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Sathyartha Prakasam Swamy Dayananda Saraswathy

VIEWS: 136 PAGES: 430

Guide Hindu Philosophy Vedantha Sathyartha Prakasam Swamy Dayananda Saraswathy

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									xtY]RËzpk]sh
   The Light of Truth




xhpUjY xV]mi dy]nà x>xVti
                                           1
                                 H∂mw kap-√mkw
                            Hmw k®n-Zm-\-tµ-iz-cm-b- \-tam -\ax

                    kXym¿Y-{]-Imiw
                Cuiz-c-\m-a-ß-fpsS hymJym\w
                   Hmw it∂m an{Xx iw hcpWx it∂m `hXzcy-am.
                 i∂fCt{µm- _r-l-kv]Xnx it∂m hnjvWp-cp-cp-{I-ax.
             \tam {_“tW \akvtX hmtbm -Xz-tah {]Xy£w {_“m-kn.
         Xzmtah {]Xy£w {_“- h-Zn-jyman EXw hZn-jyman kXyw hZn-jym-an.
              X≥am-a-hXp XZz-‡m-c-a-h-Xp. AhXp ama-hXp h‡m-c-av.
                            Hmw im¥n»m¥n»m¥nx 1
A¿Yw:˛ (Hmw) A, D, av F∂o aq∂p h¿W             F∂nhtbbpw, sshZy-im-kv{X-Øn¬ Np°v 3
߃ IqSn-t®¿∂p-≠mb HmwIm-c-]Zw Cuiz-                              -                  v
                                               apX-emb acp-∂p-Itfbpw Cu ]Z-߃ Ipdn-b°p-
cs‚ F√m \ma-t[-bßfnepw h®v, k¿thm-             ∂nt√?
Ø-a-am-bn-´p-≈-Xm-Ip-∂p. Cu \ma-t[-b-Øn¬       DØcw:˛ D≠v. F∂m¬ Ah k¿th-iz-ct‚bpw-
]c-ta-iz-cs‚ At\Iw \ma-߃ Dƒs°m≈p-             \ma-ß-fm-Wv.  4
∂p. Cu HmwIm-c-Øns‚ Ah-b-h-amb AImcw-
sIm≠v hncm-Sv, A·n, hniz≥ apX-emb t]cpI-       tNmZyw:˛ F∂m¬ ap≥]-d™ ]Z-ß-fm¬ tZh-
tfbpw; DImcw sIm≠v lnc-Wy-K¿`≥, hmbp,          ∑msc am{Xw {Kln-°p-∂pthm C√tbm?
ssXP-k≥ XpS-ßnb t]cp-I-sfbpw; aImcw            DØcw:˛ tZh-∑m-sc∂ A¿Yw am{Xw {Kln-
sIm≠v Cuiz-c≥, BZn-Xy≥, {]m⁄≥ apX-             °p-hm≥ \n߃°v F¥-Sn-ÿm-\-am-Wp-≈Xv?
emb t]cp- I - t fbpw kw{K- l n- ° p- ∂ p. Cu   tNmZyw:˛ F√m tZh-∑mcpw {]kn-≤cpw DØ-a-
]d™ \ma-ß-sf-√mw 2 {]I-c-W-ß-f\p-k-cn®v        ∑m-cp-am-Wv. AXp-sIm≠v Ahsc am{Xta Rm≥
k¿th-iz-c-s\-Ø-s∂-bmWv Ipdnbv°p∂-sX∂v          {Kln-°p-∂p-≈q.
thZw apX-emb kXy-im-kv{X-ß-fn¬ kv]jvS-         DØcw:˛ k¿th-iz-c≥ A{]-kn-≤-\mtWm?
ambn hymJym-\n-®n-´p-≠v.                       k¿th-iz-c-t\-°mƒ t{ijvT-\mb Bcm-\p-ap
tNmZyw:˛ hncmSv apX-emb ]Z-߃ k¿-th-iz-        t≠m? Cs√-¶n¬ ]ns∂, Cu t]cp-Iƒ k¿th-
c-\n¬ \n∂v `n∂-ßf-mb a‰p ]Zm¿Y-ß-sf-           iz-c\pw IqSnbps≠∂p \n߃ AwKo-I-cn-°m-
F¥p-sIm≠v Ipdn-bv°p-∂n√? {_“mWvUw,             Ø-sX¥v? k¿th-iz-c≥ A{]-kn-≤-\-s√∂pw
]rYn-hymZn]©-`q-X-߃, C{µmZntZh-X-Iƒ
                                               3. "hniz' kw⁄-bpsS kv{Xoenw-K- cq-]-amb "hnizm'
                                                                  -    -
                                                  Bbp¿thZ \n-L≠p-°fn¬ Np°ns‚ ]cym-b- ]ZamWv
1. ssXØ-cob Bc-WyIw-˛7.1
                                               4. hncmSv apX-emb ]Z-ß-fmWv hnh£, {_“mWvUw
2. "Hmw' apX-emb \ma-ß-sf√mw F∂¿Yw                apX-em-b-h-b-√.
      kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                                     Cuiz-c-\m-a-ß-fpsS hymJym\w
At±-l-Øn\v Xpey-\m-bn-´p-t]m-epw as‰m-cmƒ                         ∂n- s ´¥p {]tbm- P \w? \n\°v Ah- k - c -
Cs√∂pw hcp- t ºmƒ At±- l - t Ø- ° mƒ                              ⁄m\w C√. As√-¶n¬ \o GXp ka-bØv
t{ijvT-\mbn Hcp-h≥ D≠m-Ip-∂-sX-ßs\?                               F¥p sIm≠p-h-c-Wtam AXp-Xs∂ sIm≠p-
AXn-\m¬ \nß-fpsS Cu hm°v kXy-a-s√∂p                               h-cp-am-bn-cp-∂p. kµ¿`-ta-Xm-sW∂p \o Nn¥n-
am{X-a-√, \n߃ ]d-™-Xn¬ At\Iw tZmj-                               ®n-√. \o aqV-\m-Wv. Fs‚ ASp-°¬ \n∂p
߃ D≠m-Ip-hm\pw CS-bp-≠v. ""D]-ÿnXw ]cn-                          s]mbvs°m-≈p-I.'' FhnsS GXv A¿YsØ
Xy-Pym-\p-]-ÿnXw bmNX CXn _m[n- X-                                              -
                                                                  {Kln-°p-∂XmtWm DNn-Xw, AhnsS B A¿Yw
\ymbx'' F∂mWv imkv{X-h-N-\w. Hcp-h≥                               Xs∂ {Kln-°-Ww. \msa√mw C{]-Imcw Xs∂-
             -                    - -
as‰m-cp-h\p≈ `£-W]Zm¿Y-ßsf√mw hnfºn            -                  bmWp hnNm-cn-t°-≠-Xp-sa∂v CXn¬\n∂p
h®v DÆm≥ £Wn- ° p- t ºmƒ Abmƒ                                     kn≤n-°p-∂p.
AsX√mw Dt]-£n®v thsd h√Xpw `£n-∏m≥                                              a{¥-Øns‚ A¿Yw
In´ptam F∂-t\z-jn-®p-sIm≠v Aßp-anßpw                              1. Hmw Jw {_“. (bPpcvthZw˛40.17)
Ae- ™ p- \ - S - ° p∂ ]£w Abmsf Bcpw                                   t\m°pI thZ-ß-fn¬ Cu amXn-cn-bp≈
_p≤nam-\mbn AwKo-I-cn-°p-I-bn-√. Fs¥-                                  {]I-c-W-ß-fn¬ "Hmw' apX-emb i_vZ-߃
∂m¬, A-h≥ D]-ÿn-X-sØ˛kao-]-ap-≈-h-                                     k¿th-iz-cs‚ t]cp-I-fm-bn´mWv
kv X p- h n- s \- ˛ - D - t ]- £ n®v A\p- ] - ÿ n- X - s Ø˛            {]tbm-Kn-®n-´p-≈-Xv.
Iøn¬ In´mØ ]Zm¿YsØ˛kºm-Zn-°p-hm≥
{]b-Xv\n-°p-I-bmWp sNøp-∂-Xv. AØ-c-°m-                            2. Hman-tXy-X-Z-£-c-ap-ZvKo-Y-ap-]m-koX.
cs‚ {]hr-Øn-t]m-se-Xs∂ \nß-fpsS hm°pw                                  (OmtµmtKym]\n-jXv1.1)
_p≤n- i q- \ y- a m- b n- ´ p- ≈ - X m- W v . Fs¥- ∂ m¬           3. Hman-tXy-X-Z-£-c-anZw kcvhw. Xtkym]
\n߃ hncmSv apX-emb ]Z-߃°p {]kn-                                      hymJym\w (amWvUqtIym]-\n-jXv1.1)
≤ßfpw {]am-W-kn-≤-ß-fp-amb A¿Y-ß-sf˛                              4. kcvth thZm bXv]-Z-am-a-\¥n X]mwkn
AXm-b-Xv, k¿th-iz-c≥, {_“mWvUw apX-                                    kcvhm-Wn N bZzZ¥n bZn-—t¥m
emb D]-ÿn-Xm¿Y-ßsf ]cn-Xy-Pn-®v, Akw-                                  {_“-Ncyw Nc¥n XtØ ]Zav
          -                    -      - -
`m-hy-ßfpw, A\p-]ÿn-Xßfp-amb tZhm-Zn-Isf                               kw{K-tlW {_ho-taym-an-tXy-XX.v
{Kln-°p-hm≥ {ian-°p-I-bm-Wt√m sNøp-∂-Xv.                               (I-tTm]-\n-jXv h√n 2.15)
Aßs\ sNøp-∂-Xn\p {]am-Whpw bp‡n-bp-                               5. {]im-kn-Xmcw kcvth-jm-a-Wobmav
an-√, ]Z-ß-fpsS A¿Yw kµ¿`m-\p-k-cWw                                    ka-tWm-c]n. cpIvam`w kz]v\[o-Kayav
{Kln-°-Ww. kµ¿`-Øn\p tbmPn-®n-cn-°p∂                                   hnZymØw ]pcpjw ]cav (a-\pkvarXn˛12.122)
A¿Yw GtXm AXmWv kzoIm-cyw.
                                                                  6. GX-a·nw hZt¥ytI a\p-at\y
         Hcp-h≥ Xs‚ `rXy-t\m-Sv, ""tl `rXy                             {]Pm-]Xnw. C{µ-tatI ]tc {]mW-a-]tc
Xzw ssk‘-h-am-\b''F∂p ]d-bp-∂p. ""FtSm                                 {_“- im-izXav (a-\pkvarXn˛12.123)
`rXym! \o ssk‘hw sIm≠p-hcnI'' F∂mWv          -
AXns‚ A¿Yw. Aßs\ ]d-bp-tºmƒ B                                     7. k {_“m k hnjvWpx
`rXy≥ AXp ]d™ Ah-k-c-sØ-∏-‰n, AXm-                                     k cp-{Z-  in-ht mf£c  ]cax kzcm-Sv.
bXv kµ¿`s-Ø-∏‰n Btem-Nn®p t\mt°-≠-                                     k C{µ  Imem-·n  N{µamx 5
Xm-h-iy-am-Wv. ssk‘-h-Øn\p IpXn-c, D∏v                            8. C{µw an{Xw hcp-W-a·namlp-ctYm
F∂p c≠¿Y-ap≠v. bP-am-\≥ bm{X ]pd-s∏-                                   Znhy k kp]cvtWm Kcp-flm≥.
Sp∂ ka-b-am-sW-¶n¬ IpXn-csb sIm≠ph-cn-                                 GIw kZzn{]m _lp[m hZ-¥y·nw
Ibpw `£-W-k-a-b-am-sW-¶n¬ D∏v sIm≠p-h-                                 baw amX-cn-izm-\-amlpx. (EtKzZw˛1.164.46)
cn-I-bpamWv th≠-Xv. bm{Xm-cw-`-Øn¬ D∏pw                           9. - `q-ckn `qan-c-ky-Zn-Xn-ckn
`£-W-k-a-bØv IpXn-c-tbbpw sIm≠p-h∂p                                    hniz[mbm hnizky `ph-\ky [cv{Xo
sImSp-°p∂ `rXy-t\mSv bP-am-\≥ tIm]n®v                                  ]rYn-hnw -b— ]rYnhow ZrMvl
C{]-Imcw ]d-bpw˛ ""FSm, \o _p≤n-bn-√m-Ø-                               ]rYnhow am lnMvkox. (b-PpcvthZw˛13.18)
h-\m-Wv. bm{X-]p-d-s∏-Sp-tºmƒ D∏pw, `£Ww
Ign-°p-tºmƒ IpXn-c-tbbpw sIm≠ph-∂p -X-                            5 ssIh-teym-]-\n-jXv (1.8)

                                                              2
               H∂mw kap-√mkw                                                         kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
10. Ct{µm a”m tcmZko ]{]-Y-—h C{µx                        sNøp-∂pthm, bmsXm∂ns\ {]m]n-bv°p-hm-
    kqcyatcm-N-bXv. Ct{µ -l -hnizm                        \p≈ C—-sIm≠p a\p-jy≥ {_“-N-cym-{i-
    `ph-\m-\n -tb-anc Ct{µ kzm\mk Cµ-hx.                  asØ A\p-jvTn-°p-∂pthm AXns‚ t]cv Hmw
    (km-athZw˛6.8.2.)                                     F∂m-Ip-∂p.
11. {]mWmb \tam bky kcvh-anZw hti.                           5. ({]-im-kn-Xm-c-av) F√m-h¿°pw in£-
    tbm `qXx kcvh-tky-iztcm bkvan¥v                       \¬Ip-∂h\pw, kq£va-ß-fn¬ sh®p kq£va-
    kcvhw {]Xn-jvTn-Xav (A-Ycvhth-Zw˛11.4.1)              X-a\pw, kzbw {]Im-i-kz-cq-]\pw, kam-[n-ÿ-
                                                          amb _p≤n-sIm≠v Adn-bp-hm≥ tbmKy-\p-am-
    A¿Yw:-˛ Cu {]am-W-ß-sf√mw ChnsS FSp-
                                                                                                --
                                                          bn-´p≈ Ah≥ ]c-a-]p-cp-j\m-sW-∂-dn-b-Ww.
sØ-gp-Xp-∂-Xns‚ Xmev]cyw, CuamXn-cn-bp≈
                                                                      - -
                                                             6. (G-Xa·n-av) {]Imikzcq-]\m-bXp-sIm≠v  -     -
hN-\-ß-fn¬, h∂Xp t]mse, HmwImcw apX-
                                                          A·n F∂pw, hn⁄m-\-kz-cq-]-\m-b-Xp-sIm≠v
em- b ]Z- ß ƒ°v ]c- a m- X v a mhv F∂¿Y- a m-
                                                          a\p F∂pw, F√m-h-tcbpw ]men-°p-∂-XpsIm
sW∂p ImW-n-°pI am{X-am-Ip-∂p. \n¿≤\∑m-
                                                          ≠v {]Pm-]Xn F∂pw, ]c-ssa-izcyimen-bm-I-
cm-bn-´p-≈-h¿°v "[\-]Xn" apX-emb t]cp-Iƒ
                                                          bm¬ C{µ≥ F∂pw, F√m-‰n-s‚bpw \ne\n-
CSm-dp-≠v. Ah tIhew \nc¿Y-IßfmW-t√m.
                                                          ev]n\v aqe-Im-c-W-am-I-bm¬ {]mW≥ F∂pw,
AXp t]mse \nc¿Y-I-amb t]cp-Iƒ Cuizc-
\n-√. Cuiz-cs‚ t]cp-Iƒ°v Nne-bn-SØv                       \nc- ¥ c 7 hym- ] - I - a m- b n- c n- ° p- ∂ XpsIm≠v
sKuWnIhpw a‰p Nne-bn-SØp Im¿an-Ihpw                       {_“w F∂pw Cuiz-c\p t]cp h∂p.
thsd Nne-bn-SØp kzm`m-hn-I-hpamb 6 A¿Y-                      7. (k-{_“m k hnjvWpx) temIw apgp-h\pw
ß-fm-Wp-≈-Xv.                                             krjvSn-®Xp ImcWw {_“mhv 8 F∂pw, F√m-
    1. (Hmw Jw)"Hmw' "Jw' F∂p XpS-ßnb DZm-                bn-SØpw hym]n-®n-cn-°p-∂-Xp-sIm≠v hnjvWp
l-cWßfn¬ Hm¶m-cmZn kw⁄Iƒ°v A¿Y-
     - - -                                                                -
                                                          F∂pw, ZpjvS∑msc in£n®p hne-]n-∏n°p-∂Xp
ap-≠v. ""Ah-Xo-tXymav. BIm-i-an-h- hym-]-I-               sIm≠v cp{Z≥ F∂pw, kzbw awK-f-kz-cq-]\pw
XzmXv Jw. kcvtht`ym _rl-XzmZv {_“.''.                     a‰p- ≈ - h ¿°v awK- f - { ]- Z- \ p- a m- I - b m¬ inh≥
c£n-bv°p-∂-Xp-sIm≠v Hmw F∂pw BImiw                        F∂pw, B k¿th-iz-c\v t]cp-Iƒ h∂p.
t]mse k¿hhym]nbm- b Xp sIm≠v "Jw'                         1 bx kcvhaiv\ptX \ £c-Xn \ hn\iyXn
F∂pw, as‰- ¥ n- t \- ° mfpw hep- X m- I - b m¬              XZ-£cw
"{_“' sa∂pw k¿th-iz-c\p t]cp-Iƒ D≠m-                      2 bx kzbw cmPtX k kzcm-Sv.
bn.                                                       3 tbmf·n-cnh Imex Ie-bnXm {]f-b-I¿Øm
    2. (Hm-an-tXy) "Hmw' bmsXm-∂ns‚ \ma-t[-                  k Imem-·n-co-izc:
b-amtWm bmsXm∂v Hcn-°epw \in-°p-∂n-                                A£cx F∂ ]Z- Ø n\v k¿h- h ym-
√tbm AXn-s\-bm-Wv D]m-kn-t°-≠Xv; as‰m-                    ]nbpw \mi-c-ln-X-\pam-bn-´p-≈-h≥ F∂¿Y
∂n-s\-b-√.                                                amWv. kzbw {]Im-i-kz-cq-]-am-b-Xp-sIm-≠mWv
    3. (Hm-an-tXy-X) "Hmw' ]c-am-flm-hns‚ F√m              kzcmSv F∂ t]cp h∂-Xv. {]f-b-Im-e-Øn¬
\ma-ß-fnepw sh®v G‰hpw {][m-\-hpw \nP-hp-                 kakvXhkvXp-°-fp-sSbpw Ime\pw, Imes‚
amb \ma-am-sW∂p kI-e-th-Zm-Zn-im-kv{X-ß-                  Ime-\p-am-bXpsIm≠pw Cuiz-cs\ Imem-·n
fnepw ]d-b-s∏-´n-´p-≠v. a‰p≈ t]cp-I-sf√mw                 F∂p hnfn-°p-∂p.
sKuWnI-ß-fm-Wv.                                              8. (C{µw an{Xav ) bmsXm-∂v, AZzn-Xo-bhpw,
    4. (kcvh-thZmx ) kIe thZ-ßfpw, [¿am-                               -
                                                          kXy-{_-“hp-amb hkvXp-hm-Ip-∂p-thm, AXn\v
\p-jvTm-\-cq-]-ß-fmb X]- p-Ifpw bmsXm-                                               -
                                                          C{µ≥ apX-emb t]cp-Ifp-≠v. "Zypjp ipt≤jp
∂ns\ {]iw-kn-bv°p-Ibpw BZ-cn-°p-Ibpw                      ]ZmcvtYjp `hm Znhyx' {]Ir-XymZn Znhy-
                                                          7. \nc-¥cw = A¥-c-an-√msX, AIhpw ]pdhpw k¿h{X
6. KuWnIw ˛ KpWsØ Bkv ] - Z - a m- ° n- b p- ≈ Xpw,       hym]-I-sa-∂¿Yw AXm-bXv F√m-‰nepw hepXv F∂
Im¿anIw ˛ I¿asØ Bkv]Zam-°n-bp-≈Xpw, kzm`m-hnIw
                      - -                                 "_rlhr≤yu' ([mXp]mTw˛1.488) F∂ [mXp-hn¬ \n∂v
˛ kz`m-hsØ ASn-ÿm-\-s∏-Sp-Øn-bp-≈-Xp-amWv. Cu             Cu {_“kw⁄ kn≤n-°p∂p.
A[ym-bØnse 100 t]cp-Ifpw Ch-bn-tem-tcm-∂ns\ Ipdn-
       -                                                  8. Cu {_“kw⁄ "_rlq DZy-at\' ([mXp]mTw˛6.59)
°p-∂p.                                                    F∂ [mXp-hn¬ \n∂v kn≤n-°p∂p.


