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N105:12, Review Class            1
26, Dec 6, 2010
           EXAM is Wednesday
            December 15, 2010
                at 09:00
              NURS 105:12
            Location: MSB001

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• The exam is comprised of
     – 56 Multiple Choice Questions (value 40%)
     – Short Answer Essay Questions (Value 60%)

     – Do     5 out of 6 Short Essay Questions Only
          • If you complete 6/6 the last question included will
            not be graded.

     – You should be finished in 2-2.5 hours

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• Coats & books at back or side of the room
• Cell phones & other electronic devices not
• Spread out
• Leave quietly
• Bring eraser extra pens/pencils
• University regulations re
     – exams are followed University Calendar p. 14
     – Academic integrity 3.6.3 Academic calendar
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             Sample M/C Questions
One of the principles of primary health care is that health
   involves Public Participation. An example of Public
   Participation in primary health care Is:
     1. Organizing bingo games in the community hall
     2. Pharmacists, physiotherapists, nutritionists working
        together on an in-service presentation
     3. Getting health information for a course you plan to
     4. Nursing students learning about broad socio-political
        influences on health
     5. Serving on a Community Health Board in your area
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 Questions assessing whether or not you
  understand & can apply the following:

• Primary Health Care is essential health
  care made universally accessible to
  individuals and families in the community
  by means acceptable to them, through
  their full participation and at a cost that the
  community and country can afford.

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    Questions asking you to select/identify
     one or more Determinants of Health
•   Income & social status
•   Social support networks
•   Education & literacy status
•   Employment & working conditions
•   Social environments
•   Physical environments
•   Personal health practices & coping skills
•   Healthy child development
•   Biology & genetic environment
•   Health services
•   Gender & culture
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                        Case Studies
• Generally deal with acute or chronic or wellness
  situations. Answers will always relate to N105
  with an application to some component of the
  course such as
• Boundaries
     – Relational
     – Poor judgment- sharing too much personal
• Ethical Dilemmas
• Cultural Competence
• Stages of Nursing Process
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In the XXXXXX re the the Health of Canadians‟, …. health
minister stated that the key factors to determine health
status in Canada were:

a) Lifestyle, environment, human biology,
   health services
b) Racial background, cultural sensitivity of
   health providers
c) Equal access to physicians and nurses
d) Gender, gender sensitivity of health
        A question like this could relate to any of the major documents
        discussed in the term such as: The Lalonde Report (1974)
        Alma Ata Conference (1978); The Ottawa Charter (1986)
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  MC Questions Could Relate To:
• Definitions of health
• Describe the various approaches to
  studying health
• Describe the contributions of various
  Canadian documents to
  conceptualizations of health such as
  the Ottawa Charter and its components.
• Describe the i) medical, ii) behavioral and
  iii) socio-ecological approaches to health.
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Definitions of health – multidimensional (physical, psyche, social,
  spiritual; relationship b/t & among health, illness & disease;
  individual –to- population; determinants of health; an individual
  & societal responsibility
    Ottawa Charter identifies 5 major categories of health
       promotion strategies
        Health public policy
        Creating supportive environment
        Strengthening community action
        Developing personal skills
        Reorienting health services

    LaLonde Report (1998) broadly defined health
      determinants as as lifestyle, environment, human
      biology & organization of health care
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    Discuss The Medical, Behavioral And
              / environmental
          Approaches To Health

• Medical
• Behavioural
• Socio-environmental

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• Define culture – values, beliefs, norms & life-ways
• Describe how culture influences health
   Health / illness & caring imbedded in culture; view of
   health influenced by cultural beliefs
• Discuss the significance of self awareness
  on the part of the nurse.
• Define what successful cultural
  assessment should include

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                    Culture & Nursing
• As nurses, we care for people of many
  different cultures. How can nurses
  develop cultural sensitivity and cultural
  competence when caring for the needs of
  their clients?

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                     Nursing Theory
               Review Nov 17th Class notes
•     What is a theory?
•     What is a concept?
•     What is a conceptual model?
•     What is nursing theory?
•     What are the four metaparadigm
      concepts of nursing?
     – person, health environment & nursing

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Define what is meant by caring and the
     – Theoretical: Common theoretical themes
          • Highly relational
          • Caring nurse is coach partner, provider of care
          • Individualizes, knowledgeable & skillful care
     – Sociopolitical perspectives of caring - (hint
       break down word)
• Describe why is it so important for nurses
  to understand the significance of ‘caring’.
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             Identify and discuss the 6 ‘C’s of caring
                       give example of each
                        Dr. Simone Roach

•     SIX ‘C’S’ OF CARING:
     –     Compassion
     –     Competence
     –     Confidence
     –     Conscience
     –     Commitment
     –     Comportment

