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					OPERA
A Little History          Opera (op -er-ä), [It.] A drama set to
                          music, usually sung throughout,
                          originating in the seventeenth
                          century in Italy (actually 1597 in
                          Florence). Opera is
                          a combination of
 “Operais a drama in
 which music is the       music, drama,
 indispensable factor”.   scenery, costumes,
                          dance, &c., to create
                          a complete art form.
             Timetable - 1600

 83  years since Martin Luther nailed 95 theses
  to the wall of a church in Wittenburg,
  Germany.
 Shakespeare had written Romeo and Juliet
  and was completing Hamlet
 The first permanent English colony in
  America, Jamestown, Virginia, would be
  settled in 7 years with the French establishing
  a colony in Quebec a year after Jamestown
 So, Opera is fairly new
          The Florentine Camerata
 Florentine     Camerata (1573-1590)
   –   met at home of Count Giovanni Bardi
   –   Vincenzo Galilei (father of the astronomer Galileo)
   –   Jacopo Peri (composer)
   –   Giulio Caccini (poet and singer-composer)
   –   all were aristocratic humanists
             Opera: some terms

 Libretto
 Recitative
 Aria
 Ensembles
 Overture
 Intermezzo
 Chorus
Baroque Opera
 Claudio  Monteverdi
  (1567-1643)
 Monteverdi: Orfeo
  (1607); L’incoronazione
  di Poppea (1642)
       Baroque Opera
 Henry   Purcell (1659-
  1695)
 Purcell: Dido and
  Aeneas (1689)
                Henry Purcell
 Henry
  Purcell
  (1659-1695)
 born
  London,
  March 7
 died
  London,
  November
  21
    London at the time of Purcell

 the Plague
 Great Fire of London - 1666
 the Restoration
       Classical Opera
 Mozart: Don Giovanni, Act I, “Ah! del padre in
  periglio”
 Mozart: The Magic Flute
 Mozart
       Wagner: der Ring des
           Nibelungen
 Richard  Wagner
 1813 - 1883
Romantic Opera

  Verdi: Rigoletto, “La
   donna é mobile”
  Rossini: The Barber of
   Seville, “Largo al
   factotum”
  Rigoletto
    Post-Romantic Opera
 Puccini:Gianni
  Schicchi, “O mio
  babbino caro”
 Leoncavallo:
  Pagliacci, “Prologue”
 Tonio (Pagliacci)
Opera in the 20th Century
 Berg:
  Wozzeck
 Gershwin:
  Porgy and
  Bess
 Poulenc:
  Dialogues
  des
  Carmelites
                       The List

 17th   Century
   – Claudio Monteverdi
   – Jean-Baptiste Lully
 18th   Century
   –   Jean-Philippe Rameau
   –   Ludwig van Beethoven
   –   Christoph Willibald Gluck
   –   George Frideric Handel
   –   Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
                        The List

 19th   Century Italy
   –   Ruggiero Leoncavallo
   –   Pietro Mascagani
   –   Giacomo Puccini
   –   Gioachino Rossini
   –   Giuseppe Verdi
 19th   Century France
   –   Hector Berlioz
   –   Georges Bizet
   –   Jacques Offenbach
   –   Camille Saint-Saens
                       The List

 19th   Century Germany
   –   Ludwig van Beethoven
   –   Johann Strauss
   –   Richard Wagner
   –   Carl Maria von Weber
 17th   through 19th Century England
   – Henry Purcell
     through 19th century Russia and Central
 17th
 Europe
   – Alexander Borodin
   – Modest Mussorgsky
   – Peter Il’yich Tchaikovsky
                      The List

 The   20th Century - all countries
  –   Bela Bartok
  –   Benjamin Britten
  –   Claude Debussy
  –   George Gershwin
  –   Giacomo Puccini
  –   Richard Strauss
  –   Leonard Bernstein
  –   Philip Glass

				
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