                                                      3
     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                              Cuiz-c-\m-a-ß-fpsS hymJym\w
]Zm¿Y- ß - f n- s e√mw hym]n- ® n- c n- ° p- ∂ - h ≥       HmwImcw ]c-ta-iz-c\p am{X-ap≈ \mat[-b-am-
Znhy≥. "tim`-\m\n ]cvWm\n ]me-\m-\n,                       Wv. A·n apX-emb \ma-ß-fn¬ \n∂v Cuiz-c-
]qcvWm\n IcvamWn hm b-ky- k- (kp-]cvWx)'                   s\∂p {Kln-°p-∂Xp {]I-c-W-sØbpw hnti-
DØa ]me-\mZnI¿a-߃ ]q¿W-am-bn-cn-°p-∂-                     j-ß-sfbpw A\p-k-cn-®m-Wv. CXn¬ \n∂p
h≥ kp]¿W≥. tbm Kpcvhmflm k K-cp-flm≥.                                    -
                                                           kn≤n-°p-∂Xv, GtXXp ÿm\ß-fn¬ kvXpXn,
GsXm-∂n-s‚ Bflm-hv˛ AYhm kzcq-]w, al-                       {]m¿Y-\, D]m-k\ apX-emb {]I-c-W-ß-fpw,
ØmtWm AXv Kcp-flm≥. "tbm amXcnizm                           k¿h-⁄≥, k¿h-hym-]n, ip≤≥, k\m-X-
hmbp-cnh _e-hm≥ k am-X-cnizm' hmbp-h-n-                    \≥, krjvSn-I¿Ømhv apX-emb hnti-j-W-
s\-t∏mse Af-h‰ _e-ap-≈-h-\mbn h¿Øn-                        ßfpw D]-tbm-Kn-®n-´pt≠m Ahn-sS-sb√mw Cu
°p-∂-Xn-\m¬ "amX-cnizm' F∂p ]d-b-s∏-Sp-                    \ma- ß ƒ Cuiz- c - h m- N n- b m- s W- ∂ t{X.
∂p. Cßs\ Ah-b-hm¿Yw t\m°p-tºmƒ                             F∂m¬:˛
Znhy≥. kp]¿W≥, Kcp-flm≥, amX-cnizm                          XtXm- hn-cmU-Pm-b-X- hn-cmtPm A[n ]qcpjx
F∂n-h-sb√mw Cuiz-cs‚ \ma-ß-fm-sW∂p                         (b-PpcvthZw 31.5)
shfn-hm-Ip-∂p. k¿th-iz-cs‚ a‰p \ma-ß-fpsS                  t{im{Xm-Zzm-bp› {]mW› apJm-Z·ncPmbX-
A¿Yw ]n∂oSv hnh-cn-°p-∂-Xm-Wv.                             (b-PpcvthZw 31.12)
   9. (`q-an-c-kn) ""`h¥n `qXm\n bkymw km                  tX\ tZhm Ab-P¥ (b-PpcvthZw 31.9)
`qanx'' 9 k¿h-N-cm-N-c-ßfpw Cuiz-c-\n¬                     ]›m-Zv`q-an-atYm ]pcx (b-PpcvthZw 31.5)
h¿Øn-°p-∂-XpsIm≠v Cuiz-c\v `qan F∂                         XkvamZzm GX-kvam-Zm-fl\ BIm-ix -kw-`qXx
t]cp-ap-≠v. Cu thZ-hm-Iy-Øn-ep≈ a‰p \ma-                   BIm-im-Zzm-bpx. hmtbm-c·nx. At·cm]x.
ß-fpsS A¿Yw ]n∂oSv Fgp-Xmw.                                AZv`yx ]rYnho. ]rYnhym Hmj-[-bx. Hmj-
                                                           [n-t`ymf-∂w. A∂m-t{ZXx tcXkx ]pcp-jx 10.
   10. (C-t{µm- a-”m) Cu a{¥-Øn-ep≈ "C{µ'
kw⁄ Cuiz- c s\ Ipdn- ° p- ∂ Xp sIm≠v                       k hm Gj ]pcp-tjm-f-∂-c-k-abx
ChnsS {]am-W-ambn FSp-sØ-gp-Xn-b-Xm-Wv.                    (ssX-Øn-co-tbm-]-\n-j-Zz-N-\w) 11
   11. ({]m-Wm-b) ico-c-Øn-ep≈ kI-em-h-b-                     CØcw {]am-W-ß-fn¬ hncm-Sv, ]pcp-j≥,
h- ß fpw C{µn- b - ß fpw Fßs\ {]mWs‚                       tZh≥, BIm-iw, hmbp, A·n, Pew, `qan
A[o-\-Øn-em-b n-c n-°p-∂ pthm AXp-t]mse                                           - -
                                                           CXymZn ]Z-߃ eu-In-I]Zm¿Y-ßsf°pdn-°p-
temIw apgp-h\pw Cuiz-cs‚ A[o-\-Øn-emWv                     ∂p. Fs¥-∂m¬ GtXXp ÿe-ß-fn¬ Dev]-
Ccn-°p-∂-Xv. AXn-\m¬ Cuiz-c\p {]mW≥                        Øn, ÿnXn, {]f-bw, Aev]-⁄≥, PUw,
F∂ t]cp h∂p.                                               Zriyw F∂p XpS-ßnb hnti-j-W-߃ {]tbm-
                                                           Kn-®n-´pt≠m Ahn-sS-sbßpw Cuiz-c-s\∂
   Cß- s \- b p≈ {]am- W - ß - f psS icn- b mb             A¿Yw {Kln-°-cp-Xv. Cuiz-c≥ Dev]-ØymZn
A¿Yw a\- n-em-°p-∂-tXm-Sp-IqSn Cu \ma-                     hyh-lm-c-߃°-Xo-X-\m-Wv. Chn-sS-∏-d™
߃ Cuiz-cs‚ ]cym-b-ß-fm-sW∂p shfn-hm-                      a{¥-ß-fn¬ Dev]-Øym-Zn-Iƒ ]d-™n-cn-°p-
Ip-∂p. Fs¥-∂m¬ HmwIm-c-Øn-s‚bpw AKv\n                      ∂Xn\m¬ ChnsS hncmSv apX-emb ]Z-ß-fn¬
apX-emb \ma-ß-fp-sSbpw apJym¿Yw "Cuiz-
                                                           \n∂v euIn-I-]-Zm¿Y-ßsf am{Xw {Kln-°-Ww.
c≥' F∂p-X-s∂-bm-Wv. Ejn-ap-\n-am¿ cNn-®n-
                                                           Cuiz-c-s\∂¿Ysa-Sp-°-cp-Xv. k¿h-⁄≥ apX-
´p≈ hymI-c-Ww, \ncp-‡w, {_m“-Ww, kq{X-                     emb hnti-j߃ ImWp-∂n-SØv ]c-amflm
߃ apX-emb hymJym-\-ß-fn¬ Cuiz-c-s\∂
                                                           hnt\bpw C—mtZzj- ß ƒ, kpJ- Z px- J - ß ƒ
                                 -
apJym¿Y-amWv {Kln®p ImWp-∂Xv. AXp-Xs∂-           -
                                                                  -                      - -
                                                           Aev]⁄Xzw apX-emb hnti-jW߃ ImWp-
bmWv \Ω-sf-√m-hcpw {Kln-t°-≠-Xv. F∂m¬
9. `qan i_vZw `oamZn KW-Øn¬ D≈-Xm-Wv. `oam-Ztbm            10 ssXØ-cob Bc-WyIw ssXØ-cob D]-\n-jXvv F∂n-
f]mZmt\ (3.4.74) F∂ AjvSm-[ymbo \nb-a{]-Imcw A]m-
                                     -                     h-bn¬ {]mtbW Hmj-[ot`ymf∂av, A∂mXv ]pcpj F∂
Zm-\-Øn¬ {]Xybw hcWw. {KŸ-Im-cs‚ DWm-Zn-tIm-i-                                            -
                                                           ]mT-amWv ImWp∂Xv. ChnsS \n¿Zn-„amb ]mTw ssXØ-
Øn¬ 4.46 ˛mw hrØn "`h¥n ]ZmcvYmAkym-anXn `qanx'            cob Bc-WyIw 8.2 s‚ ]mTm¥c-Øn¬ D]-e-_v[-am-Wv.
F∂v hypev]Øn \¬Ip∂p. AXn-\m¬ ChnsS _lpe                    B\-µm-{iaw ]q\m FUn-j-\nepw aWn-{]-`m-bp‡ GIm-
{KlW kma-¿YyØm¬ A[n-I-c-W-Ønepw hypev]Øn                              -
                                                           Z-tim]\n-jØnepw CtX ]mT-am-Wv.
t_m[n-°Ww                                                  11. {_“m-\-µ-h√n .1

                                                       4
               H∂mw kap-√mkw                                               kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
tºmƒ Pohm-flm-hnt\bpw {Kln-°-W-sa-∂Xv                Cuizcx BImiw XpS-ßnb kIe `qX-ßfpw
km¿h-{XnI \nb-a-am-Wv. ]c-ta-iz-c\p P\-\-a-c-       bmsXm- c p- h - \ n¬ {]th- i n®p ÿnXn- s Nøp-
W-߃ Hcn-°epw kw`-hn-°p-∂n-√. AXn-\m¬               ∂pthm AYhm Ch-I-fn-se√mw {]th-in®v
hncm-SmZn \ma-ß-fmepw P∑mZn hnti-j-W-ß-             Fßpw \nd™p h¿Øn-°p-∂pthm Ah≥
fmepw PK-Ønse PUhpw Pohm-Zn-]Zm¿Y-ßfpw
                                 -                  hniz≥. AXv Cuiz-c-\m-I-bm¬ hniz-i_vZw
F∂v {K-ln-°-Ww. Cuiz-c-s\∂ A¿Yw kzoI-               Cuiz-c-hm-Nn-bm-bn.
cn-°-cp-Xv.                                            hncm-Sv, A·n, hniz≥ F∂o \ma-ßsf-
   hncm-SmZn \ma-ß-fm¬ F{]-Imcw Cuiz-c-             √mw HmwIm-c-Ønse AIm-c-am-{X-bn¬ \n∂v
s\∂ A¿Yw {Kln-°p-hm≥ Ign-bp-∂p-sh∂v                 {Kln-t°-≠-Xm-Wv.
Adn-bp-hm≥ Xmsg-s°m-Sp-°p∂ {]am-W-߃                                        "D'
t\m°p-I.                                            lnc-Wy-K¿`≥:˛ ""tPymXn¿ssh lncWyw 16
   "Hmw' s‚ hnkvXr-X- hym-Jym\w                     tXtPm ssh lnc-Wyw 17 CssXy-X-tcbiX-
                   "A'                              ]Y{_m“-tW. 18 tbm lnc-Wym\mw kqcym-
hncmSv:˛ "hn' F∂ D]-k¿K-tØm-Sp-Iq-Snb               Zo\mw tXPkmw Kcv` Dev]Øn \nan-Ø-a-[n-
                                                    I-cWw k lnc-Wy-Kcv`x'' tXP-kzn-I-fmb
cmPr,- Zo]v X u 12 F∂ [mXp- h n¬ Izn]v
                                                    kqcymZntemI-߃ bmsXm-∂n¬ \n∂v DZv`-
{]Xybw tN¿°p-tºmƒ hncmSv F∂ cq]w                    hn-°p-Ibpw bmsXm-∂ns\ B{i-bn®v \ne-
kn≤n-°p-∂p. "tbm hnhn[w \ma- NcmfNcw                \n¬°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂pthm AXv lnc-Wy-
PKZvcmP-bXn {]Im-i-bXn k hncmSv' hnhn[              K¿`≥. AYhm tXP-kz-cq-]-ß-fmb kqcymZn
Ncm-Nckzcq-]-amb hnizsØ Xs‚ tXP- p-                 ]Zm¿Y-ß-fpsS Dev]-Øn-ÿm-\hpw Ccn-∏n-S-hp-
                      - -
sIm≠v {]Im-in-∏n-°p-∂h\mtcm Ah≥ hncmSvv.            ambn h¿Øn-°p-∂Xv lnc-Wy-K¿`≥. AXv
                       -
AXv Cuiz-c≥ am{X-am-Ibm¬ hncmSv F∂ ]Zw              Cuiz-c-\-√msX a‰m-cp-a-√. AXn-\m¬ lnc-Wy-
Cuiz-cs\ Ipdn-°p-∂p.                                K¿`≥ F∂ \maw Cuiz-c-t‚-Xm-Wv. CXn\v
   A·n:˛ ""A©p, KXn]qP-\tbmx'' 13 (AKv              {]am-W-ambn bPp¿th-Z-a{¥w t\m°pI: lnc-
AKn CWv KXycvY-I-) 14 Cu [mXp KXnsb                                       -           -
                                                    Wy-Kcv`x ka-hcvØXmt{K `qX-ky PmXx ]Xn-
kqNn-∏n-°p-∂p. A·n-bpsS hyp¬]Øn Ch-                 tcI BkoXv. k Zm-[mc ]rYnhow Zymap-
bn¬ \n∂v kw`-hn-°p-∂p. KtX-kv{Xtbmf                 tXamw Ikvssa tZhmb lhnjm hnt[a. (b-
cvYmx˛ KXn F∂ ]Z-Øn\v ⁄m\w, Ka\w,                   Pp. 13.4) CØcw kµ¿`-ß-fn¬ lnc-Wy-K¿`
{]m]vXn, F∂p aq∂¿Y-ap-≠v. ]qP-\-Øn\v                ]Zw Cuiz-c-hm-Nn-bm-Wv.
kXv°mcw F∂¿Y-am-Wv. tbmf ©Xn ANy-                      hmbp:˛ ""hm, KXn-K-‘-\tbmx'' 19 F∂
tXfAK-XyMvKtXyXn (hm) tkmfb-a·nx''                  [mXp-hn¬ \n∂v 'hmbp' kn≤n-°p-∂p. K‘\av
bmsXm-∂v ⁄m\-kz-cq-]-\pw, k¿h-⁄-\pw,                lnwk-\av 20 K‘\w F∂ ]Z-Øn\v lnwk\w
Adn-bp-hm-t\m, {]m]n-°p-hm-t\m, k¬°-cn-°p-          F∂¿Y-am-Wv. "tbm hmXn Ncmf-Ncw PK-≤-
hmt\m tbmKy-\p-amtWm Ah≥ A·n-bm-Ip-                            -            -
                                                    cXn (Po-hbXn {]e-b¥n) _en\mw _enjvTx
∂p. A{]-Im-c-ap-≈-h≥ ]c-ta-iz-c-\m-Wv. AXn-         k hmbpx' Ncm-N-cm-fl-I-amb `ph-\sØ [cn-
\m¬ A·n F∂ ]Zw Cuiz-cs‚ t]cm-Wv.
   hniz≥:˛ "hni, {]th-it\' 15 F∂ [mXp-              16 iX]Y-{_m-“Ww 6.7.1.2 tPymXncv ssh ip{Iw
                                                       lnc-Wy-av. sFXtcb-{_m-“Ww 7.12
hn¬ \n∂m-Wv. hniz i_vZw D≠m-Ip-∂-Xv.                17 ssXØcob {_m“Ww 8.1.9.1
hni¥n {]hn-jvSm\n kcvhm-Wym-Im-im-Zo\n              18 sFX-tcbw N- iX-]-Yw N- = sFXtcbiX-]Yav,
`qXm\n bkv a n≥. tbm hmffIm- i m- Z njp                                             -
                                                       sFXtcbiX-]Yw N XZv {_m-“Wav N sFXtcbiX
kcv t hjp `qtXjp {]hnjv S x k hniz                     ]Y-{_m“-Ww Xkvan≥ F∂p kam-kn-°Ww.
                                                    19 [mXp]mTw 2.43
12 [mXp-]mTw˛1.569                                  20 _kvXK‘ AcvZt\ [mXp]mTw˛10. 152
13 [mXp-]mTw˛1.115                                     AcvZ- lnw-km-bmav ˛ [m-Xp]mTw 10. 255
14 AK-,AKn, C¨˛-[mXp]mTw˛1.538,1.88, 2.38              K‘\w acvZ\w CXn-£ocXcMvKnWymw IzmNnXv Ix
15 [mXp-]mTw˛6.133                                     [mXp-]mThymJym\w (cmw- em¬ I]q¿ {SÃv) t]Pv178

                                                5
     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                                 Cuiz-c-\m-a-ß-fpsS hymJym\w
°p-Ibpw kwl-cn-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂, _e-hm-                         hn¬ \n∂v {]⁄-i_vZw D≠m-Ip∂p. {]⁄
∑m-cn¬ _en-jvT-\mb B k¿t-hiz-c-\mWv                           i_v Z Øn¬ X≤nX{]Xy- b w 27 tN¿Øm¬
hmbp.                                                         {]m⁄]Zw D≠mIpw bx {]Ir--jvS-Xbm Ncm-
    ssXP-k≥:˛""XnP, \nimt\'' 21F∂ [mXp-                       fN- c ky PKtXm hyh- l mcw Pm\mXn k
hn¬ \n∂v tXPx kn≤n-°p-∂p. tXP-i-_vZ-Øn                        {]⁄x. {]⁄ Gh {]m⁄x. kºq¿W {`a-
¬ Hcp X≤n- X - { ]- X ybw 22 Iq´n- t ®¿Øm¬                    c-ln-X-amb bYm¿Y-⁄m-\-tØm-Sp-Iq-Sn-bXpw
ssXP-ki_vZw D≠m-Ipw. kzbw {]Im-i-kz-                          kI-e-N-cm-N-c-ß-fp-sSbpw hyh-lm-c-ßsf icn-
cq-]\pw kqcym-Zn-tem-I-ßsf {]Im-in-∏n-°p-∂-                   bmbn Adn-bp-∂Xpw k¿h-⁄-\p-amb Cuiz-
h-\p-am-I-bm¬ Cuiz-cs‚ t]cv ssXP-k≥                           cs‚ \ma-t[-b-amWv {]m⁄≥ F∂ ]Zw.
F∂m-Wv.                                                           Cuiz-c≥, BZn-Xy≥, {]m⁄≥ F∂o
    lnc-Wy-K¿`≥, hmbp, ssXP-k≥ F∂o                            \ma-߃ HmwIm-c-Ønse aIm-c-Øn¬ \n∂p
\ma-߃ HmwIm-cØnse DIm-cam-{X-bn¬ \n∂p
                 -            -                               {Kln-®-h-bm-Wv. HmwIm-c-Øn-e-¥¿`hn® aq∂p
{Kln-°p-∂p.                                                          -
                                                              am{X-Ifn¬ Hmtcm-∂n-sebpw aq∂v A¿Yw hoXw
                                                              ChnsS hymJym-\n-®p. CXp-t]mse thsdbpw
                     "av'                                     At\-I-\m-a-߃ HmwIm-c-Øn¬ A¥¿`-hn-®n-
    Cuiz-c≥:˛ ""Cui-, sF-iztcy'' 23 F∂                        ´p≠v
[mXp-hn¬ \n∂mWv Cuiz-c-i-_vZ-kn-≤n. "b'                        an{X≥ apX-e-mb-h-bpsS hymJym\w
Cjv t S kcv s shiz- c y- h m≥ hcv X - t X k
Cuizcx kXy-hn-Nm-c-io-ew, ⁄m\w apX-emb                           ""iwt\m an{Xx'' F∂p XpS-ßp∂ a{¥-Øn¬
AkwJyw sFiz-cy-ß-fp≈ km£m¬ ]c-am-                             ImWp∂ an{X≥ apX-emb ]Z-ßfpw Cuiz-
flm-hn-s\-bmWv Cuiz-c-s\∂p hnfn-°p-∂-Xv.                       cs\°pdn-°p∂ t]cp-Iƒ Xs∂. Fs¥-∂m¬
                                                                                               -
                                                              kvXpXn, {]m¿Y-\, D]m-k\ F∂n-hbv°¿l≥
    BZn-Xy≥;˛ ""tZm, Ah-JWvUt\'' 24 F∂
                            -                                 t{ijvT-\m-b-h≥ am{X-am-Wv. KpWw, I¿aw,
[mXp-hn¬ \n∂v (\Rv Ahyb D]-]-Z-am-I-                          kz`m-hw, kXy-hy-h-lmcw F∂n-h-bn¬ F√m-
bm¬˛D- ] - ] Zw apºn- e p≈ ]Zw- ) AZnXn                       h-sc-°mfpw Hu∂Xyw D≈-h-\t{X t{ijvT≥.
i_vZsØ hypev]m-Zn-∏n®v B AZn-Xn-bn¬                           t{ijvT-∑m-cn¬sh®v t{ijvT≥ Cuiz-c-\m-Wv,
X≤nX{]Xybw tN¿Øm¬ BZn-Xy-i_vZw                                a‰m-cp-a-√. Cuiz-c\v Xpey≥ apºv D≠m-bn-´n-√,
e`n-°pw. 25 ""\ hnZytX hn\mtimf bky                           Ct∏mƒ C√. C\n D≠m-hp-I-bp-an-√. At∏mƒ
tkmb-a-Zn-Xnx. AZn-Xn-tch BZnXyx'' Hcp- Im-                   Cuiz-c-t\-°mƒ D∂-X-\mb as‰m-cp-h≥ Fß-
                                -
eØpw \mi-an-√mØ k¿th-iz-cs\-bmWv BZn-                         s\-bp-≠m-Im-\mWv? kXyw, \ymbw, Zb, k¿h-
Xy≥ F∂ \ma-Øm¬ {Kln-t°-≠-Xv.                                  I¿akm- a ¿Yyw, k¿h- ⁄ Xzw apX- e mb
    {]m⁄≥:˛ "{]' F∂ D]-k¿K-tØmSp                              AkwJyw KpW-߃ Cuiz-c-\p-≈-Xp-t]mse
IqSnb ""⁄m, Ah-t_m-[-t\ 26'' F∂ [mXp-                         GsX-¶nepw PU-]-Zm¿Y-Ønt\m Pohm-flm-
                                                              hnt\m C√. kXy-am-b-Xns‚ KpW-I¿akz`m-h-
19 [mXp]mTw˛1.698                                             ßfpw kXy-am-bn-cn-°pw. AXn-\m¬ a\p-jy-sc-
22 {]⁄m-`n-`y› (AjvSm[ymbn˛5.4.38)                            √m-hcpw k¿th-iz-c-s\-bmWv {]m¿Yn-°p-I-bpw,
   F∂ kq{X-Øm¬ {]⁄m-Zn-bpsS BIrXn
   KW-Øm¬ kzm¿Y-Øn¬ "AWv'{]Xybw.                              kvXpXn-°p-Ibpw D]m-kn-°p-Ibpw sNtø-≠-Xv.
23 [mXp]mTw˛2.10                                              as‰m-∂n-t\-bp-a-√. {_“m-hv, hnjvWp, inh≥
24 [mXp]mTw˛4.39                                              F∂p t]tcm-Sp-Iq-Snb ]ucm-WnIhnZzm-∑m-cpw,
                      -
25 ZnXy-Zn-Xym-Zn-Xy-]Xyp-Øc ]ZmWyx (AjvSm[ymbn˛4.1.85)       ssZXy-∑m¿, Zm\-h-∑m¿ XpS-ßnb \nIr-jvS-a-
   F∂ kq{X{]-Imcw {]mKvZo-hy-Xo-bm¿Y-Øn¬ "Wy'
   {]Xybw h∂v BZn-Xy-kn-≤n. kzm¿Y-Øn¬ X≤nX                    \pjycpw CXc km[m-cWa\p-jycpw ]q¿W-
   {]Xy-bamWv al¿jo-aXw. "NmXpcvhcvWym-Zo\mw
            -              -                                  hn-izm-k-tØmSp IqSn kvXpXn-°pIbpw {]m¿Yn-
   kzm¿Y D]-kw-Jym-\av' F∂ alm-`mjyhm¿XnI                     °p-I-bpw, D]m-kn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXn-cp-∂Xv
   {]Imcw (alm-`mjyw˛5.1.124) kzm¿Y-Øn¬ "jyRv'
                                      - -
   {]Xybw. NmXp¿h¿WymZn BIr-Xn-KWam-Wv.                       27 {]⁄m-Zn-`y› (AjvSm[ymbn˛5.4.38) F∂
26 [mXp]mTw˛9.40                                                 kq{X-{]-Imcw kzm¿Y-Øn¬ "A¨' {]Xybw


