siamese by xiangpeng

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									The Siamese
(source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siamese_(cat)


   The Siamese is one of the first distinctly recognized breeds of
   Oriental cat. The exact origins of the breed are unknown, but it is
   believed to be from Southeast Asia, and is said to be descended
   from the sacred temple cats of Siam (now Thailand). In Thailand,
   where they are one of several native breeds, they are called
                                                     .
   Wichien-maat, a name meaning “Diamond Gold” In the twentieth century the Siamese
   cat became one of the most popular breeds in Europe and North America.

   History
   The pointed cat known in the West as “Siamese” is one of several breeds of cats from Siam
   described and illustrated in manuscripts called “Tamra Maew” (Cat Poems), estimated to have
   been written in the 1700’s.
   It is often said that the breed was first seen outside their Asian home in 1884, when the British
   Consul-General in Bangkok, Edward Blencowe Gould (1847-1916), brought a breeding pair of
   the cats, Pho and Mia, back to Britain as a gift for his sister, Lillian Jane Veley (Veley went on to
   co-found the Siamese Cat Club in 1901). However, in 1878, U.S. President Rutherford B. Hayes
                    ,
   received “Siam” a gift from the American Consul in Bangkok; this cat was also the first
   documented Siamese to reach the United States, and predates the Siamese’s arrival to the
   UK by 6 years.
   In 1885, Veley’s UK cats Pho and Mia produced three Siamese kittens. These kittens – Duen
   Ngai, Kalohom, and Khromata – and their parents were shown that same year at London’s
                Crystal Palace Show, where their unique appearance and distinct behavior made a
                huge impression.

              Description
              Appearance
               The breed standard of the Modern Siamese indicates an elegant, slim, stylish,
               flexible and well muscled body. Its head is triangular shaped, with a thin snout. The
               eyes are almond-shaped and oblique, the ears large and thin. It has a long neck,
               body and tail. The fur is short, glossy, fine, soft, tight and adhered to the body. The
               Siamese is characterized by its typical pointed color scheme.
               The pointed pattern is a form of partial albinism, resulting from a mutation in
               tyrosinase, an enzyme involved in melanin production. The mutated enzyme is
   heat-sensitive; it fails to work at normal body temperatures, but becomes active in cooler areas
   of the skin. This results in dark colouration in the coolest parts of the
   cat’s body, including the extremities and the face, which is cooled by
   the passage of air through the sinuses. All Siamese kittens, although
   pure cream or white at birth, develop visible points in the first few
   months of life in colder parts of their body. By the time a kitten is four
   weeks old the points should be clearly distinguishable enough to
   recognise which colour they are. Siamese cats tend to darken with
   age, and generally adult Siamese living in warm climates have lighter
   coats than those in cool climates. Originally the vast majority of
                           Siamese had seal (extremely dark brown, almost
                           black) points, but occasionally Siamese were born
                           with blue (a cool grey) points, genetically a dilution of
                           seal point; chocolate (lighter brown) points, a genetic
                           variation of seal point; or lilac (pale warm gray) points, genetically a
                           diluted chocolate. These colours were at first considered “inferior”
                           seal points, and were not qualified for showing or breeding. All of
these shades were eventually accepted by the breed associations, and became more common
through breeding programmes specifically aimed at producing these colours. Later, outcrosses
with other breeds developed Siamese-mix cats with points in other cat colours and patterns
including flame point, lynx (tabby) point, and tortoise-shell (“tortie”) point.

Many Siamese cats from Thailand had a kink in their tails but over the years this trait has been
considered to be a flaw and breeders have largely eradicated it, although it persists among
street cats in Thailand. Many early Siamese were cross-eyed to
compensate for the abnormal uncrossed wiring of the optic chiasm,
which is produced by the same albino allele that produces coloured
points. Like the kinked tails, the crossed eyes have been seen as a fault
and through selective breeding, the trait is far less common today.

Temperament
Siamese are affectionate and intelligent cats, renowned for their social
nature. Many enjoy being with people and are sometimes described as
             .
“extroverts” As there are extrovert Siamese, there also are some that have
very sensitive and nervous temperaments. Those individuals may not easily adapt to the
changes of environment or to strangers. They do have a great need for human companionship.
Often they bond strongly to a single person. Most Siamese like to have other sociable cats for
company and do not thrive as only cats owned by people who are gone much of the day.
                                                                                    ,
Siamese are extremely vocal, with a loud, low-pitched voice – known as “Meezer” from which
                  they get one of their nicknames – that has been compared to the cries of a
                  human baby, and persistent in demanding attention. These cats are typically
                  active and playful, even as adults.
                  The social orientation of Siamese cats may be related to their lessened ability
                  to live independent of humans. Siamese coat colouration is appealing to
                  humans, but is ineffective for camouflage purposes. They are less active at
                  night than most cats, possibly because their blue eyes lack a tapetum lucidum,
                  a structure which amplifies dim light in the eyes of other cats. The mutation in
                  the tyrosinase also results in abnormal neurological connections between the
                  eye and the brain. Unlike many other blue-eyed
                  white cats, Siamese cats do not have reduced
                  hearing ability. The deafness that sometimes occurs
                  in completely white cats is a result of the genetics
that causes the loss of pigment cells in the skin, which has nothing
to do with the tyrosinase gene defect that causes Siamese colour.
Regardless, being dependent on humans may have been a survival
trait for ancestors of the Siamese.

								
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