Job Category               2004    2004            2002†
                           Gross    Net
Writing (primarily)       103,432 77,529           89,183
Editing (primarily)        46,629         37,238   40,095
Writing and editing        95,431         57,160   64,507
(equal mixture)

*Full-time freelance
†Gross versus net not specified in 2002
    How Freelances* Bill Their Clients

                       Other
       By the page        9%
                     2%


  By the job     34%           55%   By the hour




*704 responses
 How Freelances Bill for Revisions
• Usual method
   By the hour: 379 (55%)
   By the job: 148 (21%)
   By the page: 10 (1%)
   Not applicable: 158 (23%)
• Number of revisions included in fee
   Zero: 10 (1%)
   One: 182 (26%)
   Two: 144 (21%)
   Three or more: 44 (7%)
   Not applicable: 315 (45%)
            Freelance Hourly Rates

Job Category     n     Mean Median Mode
Full-time
  Writing       216     85     85    100
  Editing       155     66     60    50
Part-time
  Writing       218     79     80    100
  Editing       180     63     60    50
   Mean Freelance Hourly Rates
   In 2004 Versus 2002 Survey
                 2004    2002
Full-time
  Writing         85      81
  Editing         66      65
Part-time
  Writing         79      65
  Editing         63      54
        Freelance Rates by the Page

              n    Mean   Median      Mode
Full-time
  Writing    18     155     125       125
  Editing    18     34       7         3
Part-time
  Writing    21     148     100        35
  Editing    27     19      10         3
              Overview

• Methods
• Results
   Demographics

   Income for employees

   Regression analysis

   Pharmaceutical company

   Income for freelances

• Discussion and summary
        Satisfaction With Work

Mostly Unsatisfied        Very Unsatisfied
                          1%
                     5%


Satisfied   19%
                                    30%      Very Satisfied




                              45%        Mostly Satisfied
                 Satisfaction With Pay
                     Very Unsatisfied
     Mostly          4%
     Unsatisfied 14%      23% Very Satisfied



     Satisfied    25%

                             34%    Mostly Satisfied
Correlation between satisfaction with work
and with pay (R2 = 0.4254; P < 0.0001)
              Survey Limitations

• Response rate (45%) was lower than ideal.
• Some employers, especially at pharmaceutical
  companies, instructed their employees NOT to
  answer the survey, which also occurred with the
  last survey. This might have suppressed
  average income in this survey.
  How can we improve the response rate?

• Improve publicity and provide advance notice
  (eg, mailing to entire AMWA membership)
• Extend interval for survey participation
• Work with AMWA employers at pharmaceutical
  companies to improve participation
• Suggest alternate access to survey for
  members who cannot access the Web site from
  work
                  Summary

• Since 1993, mean income for respondents
  employed by companies and organizations
  has increased 19% above the level of
  inflation.
• Change in freelance income is unknown
  because the 2001 survey did not distinguish
  between net and gross income.
• Men generally earn more than women even
  when factors such as educational level and
  years of experience are considered.
         Acknowledgments

• AMWA members who participated in the
  survey
• Kanitha Andersen, MS for providing the
  statistical analysis of that data

								
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