                                                          6
                H∂mw kap-√mkw                                                         kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
k¿th-iz-c-s\-bm-Wv. as‰m-∂n-t\-bp-a-√. AXp-                  flt\m hrtWmXn; bx injvssScvapap-£p-`n-
sIm≠v Aßs\ Xs∂ sNøp- ∂ - X mWv                               [cvam-fl`nx {hnbtX hcvø-tX hm k hcpWx
\ap°pw DNn-Xw. Cu hnj-b-sØ-∏‰n tamt£m-                       ]c-ta-izcx'' BcmtWm tbmKnI-tfbpw hnZzm-
]m-k-\-I-sf-∏‰n N¿®-sN-øp-tºmƒ khn-ti-j-                     ∑m-tcbpw ap‡n-bm-{K-ln-°p-∂-h-tc-bpw ap‡-
ambn {]Xn-]m-Zn-°mw.                                         ∑m- t c- b pw [¿a- Ø n¬ \njv T - b p- ≈ - h - t cbpw
                                                             AwKo-I-cn-°p-∂Xv AYhm injvT-∑mcpw apap-
   an{X≥ apX-em-bh Cuiz-c-hmNn                               £p-°fpw ap‡-∑mcpw [¿am-flm-°fpw Bsc
tNmZyw:˛ an{XmZn \ma- ß ƒ°v kplr- Ø v ,                      AwKo-I-cn-°p-∂pthm B Cuiz-c-\t{X hcp-
F∂pw C{µmZn tZh-X-Iƒ°v \S-∏n-en-cn-°p∂                       W≥. IqSmsX ""hcp-tWm-\ma hcx t{ijvTx''
A¿Yw I≠v Ahsb A{]-Im-chpw {Kln-t°-                           AXm-bXv hcp-W\v t{ijvT≥ F∂¿Y-ap-≠v.
≠-Xt√?                                                       Cuiz-c≥ F√m-h-tc-°mfpw t{ijvT-\m-b-Xp-
kam-[m\w:-˛ ChnsS B A¿Y-߃ kzoI-cn-                          sIm≠v At±-l-Øns\ hcp-W-s\∂p hnfn-°m-
°p-∂Xp icn-b-√.- F-s¥-∂m¬ temI-Øn¬                           hp-∂-Xm-Wv.
Hcp-hs‚ kplr-Øm-bn-cn-°p-∂-bmƒ as‰m-cp-                         Acyamx˛ ""E, KXn{]m]-W-tbmx'' 32 F∂
hs‚ i{Xp-hmbpw thsdm-cp-hs‚ i{Xpthm                          [mXp-hn¬ bXv 33 {]Xybw Iq´n-t®¿Øm¬
an{Xtam A√msXbpw h¿Øn-°p-∂p. AXn-                            Acy i_vZw kn≤n-°pw. Acy- i-_vZ-]q¿h-I-
\m¬ an{Xm- Z n- \ m- a - ß - f psS apJym¿Yambn               amb "amMv, amt\i_vtZ N' 34 F∂ [mXp-
kplrØv apX- e m- b - h sb kzo- I - c n- ° - c p- X v .
                                                             hn¬ I\n≥ 35 {]Xybw tN¿-Øm¬ Acyam
IqSmsX F{]-Imcw Cuiz-c≥ \nb-ta\ temI-
Øns‚ apgp-h\pw kplr-Øm-bn-cn-°p-I-bpw,                       F∂ ]Zhpw hypev]-∂-am-Ipw. tbmfcvbym≥
Bcp-sSbpw i{Xpthm ]£-]m-Xntbm BIm-                           kzmant\m \ymbm-[-oim≥ anaotX am\ym≥
Xn-cn-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂p-thm, A{]-Imcw Bbn-                     ItcmXn tkmfcyam'' kXyhpw \ymbhpw A\p-
cn-°p-hm≥ Hcp Pohm-flm-hn\pw Ign-bp-∂-X-√.                    jvTn-°p∂ a\p-jysc am\n-°p-Ibpw ]pWy]m-
AXn-\m¬ Cu {]I-c-W-Øn¬ an{XmZn \ma-                          ]-߃ sNøp-∂-h¿°v AXm-Xns‚ ^esØ
ß-fpsS apJym¿Y-ambn {Kln-t°-≠Xv Cuiz-                        bYmXY-ambn \¬Ip-Ibpw sNøp∂ Cuiz-cs‚
c-s\-∂m-Wv. KuWm¿Y-Øn¬ kplr-sØ∂pw                            t]¿ "Acya' F∂m-Ip-∂p.
a‰pw D≈ A¿Yhpw kzoIm-cy-am-Wv.                                  C{µ≥:˛ ""CZn, ]c-ssa-iz-tcy'' 36F∂ [mXp-
   an{X≥:˛ ""RnanZm, kvt\lt\'' 28 F∂                         hn¬ c≥ 37 {]Xybw tN¿°p-∂Xm-bm¬ C{µ≥
                                                                                           -
[mXp-hn¬ HuWm-Zn-I-amb {‡{]-Xy-bw 29                         F∂ ]Zw D≠m-Ipw. ""b CµXn ]c-ssa-iz-cy-
tN¿∂p an{X-i_vZw D≠m-Ip-∂p. ""taZy-Xn- kv\n-                 hm≥ `hXn k C{µx ]c-ta-izcx'' kIe
lyXn kv\nlytX hm k an{Xx'' F√m-h-                            sFiz-cy-ß-tfmSpw IqSnb Cuiz-cs‚ t]¿
scbpw kvt\ln-°p-∂-h≥ As√-¶n¬ F√m-                            C{µ≥ F∂m-Wv.
hcpw {]km-Zn-∏n-t°-≠-h-\m-b-Xp-sIm≠v Cuiz-                      _rl-kv]Xn:˛ _rlXv F∂ ]Zw D]-]-Z-
c\v an{X≥ F∂p t]cm-bn.                                       ambn´p≈ ""]m, c£tW'' 38 F∂ [mXp-hn¬
   hcp-W≥:-˛ ""hrRv-, h-ctW; hc, Cu]vkm-                     UXn {]Xy-bw 39 tN¿Øv D]-]-Z-Ønse XIm-
bmw'' 30 F∂o [mXp-°-fn¬ DWmZn D\≥ 31                         32 [mXp]mTw˛1.670
                                                             33 Acyx- kzmansshiytbmx (AjvSm[ym-bn˛3.1.103)
{]Xybw tN¿∂n-´mWv hcp-W-i-_vZ-ap-≠m-Ip-∂-                       F∂-Xn¬ "kzman' F∂¿Y-Øn¬ "bXv' {]Xy-bm-¥amb -
Xv. bx kcvhm≥ injvSm≥ apap-£q≥ [cvam-                           \n]mXw sNbvXn-cn-°p-∂p.
28 [mXp]mTw˛4.129                                            34 [mXp]mTw˛3.6
29 DWmZntImiw (4.165) Aan-Nnan-Zn-iw-kn-`yx {‡x                               -
                                                             35 iz∂p-£≥...-Acy-a≥.... (DWmZn-tImiw˛1.159)
   kq{X-{]Imcw "{‡x' {]tbm-K-sØ-t∏mse "anRv'                    F∂-Xn¬ I\n\v˛{]Xy-bm¥ \n]mXw.
   (kzm-Zn) [mXp-hn\pw hypev]Øn Im´p-∂p.                     36 [mXp]mTw˛1.51
30 hrRv, hc-tW. ([mXp]mTw˛5.8)                               37 Et{P-{µm{K (DWm-Zn-tImiw˛2.28) F∂ kq{X-Øn¬
   hc, Cu]vkmbmav. (-[mXp]mTw˛10.280)                           "c\v' {]Xy-bm¥w \n]m-Xw.
31 IrhrZm-cn-`y D\≥ (DWmZn-tIm-iw˛3.53) _lpe {KlW
                - -                                          38 [mXp]mTw˛2.49.
   -Øm¬ "hc' [mXp-hn¬\n∂pw D\≥ {Kml-y-am-Wv.                 39 ]mtX¿UXnx (DWmZn-tImiw˛4.58)


                                                         7
     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                                  Cuiz-c-\m-a-ß-fpsS hymJym\w
c-Øn\p tem]hpw kpSv F∂ BK-a-hpw 40                                        - -
                                                             _rl-Øa\pw, Af-h‰ _e-ap-≈h\pw k¿thm-   -
hcp-Øn-bm¬ _rl-kv]Xn F∂ cq]w In´pw.                          ]- c n- b mbn hnf- ß p- ∂ - h \pw ]c- { _- “ - s a∂p
""tbm _lrXmw BIm-im-Zo\mw ]Xnx kzmao                         hnJym-X-\p-amb ]c-am-flm-hns\ R߃ \a-
]me-bnXm k _rl-kv]Xnx. hen-bhcn¬ hen-
                         -       - -                         kv I - c n- ° p- ∂ p. tl! k¿th- i zcm (Xz- t ah
b-h\pw BIm-imZn {_“m-WvU-ß-sf-sb√mw                          {]Xy£w {_“m-kn) Ahn-Sp∂p Xs∂-bmWp
ImØp-c-£n-°p-∂-h-\p-amb Ah-\mWv _rl-                         k¿hm-¥-cym-an-bm-bn-cp∂v {]Xy-£-{_-“-ambn
kv]-Xn. AXv Cuiz-c-\m-I-bm¬ _rl-kv]Xn                        hnf-ßp-∂-Xv. (Xzmtah {]Xy£w {_“ hZn-
F∂Xv PK-Zo-iz-cs‚ t]cm-Wv.                                   jym-an) Rm≥ Aß-sb-Ø-s∂bmWv {]Xy-£-
                                                             {_-“-sa∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xv. Fs¥-∂m¬ Ahn-Sp∂v
   hnjvWp:˛ ""hnjver, -hym-]vXu'' 41 F∂
                                                             Fßpw \nd- ™ - h - \ m- b n- c p∂v F√m- h ¿°pw
[mXp-hn¬ \p 42 F∂ {]Xybw tN¿°p-I.                            F∂pw {]m]y-\mbn h¿Øn-°p-∂p.
F∂m¬ hnjvWp F∂ cq]w In´pw.
""ththjvSn hym]vt\mXn Ncmf-Ncw PKXv k                            (EXw hZn-jym-an) \n¥n-cp-h-SnbpsS thZ-ß-
hnjvWpx'' ÿmh-c-Pw-Ka hkvXp-°ƒ sIm≠p                         fn¬ ImWs∏-Sp∂ A\p-im-k-\-ßsf Rm≥
krjvSn-®n-´p≈ Cu temI-Øn-seßpw hym]-                         F√m-h¿°pw D]tZin°p-Ibpw kzbw A\p-
I-\mb Cuiz-cs\ hnjvWp F∂p hnfn-°p-∂p.                        jvTn-°p-Ibpw sNømw. (kXyw hZn-jym-an)
                                                             Rm≥ kXysØ a\\w sNømw. kXyw ]d-
   Dcp-{I-a≥:˛ ""Dcpcva-lm≥ {Iax ]cm-{I-tam-                 bmw. A\p-jvTm-\-Ønepw kXysØ c£n-°mw.
bky k Dcp-{Iax'' Af-h‰ ]cm-{I-a-ap-≈-Xp-                     (X-∑m-a-h-Xp) AXn-\m¬ Ahn-Sp∂v Fs∂
sIm≠v Cuiz-c\v Dcp-{I-a≥ F∂p t]cp-≠m-                        ImØp-c-£n-®m-epw. (X-Zz‡mc-a-h-Xp) B]vX-
bn.                                                          \m-b-˛-kXyw ]d-bp-∂-˛-Fs∂ Aßv c£n-®m-
   a{¥m¿Yw: (kap√mkm-cw-`-Ønse a{¥-Øn¬ Dcp-                  epw. Fs‚ _p≤n Ahn-SpsØ B⁄-Isf
                 -
{Ia XpS-ßnb ]Z-ßfpsS D]-tbmKw {i≤n-°pI. ]cn`mj-              AN- © - e - X - t bm- S p- I qSn A\p- k - c n- ° p- I - b pw
I≥) (D-cp-{I-ax) henb ]cm-{I-a-tØmSp IqSn-b-                 Ahbn¬ \n∂v hyXn-N-en-°m-Xn-cn-°p-Ibpw
h\pw (an-{Xx) F√m-h-cp-sSbpw kplrØpw                         sNøp- a m- d m- I - s ´. Fs¥- ∂ m¬ Ahn- S psØ
B¿°p-samcp hntcm-[hpw sNøm-Øh\pw (iw)     - -                B⁄-Iƒ Xs∂-bmWv bYm¿Y-amb [¿aw.
kpJ-Zm-b-I\pw (h-cp-Wx) F√m-h-tc-°mfpw                       AXn\v hncp-≤-am-b-sX√mw A[¿a-am-Wv. (A-
t{ijvT\pw (iw) kpJ-kz-cq-]\pw (A-cy-am)                      hXp ama- h Xp h‡m- c w) c≠m- a - X v 4 5
\mbm-[n-]-Xnbpw (iw) awK-f-{]-Z\pw (C-{µx)                   Bh¿Øn®p ]d-™Xv \n›-bsØ tZymXn-∏n-
kI-e-sF-iz-cy-ß-tfm-Sp-Iq-Sn-b-h\pw (iw) kI-                 °m-\m-Ip-∂p. Hcp-h≥ CX-c-t\m-Sv, Xzw {Kmaw
e-sF-iz-cy-ß-sfbpw Zm\w sNøp-∂-h\pw (_r-                     K— K— F∂p ]d-bp-∂p. ChnsS "K—' F∂
l-kv]-Xnx) F√m-Øn-s‚bpw A[n-jvTm-Xmhpw                       {Inbm-]Zw c≠p-X-hW Bh¿Øn-®n-´p-≈-Xn-
                                 -
hnZysb Zm\w sNøp-∂h\pw (hn-jvWpx) k¿h-                       \m¬ ""\o DS-\Sn {Kma-Øn-te°p t]mIWw''
hym- ] n- b p- a m- b n- c n- ° p∂ k¿th- i z- c ≥ (\x)       F∂¿Yw In´p-∂p. AXp-t]mse Cu {]I-c-W-
\ap°p (iw) awK-fsØ Zm\w sNøp-∂-h-\mbn                        Ønepw ]p\-cm-h¿Ø-\-Øns‚ A¿Yw, Ahn-
(`-h-Xp) `hn-°-s´.                                           Sp∂v Fs∂ \n›-b-ambpw c£n-°-Ww. Fs‚
   (hmtbm tX {_“tW \tamf-kvXp) ""_rl-                        a\ v [¿a-Øn¬ ZrVambn Dd®p \n¬°p-Ibpw
_r-ln-hr-≤u 43 F∂o [mXp-°-fn¬ \n∂m-Wv                        A[¿asØ shdp-°p-Ibpw sNø-Ø-°-hÆw
{_“- 44i_vZw D≠m-Ip-∂-Xv. _rl-Øn¬ h®v                        I\n-™-\p-{K-ln-°-Ww. AXv hen-sbmcp D]-
                                                             Im-c-ambn Rm≥ hnNm-cn°pw F∂m-Wv. (Hmw
                                                             im¥nx im¥nx im¥nx) B[ym-fln-Iw, B[n-
40 XXv_r-ltXmivtNmc tZhXtbmx kpSv Xtem-]›
                            -      -
   (KWkq{Xw˛6.1.151) ]mc-kv°cm-Zn-ÿamb                       44 _rwtl-t\m¿® (DWmZn-tImiw 4.147)
   KW-kq-{X-Øm¬.                                                F∂ kq{X-Øm¬ _rln (_rw-l) F∂ [mXp-hn¬
41 [mXp]mTw 3.13                                                \n∂p-≠m-b-Xv. "_rl']£-Øn¬ _lpe{Kl-W-
42 hntj-x In® (DWmZn-tImiw˛3.39)                                Øm¬ "Aav' BK-a-sa-∂-dn-b-Ww.
43 [mXp]mTw˛1.488                                            45 A`ymtk `qbmwkacvYw a\yt¥ (\n-cp‡w˛10.42)


