PUBLIC SECTOR REFORM

Document Sample
PUBLIC SECTOR REFORM Powered By Docstoc
					OECS INTEGRATED WATER
RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
     (IWRM) FORUM
POLICY ENVIRONMENT AND
      INSTITUTIONAL
     ARRANGEMENTS
     DEFINITION OF POLICY
• The fundamental principle guiding the
  decisions and actions of public officials
  and managers of public agencies.
• A policy is often adopted to address a
  particular issue, question or problem.
• Serves as an important instrument for
  managing public and private affairs.
CHARACTERISTICS OF POLICY
• Establishes the policymaker’s authority
• Addresses simple or complex problems
• Sets guidelines for implementing tasks
• Outlines the framework for making
  decisions and taking action
• Tends to lag behind current practice
• Seeks to formalize accepted practice
• Reflects a stated/documented position
       POLICY PROBLEM
• Definition of policy problem:
   –Any matter affecting a segment or
    an entire population
• Identification of policy problems:
   –Citizen complaints
   –Media articles or features
   –Approaches to elected officials
   –Interest group pressure
SIMPLE POLICY PROBLEMS
• Characteristics:
  –They can be defined in explicit and
   quantitative terms
  –They can be solved using basic
   rules or computational techniques
  –They usually have an obvious
   logical and appropriate solution
  –They can be solved in quick time
  –Easy to compute cost or benefits
    COMPLEX PROBLEMS
• Characteristics:
 – May be caused by multiple factors
 – Impact many sectors simultaneously
 – Practical solutions difficult to find
 – Need complex rules or techniques
 – Require parallel action to find a solution
 – Too little information to make a decision
 – Many stakeholders influence the process
 – Finding a consensus solution takes time
 – Difficult to quantify the costs or benefits
     POLICY RESPONSES
• Common Responses:
  –Keep existing policies in place and
   try to resolve problems by other
   means such as procedural changes
  –Make incremental adjustments to
   existing public policies over time
  –Repeal existing public policies and
   introduce new ones that supercede
   the current policies
CLASSIFICATION OF POLICY
• Classification depends on
  governance role
  –Distributive
  –Re-distributive
  –Competitive Regulatory
  –Protective Regulatory
  –Economic: Agriculture, Tourism
  –Social: Education, Health, Security
    DISTRIBUTIVE POLICY
• Main features:
  –Promote desirable private
   sector activities that would not
   be undertaken otherwise by way
   of subsidies, price support etc
  REDESTRIBUTIVE POLICY
• Re-distributive:
  –Manipulate the allocation of
   property rights, wealth or some
   other value among the social
   classes
  –For example, transfer budgeted
   funds from the wealthy to the
   poor using ability to pay criterion
   or progressive taxation
COMPETITIVE REGULATORY
• Main features:
  –Select designated providers of
   specific goods and services
   from competing potential
   providers
  –Issue bus routes, radio/TV &
   airline license
PROTECTIVE REGULATORY
• Common features:
  –Government sets conditions for
   private entities to operate
  –Uses the law to prohibit harmful
   activities and encourage helpful
   ones
  –Government may grant credits,
   require full disclosure or impose
   penalties for unfair practices
      ECONOMIC POLICY
• Common features:
  –Government introduce measures to
   address problems relating to the
   tourism, agriculture, manufacturing,
   financial services sectors and
   foreign direct investment or local
   investment
  SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

