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					Karl Marx
        1818-1883
                   Background
• Was born third of seven children to a Jewish family in
  Trier, Prussia in the western province of the Rhineland

• Father converted to Christianity as a Lutheran in 1818
  because of the potential loss of his law practice

• Father introduced the value of knowledge exposing Marx
  to Enlightenment thinkers as well as German, and Greek
  classics

• Educated at home until the age of thirteen
                    Background
• Graduated from the Trier Gymnasium and enrolled at
  the University of Bonn to study law at his fathers advice

• He was interested in studying philosophy and literature
  but his father wouldn‟t allow it because he didn‟t
  believe he would be able to support himself

• A year later father forced him to transfer to Humboldt
  University of Berlin where he ended up studying
  philosophy and earning his doctorate in 1841

• While at University of Berlin he met and joined the
  group called the Young Hegelians
                    Background

• Marx did not stay with Hegelians long due to an
  opposition to the spiritual idealism of their philosophy

• In 1841 Marx met Moses Hess who introduced him to
  Communism and wrote for Hess‟ paper Rheinische Zeitung
  where he wrote about social conditions. Hess also linked
  him together with Friedrich Engels

• In 1844 in France Marx and Engels met face to face for
  the first time. Engels would guide Marx‟s interest in
  economics
• Marx and Engels formed the Communist Correspondence
  Committee. The two then in 1847 attended the Second
  Congress of the communist league where they presented a
  detailed plan on how Communism should be organized this
  became the Communist Manifesto and was published in 1848

• The same year the Manifesto was published Marx was
  suspected in taking part in a revolt In Brussels and was
  expelled from the country with his wife and children

• He would move to France and be expelled from there,
  triggering his move to London where he would live for the rest
  of his life
                     Family Life

• Marx married Jenny von westphalen, the educated
  daughter of a Prussian Baron in 1843. The couple were
  engaged when he was seventeen but his family didn‟t want
  him to get married so young so they waited several years

• Von Westphalen‟s family didn‟t like Marx's Jewish heritage
  or his social standing and even threatened to cut her off
  financially

• Only her father, who was the follower of French socialist
  Saint-Simon, was fond of Marx
                    Family Life
• Marx had seven children but only three survived to
  adulthood

• Marx's daughter became a socialist as well and helped edit
  his works

• His wife died in 1881 and he died of bronchitis in 1883.
  The messages carved on his tombstone are „ workers of all
  lands unite‟ and “the philosophers have only interpreted
  the world in various ways- the point however is to change
  it‟
       Intellectual influences
• The Enlightenment and Romanticsim
• Formative years consumed with the liberal spirit of
  enlightenment

• Many divergent doctrines of Enlightenment through:
  French philosophers were rationalists, the British
  sensationalists, and others like La Mettrie were
  materialists
           Intellectual influences
• All shared common belief in the possibility of altering human
  environment in such a way to allow more wholesome
  development of human capacities

• Marx sought revolutionary change as pre-condition for
  realization of liberal idealism of : Secularism, Universalism,
  and rationalism

• Marx's ideas of self-realization, human potential, guideline
  for society, and search of “laws” of evolutionary form were
  all influenced by Enlightenment and Romanticism
          Intellectual influences
• German Idealism

• Marx came to believe conflict is inevitable due to Kant's
  pessimistic view of human progress

• Kant's Second Discourse was an early source for Marx's
  notion of alienation

• Marx's philosophical studies took place in an intellectual
  climate dominated by thought of Hegel and his followers
• German Idealism (cont.)………

• Marx general aim was to evaluate Hegel's political
  philosophy

• In Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of right (1843) Marx
  describes his philosophical differences with Hegelian
  thought:
   –   Hegel started with abstract ideas instead of concrete reality
   –   His defense of the Monarchy
   –   Disagreement on the role of bureaucracy
   –   Disagreement on the sovereignty of the state
       Intellectual influences
• German Idealism (cont.)……..

• Marx learned of the holistic approach through
  Hegel's ides of totality

• Marx's version of Communism was free to mankind
  from the division of labor
• Ludwig Feuerbach

• Important link between Hegel and Marx

• Marx read and was influenced by Essence of Christianity

• Believed that Feuerbach successfully criticized Hegel's
  concept of the spirit of man

• Was also struck by humanistic aspects of Feuerbach's work
• Ludwig Feuerbach (cont.)…….