                                                         8
             H∂mw kap-√mkw                                               kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
`u-Xn-Iw, B[n-ssZ-hn-Iw 46 F∂n-ßs\ aq∂p-          am-bn-cn-°p-∂Xv Bflm. ]c 49-›m-km-hm-flm-
hn-[-Øn-ep≈ ZpxJ-ß-fmWv Cu temI-Øn-ep-            N, b Btflt`ym Poth`yx kq£vta`yx
                        -
≈-Xv. Ahn-Zy, cmK-tZz-j߃, `o-cpXzw apX-emb       ]tcmf-Xn- kq£vax k ]-c-amflm'', k¿h-Po-
am\-kn-I-]o-U-I-fpw, ]\n apX-emb imco-cnI         hm-Zn-I-tf-°mƒ D¬Ir-jvS\pw, Pohm-flm-°ƒ
tcmK-ß-fp-amWv B[ym-fln-I-Zpx-J-߃. i{Xp-          BIm-iw, {]IrXn F∂n-h-tb-°mƒ AXn-kq-
°-fmb a\p-jy-cn¬ \n∂pw, ]pen, ]mºv, apX-          £vahpw F√m Pohm--flm-°-fp-sSbpw A¥-cym-
emb P¥p-°-fn¬ \n∂pw D≠m-Ip∂ ]oU-I-                an-bmb Bflmhpw BI-bm¬ Cuiz-c\v ]c-am-
fmWv B[n-`u-XnI ZpxJ-߃. AXn-hr-jvSn,             flmhv F∂ t]cp h∂p.
AXn-ssi-Xyw, AXypjvWw apX-em-b-h-bm¬                  ]c-ta-iz-c≥;-˛ Cuiz-c≥ F∂-Xn-\p kma¿Yy-
a\-kn\pw C{µn-b-߃°pw Df-hm-Ip∂ ZpxJ-             hm≥ F∂m- W ¿Yw. ""b Cuiz- t cjp
ß-fmWv B[nssZ-hn-I-߃. Xm]-{X-b-sa∂               kacvtYjp ]cax t{ijvTx k ]-c-ta-izcx''
Cu aq∂p hn[ ZpxJ-ß-fp-sSbpw ia-\-Øn-              ka¿Y- c n¬ sh®p t{ijv T ≥˛FXn- c n- √ mØ
\mbn´t{X a{¥-Øn¬ aq∂p {]mhiyw im¥n                kma¿Yy-tØmSp IqSn-b-h≥, Xpey-ambn as‰m-
HmXn-bn-cn-°p-∂-Xv. Ahn-Sp∂p Rßsf aq∂p-           ∂p-an-√m-Ø-h≥ F∂mWp ]c-ta-iz-c≥ F∂
hn[ ZpxJ-ß-fn¬ \n∂p c£n®v awK-f-I-c-amb           ]Z-Øns‚ A¿Yw.
I¿a-ß-fn¬ {]h¿Øn-∏n-°-Ww. Fs¥-∂m¬,                    khnXm:˛ ""jpRv, A`njth; jqMv, {]mWn-
Aßv awK-f-kz-cq-]nbpw k¿h-tem-I-Øn\pw
awK-f{]-Z\pw, [m¿an-Icmb apap-£p-°ƒ°v awK-
     - -              -                           Kcv`-hn-tam-N-t\'' 50 F∂o [mXp-°-fn¬ \n∂p
fsØ Zm\w sNøp-∂-h-\pam-W-t√m. Aßv                 khn- X m- i _v Z w kn≤n- ° p- ∂ p. ""A`n- j hx
ss\k¿Kn-I-amb Imcp-Wy-Øm¬ kIe Pohm-               {]mWn-Kcv`-hn-tam-N\w tNmXv]m-Z\w. b›-cm-
flm-°-fp-sSbpw lrZ-b-Øn¬ hnf-ßp-∂p. B              Ncw PKXv kpt\mXn kqtX thmXv]m-Z-bXn
hnf°w \nanØw kIe Pohm- fl m- ° fpw                 k k-hnXm ]c-ta-izcx'' k¿h-tem-I-sØbpw
A[¿asØ XyPn®v [¿asØ A\p-jvTn-°p-                  Dev]m-Zn-∏n-°p-∂-Xp-sIm≠v Cuiz-c\v khnXm
Ibpw ZpxJ-ßsf AI‰n ]-c-am-\-µsØ A\p-`-            F∂p t]cm-bn.
hn-°p-Ibpw sNøp-am-dm-I-s´.                           tZh:˛ ""Znhp {IoUm-hnPn-Kojmhyh-lm-c-
    kqcy≥:˛ ""kqcy Bflm PK-XkvX-ÿp-j-              ZypXnkvXpXn-tam-Z-a-Z-kz-]v\-Im-¥n-K-Xn-jp'' 51
›'' 47F∂ bPp¿th-Z-h-N-\-{]-Imcw (P-K-Xx)          F∂ [mXp-hn¬ \n∂v tZh-i_vZw kn≤n-°p-
tNX-\-ßfpw PwK-a-ß-fp-amb Poh-Pm-e-ß-fp-          ∂p. ({Io-Um) 52 ip≤-\m-bn-cp∂v PK-Øns\
sSbpw (X-ÿp-jx) AtN-X-\-ßfpw ÿmh-c-                              -
                                                  {IoUn-∏n-°p-∂Xp-sIm-≠pw, (hn-Pn-Ko-jm) [m¿an-
ß-fp-amb ]rYn-hymZn PU-]-Zm¿Y-ß-fp-sSbpw          I-∑msc Pbn-∏n-°p-hm-\p≈ C—-sIm-≠pw, (hy-
A¥-cm-flm-hmbn ÿnXn sNbvXv kz{]-Imiw               h-lm-c) F√m tNjvS-Iƒ°pw km[-t\m-]-km-
sIm≠v F√m-‰n-s\bpw {]Im-in-∏n®v h¿Øn-°p-          [-\-ßsf \¬Ip-∂-Xn-\m-epw, (Zyp-Xn) kzbw
∂Xn-\m¬ k¿th-iz-c\v kqcy≥ F∂ t]cv                 {]Im-i-kz-cq-]\pw CX-c¿°v {]Imiw \¬Ip-
e`n-®p.                                           ∂-h-\m-I-bm-epw, (kvXp-Xn) {]iw-kn-°p-hm≥
                                                  tbmKy-\m-b-Xp-aq-e-hpw, (tam-Z) kzbw B\-µ-
    ]c-am-flmhv:˛ AX, kmXXyKat\ 48 F∂              kz-cq-]\pw a‰p-≈-h¿°v B\-µ-Zm-Xm-hm-b-Xp-
[mXp-hn¬ \n∂v Bflm F∂ ]Zw D≠m-Ip-                  sIm≠pw (a-Z) atZm-∑-Øsc Aa¿® sNbvI-
∂p. tbmfXXn hym]vt\mXn k Bflm; Pohm-               bm-epw, (kz-]v\) F√m-h¿°pw Dd-ßp-hm≥
Zn-bmb PK-Øn¬ apgp-h\pw \nc-¥cw hym]-I-
                                                  49 ]caw F∂¿Yw hcp∂ "]c' i_vZ-Øm¬
                                                     A¿Y-\n¿tZiw sNbvXn-cn-°p-∂p.
46 kXym¿Y {]Im-i-Øns‚ HºXmw kap-√m-k-Øns‚                 -                                -
                                                     "]c-a›m-km-hmflm ]c-amflx' F∂p hn{K-ln-°Ww.
   Ah-km-\-Øn¬ Cu ]Z-ß-fpsS hymJym-\-ap-≠v.       50 [mXp]mTw˛5.1.,
47 bPpcvthZw˛7.42                                    -
                                                     [mXp]mTw˛2.24
48 [mXp]mTw˛1.31 ¬ kmXn`ymw a\n-∑-\nWu            51 [mXp]mTw˛4.1
   (DWmZn-tImiw˛4.153) F∂ kq{X-Øm¬                52 ip≤\pw \n¿te-]-\p-am-bn-cp∂v
   Bflm-i_vZw kn≤n-°p∂p                               PK-Øns\ {IoUn-∏n-°p∂hs\∂v A¿Yw.


                                              9
     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                                Cuiz-c-\m-a-ß-fpsS hymJym\w
cm{Xn-tbbpw {]f-b-tØbpw krjvSn-°p-∂-Xp-                   B—m-Z\w sNbvXp-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂-h≥. Cu
sIm≠pw (Im-¥n) {]m]n-°p-hm≥ tbmKy-\m-I-                   iz≥.
bmepw (K-Xn) ⁄m\-kz-cq-]-\m-b-Xp-sIm≠pw                      ]rYnhn:˛ ]rYp ""hnkvXmtc'' F∂ [mXp-
Cuiz-c\v tZh≥ F∂ t]cp h∂p. AY-hm,                         hn¬ \n∂mWv ]rYnhn i_vZw D≠m-Ip-∂-Xv.
""tbm ZohyXn {IoUXn k tZhx'', kz¥w kzcq-                  ""bx ]cvYXn kcvhw PKZvhnkvXr-WmXn k
]-Øn¬ B\-µtØm-Sp-IqSn kzbw can-®p-sIm≠v
               -                                                             -
                                                          ]rYnhn'' hnkvXr-Xamb Cu PK-Øns\ hnkvX-
tahp-∂, ]c-k-lmbw C√msX Xs∂ {IoU-                         cn-°p-∂-h≥ F∂¿Yw 53.
bmbn kl- P - k z- ` m- h - Ø m¬ kIe- P - K - Ø n-            Pew:˛ Pe,- Lm- X t\ 54 F∂ [mXp-
t\bpw krjvSn-°p-∂, kI-e-{Io-U-Iƒ°pw                       hn¬\n∂p Pe-i_vZw kn≤n-°p-∂p. "PeXn
B{i-b-`q-X-\mbn ÿnXn-sN-øp∂ k¿th-iz-c≥                    LmX-bXn ZpjvSm≥. kLm-X-bXn Ahy-‡-
F∂¿Yw. ""hnPn-Ko-jtX k tZhx'' F√m-h-                      ]-c-am-Wzm-Zo≥ XZv {_“- Pew' ZpjvS-∑m-cpsS
scbpw Pbn-°p-∂, Bcmepw Pbn-°-s∏-Sp-hm≥                    LmX-I-\pw, Ahy-‡w, ]c-am-Wp-°ƒ F∂n-
Ign-bm-Ø-h≥ F∂¿Yw. ""hyh-lm-c-bXn k                       hsb Iq´n-t®¿°p-Itbm th¿Xn-cn-°p-Itbm
tZhx''. \ymbhpw A\ym-b-hp-amb {]hr-Øn-                             - -
                                                          sNøp-∂h\p-amb B ]c-am-flm-hn\v Pew F∂p
Isf Adn-bp-∂-h\pw D]-tZ-jvSmhpw Bbn-cn-                   t]cm-Ip-∂p.
°p-∂-h≥. ""b›-cm-Ncw PKZvtZym-X-bXn k                        BImiw:˛ Imir, Zo]vXu 55 F∂ ZmXp-
tZhx'' Ncm-N-cm-fl-I-amb krjvSnsb {]Im-in-                 hn¬ \n∂mWv BIm-i-i_vZw kn≤n-°p-∂-Xv.
∏n-°p-∂-h≥. ""bx kvXqbsX k tZhx kI-e-                     bx kcvhXx kcvhw PKZv{]Im-ibXn k
a-\p-jy-cmepw {]iw-k-\o-b-\pw, \nµn-°-s∏-Sp-              BImix \mep `mK-Øp-\n∂pw temIsØ
hm≥ A\¿l-\pw. ""tbm tamZ-bXn k tZhx''                     {]Im-in-∏n-®pw- sIm≠v hnf-ßp-∂-h-\t{X PK-
H´pw ZpxJw A\p-`-hn-°msX kzbw B\-µ-kz-                    Zo-iz-c≥.
cq-]-\mbn Ccp-∂p-sIm≠v A\y-∑m¿°v B\µ                         A∂w:˛ AZ, `£-tW 56 F∂ [mXp-hn¬
                   -              -
sØ P\n-∏n-°p-∂h≥. ""tbm amZy-Xn k- tZhx''                 \n∂mWv A∂- i _v Z w D≠m- I p- ∂ - X v . AZy-
kZm k¥p-jvS\pw timI-cln-X\pw a‰p-≈hsc
                            -             -               tXfØn N `qXm\n Xkvam-Z∂w XZp-Ny-tX 57
kt¥m-jn-∏n®v Ah-cpsS ZpxJ-ßsf AI-‰n-°-                       A∂m-Zx˛ Al-a-∂-a-la-∂-a-l∂w.Al-
f-bp-∂h≥ F∂¿Yw. ""bx kzm]-bXn k tZhx''
       -                                                  ∂m-tZmf-l-a-∂mtZmfla-∂mZx 58
         - -     -
alm-{]-fbIm-eØn¬ Pohm-flm-°sf Ahy-‡-                          AØm:˛ AØm- N-cmf-N-c-{K-l-WmXv 59
Øn¬ Dd-°p-∂-h≥ bx ImabtX Imay-tX
hm k tZhx'' BcpsS Ima-ß-sf√mw kXy-                             csØ kzX{¥[mXp-hmbpw KWn-°p-∂p.
                                                               Aßs\ {KŸ-Im-c≥, ChnsS "]rY' [mXp-hns\
amtWm, As√-¶n¬ bmsXm-cp-hs‚ ASp-°-                             kzX{¥ [mXp-hmbn KWn®v \n¿tZin®n-cn-°p-∂p.
te°p sN∂p- tN-cp-hm≥ \√-h-sc√mw B{K-                           "]rY' [mXp-hns\ kzX{¥ {]Ir-Xn-bmbn
ln-°p-∂pthm Aß-s\-bp-≈-h≥. ""tbm K-—Xn                         AwKo-I-cn-®m¬ ]rYp, ]rYhn apX-emb cq]-ß-fn¬
KaytX hm k tZhx'' k¿h-hym-]nbpw Adn-                           k{º-km-cWw Bh-iy-ambn hcn-I-bn-√.
                                                               "{Kl' [mXp-hn¬ k{º-km-cWhpw l Imc-Øn\v
bp-hm≥ tbmKy-\p-am-b-h≥. C{]-Imcw ]te                          ` Im-cm-tZ-ihpw hcpØn \n¿Ωn® "Kr`' sb
A¿Y-ß-tfm-Sp-Iq-Snb tZh-i_vZw Cuiz-cs‚                         kzX{¥ [mXp-hmbn (Kcvt`m Krt`x) \ncp-
Hcp \ma-am-Wv.                                                 ‡-Im-c≥ kzoI-cn-®n´p-≠v. (\n-cp‡w10.23)
                                                               [mXp]mTw˛10.22 ¬ "]rY-, {]-t£t]' F∂ [mXphpw
    Ipt_c:˛ ""Ip_n, B—m-Zt\'' F∂ *[mXp-                        D≠v. {]t£-]-Øn\v ]c-Øp-I-sb∂¿Y-hp-ap-≠-t√m.
hn¬ \n∂mWv Ipt_-c-i_vZw hyp-ev]-∂-am-Ip-                       "A\nXy WnP-¥m-›p-cmbx' A\p-k-cn®v "WnNv' s‚
∂-Xv. ""bx kcvhw Ipw_Xn kzhym]vXym—m-                          A`mh-Øn¬ ]¿YXn F∂ cq]-ap-≠m-Ip∂p.
                                                               \ncp‡w 1.12, 13 epw {]Y-\-Øn\v hnkvXm-c-sa-∂¿Yw
Z-bXn k Ip-t_tcm PK-Zo-izcx'' Xs‚ hym]vXn-                     kzoI-cn®n-´p≠v.
sIm≠v temI-Øn-ep-ff kI-e-h-kvXp-°-sfbpw                   54   [mXp]mTw 1.575
                                                          55   [mXp]mTw 1.430
*[mXp]mTw 1.290                                           56   [mXp]mTw 2.1
53 "]rY' F∂ [mXp [mXp-]m-T-Øn-en-√. k{º-km-cW             57                   -
                                                               ssXØ-cn-tbm-]\n-jXv 2˛10
   kwhn-[m-\-{]-Imcw A\p-h-Zn-®n-cn-°p∂ [mXp-°-fn¬        58                   -
                                                               ssXØ-cn-tbm-]\n-jXv 2˛10
   sshbm-I-c-W-∑m¿ hcp-Øp∂ k{º-km-cW- cq-]m-¥-            59   thZm-¥-Z¿i\w 1.2.9


                                                     10
               H∂mw kap-√mkw                                                        kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
""AØm-N-cmf-Nc{Kl-WmXv'' F∂Xp thZ-hym-                      ∂-Xv. {]hr-Øn-sIm≠p sNøp-∂-Xn-s\-Øs∂
k-hn-c-Nn-X-amb imco-c-I-kq-{X-am-Ip-∂p. GXn¬               A\p- ` - h n- ° p- I bpw sNøp- ∂ p.'' Pohm- fl mhv
k¿hhpw {]Xn-jvTn-X-am-bn-cn-°p-∂pthm GXv                    sNøp∂Xc-Øn-ep≈ I¿a-߃°-\p-k-cn®v
F√m- h - c mepw {Kln- ° - s ∏- S p- h m≥ tbmKy-                                 -
                                                            ^ehpw A\p-`hn-°p∂p F∂p Xmev]cyw. ]m]-   -
amtWm GsXm∂v Ncm-N-c-cq-]-amb temIsØ                        I¿a-߃ sNbvXn-´p≈ Pohm-flm-°ƒ, \ymbm-
{Kln-°p-∂pthm AXv F∂¿Y-amb A∂w,                             [n-]-Xn-bmb Cuiz-cs‚ \n›-b-{]-Imcw ZpxJ-
A∂mZx, AØm F∂ aq∂p i_vZ-ßfpw                                ]q¿W-^-e-߃ A\p-`-hn-°p-tºmƒ Ic-bp-∂p.
Cuiz- c s‚ \ma- ß - f m- W v . ChnsS aq∂p                   Zpjv°¿aw sNøp∂ Pohm-flm-°sf Cuiz-c≥
{]mhiyw ]d-™n-´p-≈-Xv 60 _lp-am-\-Øn\v                      Ic-bn-∏n-°p-∂p-sh∂p ]d-bp-∂Xv C{]-Im-c-am-
th≠n-bm-Ip-∂p. AØn-∏-g-Øn¬ P\n-°p∂                                                         -
                                                            Wv. AXn-\m¬ Ic-bn-∏n-°p-∂h≥ F∂¿Y-ap≈
Iran-Iƒ AXn¬Øs∂ Pohn-®n-cn-°p-Ibpw                          cp{Z≥ F∂ t]cv Cuiz-c-hm-Nn-bm-Ip-∂p.
AXn¬ Xs∂ Poh-\m-isØ {]m]n-°p-Ibpw                                         -
                                                               \mcm-bW≥:˛ Bt]m \mcm CXn t{]m‡m
sNøp-∂-Xp-t]m-se-bmWv temIw apgp-h\pw                       Bt]m ssh \c kq\hx. Xm bZ-ky-mb\w
Cuiz-c-\n¬ Dev]-Øn-ÿn-Xn-e-b-ßsf {]m]n                      ]qcv h w tX\ \mcm- b Wx kv a rXx.(a- \ p
°p-∂-Xv.                                                    kvarXn˛1.10) Pew, Pohm-flm-hv F∂o A¿Y-
   hkpx˛ ""hk, \nhmtk'' F∂ *[mXp-hn¬                        ß-fmWv "\mcm'bv°p≈-Xv. Ah BcpsS Ab-
\n∂mWp hkp kn≤n- ° p- ∂ - X v . ""hk¥n                                      -     -
                                                            \w \nhm-kÿm-\am-bn-cn-°p-∂p-thm, AXn-\m¬
`qXm\n bkvan≥; AY-hm, bx kcvthjp                            k¿h Pohm-flm-°-fnepw hym]n-®n-cn-°p∂ ]c-
`qtXjp hkXn k hkp-co-izcx'' GXn¬                            am-flm-hns‚ \maw \mcm-b-W≥ F∂m-Ip-∂p.
BImiw apX-emb kIe `qX-ß-fpw ÿnXn                               N{µ≥:˛ "NZn, BÀm-tZ'' 63 F∂ [mXp-hn¬
sNøp-∂pthm As√-¶n¬ bmsXm∂v kI-e-`q-                         \n∂v N{µ-i_vZw D≠m-Ip-∂p. ""b›µXn Nµ-
X-ß-fnepw IpSn-sIm-≈p-∂pthm AXv hkp.                        bXn hm k N{µx'' kzbw B\-µ-kz-cq-]\pw
   cp{Zx˛ ""cpZnc,v A{ip-hn-tam-N-t\'' 61 F∂                F√m-h¿°pw B\µw Df-hm-°p-∂-h-\p-am-I-
[mXp-hns‚ "Wn-P¥'-Øn¬ \n∂mWp cp{Z-i-                        bm¬ N{µ-s\∂ t]cv Cuiz-cs‚ ]cymb-am-
_vZ-kn-≤n. ""tbmtcm-Z-bXy\ymb-Im-cntWm                      Wv.
P\m≥ k cp{Zx'' ZpjvI¿a߃ sNøp-∂-hsc                            awK-f≥:--˛ ""aKn, KXycvY-I'' 64 F∂ [mXp-
Ic-bn-∏n-°p-∂-h≥ F∂¿Yap≈ cp{Z≥ F∂                           hn¬ awtK- c - e - N v 65 F∂ kq{Xw sIm≠v
]Zw Cuiz-c-hm-Nn-bm-Wv.                                     tN¿°m- h p∂ Ae- N v {]Xybw tN¿Øm¬
   b∑-\km [ymbXn XZzmNm hZXn bZzmNm                         awKex F∂p-In-´pw. ""tbm aMvKXn aMvKbXn
hZXn XXv IcvaWm ItcmXn bXv IcvaWm                           hm k awKex'' kzbw awK-f-kz-cq-]\pw kI-e-
ItcmXn XZ-`n-kw-]-Zy-tX 62                                  Po-hn-Iƒ°pw awK-f-Zm-Xm-hp-am-I-bm¬ Cuiz-
   bPp¿thZ {_m“-W-Øn-ep≈ Hcp a{¥-am-                        cs‚ ]cym-b-amWv awKfx
Wn-Xv. ""Poh≥ a\- p-sIm≠p hnNm-cn-°p-∂-                        _p[≥:˛ _p[, Ah-K-at\ 66 F∂ [m-Xp-
Xns\ hm°p-sIm≠p ]d-bp-∂p. hm°p-sIm≠p                        hn¬ \n∂p _p[-i_vZw D≠m-Ip-∂p. ""tbm
]d-bp-∂-Xn-s\-bmWv {]hr-Øn-sIm≠p sNøp-                      _p[ytX t_m[-bXn hm k _p[x'' kzbw
                                                            t_m[-kz-cq-]\pw kI-e-Po-hn-Iƒ°pw ⁄m\-
* [mXp]mTw˛1-˛731                                           Zm-Xm-hp-am-I-bm¬ Cuiz-c\p _p[≥ F∂p
60 ssXØcob D]-\n-j-Øn¬ A∂, A∂mZ F∂p
   aq∂p XhW ]d-™n-´p-≈-sX-∂¿Yw
                                                            t]cm-bn. _rl-kv]Xni_vZ-Øns‚ A¿Yw 67
61 [mXp]mTw 2.60                                            apºp ]d-™n-´p-≠v.
62 hmP-k-t\b iX-]-Y-Øn¬ {]mNo-\-Im-eØv 15
   ]mT-ß-fp-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. iX-]-Y-Ønse C∂p e`y-amb            63 [mXp]mTw˛1.56
   ]mTw C{]-Im-c-am-Wv. ""k bYm-Imtam `hXn                  64 [mXp]mTw˛1.88
   XYm-{I-Xpcv`-h-Xn, bYm {InXcv`-hXn XXvIcva-Ip-ctX        65 [mXp]mTw˛5.75 (DWmZntImiw)
   XZ`n kw]-ZytX (14.7.26) ImWz iX-]-Y-Ønepw                66 [mXp]mTw˛1.597
   CtX ]mT-amWv. CXv Xmc-X-ay-]-T-\-a¿ln-°p-∂p.             67 t]Pv 7 c≠mw ]mZw Ah-km-\-`mKw