• Common features:
 –Government introduce measures to
  address problems problems relating
  to education, health, environment,
  national security etc
    POLICY INSTRUMENTS
• The Instrument:
  –The method used to document
   approved public policy statements
• Main Public Policy Instruments:
  –Legislation
  –Regulations
  –Statutory Rules & Orders
  –Cabinet Conclusions
          LEGISLATION
• Main features:
  –These are enacted by Parliament
  –Head of state must endorse the
   instrument
  –Official Gazette required to print
   instrument
  –Copies of instrument distributed for
   public information
          REGULATIONS
• Stipulates the direction a Ministry will
  take on a particular issue
• Promulgated under the authority of
  the relevant Minister
• Governs the decisions and actions of
  public officials within the portfolio
• Outlines procedures for implementing
  provisions a legislative instrument
STATUTORY RULES & ORDERS
• Main features:
  –Expressed as statute or written law
  –Offences proclaimed by statutes
  –Requires formal documentation
  –Statute place limits on the period
   during which certain rights (e.g debt
   collection), could be legally
   enforcement
    CABINET CONCLUSION
• Cabinet Conclusion:
  –Final decision by the Executive on a
    Minister’s policy recommendations
• Process:
  –Minister examines portfolio issues
  –Minister submits policy proposals to
    Cabinet for consideration
  –Cabinet considers policy proposals,
    makes policy decisions that are
    distributed as Cabinet Conclusions
ENVIRONMENT FOR POLICY
• The national, regional and
  international conditions that
  impact on water resource
  management
• Environment is shaped by
  agreements, protocols and
  institutional arrangements
     PUBLIC SECTOR ENVIRONMENT
•   Officials consider quality of life, public
    interest, user rights and obligations
•   Policy instruments like legislation,
    regulations, statutory rules and orders
    used to document policy decisions
•   Officers conduct research, analysis
    and design policy recommendations
•   Policy making is at ministerial, cabinet
    and parliament levels
 PRIVATE SECTOR ENVIRONMENT
• Providers of water services focus on
  private interest , creating surplus and
  viability of their operations
• Water Users services are concerned
  about access to water, the quantity
  and quality of supply and the price
• Interest groups challenge the policy
  decisions of service providers that are
  deemed unacceptable
  POLITICAL CHALLENGES
• Lack of political will to introduce
  relevant policies for effective water
  resource management
• Keeping water at an affordable cost
  because it is an essential commodity
• Continued ownership of water utilities
  by governments contributes to undue
  political interference in operations
  ECONOMIC CHALLENGES
• Tariff and rates insufficient to recover
  the cost of production
• Limited investment in the water sector
• Water is not generally regarded as an
  economic good
• Consumers unwilling to pay economic
  cost of accessing water service
    SOCIAL CHALLENGES
• Improper use by various stakeholders
• Domestic habits and cultural practices
• Inadequate public education in water
  supply conservation and preservation
• High level of contamination of the
  water supply systems
• Inadequate storage facilities
• Unequal distribution of water services
 TECHNOLOGICAL CHALLENGES
• Limited investment in research
• Outdated tools and equipment
• Limited capacity to utilize modern
  technology
• Not enough access to modern
  technology
    LEGAL CHALLENGES
• Outdated legislative instruments
• Absence of regulations to
  accompany existing legislations
• Inability to enforce provisions of
  legal instruments
• Failure to implement legal reforms
  recommended
   ETHICAL CHALLENGES
• Inconsiderate use of water by
  some stakeholders
• Illegal connections by consumers
  to water supply systems
• Poor quality of water supplied
      RESEARCH BARRIERS
• Collection of empirical data to support
  policy proposals takes time
• Stakeholder consultation consumes a
  great deal of time
• Improper research methods and
  techniques used
• Limited knowledge and skills capacity
  of the researchers
    BARRIERS TO ANALYSIS
• Insufficient empirical data
• Lack of proper tools and equipment
• Inability to quantity costs and benefits
 PROPOSAL DRAFTING BARRIERS

• Limited proposal drafting skills
• Non-compliance with established
  drafting guidelines
• Lack of understanding of the
  requirements for sound policy
• Inability to get meaningful inputs
  from other stakeholders
   PUBLIC POLICY STATEMENTS
• Definition: Outlines government
  choices to address various national
  problems
• Impact: Problems affect the delivery
  of efficient and effective service to
  citizens
• Purpose: Seek to establish principles
  of social equity and fairness
      FEATURES OF POLICY STATEMENTS