• Didn‟t agree on everything. Eleven points summarize Marx's
  disagreements with Feuerbach;

   – Doesn't conceive human activity as objective reality

   – The question whether objective truth can be attributed to human
     thinking is not a question of theory, but a practical one

   – The coincidence of changing circumstances can be conceived only as
     a revolutionary practice

   – Feuerbach starts from fact of religious self alienation and believes
     the world should be secular
• Ludwig Feuerbach (cont.)…….

-Feuerbach, not satisfied with abstract thinking, wants contemplation

- Feuerbach resolves the religious essence into the human essence

- Feuerbach doesn't see that the “religious sentiment” is itself a social
   product

- All social life is essentially practical
• Ludwig Feuerbach (cont.)…….



- The highest point reached by contemplative materialism is the
   contemplation of single persons in civil society

- The stand point of the old materials is civil society, the standpoint of the
   new human society

- Marx states “ the philosophers have only interpreted the world, in
   various ways; the point, however is to change it.”
• Friedrich Engels

• Most important influential person in Marx's life

• Marx and Engels demanded a better order of society

• Their famous, Manifesto of the Communist Party, discusses
  the main principles of the socialism they worked out

• The two friends were the heart and soul of the
  revolutionary-democratic aspiration throughout Europe
• Friedrich Engels (cont.)…..

• Through Engels, Marx was introduced to the concrete
  conditions and misery of the working class

• They were the first to show that the working class and
  their struggles were a result of the ruling class‟s attempts
  to oppress the proletariat

• Marx and Engels attempted to organize the working class
  into revolution, so that they could attain economic and
  political freedom
               Marxist Concepts
• Human Potential

• Marx believed that societies prior to capitalism were too
  oppressive of humans to realize their full potential

• He thought that capitalism was still too oppressive for most
  people to realize their full potential, but saw capitalism as
  a necessary evil for the sake of Communism
               Marxist Concepts
• Human Potential (cont.)……..

• Marx thought Communism would provide the type of
  environment for people to start realizing and expressing
  their full potential

• Marx used the concept of species being when talking about
  human potential to separate man from animals
               German Ideology
• This was a written piece that Engels and Marx said was to
  settle accounts with former philosophical ideas.

• In this account, they critique Feuerbach, Max Stirner, the
  Holy Family, and the Young Hegelians
            German Ideology
• Said that the Young Hegelians were fighting phrases
  with phrases dubbing them “heroes of the mind”
  Marx said Hegelian thought did not address the
  relationship between consciousness or thought and
  the reality which the thought or consciousness is
  about

• This is said to be one of their major achievements in
  which they set out to cut through the metaphysical
  of the young Hegelians and sets out the Materialistic
  conception of history
           Historical Materialism
• The concept of Historical Materialism was established in
  The German Ideology

• Marx wanted to reconcile materialism and idealism by
  combining critical and scientific aspects of materialism
  with the dynamic and historical components of idealism

• He rejected the ideas of simple non-belief and Hegel's view
  of reality accepting a materialist view and combining in it
  with Hegel's dynamic and dialectical process this is what is
  referred to as historical materialism
Class Consciousness and false
        consciousness
• Marx said that people are different from animals
  because we have consciousness as well as the ability
  to link consciousness to their activities

• Class consciousness is the sense of common
  identification among members of a given class
    Class Consciousness and false
            consciousness
• False consciousness refers to the inability to clearly see
  where one‟s own best interest lie

• Class consciousness is illustrated by ones relative position
  to the means of production and access to scarce resources

• Marx was speaking of consciousness in the terms as society
  as a whole and not on an individual level
                       Religion
• Marx saw religion as an example of false consciousness. He
  also thought it was another abstract creation that had
  become reified throughout time

• Thought was one of the biggest factors preventing full
  human potential
                           Religion
• Said that the power elites encouraged the weak masses to
  keep them in power and he even referred to religion as the
  opiate of the masses
• Marx was against religion for three reasons:

   - Thought it was a distraction keep man from his essence

   – He felt that while man was in this distracted state, he allowed
     himself to be exploited and controlled
                   Class Theory
• The critical issue in an industrial society is production and
  the distribution of land. Those who controlled the land
  would control through means of production

• Classes were formed to control the means of property
  possession. This would in turn result in class conflicts
                    Grundrisse
• Grundrisse is a manuscript of seven notebooks compiled
  from 1857-1858

