GEOGRAPHY SYLLABUS: STANDARD X Approach to Teaching Geography. The syllabus has 12 units. There are 9 units on India and 3 units are allocated for practicals, which are a part of the examination. The approach to studying India is through regional concept. In all lessons on India, the concept of region will be the guiding principle and hence natural and cultural regions are discussed. Natural regions are used in 3 units (II to IV), whereas cultural regions are the frameworks for 6 units (I and V to IX). Practicals are compulsory and students are required to submit their records of work for valuation at the final examination. Teachers need special cartographic skills for teaching the practicals. New ideas on fieldwork and natural resources assessment are introduced in the respective chapters. Units X to XI are a blend of classroom teaching and lab and fieldwork. Unit Expected Learning Outcomes Content Transactional Strategy and Activity Teaching Aids # Periods I i) Ability to conceive India as a Indian Subcontinent Classroom activity: Explaining the Blackboard 4 land subcontinental Location, boundaries location of India in the world, using Globe characteristics Administrative globe and world map Wall map of ii) Learning locational divisions: States and Teachers speak to students about the world characteristics and the notion of Union Territories India and the need to position it, in Wall map - states and union territories in the Positioning India in a variety of modern contexts vis-à- political federal set up the world vis world events and international Charts on India iii) Learning about the diversity in Unity in diversity relations culture and beliefs and secular Cultural pluralism and Outdoor / Home activity: Students fabric of the society Secularism are guided in collecting and preparing a report on the multiple facets of India, especially in socio- economic and cultural realms II i) Ability to divide India into Relief and Drainage Classroom activity: Explaining the Blackboard 5 logical divisions based on relief Peninsular and extra- rationale behind division of the Wall maps - ii) Ability to identify and peninsular rivers country into physiographic physical understand the importance of Islands divisions Charts on India drainage, especially rivers Plains Teachers speak to students about Charts on 2 iii) Learning about the islands of the greatness / sacredness of rivers rivers India and their importance of India and how life is intrinsically Flip charts iv) Ability to differentiate twined with them India outline characteristics of relief divisions, Discussion on sharing of river maps especially hills/mountains and waters and international, national plains and interstate water disputes v) Ability to know and differentiate Homework: Students do a profile of peninsula, plateau, plains, islands each physiographic division and rivers in groups Map work - locating rivers, plains, places of importance III i) Ability to know and understand Climate of India Classroom activity: Recap on Blackboard 5 the climatic characteristics of Summer, Winter weather and climate Wall map India Monsoon winds and Explanation for the climate of India, Charts on ii) Learning how agriculture is a rains considering India's position and the monsoon gamble on monsoon Failure of monsoons Himalayas in the north and the Flipcharts iii) Learning monsoon winds and Rainwater harvesting warm India ocean in the south Newspaper rainfall patterns in different Students discuss in groups monsoon reports on seasons winds and how important they are monsoon iv) Learning why rainwater for the country as a whole Satellite harvesting has become important Group discussion on the reasons for pictures monsoon failures and the need to Websites for harvest rainwater materials on Homework: Assignments on the monsoon climate of India, may be as group Outline maps assignments Scrapbook on monsoons Collecting newspaper reports on monsoon and rains Students draw maps using rainfall data for stations in Tamil Nadu 3 IV i) Ability to differentiate between Soils and Natural Classroom activity: Explanation for Blackboard 5 various soils of India both in Vegetation soils and their formation and variety Wall map terms of conventional types and Soil types and their of natural vegetation using charts Charts on soils classification distribution Discussion on practices that affect and vegetation ii) Ability to identify and Soil conservation soils and forests and the notion of Flipcharts understand different vegetation Types of natural conservation and protection Pictures in the country and the richness or vegetation / forests Discussion on rationale behind Newspaper otherwise of them Vegetation of regions conservation practices in use and reports on soils iii) Learning about the degradation such as hills/mountains suggested and vegetation of soils and forests and reasons and deserts Discussion on improving soil and Websites for for the same Forest conservation forest cover materials on iv) Learning about the conservation Joint forest Homework: Students write a soils and and protection measures in use management profile / report on soils and vegetation and needed vegetation of their locality and Outline maps v) Learning to appreciate the discuss it later in the class usefulness of vegetative cover Collecting information on and improving it traditional soil classification and vegetation related practices (herbal) Mapping exercises for soils and vegetation V i) Ability to understand the Crops of India Classroom activity: Explanation for Blackboard 5 environmental, social and Peninsular crops crops, by regions of India, Wall map economic conditions for different Extra-peninsular crops especially peninsular and extra- Charts on crops of India Agricultural diversity peninsular regions crops ii) Learning to differentiate food, Social and food Discussion on the need for diversity Flipcharts non-food, commercial and other security in agriculture Newspaper crops Students discuss in groups on social reports on iii) Learning to appreciate the and food security crops and diversity in agriculture Homework: Scrapbook on crops practices iv) Learning the need for and actions and practices in India Websites for taken towards social and food Reports on local crops materials on 4 security Collecting information on food and social traditional crops and agricultural security practices Outline maps VI i) Ability to differentiate basic and Industries Classroom activity: Explanation on Blackboard 5 non-basic, light and heavy Basic and Non-basic industries, industrial development Wall map industries Light and Heavy Students discuss industrial location Charts on ii) Learning about the diverse Industrial development in groups in respect of local industries industries, namely, mineral based industries