•   Clarify the exact policy position
•   Allow for scrutiny and interpretation
•   Require periodic updating
•   Need procedures to be effective
•   Recording shortcomings essential
•   Updating could be time consuming
•   Maintained in separate files
•   Compiled as a consolidated manual
POLICY ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
• The likelihood that Cabinet will
  approve policy recommendations
  depend on several factors
  –Number of options provided
  –Degree of feasibility of the proposals
  –Level of justification
  –Outcome of cost and benefit analysis
   TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY
• Role of practitioners is to:
  –Collect empirical data and compile
   summary tables for analysis
  –Undertake analysis to determine
   definite patterns
  –Consult stakeholders to get input
   and validate conclusions reached
  –Draft sound proposals
  MANAGERIAL FEASIBILITY
• Role of practitioners is to:
  –Submit easy to administer proposals
  –Provide proper justification for any
   recommendations made
  –Offer at least three (3) options
  –Outline the cost and benefits of
   each option
   FINANCIAL FEASIBILITY
• Role of practitioners is to consider
  all budgetary implications for:
  –Staff to administer the policy
  –Materials and supplies
  –Tools and equipment
  –Cost of data collection
   POLITICAL FEASIBILITY
• Role of practitioners is to consider
  impact of recommendations on:
   –The immediate community
   –The entire country
   –The responsible minister
   –The current government
    POLICY MAKING PROCESS
•   Problem Identification and Articulation
•   Policy Research and Policy Analysis
•   Policy Design and Recommendations
•   Policy Agenda Setting
•   Policy Decision
•   Policy Communication
•   Policy Implementation
 PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION
• Initiator: Citizen, Community Leader,
  Minister, District Representative or
  Public Officer
• Level: Individual, Community,
  Ministry, Cabinet or Parliament
• Action: Problem statement,
  articulation and aggregation
• Form: Media article, petition, report,
  proposal, speech and pronouncement
    PROBLEM ARTICULATION
•   Individual community mobilization
•   Radio programs and Talk shows
•   Articles by journalists in the media
•   Open agitation and active protest
•   Letters to the press
•   TV interviews and documentaries
•   Approaches to District Representative
        POLICY RESEARCH
•   Review existing policies
•   Collect samples of similar policies
•   List concerns raised
•   Identify best practice approaches
•   Compile comparative statistics tables
•   Establish trends and patterns
•   Determine cause and effect
•   Conduct cost/benefit analysis
•   Develop events charts and graphs
          POLICY ANALYSIS
•   Set public policy evaluation criteria
•   Examine sample public policy
•   Identify strengths & weaknesses
•   Compare with policy needs
•   Assess the costs and benefits
•   Determine trends, cause and effect
•   Place in context of policy thrust
•   Select relevant policy elements
         POLICY DESIGN
• Identify alternative policy measures
• Select the most policy framework
• Draft memorandum to Cabinet
• Consider technical, administrative
  and political issues
• Include comparative statistics, tables,
  graphs or charts as appropriate
• Obtain stakeholder comments
• Revise memorandum to Cabinet
POLICY RECOMMENDATION
• Public Officer: Propose specific
  policy measures
• Permanent Secretary: Discusses
  draft memo with the Public Officer
  and submits draft memo to Minister
• Minister: Reviews and endorses
  policy measures and signs the final
  version of memorandum
  POLICY ADMINISTRATION
• Cabinet Clerk:
  –Receives the memo, prepares the
   agenda and circulates papers
• Cabinet Secretary:
  –Reviews the agenda, consults the
   Chairman of Cabinet and finalize it
• Chairman of Cabinet:
  –Approves the meeting agenda
       POLICY DECISION
• Memorandum is placed on agenda
• Cabinet considers policy proposals
• Cabinet makes an initial decision in
  first meeting
• Cabinet ratifies the decision at a
  subsequent meeting
   POLICY COMMUNICATION
• Cabinet Office:
  –Prepares Cabinet Conclusion and
   sends copy to relevant Ministries
  –Forward decision to Parliament
   Office
• Relevant Ministry (s):
  –Circulates Cabinet Conclusion to
   public agencies, firms or individuals
 POLICY IMPLEMENTATION
• Relevant Ministry/Public Agency:
  –Establishes mechanisms to
   implement the policy measures
  –Assigns Public Officers to enforce
   policy decisions
  –Monitors and evaluates progress
  –Conducts periodic reviews
  –Submits “Status Report”

				
DOCUMENT INFO