                                                       11
     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                      Cuiz-c-\m-a-ß-fpsS hymJym\w
   ip{I≥:˛ ""CuipNncv, ]qXo-`mth'' F∂              iz-c-\m-a-am-Ip-∂p. Fs¥-∂m¬ AXv k¿∆{X
[mXp-hn¬ \n∂p ip{I≥ D≠m-Ip-∂p. ""bx                hym]-I-\m-Wv 73.
ipNyXn timN-bXn hm k ip{Ix''. AXy-¥-                  tlmXmhv:˛ ""lq Zm\-mfZ\tbmx; BZmt\
]-hn-{X≥ AYhm BcpsS kwK-Øm¬ Poh\pw
]hn-{X-am-Ip-∂pthm AXv ip{I-\m-Ip-∂p.              tNtXy-tI'' 74 F∂ [mXp-hn¬\n∂p tlmXm-
                                                   i_v Z w D≠m- I p- ∂ p. ""tbm Pp- t lmXn k
   iss\-›cx:˛ iss\x F∂ D]-]-Z-tØm-Sp-              tlmXm'' sImSp-°p-hm≥ tbmKy-amb ]Zm¿Y-
Iq-Snb ""Nc, KXn-`-£-W-tbmx'' 68 F∂ [mXp-          ßsf Pohm- fl m- ° ƒ°p sImSp- ° p- ∂ - h ≥
hn¬\n∂p iss\-›-c-]Zw D≠m-Ip-∂p. "bx                F∂pw, kzoI-cn-°p-hm≥ sIm≈m-hp∂ hkvXp-
iss\-›-cXn k iss\›cx'' B¿°mtWm                     °sf Ah-cn¬ \n∂p kzoI-cn-°p-∂h≥ F∂pw
       -              -
kl-Pamb ss[cy-ap-≈Xv, Ah≥ F∂¿Y-ap≈                 A¿Y-ap≈ tlmXmhv Cuiz-cs‚ ]cym-b-]-Z-
iss\-›c i_vZw Cuiz-c-\m-a-am-Wv.                   am-Wv.
   cmlp:˛ cl- Xym-tK 69 F∂ [mXp-hn¬                   _‘px˛ _‘-, _-‘-t\ 75 F∂ [mXp-
\n∂p cmlp i_vZw D≠m-Ip-∂p. "tbm clXn               hn¬\n∂v _‘p i_vZw D≠m-Ip-∂p. ""bx
]cn-Xy-PXn ZpjvSm≥, cml-bXn XymP-bXn               kzkvan≥ Ncm-Ncw PKZv _[v\mXn; _‘p-h-
hm k -cm-lp-co-izcx' bmsXm-cp-h≥ GIm-¥-            ≤cvam-fl\mw kpJmb klm-tbm hm hcvXtX
kz-cq-]-\pw, AYhm as‰m∂pw IqSn-°-e-cmØ             k _‘px'' ]rYn-hymZn kI-e-tem-I-ß-sfbpw
cq]-tØmSp IqSnbh\pw ZpjvSsc kzbw XyPn-             \nb-a-ß-sf-s°m≠v X∂n¬ _‘n-®n-cn-°p∂,
°p-∂-h\pw A\y-sc-s°m≠p XyPn-∏n-°p-∂-h-             ktlm-Z-c-s\-t∏mse temI-ßsf c£n-°p∂
\p-am-b-h≥ F∂¿Y-Øn¬ cmlp Cuiz-cs‚                  AXm-Xns‚ ]cn-[n-Isf D√w-Ln-°m-\-\p-h-Zn-
\ma-am-Wv.                                         °mØ, ktlm-Z-c-߃ At\ym\yw klm-bn-
   tIXpx˛ ""InX, \nhmtkm tcmK-m]\-b-t\             °p-∂-Xp-t]mse temI-ß-sf-sb√mw [cn®v
N'' 70 F∂ [mXp-hn¬ \n∂p tIXp-i_vZw                 c£n®v kpJsØ \¬Ip∂ Cuiz-c\v _‘p
D≠m-Ip-∂p. ""bx tIX-bXn NnIn-’Xn hm                F∂v t]cv kap-Nn-X-am-Wv.
k tIXp-co-izcx'' kakvX-P-K-Øn\pw Ccn-∏n-              ]nXmhv;˛ ""]m c£tW'' 76 F∂ [mXp-hn¬
Sw, apap-£p-°ƒ°p tam£w \¬In Ah-cpsS                \n∂p ]nXmhv F∂ ]Zw kn≤n-°p-∂-Xm-Wv.
kmwkm- c nItcmK- ß - s f- s b√mw C√m- X m°n        ""bx ]mXn-kcvhm≥ k ]nXm'' ]nXmhv kzk-
Ahsc kpJ- s ∏- S p- Ø p- ∂ - h ≥, tcmK- ß ƒ        ¥m-\-ßfpsS t\sc Zb-tbm-Sp-IqSn s]cp-am-dp-
_m[n-°mØh≥ F∂o A¿Y-ß-fp≈ tIXp-                     Ibpw Ah- c psS A`yp- Z - b sØ Imw£n- ® p-
i_vZw Cuiz-c-\m-a-am-Wv.                           sIm≠v {]h¿Øn-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂-Xp-t]mse
   b⁄wx˛ ""bPv, -tZh]qPm-kw-KXoIc-W-               kI-e-cp-tSbpw D∂-a-\sØ am{Xw Imw£n-°p-
Zm-t\-jp'' 71 F∂-XmWv b⁄-i-_vZ-Øns‚                ∂-h-\m-I-bm¬ ]nXmhv F∂ t]cv PK-Zo-iz-c\v
[mXp. ""bt⁄m ssh hnjvWp'' 72 F∂p                   k¿hYm kap-Nn-X-am-Wv.
{_m“-W-h-N\w. tbm bPXn hnZz-Zv`n-cn-PytX              ]nXm-a-l≥:˛ ""bx ]nXrWmw ]nXm k
hm k bPvRx temI-Ønep≈ kIe ]Zm¿Y-                   ]nXm-alx'' ]nXm-°-∑m-cpsS ]nXmhv F∂¿Y-
ß-sfbpw Iq´n-t®¿°p-∂-h≥ F∂pw {_“mhp                              - -
                                                   ap≈]nXm-alkw⁄ Cuiz-cs‚ t]cm-Ip-∂p.
XpS-ßn-bp≈ kIe al¿jn-am-cmepw amap\n                  {]]n-Xm-a-l≥:-˛ ""bx ]nXm-a-lm\mw ]nXm
P\-ß-fmepw hnZzm-∑m-cmepw {XnIm-e-ß-fnepw          k {]-]n-Xm-alx'' ]nXm-a-l-∑m-cpsS ]nXmhv
]qP-\o-b≥ F∂pw A¿Y-ap≈ b⁄w k¿th-                   F∂¿Y-ap≈ {]]n-Xm-a-l-kw⁄ Cuiz-cs‚
                                                   t]cm-Wv.
68 [mXp]mTw˛1.376 Nc, -`-£tW N, NmZv KXuN
   F∂nh tN¿Øv {]tbmKw
69 [mXp]mTw˛1.486                                  73 CXv iX-]-Y-h-N-\-Øns‚ A¿Y-am-Wv.
70 [mXp]mTw˛1.719                                  74 [mXp]mTw˛3.1
71 [mXp]mTw˛1.728                                  75 [mXp]mTw˛9.41
72 iX]Yw {_m“Ww˛13.1.8.8                           76 [mXp]mTw˛2.49


                                              12
                H∂mw kap-√mkw                                                    kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
    amXmhv:˛ ""tbm anaotX am\-bXn kcvhm-                         {_“mhv:˛ ""_rl _rln hrs≤u'' 82
RvPo-hm≥ k amXm'' ]q¿W-Ir-]m-bp-‡-bmb                        F∂o [mXp- ° - f n¬ \n∂p {_“m- k w⁄
AΩ Fßs\ kzk-¥m-\-ß-fpsS kpJhpw                               kn≤n-°p-∂p. ""tbmfJnew PKZv\ncvam-tW\
Db¿®bpw Imw£n-°p-∂pthm A∆Æw Cuiz-                            _cvlXn (_rw-l-Xn) hcv≤-bXn k {_“m''
c≥ kIe Pohn-I-fp-sSbpw A`n-hr-≤nsb kZm                       temIsØ \n¿Ωn-°p-Ibpw hep-Xm-°p-Ibpw
B{K- l n- ° p- ∂ p. AXn- \ m¬ ]c- t a- i z- c \p             sNøp-∂-h≥ {_“m-hv. AXn-\m¬ Cuiz-c\v
amXmhv F∂p t]cm-bn.                                          {_“m-sh∂ t]cv tbmPn-°p-∂p.
    BNmcy≥:˛ BMv F∂ D]-k¿K-tØmSp                                 kXyw ⁄m\-a-\¥w {_“. CXv ssXØn-
IqSnb ""Nc KXn `£-Wtbmx'' 77 F∂ [mXp-                        co-tbm-]-\n-j-Øn-ep≈ Hcp hmIy-am-Ip-∂p. 83
hn¬\n∂v BNm-cy-kw⁄ D≠mIp-∂p, ""bx                            kXyw:˛ ""k¥oXn k¥x, tXjp k’p
B-Nmcw {Kml-bXn kcvhm hnZym t_m[-bXn                         km[p XXv k Xyav '' kØ- b p- ≈ Xp kØv ;
k BNmcy Cuizcx'' kXy-amb BNm-c-ß-                            ]Zm¿Yw F∂¿Yw. Ah-bn¬h®v DXvIr-jvS-am-
sfbpw kI-e-hn-Zy-I-tfbpw F√m-h¿°pw a\-                       bn-´p-≈Xv; bYm¿Y-amb kØ-tbm-Sp-Iq-Snb
 n-em°n sImSp-°p-∂-Xp-sIm≠v Cuiz-c\v                         Cuiz-c≥ ""kXy''amWv
BNm-cy≥ F∂ t]cv tbmPn-°p-∂p.                                     ⁄m\w:˛ ""b÷m\mXn Ncmf-Ncw PKØ
    Kpcp:-˛ ""Kr, i_vtZ'' 78 F∂ [mXp-hn¬\n-                  ÷vRm\av'' Ncm-Nc PK-Øns‚ {]hr-Øn-Isf
∂mWv "Kpcp' kn≤n-°p-∂-Xv. tbm [cvaym≥                                           -              -
                                                             apgp-h\pw Adn-bp-∂h≥ F∂¿Y-am-bXp-sIm≠v
i_vZm≥ KrWm-Xyp-]-Zn-iXn k Kpcpx. k (G-                      ⁄m\-i_vZw Cuiz-c-hm-Nn-bm-Wv.
j) ]qcvth-jm-a]n Kpcpx Imte\m\-h-t—-                             A\¥w:˛ ""\ hnZy-tXf-t¥mf-h-[ncva-cymZm
ZmXv. 79 (tbm-K-kq-{Xw) kXy-[¿asØ {]Xn-                      bky XZ\¥w'' AXncp \n¿W-bn-°p-hm≥
]m-Zn-°p-∂Xpw kIe hnZy-I-f-S-ßn-b-Xp-amb                     km[n-°p-I-bn-√m-Ø-Xv. \ofw, hoXn, hÆw apX-
thZ-ßsf D]-tZ-in-®-Xn-\m-epw, krjvSn-bpsS                    emb ]cn-am-W-߃ Cuiz-c\v kw`-hn-°m-Ø-
BZn-Im-e-Øn¬ A·n, hmbp, BZn-Xy≥,                             Xp-sIm≠v A\-¥-kw⁄ Cuiz-cs‚ t]cm-
AwKn-c- v, {_“mhv apX-emb Kpcp-°-∑m¿°p                       Ip-∂p.
                    -
IqSn Kpcp-hm-bn-cp-∂Xp-sIm≠pw Hcn-°epw \mi-                      {_“w:˛ ""kcvtht`ym _rl-ØzmZv {_“''
an-√m-bvI-bmepw Cuiz-c\pKpcpF∂p t]cm-bn.                     _rl-Øm-b-h-bn¬ _rl-Øm-I-bm¬ {_“w
    APx˛ ""AP, KXn-t£-]-W-tbmx 80 P\o,                       F∂p t]cm-bn.
{]mZpcv`m-th'' 81F∂o c≠p [mXp-°fn¬ \n∂v
                                   -                             A\mZn:˛ BMv F∂ D]-k¿K-tØm-Sp-Iq-
APkw⁄ In´p-∂-Xm-Wv. ""tbmfPXn kr                             Snb "UpZm-Rv, Zm-t\' 84 F∂ [mXp-hn¬ \n∂p
jvSnw {]Xn kcvhm≥ {]IrXymZo≥ ]Zm¿Ym≥                                                      - -
                                                             BZn-i_vZw D≠m-Ip-∂p. BZn-i_vZØn¬ \Rv
{]£n-]Xn, Pm\mXn (hm) IZm-Nn∂ PmbtX                          {]Xybw tN¿°p-tºmƒ A\mZn F∂ cq]w
tkmfPx'' {]Ir-Xn-bpsS Ah-b-h-ß-fmb BIm-                      In´p-∂p. ""bkvamXv ]qcvhw \mkvXn ]cw
im-Zn-`q-X-ß-fpsS ]c-amWp°sf bYmXY-ambn                      NmkvXn k BZn-cn-Xyp-Ny-tX. \ hnZytX
tN¿Øv `uXnI ico-c-ß-tfbpw Pohm-flm-°-                         BZnx ImcWw bky tkmf\m-Zn-co-izcx'' BZn
sfbpw kwtbm-Pn-∏n-®v, Pohn-Isf krjvSn-®h≥;  -                i_vZ-Øn-\v, apºv C√m-ØXv F∂¿Y-am-Wv.
AYhm P\-\-an-√m-ØXv F∂¿Y-ap≈ AP-                             kz¥w kØ°p Imc-W-ambn as‰mcp hkvXp-
kw⁄ Cuiz-cs‚ bp‡-amb \ma-am-Wv.                              hn-√m-ØXv A\m-Zn-˛-Im-c-W-c-ln-X≥˛ F∂v
77 [mXp]mTw˛1.376                                            A¿Yw.
78 [mXp]mTw˛9.29                                                 B\-µ≥:˛ BMv F∂ D]-kcvK-tØm-Sp-Iq-
79 EtKz-ZmZn `mjy-`q-an-I-bn¬ (th-Z-]-cy-S-\w) k Gj
   ]qcvth-jm-sa-∂mWp ]mTw (k-am-[n-]mZw 26-˛mw kq{Xw)        Snb "Sp\Zn, kar-≤u'' 85 F∂ [mXp-hn¬
   k Gj F∂Xv kq{X-Øns‚ DYm-\nIm cq]-am-sW∂v                  82 [mXp]mTw˛1.488
   Nne-cpsS Sn∏-Wn-I-fn¬ ImWp-∂p.                            83 {_“m-\-µ-h√n 1
80 [mXp]mTw˛1.139                                            84 [mXp]mTw˛3.9
81 [mXp]mTw˛4.40                                             85 [mXp]mTw˛1.55


                                                        13
     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                         Cuiz-c-\m-a-ß-fpsS hymJym\w
\n∂p B\-µ-i_vZw D≠m-Ip-∂p. ""B\-µ¥n                  °p∂p _p≤≥. AXp-sIm≠v _p≤≥ F∂Xv
kcvth ap‡m bkvan≥. bZzm bx kcvhm≥                    PK-Zo-iz-cs‚ t]cm-Wv.
Pohm-\m-\-µ-bXn k B\-µx.'' kIe Pohm-                    ap‡≥:˛ ""apNver, tamN-t\'' 90 F∂ [mXp-
flm-°fpw B\-µsØ A\p-`-hn-°p∂ B\-µ-                    hn¬ \n∂p ap‡-i_vZw D≠m-Ip-∂p. ""tbm
                            -
kz-cq-]≥ AYhm [¿a-\n-jvTbp≈ kIe Pohm-                ap©Xn tamN-bXn hm apap-£q≥ k apt‡m
        -                     -
flm-°sfbpw B\-µn-∏n-°p-∂h≥ F∂¿Y-ap≈                   PK-Zo-izcx'' F√m Aip-≤n-I-fn¬ \n∂pw AI-
B\-µ≥ Cuiz-cs‚ \ma-am-Wv.                                                              - -
                                                     ∂-h\pw apap-£p-°sf {]m]-©n-Ißfmb t¢i-
   kXv:˛""Ak, `phn'' 86 F∂ [mXp-hn¬                  ß-fn¬\n∂v AI-‰p-∂-h-\pw, F∂ A¿Y-Øn¬
\n∂p kXv F∂ kw⁄ D≠m-hp-∂p. bZkvXn                    ap‡ kw⁄ Cuiz-c-t‚-Xm-Wv.
{Xnjp Imtejp \ _m[ytX XXvkZv {_“                        \nXy-\pw, ip≤-\pw, _p≤-\pw, ap‡-\p-am-
`qX h¿Ø-am-\- `mhn Im-e-ß-fn¬ Hcpt]mse                                                   -
                                                     b-Xp-sIm≠v PK-Zo-iz-c≥ \nXy-ip-≤_p≤ap‡-
\mi-an-√msX h¿Øn-°p-∂Xv F∂v A¿Y-ap-≈-                kz-`mhn F∂p ]d-b-s∏-Sp-∂p.
kXv kw⁄ Cuiz-cs‚ t]-cm-Wv.                              \ncm-Im-c≥:˛ \ncv, BMv F∂ c≠p-]k¿K-   -
   NnXv:˛ ""NnXo, kw⁄m-t\'' 87 F∂ [mXp-              ß-tfm-Sp-Iq-Snb "'UpIrRv, Ic-tW'' 91 F∂
hn¬\n∂v ""NnXv'' i_vZw D≠m-Ip-∂p. ""bivtN-           [mXp \ncm- I m- c - k w- ⁄ - b psS aqe- a m- W v .
XXn tNX- b Xn kw⁄m- ] - b Xn k¿hm≥                   ""\n¿KX BIm-cmXv k \ncm-Imcx'' BIm-c-
k÷-\m≥ tbmKn-\-kvX-®nXv ]cw {_“.''                                     -
                                                     sam-∂pta C√m-Øh≥ \ncm-Im-c≥˛ Cuiz-c≥.
tNX-\-kz-cq-]\pw kI-e-Po-hn-Iƒ°pw ssNX-                 \nc-RvP-\≥:˛ \ncv F∂ D]-k¿K-tØm-Sp-
\yhpw F√m-h¿°pw kXym-k-Xy-t_m-[hpw                   Iq- S nb ""ARv P q hy‡nwe- £ - W - I m¥n
\¬Ip-∂-h≥ F∂¿Y-Øn¬ "NnXv' Cuiz-c-\m-                 KXnjp'' F∂ [mXp-hn¬ \n∂p \nc-RvP\
a-am-Wv.                                             i_vZw D≠m-Ip-∂p.""ARvP\w hy‡nwcve
   kXv, NnXv, B\-µ≥ F∂o aq∂pw hnti-j-                £Ww IpIma C{µnssbx {]m]vXn-t›Xy
      -   -
W-ßfm-bXp-sIm≠v k¿th-iz-cs\ k®n-Zm-\µ                kvamZv tbm \ncvKXx ]rY-Kv`qXx k \nc-
kzcq-]≥ F∂p-]-d-bp-∂p.                               RvP\x'' hy‡n AXm-bXv BIr-Xn-˛-tæ-—m-Nm-
   \nXy≥:˛""tbm \nXy- { [p- t hm-fNtemf- h n-        cw, Zpjv S - a mb B{K- l - ß ƒ, C{µn- b - h n-
\mio k \nXyx'' \n›-e\pw \mi-an-√m-Ø-h-               jbk©mcw F∂n-h-sbm-∂p-an-√m-Ø-h-\m-I-
\p-am-I-bm¬ \nXy≥ F∂Xv Cuiz-c-hm-Nn-bm-              bm¬ Cuiz-cs\ \nc-RvP-\≥ F∂p ]dbp-
Wv.                                                  ∂p.
   ip≤≥:˛ ""ip‘, ip≤u'' 88 F∂ [mXp-                     KtW-i≥, KW-]Xn:˛ ""KW, kwJym-t\'' 92
hmWv kw⁄bpsS aqew. ""bx ip‘Xn                        F∂ [mXp-hn¬ \n∂p KW i_vZw D≠m-Ip-
kcvhm≥ tim[-bXn hm k ip≤ Cuizcx''                    ∂p. KW-i-_vZ-Øn¬ Cuix ]Xnx F∂n-hsb
bmsXmcp Aip-≤nbpw Xo≠mØ kzbw AXy-                    Iq´n-t®¿Øm¬ KtW-ix, KW-]Xnx F∂o
¥-]-hn-{X-\m-b, a‰p-≈-h-sc-sb√mw ]cn-ip-≤-∑m-        c≠p-\m-a-߃ D≠m-Ipw. ""tb {]Ir-Xym-Ztbm
cm-°p∂ Cuiz-c\v "ip≤≥' F∂ \maw A\p-                  PUm- Po- h m› KWyt¥ kwJym- b t¥
tbm-Py-amWv.                                         tXjm-aoix kzmao ]Xnx ]metIm hm'' {]Ir-
   _p≤≥:˛ ""_p[, Ah-K-a-t\'' 89 F∂                   Xym-Zn-I-fmb PU-]-Zm¿Y-ß-fp-sSbpw kIe
[mXp-hn¬ "‡'{]-Xybw tN¿Øm¬ _p≤                       Pohn-I-fp-sSbpw bP-am-\\pw ]me-I-\p-am-b-Xn-
kw⁄ e`n-°pw. ""tbm _p≤-hm≥ k-ssZh                    \m¬ Cuiz-c\v KtW-i≥, KW-]Xn F∂o-t]-
⁄mXmfkvXn k _pt≤m PK-Zo-izcx'' F√m-                  -cpIƒ h∂p.
bvt∏mgpw F√m-‰n-s\-bpw Adn-™p-sIm-≠n-cn-                hntiz-iz-c≥:˛ ""tbm hniztamjvtS k
86 [mXp]mTw˛1.58                                     hntiz-izcx'' kI-e-P-K-Øn-s‚bpw A[n-jvTm-
87 [mXp]mTw˛1.32                                     90 [mXp]mTw˛6.139
88 [mXp]mTw˛1.60                                     91 [mXp]mTw˛8.10
89 [mXp]mTw˛1.597                                    92 [mXp]mTw˛10.281


