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Powerpoint PPT _122 KB_ - Atmospheric Vortex Engine

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Powerpoint PPT _122 KB_ - Atmospheric Vortex Engine Powered By Docstoc
					             Brayton – one turbine

L. Michaud    Atmospheric thermodynamics   1
             Brayton – two turbines
L. Michaud    Atmospheric thermodynamics   2
L. Michaud     Brayton – Case 1
             Atmospheric thermodynamics   3
             Gravity cycle – Case 1 reversible


L. Michaud          Atmospheric thermodynamics   4
             Gravity cycle – Case 1 irreversible
L. Michaud         Atmospheric thermodynamics      5
             Gravity cycle – Case 2 reversible
L. Michaud        Atmospheric thermodynamics     6
             Gravity cycle – Case 2 irreversible
L. Michaud         Atmospheric thermodynamics      7
             Gravity cycle – Case 3
L. Michaud   Atmospheric thermodynamics   8
                         4                      P=C                          3


                             Downcomer                         Riser
                             cooler-                           heater-
                             compressor                        expander
             z                                        Latent
                 Q out
                                                      Heat
                                                                Turbine
                                          P=C                    s=C

                                                Heater
                         1                                                   2

                                                      Q in
                                                                          W net


                 Gravity cycle with cooling during
             compression and heating during expansion



L. Michaud                    Atmospheric thermodynamics                          9
             Single tube gravity cycle
L. Michaud      Atmospheric thermodynamics   10
                    Piston

             Column                        P
                                           t
                                                                  Q out

                                       z
                Layer
             Q in
                                           Pb

                      INITIAL STATE                 FINAL STATE


                    Case 1: Entropy and potential temperature
                    uniform in in initial state. s=C.
                    Lapse rate 9.75 C/km.



             Batch Upward Heat Transport Process
                           Case 1


L. Michaud                   Atmospheric thermodynamics                   11
                    Piston

             Cylinder
                                            Pt



             Layer                      z

                                                                        Q out
             Q in
                                            Pb

                        INITIAL STATE                FINAL STATE


                     Case 2: Entropy and potential temperature increase in
                     upward direction in initial state.
                     Lapse rate 6.5 C/km.




               Batch Upward Heat Transport Process
                             Case 2.


L. Michaud                    Atmospheric thermodynamics                        12
                                                  Q o= Q i




                                                        Heat out
                                                        1.5 C/d




                                   Qi
             Atmospheric
             Air Column              Heat in
                                     150 W/m2



                    Upward Heat Transport

L. Michaud                 Atmospheric thermodynamics              13
                Entropy Budget
L. Michaud   Atmospheric thermodynamics   14
                                  120




                                  100            1    2




                                  80                       Case 2




                 Pressure (kPa)
                                                               W = area = 9810 J/kg

                                  60




                                  40
                                                Case 1
                                            w=area=3703 J/kg

                                  20                                       4   3         3-4




                                    0
                                     0.0             1.0          2.0              3.0         4.0
                                                           Volume (m^3)




                                           Fig. 7a Pressure-Volume Diagram, Cases 1,2



             Pressure-Volume Diagram pure air



L. Michaud                                 Atmospheric thermodynamics                                15
                                                                                         2


                                      320

                                                              2


                                                        1
                                                                       Case 2
                                      280




                    Temperature (K)
                                                                      Wt = 9810 J/kg



                                      240



                                                                                         4
                                                                      Case 1
                                      200
                                                                  3
                                                                        Wt = 3703 J/kg
                                                        4




                                      160

                                                 0             100                200         300
                                                            Entropy (J/K.kg)




                                            Fig. 7b Temperature-Entropy Diagram Cases 1, 2.




             Temperature-Entropy diagram pure air


L. Michaud                                  Atmospheric thermodynamics                              16
                                   120




                                   100         1   2




                                   80




                  Pressure (kPa)
                                   60                    W = area = 4074 J/kg



                                   40




                                   20                                                 3-4




                                     0
                                      0.0          1.0         2.0              3.0         4.0
                                                         Volume (m^3)




                                            Fig. 8a Pressure-Volume Diagram, Case 3




             Pressure-Volume diagram moist air


L. Michaud                               Atmospheric thermodynamics                               17
                                                        Wtr = 5127 J/kg
                                                        Wta = 4074 J/kg
                                       320
                                                        Case 3a Total Entropy
                                                                                 2
                                                        1

                                       280




                     Temperature (K)
                                       240




                                                                                     3-4
                                       200




                                       160

                                                   0             100             200        300
                                                              Entropy (J/K.kg)




                                              Fig. 8b Temperature-Entropy Diagram Cases 3




             Temperature-Entropy diagram moist air


L. Michaud                                   Atmospheric thermodynamics                           18

				
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