Treaty of Versailles Punishment of Germany • Match Up the opinions of the “Big Three” in your jotters. 300,000 Homes 2,000 1,600km Destroyed Breweries Railway destroyed Destroyed 1,000 500,000 Bridges Cows Blown taken up 300,000 War In France 6,000 Donkeys and Factories Mules gutted taken 1600km 320,000km Coal-mining Barbed wire Galleries to pull up 250million destroyed 500,000 Cubic metres Sheep Of trenches Taken To fill Public Opinion • France – Suffered too much to allow the Germans to be forgiven • Britain – Also suffered too much to allow the German to be forgiven • USA – Had not suffered as they joined the war late and had small causalities and no fighting took place in USA • British & French believed that GERMANY STARTED THE WAR. • WANTED REVENGE Cost of the War. • What the Government spent • Germany £8,394 Million • Austria-Hungary £4,563 Million • Turkey and Bulgaria £499 Million • Russia £5,021 Million • Great Britain £7,852 Million • France £5,392 Million Military Loss of Life • Germany 2,000,000 • Russia 1,700,000 • France 1,358,000 • Austria 1,100,000 • Great Britain 761,213 • Italy 460,000 • Turkey 375,000 • British Empire 251,900 • USA 114,095 Punishment • Clemenceau‟s victory at the peace talks. • The American public opinion did not reflect President Wilson. • Public opinion would not accept a peace that did not curb German power. • The dictated treaty reflected the views of Clemenceau. The Terms of the Treaty • 7th May 1919 • The Germans expected a „fair‟ treaty and were shocked by the terms of the treaty. • However they were in no position to fight so were forced to sign the treaty. • The Treaty contained over 200 clauses Blame • Germany had to accept the Blame for starting the war (Clause 231). • This caused a lot of anger in Germany He Started the War! They blame us for the war. ARGGH Article 231 • Germany accepts the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied governments have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies. Reparations • Germany had to pay £6,600 million (called Reparations) for the damage done during the war. • Article 232 of the Treaty Article 232 • Germany undertakes that she will make compensation for all damage done to the civilian population of the Allied powers and to their property German Army • Limited to 100,000 men • No Submarines • No Battleships • No Military Aircraft • League of Nations set up to settle international disputes • Germany lost all of her colonies and was banned from forming an alliance with Austria Anschluss • The Anschluss was forbidden. • This meant that Germany and Austria were not allowed to unite to form one country or Alliance. Loss of land • Additionally Germany lost 13% of her European land and 10% of her population. • The Polish corridor was created to give Poland access to the Baltic Sea. Demilitarised Zone • The Rhineland was demilitarised to prevent future attack on France or Belgium. Questions • 1. Were the military terms of treaty unfair to Germany? • 2. Why was the Anschluss forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles? • 3. Why is article 231 of the treaty known as the War Guilt Clause? • 4. Were the Allies justified in forcing Germany to sign Articles 231 and 232 of the Treaty of Versailles?