                                                14
               H∂mw kap-√mkw                                               kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
Xm-hm-I-bm¬ Cuiz-cs‚ t]cv hntiz-iz-c≥                {]-Ir-Xn-bn¬ Ce-Iƒ, ]q°ƒ, ImbvI-\n-Iƒ,
F∂m-bn.                                              Ing-ßp-Iƒ, XpS-ßnb ]Zm¿Y-ß-tf-bpw, ]rYn-
   IqS-ÿ≥:˛ ""bx IqtSfAt\-I-hn-[-hy--h-              hn, Pew, F∂o `qX-ß-fn¬ IdpØpw Nph∂pw
lmtc kzkzcq- t ]- s sW- h - Xn- j v T Xn k           shfp-Øp-ap-ff I√v, aÆv apX-emb hkvXp-°-
IqSÿx ]c-ta-izcx'' kIe hyh-lm-cßfnepw  - -           tf-bpw. BIm-i-Øn¬ kqcy-N-{µmZn {Kl-ß-
hym]n®v Ah-bpsS B[m-c-`q-X-\m-bn-cn-°nepw            tfbpw \n¿Ωn®v `ph-\-sØ ImW-Ø°hÆ-
kz¥w kzcq-]-Øn\v bmsXmcp am‰hpw hcmsX                am-°p-∂-h≥. As√-¶n¬ thZmZn imkv{X-ß-
h¿Øn-°p-∂-Xn-\m¬ B A¿Y-ap≈ IqS-ÿ≥                    fn¬ {]Xn-]m-Zn-°p-I-bpw, tbmKn-I-fpsS e£y-
F∂ ]Zw Cuiz-cs‚ ]cym-b-\maam-bn.                     am-bn-cn-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂-h≥ F∂n-ßs\ ]e
   tZhn:˛ tZh≥ F∂ ]Z-Øn-\p≈ A¿Y-ß-                   s]mcp-fp-a-S-ßnb "e£van' Cuizc-kw-⁄-bm-
sf√mw tZhn-bv°p-ap-≠v. Cuiz-cs‚ \ma-߃               Wv.
aq∂p enwK-ß-fn-ep-ap-≠v. {_“ F∂ \maw \-                 kc-kz-Xnx˛ ""kr, KXu'' 96 F∂ [mXp-hn¬
]pw-k-I-enw-Khpw,- NnXnx F∂ \maw kv{Xoenw-           \n∂v kckv i_vZ-ap-≠m-Ip-∂p. kckv F∂
K-hpw, Cuiz-c≥ F∂ \maw ]p√nw-K-hp-am-W-                     -
                                                     i_vZØn¬ "aXp]v' "Mo]v' F∂o {]Xy-b߃    -
                   --
t√m. Cuiz-c-i-_vZØns‚ hnti-j-W-ambn hcp-             Iq´n- t ®¿Øm¬ kc- k zXoi_v Z w In´pw.
tºmƒ tZh≥ F∂pw NnXn-i-_vZ-Øns‚ hnti-                 ""ktcm hnhn[ ⁄m\w hnZytX bkymw
j-W-am-Ip-tºmƒ tZhn F∂pw {]tbm-Kn-°p-∂p-             NnXu 97 km kc-kzXo'' i_vZm¿Y-ß-fpsS
sh-∂p-am-{Xw. AXn-\m¬ tZho-kw⁄ Cuiz-                 kw_‘w {]tbmKw apX-emb hnhn[ hnj-
cs‚ t]cm-Wv.                                         bßfpsS bYm-X-Y-amb ⁄m\-tØmSp IqSn-
   i‡nx˛ ""iIver, i‡u'' 93 F∂ [mXp-                  b-sX-∂¿Y-am-Wv kc-kz-Xo-°p-≈Xv. AXn-\m¬
hn¬ \n∂p "i‡n' D≠m-Ip-∂p. ""bx kcvhw                 Cuiz-c\v kc-kzXo F∂p t]cp-≠v.
PKXv IcvXpw iIvt\mXn k i‡nx'' temIw                      kcvh-i-‡n-am≥x˛ ""kcvhmx- i-‡tbm
apgp-h-\pw krjvSn-°p-hm≥ kma¿Yy-ap-≈-Xt{X            hnZyt¥ bkvan≥ k kcvh-i-‡n-am-\o-izcx''
i‡n. B i‡nbp≈-Xn-\m¬ Cuiz-c\v i‡n-                   Xs‚ I¿Ø-hy-\n¿h-l-W-Øn\v as‰m-cp-hs‚
sb∂p t]cm-bn.                                        klm-b-an-—n-°msX F√m Imcyßfpw kzkm-
   {iox˛ ""{inRv, tkhm-bmav'' 94 F∂ [mXp-            a¿Yyw sIm≠p-Xs∂ \S-Øp-∂-h-\m-I-bm¬
hn¬ \n∂mWv {iobpsS DXv]-Øn. ""bx {io-                Cuiz-c\v kcvh-i-‡n-am≥ F∂p t]cm-bn.
btX tkhytX k¿thW PKXm hnZzZv`n-                          \ymb-Imcn;-˛ ""WnRv {]m]-tW'' 98 F∂
tcym-Kn-`n› k {ioco-izcx'' kIe P\-ßfpw               [mXp- h n¬ \n∂v \ymbiv _ w D≠m- I p- ∂ p.
hnZzm- ∑ mcpw tbmKn- I fpw tkhn- ° p- ∂ - h ≥        ""{]am-ssW-ccvY-]-co-£Ww \ymbx'' F∂p
F∂¿Y-ap≈ {io i_vZw Cuiz-cm-`n-[m-\-am-Ip-            hm’ym-b\ al¿jn Xs‚ \ymb kq{X-`m-jy-
∂p.                                                  Øn¬ ]d-™n-´p≠v. ]£-]mXcmln-Xym-N-
   e£vaox˛ ""e£, Zcvi\m-¶\tbmx'' 95 F∂
                                - - -                cWw \ymbx {]Xy-£w. A\p-am\w apX-em-b
[mXp-hn¬ \n∂v e£vao-i_vZw D≠m-Ip-∂p.                 {]am-W-ß-sf-s°m≠v ]co-£n®v kXysØ
""tbm e£-bXn ]iy-Xn A¶tX Nn”-bXn                     bYm-hXv Adn-bp-Ibpw ]£-]m-X-c-ln-X-ambn
Ncm-fNcw PK-Xv, AYhm thssZ-cm-]vssX-tcym-            [¿aw BN-cn-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂-Xn-s\-bmWv
Kn-`nivN tbm e£ytX k e£vaox kcvh-                                         -
                                                     \ymbw F∂p ]d-bp-∂Xv. ""\ymbw IcvXpw ioe-
{]n-tb-izcx''. Ncm-NcPKØns\ I≠p sIm≠n
                        - - - -                      aky k \ymb- I m- c o- i zcx'' 99 ]£- ] mXw
cn-°p-∂-h≥, AYhm B PK-Øns\ Zriy-am-
°p-∂h≥˛ AXm-bXv, a\p-jy-ico-cØn¬ IÆv,
       -              -            - -               96 [mXp]mTw˛1.669
aq°v apX-em-b ⁄mt\-{µn-bßtfbpw, _mly-                97 NnXn-i-‡m-ho-izcm F∂¿Yw
                                                     98 [mXp]mTw˛1.642
93 [mXp]mTw˛5.16                                     99 \ymb-`m-jy-Im-c≥ IuSn-ey≥ F∂p IqSn-t]-cp≈
94 [mXp]mTw˛1.638                                                                  -
                                                        NmW-Iy-\m-sW∂pw hmXvkym-b\≥ F∂Xp tKm{X-
95 [mXp]mTw˛10.5                                        \m-a-amsW∂pw sFXn-lm-knI aX-ap≠v.


                                                15
     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                                 Cuiz-c-\m-a-ß-fpsS hymJym\w
IqSmsX [¿aw \SØp∂ kz`mhap≈-Xn-\m¬                                            -
                                                            X, cmK-tZz-j߃, Ahn-ZymZn Ivtfi-߃ Pohm-
Cuiz-cs\ \ymb-Imcn F∂p ]d-bp-∂p.                                                    -
                                                            flm-hns‚ KpW-ßfm-Ip-∂p. Cu c≠p-hn[ KpW-
    Zbm-epx˛ ""Zb, Zm\-K-Xn-c-£-W-lnw-km˛-                  ß- f n- √ m- Ø - h - \ mWv Cuiz- c ≥. ""Ai- _ v Z - a -
Zm-t\-jp'' 100 F∂ [mXp-hn¬ \n∂v Zb kn≤n-                    kv]cvi-a-cq-]-a-hy-bav'' 102 F∂p XpS-ßnb D]-
°p-∂p. ""ZbtX ZZmXn Pm\mXn K—Xn c£Xn                        \n-j-Zz-N-\-ß-fmWv AXn\p {]am-Ww. AXn-
ln\kv X n bbm km Zbm. _lzo Zbm                              \m¬ Cuiz-c\v \n¿Kp-W-s\∂ A`n-[m\w
hnZytX bky k Zbmepx ]c-ta-izc''. `b-ap-                     tNcp-∂p.
≈-h¿°v A`bw \¬Ip-∂, kXym-k-Xy-ß-fpw,                           kKp-W≥:˛ ''tbm KpssWx kl hcvØtX
k¿h-hn-Zy-Ifpw Adn-bp-∂, \√-hsc c£n-°p-                     k kKpWx'' k¿h-⁄-X, B\-µ-a-b-X, ]cn
∂, ZpjvS∑msc A¿l-ambn in£n-°p∂ Cuiz-
             -                                              ip≤-X, A]-cn-ta-b-_-ew, apX-emb KpW-ß-
cs\ Zbmep F∂p ]d-bp-∂p.                                     tfm-Sp-Iq-Sn-b-h-\m-I-bm¬ Cuiz-c≥ kKp-W≥
    AssZz-Xwx˛ ""Zztbmcv`mthm Zzm`ymanXw                    BIp-∂p.
k ZznXm 101 AYhm ZzoXw hm sskh XtZh                            ]rYn-hnbv°p K‘mZn KpW-߃ D≈-Xp-
hm ssZzXw. \ hnZysX ssZzXw ZznXo-tb-iz-                     sIm≠v AXp kKp-W-bmWv; C—m-Zn-Kp-W-߃
c-`-mthm bkvan≥XZ-ssZzXw; AcvYmXv kPm-                      C√m- Ø - X p- s Im≠v AXp \n¿Kp- W - b p- a mWv
Xo- b - h n- P m- X obkzK- X - t `- Z - i q\yw {_“''        AXp-t]mse Xs∂ PU-amb PK-Ønepw tNX-
c≠ns‚ `mhw ssZzXw. ssZzX- a - n √m- Ø Xv                    \-amb Pohm-flm-hnepw ImW-s∏-Sp∂ KpW-ß-
AssZz-Xw. kPm-Xo-bw, hnPm-Xo-bw, kzKXw                      sfm∂pw X\n°v C√m-Ø-Xp-sIm≠v PK-Zo-iz-
F∂p {Xnhn[ t`Z-ap-≠v. B t`Z-߃ C√m-                         c≥ \n¿Kp-W\pw k¿h-⁄X apX-emb KpW-
ØXv AssZzXw F∂p hnh-£. c≠p a\p-                             ß-fp-≈-Xp-sIm≠v kKp-W\pw BIp-∂p. kKp-
jy¿°p XΩn-ep≈ t`Zw kPm-Xob t`Z-am-                          W-Xzhpw \n¿Kp-W-Xzhpw CS-I-e¿∂-X-√mØ
Ip∂p. a\p-jy-Xz-sa∂ Htc PmXn-bn-ep≈ c≠p                     bmsXmcp hkvXphpw temI-Øn¬ C√. tNX-
]Zm¿Y-߃ XΩn-ep≈ hyXym-k-am-W-Xv. a\p-                      \-Kp-W-ß-fn-√m-Ø-Xp-sIm≠v PU-]-Zm¿Y-߃
jy-\pw, hr£w, ine apX-em-b-h-Iƒ°pw XΩn-                     \n¿Kp-W-ß-fm-sW∂pw AtN-X-\-Kp-W-ß-fp-≈-
ep≈ t`Zw hnPm-Xob t`Z-am-Wv. Htc ico-c-                     Xp-sIm≠v kKp-W-ß-fm-sW∂pw ]d-bmw. AXp-
Øn-ep≈ IÆv, sNhn, aq°v, sNhn apX-emb                        t]mse Xs∂ PU-]-Zm¿Y-ß-fpsS KpW-߃
Ah-b-h-߃ XΩn-ep≈ t`Z-sØ-bmWv kzK-                          C√m-Ø-Xp-sIm≠v Pohm-flm-°ƒ \n¿Kp-W-ß-
X-t`Zw F∂p ]dbp∂-Xv. Cuiz-cs‚ kPm-Xo-                       fm-Ip-∂p. C—m-Zn-I-fmb tNX-\-Kp-W-ß-fp-≈-Xn-
bt\m hnPm-Xo-bt\m Bb as‰mcp Cuiz-c≥                         \m¬ kKp-Wß-fm-sW∂pw ]d-bmw. Cuiz-c-
C√. Cuiz-cs‚ kzmflm-hn¬ Xs∂ kzK-X-t`-                        \nepw kKp-WXz \n¿Kp-W-Xz-߃ Iq-Sn-t®¿∂n
Z-ap-≈-Xpw, XØzm-¥-c-ap-≈-Xp-am-b-sXm-∂p-an-√m-             cn°p-∂Xpw C∆-Æ-am-sW-∂-dn-b-Ww.
bvI-bm¬ Cuiz-cs\ "AssZzXw' F∂p hnfn-                           A¥-cym-an˛ ""A¥-cy¥pw \nb¥pw ioew
°p-∂p.                                                      bky tkmfb-a-¥-cymao'' temI--Øn-ep≈ tNX-
    \n¿Kp-W≥:˛ ""KpWyt¥ tb tX KpWm                          \m-tN-X\ ]Zm¿Y-ß-fpsS A¥¿`m-K-Øn¬
hm ssbcv K pW- b ¥n tX KpWmx; tbm                           Ccp∂v F√m-‰n-s\bpw \nb-{¥n®p \S-Øp-∂-
KptWt`ym \ncvKXx k \ncvKpW Cuizcx''                         Xp-sIm≠v Cuiz-c\v A¥-cyman F∂p t]cm-
kØzw, cP-kv, Xakv F∂n-hbpw cq]w, ckw,                       bn.
K‘w, kv]¿iw CXym-Zn-Ifpw PU-]-Zm¿Y-ß-                          [¿a-cm-P≥˛ "tbm [cvta cmPtX k [cva-
fpsS KpW-ß-fm-Ip-∂p. A⁄-X, Aev]-⁄-                          cmPx' [¿a-Øn¬ am{Xw {]Im-in-°p-I-bpw
100 [mXp]mTw˛1.322                                          [¿asØ am{Xw {]Im-in-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNøp∂
101 ZznXm F∂-Xns‚ apJym¿Yw t`Z-sa-∂m-Wv.                    Cuiz-cs\ [¿a-cm-P-s\∂p hnfn-°p-∂p.
    {KŸ-I¿Ømhpw DØ-c-hm-Iy-Øn¬ Cu A¿Yw
    kzoI-cn-®n-cn-°p-∂p. H∂n-tesd A\mZn XØz-ßsf                ba≥-˛˛ "bap, D]-c-ta' 103 F∂ [mXp-hn¬
                          - -
    kzoI-cn-°p∂ Z¿i-\ßsf√mw                                 102 ItTm-]-\n-jXv˛3.15
    ssZzX-Z¿i-\ßfm-W.v
                  - -                                       103 [mXp]mTw˛1.710