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     Nurses Who Practice Caring:
         The Consequences
• Emotional-spiritual sense of accomplishment,
  satisfactions, purpose.
• A sense of gratitude, fulfillment, wholeness, self-
• Ability to live their own philosophy.
• Greater respect for life, death (dash in between)
• Ability to be more reflective.
• A love of nursing & people
• Desire for increased knowledge

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                Orem’s Theory –Lesson 17

Orem’s Theory is composed of 3 specific
     – The Theory of Self-Care
     – Theory of Self-Care Deficit and
     – Theory of Nursing Systems

• These theories explain how people are
  responsible for meeting their self–care
  requisites and maintaining their own health
  and also explain the roles nurses play in
  supporting clients regardless of their self
  care ability or deficits
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       Be Able To Explain & Give
      Examples Of Orem’s View Of
               Self Care
Self-care is referred to as set of activities
 that people take on themselves to
 maintain good health. Success depends
 upon the level of the person’s maturity,
 experience, and mental status

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    Explain Orem‟s Conceptual Model for
     – According to Orem: when is nursing required,? what is self care?
     – When is nursing not required?
     – What does Orem mean by the following terms?
          •   Self care agency
          •   Conditioning factors
          •   Nurse agency
          •   Nursing Systems
                – wholly compensatory
                – partially compensatory
                – educative-supportive)

                – USCR (Universal self care requisites)
                – DSCR (Developmental self care requisites)
                – HDSCR (Health Deviation self care requisites)

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• Explain Orem’s conceptual model for
  nursing which includes three related
  theories: Theory of Self Care; Theory of
  Self Care Deficit; Theory of Nursing

• Please note I have sent each of you an
  email with an attachment that may help
  you re Orem.
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                Characteristics Of The Nurse Agency
    The Nurse Agency Is A Set Of Abilities Developed By The Nurse
              Through Education, Skill And Experience

Some examples:
•   knowledge of social, personal and professional skills
•   intellectual and psychomotor skills
•   Motivation & willingness
•   ability to unify different actions
•   consistency in performing actions
•   make adjustments in nursing care
•   management of the self as a professional element in

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                   Ethics in Nursing
                 Knowledge questions
•   Know definitions: ethics, values, and morals
•   Why do we have a professional „Code of Ethics‟ in nursing?
     – Guideline, standards & code of conduct for nurses re ethical practice; reflect requirement
       for accountability, responsibility, competence & advocacy
•   Identify the 7 primary values inherent in the Canadian Nurses Association Code of
          •   Safe, competent ethical care
          •   Promoting health & well being
          •   Promoting & respecting informed decision making
          •   Preserved dignity
          •   Maintaining privacy & confidentiality
          •   Discuss what is meant by various ethical
          •   Promoting justice
•   Being accountable principles (i.e. autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice,
•   What is an ethical dilemma? Give example
•   What are the steps decision-making steps to process an ethical dilemma?

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          How To Process a Dilemma

•   Is it a dilemma
•   Gather info – several sources, get advice
•   Examine own values
•   Verbalize situation/problem
•   Consider all possible actions – rule in, rule out
•   Negotiate outcome-rational & respectful
•   Evaluate process/outcome

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      Standards for Nursing Practice
             CRNNS (2004)
•   What is meant by nursing standards?
•   Briefly describe the six standards as outlined
    by the CRNNS. Refer to:
1. Accountability, 2. Continuing competence,
3. Application of knowledge, skill & judgement,
4. Professional relationships & advocacy,
5. Professional leadership & 6. Self regulation
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             Legal Issues in Nursing
Know common terms: Define the following terms such as
  negligence, assault (threat of), battery (physical w/o consent),
  intentional torts & unintentional torts (civil wrong-doing against
  another's person/property)

• What are common acts of negligence in nursing and how
  can they be prevented?
• What is meant by informed consent?
• Discuss the importance of documentation.
• Compare and contrast professional and non-professional
• Discuss the importance of maintaining professional
• What responsibilities do nurses/nursing students have
  when dealing with confidential information?
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                             Nursing Process
•    What is the nursing process? What is its purpose? Discuss each “step” of the nursing process.

•    Discuss the purpose of a nursing assessment - Components

•    Compare and contrast & be able to recognize subjective and objective data.

•    Differentiate between the different types of nursing diagnoses actual, risk, possible, & wellness

•    Describe the process of formulating nursing diagnoses.

•    Differentiate between nursing and medical diagnoses.

•    Discuss the types of planned client focused interventions. Be able to recognize goals and expected
     outcomes- Nurse initiated (independent), physician initiated (interdependent) ; collaborative (multiple
     professionals (physio, OT, pharmacy, nurse, physician, social worker, clergy, palliative) expect case
     studies – application of knowledge

•    Describe direct and indirect nursing interventions

•    Why is communication and critical thinking important in all phases of the nursing process?

    N105:12, Review Class                                                                                29
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Best wishes
for success

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