Flipcharts and agro-based industries Groups of students collect first- Newspaper iii) Learning about the locational hand information on different local reports on characteristics of industries industries various iv) Learning about the levels of Homework: Students are asked to industries industrial development write on traditional, village, and Websites for cottage industries materials on industries Outline maps VII i) Learning about the vital Infrastructures and Classroom activity: Initiating Blackboard 4 infrastructures and services of Services discussions on infrastructures and Wall map India Housing, Education, services Charts on ii) Learning the types, nature, extent Health, Transport Debating on the problems of infrastructures and reach of services such as housing, education, health and Flipcharts housing, education, health and transport Newspaper transport Discussing solutions for reports on iii) Learning about the importance of infrastructural and services related services and health education in regard to problems: houselessness, school conditions health conditions in the local dropout, lack of access to health and Websites for areas medical care, and pollution from materials iv) Learning about the importance of transport Outline maps road versus rail transport, and Homework: Reports / profiles on water transport local housing, educational, health and transport conditions 5 VIII i) Ability to know, understand, and Human Resources Classroom activity: Expanation on Blackboard 4 appreciate human resources of Population: Number, human resources and the need to Wall map India Growth, Density, Age develop and manage them Charts on ii) Learning about over / under- and Sex Composition, Lecture on quality versus quantity population, age population, places of high and Occupational Structure Discussion in groups on: Doubling pyramids low densities HRD initiatives time, Population trap, Density as Flipcharts iii) Learning about growth salutary Newspaper characteristics, occupational and Class discusses problems faced by reports on other characteristics population planning and family population iv) Learning about the initiatives for welfare, its successes and failures planning and HRD activities in India Homework: Students write family welfare assignments on a variety of topics Websites for and current concerns of population materials on growth HRD and M Outline maps IX i) Ability to appreciate planning Developing India Classroom activity: Class discusses Blackboard 5 perspectives and the Five Year Plans on the planning of development in Wall map achievements of India Developmental India and the history of planning Charts on ii) Learning about the Five Year consequences Teacher speaks to students on why Planning Goals Plans and Annual Plans and also Perspectives on plans and how of Five Year Plans and and Objectives how they are made and achievements annual and rolling plans Flipcharts iii) Learning about planning goals Class discuss in groups Newspaper and objectives, budegting and achievements during the planning reports on other aspects era, one plan by another planning iv) Learning about the consequences Homework: Scrapbook on planning Websites for of planning and not planning Students write assignments on the materials on v) Learning about the making of problems and achievements of India plans state and central plans during each of the Five Year Plans Outline maps and during certain select period X i) Ability to appreciate cartography Maps and Diagrams Classroom activity: It is enough to Blackboard 5 and learn skills relating to Distribution maps teach cartographic skills, in the Precision 6 mapping and drawing diagrams, Simple line, bar and most rudimentary way. Teachers instruments including charts pie diagrams explain the importance and Charts for ii) Learning manual skills in regard Statistics procedures of drawing in regard to mapping and to distribution maps namely distribution maps and diagrams and diagramming isopleth and choropleth maps, show how on the blackboard. Record representing demographic data Teachers go round the class helping notebook iii) Learning manual skills in regard the students draw as well as they Water colours to statistical diagrams and other should. or paints types of diagrams such as line, Homework: Students take home bar, and pie diagrams mapping and diagramming iv) Ability to generating and using exercises and have them made into graded patterns for maps and fair copies to submit as records diagrams v) Learning basics of statistical applications in geography XI i) Ability to design and conduct Fieldwork Classroom activity: Teachers Blackboard 5 fieldwork for a specific purpose Steps to conducting explain the basics of fieldwork Flip charts ii) Learning the art of preparing fieldwork using blackboard and flip charts Simple interview schedules and Practicing fieldwork Students, with guidance from equipment for questionnaires teachers, design and develop a fieldwork iii) Ability to select sample for the schedule of questions or a study and fulfilling its objectives questionnaire to be used in the field iv) Ability to select individual, survey household and group samples Outdoor activity: Students do a using sampling procedures reconnaissance of the area to be v) Learning to choose area sampling studied vi) Conducting pilot surveys and Conducting pilot and final survey, final surveys, including mainly interviews, with carefully interviews with key informants chosen samples (people or households or groups) Homework: Reporting on the field 7 survey. XII i) Ability to organise and conduct Rapid Assessment Classroom activity: Teachers Blackboard 4 rapid and participatory Participatory Rapid explain the recent advancements in Flip charts on a assessments Assessment field survey and resources battery of ii) Learning skills in using various assessments methods methods of rapid and Teachers speak on the rapid and Slides participatory assessments participatory assessments, especially what needs to be done prior to, during and after their conduct Note: Each unit will form the basis of a lesson and the length of the text will be determined by the hours available for teaching the unit. Twelve of the 68 periods available will be used for revision of the subject before the quarterly, half yearly and annual examinations (4 periods each). Practicals are introduced in the syllabus with an intent of introducing cartography, statistics, and fieldwork. All through the year, ten exercises at the rate one to a month of the course may be worked on in the classroom. Exercises do not necessitate a separate lab and any classroom can be doubled as lab, provided tables for drawing are available in the classroom. Exercises must be taught in the classroom and must worked on both at classroom and home.