                                                       16
                 H∂mw kap-√mkw                                                           kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
\n∂v ba-i_vZw D≠m-Ip-∂p. ""bx kcvhm≥                            ∂-h≥ F∂¿Y-Øn¬ Cuiz-cs‚ ]cym-b-amWv
{]mWnt\m \nb-—Xn k bax'' kIe {]mWn-                             Ime≥.
Iƒ°pw I¿a-^ew hyh-ÿ-sN-øp-∂Xv ba≥.                                 tijx˛ ""injver, hnti-j-tW'' 110 F∂
kI-e-hn-[-Øn-ep≈ A\ym-b-ß-fn¬ \n∂pw                             [mXp-hn¬ \n∂v tij-i_vZw D≠m-Ip-∂p. ""bx
AI-∂n-cn-°p-∂-h≥ F∂pw ba\v A¿Y-ap-≠v.                           injytX k tijx'' Dev]-Øn-bnepw {]f-b-
Aß-s\-bp≈ Cuiz-c≥ ba-\m-Ip-∂p.                                  Ønepw tijn-°p-∂-h≥˛ Ah _m[n-°m-Ø-
   `K-hm≥˛ ""`P-, tk-hmbmav'' 104 F∂ [mXp-                      Xv˛ F∂¿Y-ap≈ tij≥ Cuiz-c-hm-Nn-bm-Wv.
hn¬ \n∂v `K-i_vZw D≠m-Ip-∂p. AXn¬                                  B]vXx ""B]ver, hym]vXu'' 111 F∂ [mXp-
aXp]v {]Xybw tN¿Øm¬ `K-hm≥ F∂                                   hn¬ \n∂v B]vX-i_vZw D≠m-Ip-∂p. ""bx
i_vZw In´pw. ""`Kx kIsseizcyw tkh\w                             kcvhm≥ [cvam-fl\ B]vt\mXn hm kcvssh
hm hnZytX bky k `K-hm≥''. kIe sFiz-                             [cvam-fl-`n-cm-]ytX OemZn clnXx k B]v
cy-ß-tfm-Sp-Iq-Sn-b-h\pw `Pn-°p-hm≥ tbmKy-                      Xx'' kIe hnZym- b p- ‡ \pw ktXym- ] - t Z-
\pamb Cuiz-c\p `K-hm≥ F∂p t]cm-bn.                              jvSmhpw [¿am-flm-°-fm¬ {]m]y-\pw, Ah-cn¬
   a\px˛ ""a\, ⁄mt\'' 105F∂ [mXp-hn¬                            hnf-ßp-∂-h\pw Im]-Sy-an-√m-Ø-h-\p-am-b-h≥
                                                                F∂¿Y-ap≈ "B]vX≥' Cuiz-cs‚ \maamWv.
\n∂v a\p-kw⁄ D≠m-Ip-∂p. ""tbm a\ytX                                iwI-cx˛ iw F∂ D]-]-Z-tØm-Sp-Iq-Snb
k a\px'' hn⁄m-\-io-e≥ As√-¶n¬ am\n-
bvt°-≠-h≥ F∂¿Yw. Cuiz-c\v Cu tbmKy-                             UpIrRv Ic-tW 112 F∂ [mXp-hn¬ \n∂v
X-I-fp-≈-Xn-\m¬ a\p F∂p t]cp h∂p.                               \n∂p i¶- c- i _v Z w D≠m- I p- ∂ p. ""bx iw
                                                                IeymWw kpJw ItcmXn k i¶cx'' awKfw
   ]pcp-j≥:˛ "]r, ]me-\-]q-c-W-tbmx' 106                        AYhm kpJw Df-hm-°p-∂-h≥ F∂¿Y-Øn¬
F∂ [mXp-hn¬ \n∂mWv ]pcp-j-i-_vZ-kn-≤n.                          i¶-c-kw⁄ Cuiz-c-hm-Nn-bm-Wv.
""bx kz hym]vXym Ncmf-Ncw PKXv ]rWmXn                              alm-tZ-h≥:˛ tZh-i-_vZ-Øn¬ alXv F∂p-
]qc-b-Xn hm k ]pcpjx'' 107 temI-Øn-se√mw                        IqSn tN¿Øm¬ alm-tZ-h≥ F∂ \maw D≠m-
\nd-™n-cn-°p-∂-h-\m-I-bm¬ Cuiz-c\v ]pcp-                        Ip-∂p. ""tbm alXmw tZhx k alm-tZhx'' 113
j≥ F∂p t]¿.                                                     tZh-∑m-cpsS tZh≥ AXm-b-Xv, hnZzm-∑m-cn¬
   hnizw-`-c≥˛ hniz-]q¿h-I-amb ""Up`rRv,                        hnZzm\pw kqcymZn ]Zm¿Y-ßsf°qSn {]Im-in-
[mcWt]mjW-tbmx'' 108 F∂ [mXp-hn¬                                ∏n-°p-∂-h-s\-∂¿Yw.
\n∂v hnizw-`c i_vZw D≠m-Ip-∂p. ""tbm                               {]nbx:˛""{]oR,v Xcv]tW Ims¥u N'' 114
hnizw _n`cvXn [cXn ]pjvWmXn hm k
hnizw-`tcm PK-Zo-izcx'' PK-Øns\ [cn-°p-                         110 [mXp]mTw˛7.14
                                                                111 [mXp]mTw˛5.15
Ibpw t]mjn-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂Xv F∂¿Y-                            112 [mXp]mTw˛8. 10
ap≈ hnizw-`-c- i_vZw Cuiz-cs‚ t]cm-Wv.                          113 CXv kam-k-Øns‚ hn{K-l-a-√. A¿Y-\n¿t-Zi-am-Wv.
   Ime≥˛ ""Ie-, KXu kw-Jym-t\ N'' 109 F∂                            kamkw kam-\m-[n-I-cW XXv]p-cp-j≥ Xs∂.
                                                                    kmam-knI hn{K-l-Øm¬ `n∂ ]Z-ß-fpsS A¿Y-
[mXp-hn¬ \n∂v Ime-kw⁄ D≠m-Ip-∂p.""Ie-                                                         - -
                                                                    \n¿tZiw sNøp-∂Xv {]mNo-\]cn-]m-Sn-bm-Wv.
bXn kwJymXn kcv h m≥ ]Zmcv Y m≥ k                                   alm-`mjyw 1. 1˛1 mw Blv\n-I-Øn¬ ""[cva-\n-bax''
Imex'' temI-Øn-ep≈ kIe PU-]-Zm¿Y-ß-                                 F∂-Xn\v [cvamb \nbax F∂pw ""hrØn-k-a-hmbx''
                                                                    F∂-Xns\ hrØtb ka-hmbx F∂pw A¿Yw
tfbpw Pohm-flm-°-tfbpw FÆn IW-°m-°p-                                 ]d-™n-cn-°p-∂p. imkv{Xo-b-ambn ""hnIrXn
                                                                    hmNI NXpcvYy¥ kp_-¥-Øn\v {]IrXn hmNI
104 [mXp]mTw˛1.724                                                  kp_-¥-tØmSp am{Xta kamkw hbv°q.
105 [mXp]mTw˛4.65                                                   AjvSm-[ym-bn-bnse NXp¿Yo XZ¿Ym... (2.1.35)
106 [mXp]mTw˛9.18                                                   F∂ kq{Xw t\m°p-I. IqSm-sX, jjvTo
107 ]qc-b-Xy-¥-cn-Xy-¥-c-]p-cp-j-a-`n-t{]Xy˛-\n-cp‡w 2.3                      -                      -
                                                                    XXv]p-cp-j\mb alm-Lm-k,alm-Ic,apX-embhbn¬
    tXt\Z ]qcvWw ]pcp-tjW kcvhav.....                                                                  -
                                                                    ""al-ZmtXz Lmk-Ic hnin-jvtS-jq-]kw-Jym\w
    (ssXØcob BcWyIw 10.10)                                          ]pw hZz-N\w Nmk-am-\m-[n-Ic-Wav'' F∂ hm¿Øn-I-
108 [mXp]mTw˛3.5                                                    Øm¬ BXzw hcpw-hÆw F∂-dn-bpI
109 [mXp]mTw˛10.290                                             114 [mXp]mTw˛9.2


                                                           17
     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                               Cuiz-c-\m-a-ß-fpsS hymJym\w
F∂ [mXp-hn¬ \n∂v {]nb i_vZw D≠m-Ip-                         KpW-I¿a-kz-`m-h-߃°v FÆ-an-√. AXn-\m¬
∂p. ""bx ]rWmXn {]obtX hm k {]nbx''                         At±-l-Øns‚ \ma-߃°pw FÆ-an-√. Hmtcm
[¿am-flm-°fpw apap-£p-°fpw injvS-∑m-cp-am-b-                 tcm KpW-tØbpw I¿atØbpw kz`m-h-tØ
hsc kt¥mjn-∏n-°p-∂-h≥ As√-¶n¬Ghcpw                                                            -
                                                            bpw Ipdn-°p-hm≥ Hmtcmtcm t]cp-Ifp-≠v. Rm≥
{]m]n-bv°p-hm≥ B{K-ln-°p-∂Xv F∂¿Y-                          ChnsS Fgp- X nb \ma߃ kap- { Z- Ø n\p
ap≈ {]nb-i_vZw Cuiz-c-hm-Nn-bm-Wv.                          apºn¬ Xp≈n-sb-∂-hÆw Xp—-am-Ip-∂p. thZm-
   kzbw`qx:˛ "kzbw' ]q¿h- I - a mb ""`q,                                   -
                                                            Zn-im-kv{X-ßfn¬ Cuiz-cs‚ FÆ-a‰ KpW-Icva-
kØmbmw'' 115 F∂ [mXp-hn¬ \n∂v kzbw`q                        kz-`m-h-ßsf hymJym-\n-®n-´p-≠v. thZm-Zn-im-
i_vZw D≠m-Ip-∂p. ""bx kzbw `hXn k                           kv { X- ß ƒ ]Tn- ° p- I bpw ]Tn- ∏ n- ° p- I bpw
kzbw`qco-izcx'' kzb-tah D≈Xv as‰m-∂n¬                       sNbvXm¬ am{Xta B \ma-ßsf Adn-bp-hm≥
\n∂v D≠m-Im-ØXv F∂¿Y-Øn¬ kzbw`q                             Ign-bq. thZm-Zn-im-kv{X-ßsf A[y-b\w sNøp-
Cuiz-c-hm-Nn-bm-Wv.                                         ∂-h¿°p am{Xta a‰p ]Zm¿Y-ß-fpsS ⁄m
                                                            \hpw ]q¿W-ambn D≠m-hp-I-bp-≈q.
   Ihnx˛ "Ip, i-_vtZ' 116 F∂ [mXp-hn¬                           tNmZyw˛ a‰p≈ {KŸ-Im-c-∑m-sc-√m-hcpw
\n∂v Ihn-i_vZw D≠m-Ip-∂p. ""bx IuXn                         {KŸ-Øns‚ BZn-bnepw a[y-Ønepw Ah-km-
i_vZ-bXn kcvh-hnZymx k Ihn-co-izcx'' kI-                    \-Ønepw awKf {]m¿Y\ sNøm-dp-≠-t√m.
         -
e-hn-Zy-Itfbpw Adn-bp-Ibpw Ahsb A\y¿°p                      AXp-t]mse Aßv {]m¿Yn-°p-Itbm awK-f-
thZ-߃ aptJ\ D]-tZ-in-°p-Ibpw sNøp∂                         t«mIw Fgp-Xp-Itbm sNøm-Ø-sX-¥p-sIm-
Cuiz-cs‚ Hcp \ma-amWv Ihn.                                  ≠mWv?
   inhx˛ (_lp-eta-X∂n-Zcvi\w 117 F∂ [mXp-]mT-
                -   -      -
                                                                DØcw˛ Aßns\ sNøp-∂Xv \ap°v DNn-
{]- I mcw DWm- Z n- t Im- i - Ø nse kcv h \nLr- j z-
                                                            X-a-√. {KŸ-Øns‚ BZn-a-[ym-h-km\ßfn¬
cnjzejzinh]Svh{]tlzjz AXt{¥ F∂ kq{X-{]-
                                                            awKfw BN-cn-®m¬ CS-bn-ep≈ `mKw apgp-h\pw
Imcw "inhp, Ieym-tW'') ]cn-`m-j-I≥ 118                              - -
                                                            Aaw-Kfam-sW∂p ]d-tb≠p hcpw. AXn-\m¬˛
   inhx˛ ""inhp Ieym-tW'' 117 F∂ [mXp-                      awK-em-N-cWw injvSm-Nm-cmXv ^e-Zcvi-\mNv-
hn¬ \n∂v inh-i_vZw D≠m-Ip-∂p. ""_lp-e-                      {Op-XnXt›-Xn. 120. F∂ kmwJy-im-kv{X-h-
ta-X-∂n-Zcvi-\w'' 118 F∂ hN-\-{]-Imcw inhp                  N-\-{]-Imcw \ymb-hpw, ]£-]m-X-c-ln-X-hpw,
[mXp A\p-h-Z-\o-b-am-Wv. kzbw awKf kzcq-                    thZ-{]-Xn-]m-Zn-X-hp-amb Cuiz-cm-⁄sb F√m-
]nbpw A\y¿°v awK-f-{]-Z-\p-am-I-bm¬ Cuiz-                   bvt]mgpw F√m-bn-SØpw bYm-\p-krXw BN-
cs‚ t]cmWv inh≥.                                                      -  -
                                                            cn-°p-∂Xp-Xs∂-bmWv icn-bmb awK-fm-NcWw.    - -
   Cuiz- c s‚ \qdp 119 \ma- ß ƒ ChnsS                       {KŸ-Øns‚ Bcw`w apX¬ Ah-km\w hsc
                                                            sNøp∂ kXym-N-c-W-amWv icn-bmb awK-fm-
hymJym-\n-®p. CXp-Iq-SmsX thsdbpw Akw
                                                            N-c-Ww. Hcn-SØp awK-fhpw as‰mcn-SØv Aaw-
Jyw \ma߃ Cuiz-c-\p-≠v. k¿th-iz-cs‚
                                                                               - -      -
                                                            K-fhpw Fgp-Xp-∂X√. alm-ib∑m-cmb al¿jn-
115 [mXp]mTw˛1.1
                                                            am-cpsS hm°p-Iƒ tI´mepwx˛
116 [mXp]mTw˛2.35                                               bm\y-\-h-Zym\n Icvam-Wn, Xm\n tkhn-X-
117 DWmZn 1.153 ¬ ioMvitb [mXp-hn¬ h\v {]Xy-bm¥w            hym\n; t\m CX-cm-Wn 121 CXp ssXØn-co-
                -
     \n]m-Xn-Xam-Wv.
118 CXv [mXp-]mTw 10.366-˛mw kq{X-am-Wv.                    tbm-]-\n-j-Ønep≈ hN-\-am-Ip-∂p. {]nb-k-¥-
     [mXp-]m-T-Øn¬ [mXp-°-fpsS \nZ¿i-\-amWv                                  -     -
                                                            Xn-Itf! A\-hZy-ßfmb AY-hm, \nµn-°s∏-           -
              -        -        -
     {]mtb-Wbp-≈Xv. hrØn-Im-c∑m¿ Cu kq{Xw
     hymJym-\n-°th [mXp-]m-T-Øn-en-√mØ hnhn[ [mXp-              kap-√m-k-Øn-ep-≈-Xv. ]c-kv]c kw_-‘-amb
                   -
     °-fpsS DZm-lcWw \¬In-bn-´p-≠v.                             kXv Nn-Xv- B-\-µw apX-em-b-hsb
     Cu kq{X-a-\p-k-cn®v {KŸ-I¿Øm-hv, inh                       GIo-I-cn-®m¬ kwJy \qdnepw Ipd-bpw.
   - kw-⁄-bpsS A¿YsØ e£y-am°n [mXp-I-ev]\                       AXn-\m¬ ChnsS \qsd∂ kwJy
                     -
     sNbvXn-cn-°p-Ibm-Wv.                                           - -
                                                                D]-e£Wm¿YamsW-∂dn-bWw. - -
119 Bh¿Ø\w sNbvX \ma hymJym-\-ß-sfm-gnsI                    120 kmwJy-Z¿i\w 5.1
     BsI 104 \ma-ß-fpsS hymJym-\-amWv Cu                    121 ssXØn-co-tbm-]-\n-jXv 1.11


                                                       18
                 H∂mw kap-√mkw                                                          kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
S-Ø-°-X-√m-ØXpw [¿a-bp-‡-hp-amb I¿a                             °p-Ibpw sNøp-∂Xv ]ucm-Wn-I-∑m-cp-sSbpw
ßfmWv \n߃ kZm A\p-jvTn-t°-≠-Xv.                                Xm{¥n-I-∑m-cp-sSbpw anYym-I-ev]\Ifn¬\n∂v
A[¿a-ß-f-√. AXn-\m¬ B[p-\nIßfmb                                 A`y-kn-®n-´p-≈-Xm-Wv. thZm-Zn-imkv{Xßfn¬
{KŸßfn¬ ""{ioK-tW-imb \ax'' ""koXm-cm-                          lcn F∂pw a‰pw Hcn- S Øpw Bcw- ` - Ø n¬
am`ymw \ax'' cm[m-Ir-jvWm`ymw \ax {ioKp-cp-N-c-                 {]tbm-Kn-®n-´n-√. AXn-\m¬ {KŸm-cw-`-Øn¬
Wm-c-hn-µm`ymw \ax'' l\p-atX \ax ZpcvKmssb                      HmwIm-ctamAYtbm BWv Fgp-tX-≠-Xv.
\ax _Sp-Imb \ax ss`c-hmb \ax inhmb \ax                            Cuiz-cs\ hnj-b-am°n C{X-am{Xw Npcp°n
kc-kzssXy \ax \mcm-b-Wmb \ax Fs∂√mw                             ]d-™p. XpS¿∂v "in£Ww' F∂ hnj-bsØ-    -
Fgp-Xn-°m-Wp-∂Xv thZ-imkv{X߃°v hncp-                           ∏‰n ]d-bmw.
≤-am-b-Xp-sIm≠v anYy-bm-sW-∂mWp _p≤n-am-
∑m¿ hnNm-cn-°p-∂-Xv. thZßfnepw B¿j-                               {ioa-±-bm-\µ kc-kzXn kzman-I-fm¬
{KŸßfnepw Cu amXn-cn-bp≈ awK-fm-N-cWw                                      -                  -
                                                                  hnc-Nn-Xam-b kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iØn¬
Hcn-SØpw ImWp-∂n-√. B¿j-{KŸßsf√mw                                             -   -       - -
                                                                      Cuiz-c\m-a{]-Xn-]m-ZIamb
HmwImcw AY F∂o ]Zßfpam-bmWv Bcw-                                         {]Y-tam-√mkw Ign-™p.
`n-°p-∂-Xv. t\m°pI:˛ ""AY i_vZm-\p-im-
k\av'' AtY-Xybw i_vtZm-[n-Im-cmcvY {]bp-
Py-tX. (CXp hymI-c-W-a-lm-`m-jym-cw-`-am-Ip-                          kXym¿Y{]Im-iØn¬-
∂p.) ""AYm-tXm- [cva-Pn-⁄mkm''. AtY-Xym-
\-¥tcy thZm-[y-b-\m-\-¥-c-av. (CXp ]q¿h-ao-                             h¿Wn-®n-cn-°p∂
amwkm hN-\-am-Ip-∂p.) ""AYmtXm [cvaw                              108 Cuiz-c-\m-a-ß-fpsS ]´nI
hymJym-kymax'' AtYXn [cvaIY-\m-\-¥cw
[cv a - e - £ Ww hnti- j W hymJym- k ymax                                       (A-Im-cmZn {Ia-Øn¬)
(CXp sshti-jnI Z¿i-\m-cw`-am-Ip-∂p) ""AY                                             - -         -
                                                                \qs‰´p \ma hymJym-\ßfm-Wp-≈Xv. F∂m¬ ]c-am-flm,
tbmKm-\p-im-k\av'' AtY-Xy-b-a-[n-Im-cmcvYx                      Bfl kw_-‘n-X-hpw, ]c-ta-iz-c≥ Cuizc kw_-‘n-
(CXp tbmK-im-kv{Xm-cw-`-am-Ip-∂p) "AY {Xn                       Xhpw ]nXm-a-l≥, {]]n-Xm-a-l≥ ]nXm-kw-_-‘n-Xhpw
hn[ ZpxJm-Xy-¥-\n-hr-Øn-c-Xy-¥-]p-cp-jmcvYx'                    k®n-Zm-\-µ≥ ka-kvX-cq-]hpw tZhn tZhs‚ kv{Xoen-
kmwkm-cnIhnj-bt`m-Km-\¥cw {Xnhn-[Zpx-Jm-
                      -       -            -                    MvKhpw {_“mhv {_“-Øns‚ ]p√nw-K-hp-am-Wv. Ch
Xy¥ \nhr-XycvYx {]bXv\x IcvØhyx (CXp                                                                 -  -
                                                                Ggpw Hmw Hgn-hm-°n-bm¬ \qdp \ma-ßfm-Wp-≈X.v Hmans‚
kmwJy-im-kv{ Xm-c w-`-am-Ip-∂ p.) ""AYmtXm                               -
                                                                hymJym-\am-Wt√m as‰-√mw.
{_“-Pn-⁄mkm'' (CXv H∂mw thZm-¥-kq-{X-                               1 A£c = £cw-˛\miw C√m-ØXv.
am-Ip-∂p) ""Hman-tXy-X-Z-£c apZvKo-Y-ap-]m-                         2 A·n = KXn-bn¬ \bn-°p-∂-h≥
koX'' (CXv OmtµmKy D]-\n-j-Ønse Bcw-                                3 AP = P\n-°m-ØXv.
`-hm-Iy-am-Ip-∂p.) ""Hman-tXy-XZ£canZw kcvhw
                                - - - -                             4 AØm = Ncm-N-c-P-K-∂n-b-¥m-hv.
Xtkym] hymJym\w'' (CXv amWvUqIy D]-                                 5 AssZzXw = {Xnhn[ t`Zc-ln-Xamb-Xv.
\n-j-Ønse {]mcw-`-hm-Iy-am-Ip-∂p.)                                  6 A\¥w = ]cn-am-W-c-ln-Xamb-Xv.
   Ejn-ap-\n-am¿ cNn-®n-´p≈ a‰p {KŸßfpw                             7 A\mZn = ImcWcln-X≥
Bcw-`n-°p-∂Xv Hmw Ft∂m AY Fs∂m                                      8 A¥-cyman = A¥¿ÿn-X≥.
BWv. 122 \mep thZßfpsS Bcw-`-Ønepw                                  9 A∂w = `£-W-i‡n- \¬Ip-∂Xv.
CXp-t]mse Xs∂. ""A·nx, CSv, A·nx, tb                               10 A∂mZx = t`mKi‡n- \¬Ip-∂Xv.
{Xnj]vXmx ]cn-b-¥n 123 F∂o ]Z-ß-fmWv                               11 Acyam = A\o-Xn-bn¬ can-°m-ØXv.
ImWp- ∂ - X v.""{ioK- t W- i m- b - \ ax'' F∂p                                           -   - -
                                                                   12 BImix = {]Im-iIm-cIam-bXv.   -
XpSßnbh Fßpan√. sshZn-I-∑m¿ thZm-cw-                               13 BNmcy = Ncm-N-c-KXn Im´n-Ø-cp-∂-Xv.
`-Øn¬ "lcn Hmw' F∂v Fgp-Xp-Ibpw D®-cn-                             14 Bflm = kq£vam-Xn-kq£va hym]vX≥
                                                                   15 BZn-Xy≥ = HcpIm-eØpw\in-°m-Ø-Xv.
122 ipIvf-b-÷pcvthZw 1.17 kzm[ym-bm-Z\ CXn..............
123 A·nx CSv, A·nx F∂o aq∂pw ]Z-{]-Xn-]m-Z-Ihpw                    16 B\-µ≥ = [¿an-jvT-cpsS \µ-\≥.
   \mem-atØXv a{¥-{]-Xo-Ihp-am-Wv.
         -                -                                        17 B]vX = [¿an-jvT-cn¬ hym]vX≥.