• It was published in 1941 and was the culmination of his
  economic studies

• A lot of Marx‟s themes appear in Grundrisse‟s book
                      Alienation
• Alienation, according to Marx, is a condition in which
  humans become dominated by the forces of their own
  creation

• The first stage of alienation is alienation from the product
  that the workers produce. The laborers also do not know
  the aspects of the production process they are working in
                    Alienation
• Second, workers are alienated from the process of
  production. They are not involved in productive activity
  meaning that they are not working to satisfy their own
  needs. They become alienated because it is not satisfying
  and becomes monotonous eventually becoming alienated
  from ones self

• Last, the worker becomes alienated from his fellow
  workers
            Means of Production &
                 Capitalism
• Karl Marx                         • G.W.F Hegel
• Marx defines the Means of         • Two concepts represents the
  production as the combination       essence of Hegel's philosophy
  of the means of labor which         which are Dialectic and
  include equipment, tools, ect       Idealism
  and the subject of labor or the   • Dialectic is considered to be an
  actual material worked with for     image of the world that stresses
  an item                             the importance of processes,
• He defines capitalism as a mode     relations, conflicts and
  of production or the means          contradictions
  under which capitalists own the   • Idealism emphasizes the
  means of production and the         importance of the mind and
  workers sell them their labor       mental processes
  power to produce an item          • Hegel would have considered
                                      capitalism an mental bi product
         Commodities and the
      production of surplus value
• A commodity is an object that is capable of satisfying
  some want or need

• Object are products that cannot achieve independent
  existence

• Use value are objects that produced for use by ones self

• Exchange value happens when the product produced is
  for trade and not personal use
       Fetishism of commodities
• Fetishism of commodities occurs when actors don‟t
  recognize that their labor gives commodities their value

• The value is believed to come from natural properties

• Exchange value of a commodity is expressed by its use
  value
                        Capital
• Capital involves the social relationship between buyers and
  sellers
• Marx felt that since the workers labor gave the product value
  they also had the capacity to change the system
• He also believed that a superstructure existed composed of
  raw materials, labor, technology and those who control the
  means of production
               Private Property
• Private property is made from the labor of workers and
  reified by capitalism

• Private property is defined as the private ownership of the
  means of production

• Marx felt that if human potential was to be realized that
  the notion of private property must be suppressed

• Felt that the means of production should be shared equally
  through public ownership
                Division of labor
• In the German ideology the roots of labor division were
  traced and Marx equates the family as the earliest model
  describing the wife and children as slaves

• The capitalist system surplus was created and controlled
  production and the surplus as well, making it possible for
  divisions and classes to create

• The surplus of materials comes with the unequal sharing of
  the surplus creating a struggle between peoples. Marx
  believed that Communism would eliminate the division of
  labor
                       Communism
• Communism is a form of government which attempts to empower
  workers and eliminate social class. Its socioeconomic structure
  promotes the establishment of a classless, stateless society based on
  common ownership of the Means of production. It is usually
  considered a branch of the broader socialist movement that draws on
  the various political and intellectual movements that trace their
  origins back to the work of theorists of the industrial revolution and
  the French Revolution. Communism attempts to offer an alternative
  to the problems believed to be inherent with representative
  democracy, capitalist economies and the legacy of imperialism and
  colonialism. The dominant forms of communism, such as Leninism,
  Trotskyism and Luxemburg's, are based on Marxism. Karl Marx is
  sometimes known as the "father of Communism", but non-Marxist
  versions of communism (such as Christian communism and anarchist
  communism) also exist.
                      Relevancy
• Marxist thought is very controversial

• Despite lack of complete understanding of the role of
  capitalism in the future, many contumacy authors use
  Marxist economic analysis in their own attempts to
  understand modern Capitalism

• Marx's analysis of the differences between use value and
  exchange value are relevant in the criticism of
  globalization
                      Relevancy
• Reaching ones full human potential has never been a more
  important goal especially in American society

• Marx has been proven correct that religion continues to
  serve as a higher barrier against peace and accord

• Many people still suffer from forms of alienation and have
  gone after leisure pursuits as a means to attain a level of
  identification and form a sense of community

• Marx would be happy with the Internet, it is the consumer-
  the proletariat that is using the net to gain control
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