                                                           19
18   C{µ≥ = sFizy-cy-]Xn                                      63   _rl-kv]Xn = _rl-Øm-b-Xn-s‚-sb√mw ]Xn
19   Cuiz-c≥ = sFiy-cyØn¬ can-°p-∂-Xv.                        64                    -                  -
                                                                   {_“w = A¥-can-√msX hym]vXam-bXv(\-]pw.-en-MvKw)
20   Dcp-{I-a≥ = {Ia-Øn-e-[nIw ]cm-{I-an.                     65   {_“mhv = _rlZvkrjvSn⁄m\-ap-≈Xv
21   Hmw = kXv-˛-Nn-Xv-˛-B-\µ kzcq]w.                         66   `K-hm≥ = sFizcym[n]Xn
22   Ihn = Adn-bp∂Xv Adn-bn-°p-∂-Xv.                          67   `qan = Ncm-N-c-ßsf [mcWw sNøp-∂Xv
23   Ime≥ = FÆ-ßsf Adn-bp-∂-Xv.                               68   awK-f≥ = Ne-\-Ønepw kpJw \¬Ip-∂Xv
24   Imem·n = FÆ-ßsf \bn-°p-∂-Xv.                             69   a\p = a\-\˛⁄m\-ßfm¬ am\n-t°-≠Xv
25   Ipt_-c≥ = kI-em-[n-]-Xn.                                 70   alm-tZ-h≥ = tZh-∑m-cp-sS- a-lm-\m-b- tZ-h≥
26   IqS-ÿ≥ = cq]-Ønepw kzcq-]ÿnX≥.                           71   amX-cnizm = Af-h‰ _e-tØm-Sp-Iq-Sn-bXv
27   tIXp = Hcp tcmKhpw _m[n-°m-Ø-Xv.                         72                                         -
                                                                   amXmhv = Ir]m-]q¿hw k¥m-\]me\w sNøp-∂Xv
28   Jw = k¿h-hym]n                                           73   an{X≥ = F√m-h-scbpw kvt\ln-°p-∂-Xv
29   KW-]Xn = Ncm-N-c-K-W-ß-fpsS ]Xn.                         74   ap‡≥ = {]m]-©n-I-˛t¢i-ß-fn¬\n∂v tamNn-∏n-°p-∂Xv
30   KtW-i≥ = KW-ß-fpsS Cui≥.                                 75   b⁄w = kIe ]Zm¿Y-ß-sfbpw Iq´n-t®¿°p-∂Xv
31   Kcp-flm≥ = _rlXvkzcq-]≥(Kpcp-˛-L\)                        76   ba≥ = I¿a-^e (\n-b-a) hyh-ÿ-sN-øp-∂Xv
32   Kpcp = \mi-c-ln-Xambn hnf-ßp-∂-Xv.                       77   cmlp = as‰m∂pw IqSn-°-e-cmØ cq]-tØmSp IqSnbXv
33   N{µ≥ = B\-µ-kz-cq-]≥                                     78   cp{Z≥ = ZpjvS-∑msc in£n®p tcmZn-∏n-°p-∂Xv
                                                              79   e£van = P-K-Øns\ I≠psIm≠ncn-°p-∂Xv
34   NnXv = tNX-\-ssN-X-\y-t_m-[-kz-cq-]w.
                                                              80   hkp = GXn¬ F√mw ÿnXnsNøp-∂pthm AXv
35   Pew = P\bnXmhpw ebn∏n°p-∂-h-\pw.
                                                              81   hcp-W≥ = htc-Wy- Kp-W-ap-≈Xv
36   ⁄m\w = F√mw Adn-bp-∂-Xv.
                                                              82   hmbp = hcn-°p-Ibpw kwl-cn-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂Xv
37   ssXP-k≥ = {]Im-i˛tXtPm-Im-cI≥         -
                                                              83   hncmSv = hnizsØ kztXP- p-sIm≠v {]Im-in-∏n-°p-∂Xv
38   Zbmep = F√m-Øn\pw A`bw\¬Ip-∂Xv
                                                              84   hniz≥ = F√m-Ønepw Fßpw \nd™p h¿Øn-°p-∂pthm AXv
39   Znhy≥ = Znhy-]-Zm¿Y-ß-fn¬ hym]vX≥.
                                                              85   hnizw-`-c≥ = [cn-°p-Ibpw t]mjn-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂Xv
40   tZh≥ = a‰v klmbw IqSmsX kzbw hnf-ßp-∂Xv
                                                              86   hntizi-c≥ = kI-e-P-K-Øn-s‚bpw A[n-jvTm-Xm-hm-Ibm¬
41                         - -          -
     tZhn = ssNX-\y-Im-cWIm-cn-Ibmbn hnf-ßp-∂Xv
                                                              87   hnjvWp = k¿∆-Xn-epw hym]vX-\m-I-bm¬
42   [¿a-cm-P≥ = [¿Ω-sØ-am{Xw [cn-°p-∂-h≥.                    88   i‡n = krjvSn-°p-hm≥ kma¿Yy-ap-≈-Xv
43           -
     \mcm-bW≥ = k¿hhy]nbmbn Ab-\w-sN-øp-∂Xv                   89                      - - - -
                                                                   iwI-c≥ = awK-IfIcambn am{Xw I¿Ωw sNbvIbm¬               -
44   \nXy≥ = Ne-\-c-ln-X-\m-I-bm¬ \mi-an-√m-Ø-Xv              90             -
                                                                   iss\-›c≥ (i-\n) = KXn-bn¬ kl-P-amb ss[cy-ap-≈-XXv
45   \nc-⁄-\≥ = Ae-£-W-ambn H∂pw C√m-ØXv                      91   inh≥ = kzbw awK-f-{]-Z-\pw ZmXm-hp-am-I-bm¬
46   \ncm-Im-c≥ = BIm-c-w Hm∂pta C√m-ØXv                      92   ip{I≥ = kwK-Øm¬ ]hn-{X-Xbn¬ FØp-∂-Xn-\m¬
47   \n¿Kp-W≥ = Xt‚-X-√mØKpWßsf kv]¿in-°m-Øh≥                 93   ip≤≥ = a‰p-≈sX√mw ]cn-ip-≤am-°p∂Xv
48   \ymb-Imcn = ]£-]mXan√msX [¿aw \SØp∂Xv                    94   tij≥ = Dev]-Øn-bnepw {]f-b-Ønepw tijn-°p-∂-Xv
49   ]c-am-flmhv = kq£vam-Xn-kq-£-a-ambn hym]vX≥               95   {io = tkhmtbmKyambXv
50   ]c-ta-iz-c≥ = Xpey-amtbm ]-c-amtbm as‰m-∂p-an-√m-Ø-h≥    96                                           -
                                                                   kKp-W≥ = X∂n¬ am{X-ap≈ KpW-ßtfbpw [mcWw sNøp-∂Xv
51   ]nXmhv = D∂-a-\sØ am{Xw Imw£n-°p-∂-h≥                    97   k®n-Zm-\-µ≥ = kXv, NnXv, B\µw Ch-sb kzcq]-Øn¬ [mcWw sNøp-∂Xv
52   ]nXm-a-l≥ = ]nXm-°-∑m-cpsS ]nXmhv                        98   kXv = {Xn Im-e-ß-fnepw Hcpt]mse \mi-an-√msX h¿Øn-°p-∂Xv
53   ]pcp-j≥ = ]pcn-bn¬ (hn-izw) ibn-°p-∂-h≥                  99   kXyw = kØbp-≈Xn\m¬
54   ]rYnhn = PK-Øns\ hnkvX-cn-°p-∂-h≥                       100   kc-kzXn = hnhn[ hnj-bßfpsS bYm-X-Y-amb ⁄m\-tØmSpIqSnbXv
55   {]Pm-]Xn = {]P-Isf ]cn-]m-en-°p-∂- ]Xn                  101   k¿h-i-‡n-am≥ = as‰-√m-i-‡n-I-fnepw i‡-am-bXv
56   {]]nXm-a-l≥ = {]⁄m]nXm-°-∑m-cpsS ]nXmhv                 102   khnXm = k¿h-tem-I-sØbpw Dev]m-Zn-∏n-°p-∂-Xp-Xv GtXm
57   {]m⁄≥ = icn-bmbn Adn-bp-∂h≥                             103   kp]¿W≥ = kZvI¿a-ßfn¬ ]q¿W-am-bn-cn-°p-∂-Xv
58   {]mW≥ = \ne\n-ev]n\v aqe-Im-c-W-am-bh≥                  104   kqcy≥ = PU-˛tN-X\ßfpsS A¥-cm-flm-hmbn kzbw {]-Imin°p-∂Xv
59   {]nb≥ = {]nb-am-b-Xn\pw {]nb-am-bXv                     105   kzbw`q = kzb-tah D≈Xv as‰m-∂n¬ \n∂v D≠m-Im-ØXv
60   _‘p = kpJ-sØ \nb-a-ambn kzbw _‘n®ncn°p∂Xv               106                                                         -
                                                                   kzcmSv = kzbw hncm-Pn-°p-Ibpw {]Im-in-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂Xn-\m¬
61   _p≤≥ = F√m-‰n-s\-bpw Ft∏mgpw Adn-™p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p∂Xv     107   lnc-Wy-K¿`≥ = kqcymZntemI-߃ GXn¬ \n∂pw DZv`-hn-®pthm AXv
62   _p[≥ = t_m[⁄m\kz-cq-]ambn-cn-°p-∂Xv                     108   tlmXmhv = tbmKy-ambhsb sImSp°p-Ibpw kzoI-cn-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂Xv
                                          2
                                  c≠mw kap-√mkw

                          kXym¿Y-{]-Imiw
                        hnZym-`ymk k{º-Zmbw
                            AY- in£mw {]h-£ymax
amXr-am≥ ]nXr-am-\m-Nm-cy-hm≥ ]pcptjm         ap-≈-hbpw _p≤n-i-‡nsb \in-∏n-°p-∂-h-bp-
thZ., CXp iX-]-Y-{_m-“-W-Øn-ep≈ Hcp           amb Blm-c-]-Zm¿Y-ß-tfbpw h¿Pn®v kam-
hmIy-am-Ip-∂p. 1 hmkvXhw ]d-bp-I-bm-sW-       [m-\w, Btcm-Kyw, _ew, _p≤n, ]cm-{Iaw,
¶n¬, amXmhv, ]nXmhv, BNm-cy≥ F∂o aq∂v         kuio-eyw, F∂n-h-bm¬ k`y-Xsb D≠m-
DØ-am-≤ym-]-I-∑msc e`n® Hcp-h≥ am{Xta         °p∂ s\øv, ]m¬, a[p-cm-∂-߃ apX-emb
Adn-hp-≈-h-\m-Iq. [m¿an-Icpw ]Tn-∏p-≈-h-cp-   ]Zm¿Y-ßsf ioen-°p-∂-XmWv G‰hpw DNn-
amb amXm-]n-Xm-°-fp-≈-h-\mWv `mKy-hm≥! B      Xw. A{]-Imcw sNøp-∂-Xm-bm¬ Ah-cpsS
Ipe-amWv [\yw. a°ƒ°v F{X-tØmfw D]-            hocy-c-P-kp-Iƒ tZmj-c-lnXßfpw AXyp-Øa
tZ-ihpw D]-Im-chpw amXm-hn¬ \n∂v e`n-         KpW-]q¿W-hp-am-Ipw.
°ptam A{X-tØmfw a‰m-cn¬ \n∂pw e`n-°p-            cmtPm-Z¿i-\-Øns‚ A©mw Znhkw apX¬
I- b n- √ . AΩbv°v kzk- ¥ m\ßtfmSv                                                -
                                              ]Xn-\mdmw Znhkw hsc-bmWv K¿`m[m-\Øn\p
D≠mIp∂ hm’eyw as‰m-cmƒ°pw D≠m-hp-             hn[n-®n-cn-°p∂ Imew. Ah-bn¬ BZysØ
∂-X-√. s]‰Ω a°-fpsS lnXsØ C—n-°p-∂-           \mep-\mƒ h¿Py-ß-fm-Wv. tij-ap≈ ]{¥≠p
Xp-t]mse as‰m-cmƒ C—n-°p-I-bp-an-√. AXn-      Znhkßfn¬ ]Xn-s\m-∂m-a-sØbpw ]Xn-aq-∂m-
\m-emWv˛amXr-am≥ {]i-kvXbpw [¿a-X-ev]-c-      a-sØbpw Znhk߃ HgnsI _m°n-bp≈
bp-amb amXm-hp-≈-h≥ ˛ F∂p ]d-™n-cn-°p-        ]Øp cm{Xn-I-fn¬ am{Xw K¿`m-[m\w sNøp-
∂-Xv 2. K¿`m-[m\w apX¬°v hnZym-`ymkw Ign-     ∂-XmWv DØ-aw. ctPm-Z¿i\w apX¬°v ]Xn-
bp-∂Xp hsc kzk-¥m-\-߃°v kuioeyw              \mdp cm{Xn-Iƒ Ign-™m¬ ]n∂oSv kv{Xo]p-
D]tZ-in-°p∂ AΩ-bmWv ]c-a-[-\y.                cpj kwtbm-K-a-cp-Xv. Cßs\ K¿`m-[m-\-Øn\v
   K¿`m-[m-\Øn\v apºpw K¿`m-[m-\Im-eØpw
             -                  -             tbmKy-amb Imew ho≠pw hcp-∂-Xp-h-tcbpw
AXn\p tijhpw amXm-]n-Xm-°-∑m¿ aZyw apX-       K¿`m-[m\w D≠m-bm¬ AXp-ap-X¬ Hcp sIm√-
emb amZ-I-]-Zm¿Y-ß-tfbpw cq£hpw Zp¿K-‘-       tØ°pw kwtbmKw ]mSn-√. `mcym-`¿Øm-°-
                                              ∑m¿ Ccp-h-cp-sSbpw icocw Btcm-Ky-tØmSp
                                              IqSn-bXpw a\ v timI-c-ln-Xhpw {]k-∂-hp-
1 iX-]-Y-{_m-“-Ww 14.6., 10.2 &               am-bn-cn-°-Ww. Nc-Iw, kp{ip-Xw, F∂o sshZy
  OmtµmKy D]\n-jØv 6.14.2
2 {]ikvXm [m¿anIo amXm hnZytX                 {KŸßfnse hn[n- { ]- I mcw `£- W - h pw,
  bky k amXr-am≥                              hkv{X-[m-c-Whpw sNtø-≠-Xm-Wv. a\p-kvarXn
     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                               hnZym-`ymk k{º-Zmbw
hn[n-®n-´p≈ coXn-bn¬ kv{Xo]p-cp-j-∑m¿ Ccp-              am-Ip-∂p. kv{XobpsS BtcmKyw ]cn-K-Wn--°p-
hcpw At\ym\yw kt¥mjw {]Zm\w sNbvXp                      tºmƒ {]k-hn-®p-In-S-°p-∂-h-fpsS ape-∏m¬
Pohn-°-Ww. K¿`m-[m-\-Øns‚ tijw `£-W-                    Ip´n°p sImSp-°p-∂Xp \√-X-√. ape-∏m¬
Ønepw hkv{X-[m-c-W-Ønepw kv{XoIƒ hfsc                   tNm¿∂p t]mIm-Xn-cn-∏m≥ th≠p∂ acp-∂p-
{i≤n- ° - W w. K¿`w [cn- ® - X n- \ p- t ijw Hcp        Iƒ kvX\-ß-fn¬ ]pc´n kvX\ysØ \ntcm-
sIm√-tØ°v Ah¿ ]pcp-j-kw-tbmKw sNø-                      [n®p \n¿Øp-∂-Xm-bm¬ {]k-hn® kv{Xo Hcp
cp-Xv. K¿`n-Wn-bmb kv{Xo {]khw Ign-bp-∂-                amkw Ign-bp-tºm-tgbv°pw ho≠pw bph-Xn-bm-
Xp-hsc _p≤n, _ew, cq]w, Btcm-Kyw, ]cm-                  Ipw. AtXhsc ]pcp-j\pw {_“-N-cyw-sIm≠v
{I-aw, im¥n apX-emb KpW-ßsf D≠m-°p∂                     hocy-kw-c-£Ww sNø-Ww. C∏-d-™-hÆw
]Zm¿Y߃ am{Xw `£n-°-Ww.                                 A\p-jvTn-°p∂ kv{Xo]p-cp-j-∑m¿°v DØ-a-k-
   {]khw Ign™ DSs\ inip-hns\ kpK-                       ¥m\߃ D≠m-hp-I-bpw, Bbp-kpw, _ew,
‘-bp-‡-amb Pew-sIm≠v Ipfn-∏n®v s]m°nƒ                   ]cm-{Iaw F∂nh h¿≤n-°p-Ibpw sNøpw. Ah-
s°mSn tOZn®v InS-Øn-b-tijw ho´n¬ \√                     cpsS F√m k¥m\ßfpw DØ-a-cpw, [m¿an-I-
kpK- ‘ - t Øm- S p- I q- S nb s\øv apX- e mb            cpw, Zo¿Lm-bp- v, _ew, ]cm-{I-aw, F∂n-h-bp-
]Zm¿Yßfm¬ tlmaw sNø-Ww. {]k-hn®p                        ≈-h-cp-am-Ipw. kv{Xo A]-Xy-am¿KsØ kt¶m-
InS- ° p∂ kv { XobpsS Ipfn lnX- I - c - a mb            Nn-∏n-®p, kwtim-[\w sNbvXp kq£n-°p-Ibpw
Blmcw apX-em-b-h°pw DNn-X-amb G¿∏m-Sv                                       -
                                                        ]pcp-j≥ hocy-kw-c£Ww sNøp-Ibpw thWw.
sN-øWw. Ip´nbpw X≈bpw {ItaW BtcmKyw                     F¶n¬ ]n∂o-Sp-≠m-Ip∂ k¥m\ßsf√mw
{]m]n-°p-hm-\m-Wn-Xv. Ip´n-bpsS s]‰-Ωbpw                DØ-a-cm-bn-cn-°pw.
t]m‰-Ω-bpw 3 ape-∏m-en\v DØ-a-KpWßfp≠m-                    Xs‚ a°ƒ ]cnjv-Ir-Xioecpw ico-cm-h-
I-Ø-°-hÆw Blmcw Ign-°-Ww. {]k-h-Zn-                     bhßsf sIm≠v Ip’nXtNjvS-I-sfm∂pw
hkw apX¬ Bdp Znhkw Ignbp-∂-Xp-hsc                       sNøm-Xn-cn-°p-∂-h-cp-am-Im≥ \√ D]-tZi߃
s]‰-Ω-bpsS ape-∏m¬ ]m¬ Ip´n°p sImSp-°-                  kZm \¬tI-≠Xv amXm-hns‚ I¿Ø-hy-am-Wv.
Ww. ]n∂oSv [m{XnbpsS ape-∏m¬ sImSp-°m-                  Ip´n kwkm- c n- ° m≥ XpS- ß n- b m¬ AΩ
hp-∂-Xm-Wv. F∂m¬ [m{Xn°p `£n-∏m\pw                      AXns‚ \mhn\p am¿±hw D≠m-I-Ø-°-hn-
IpSn-°m\pw \√ ]Zm¿Y߃ \¬Ip-hm≥ Ip´n-                    [ap≈ D]mbw sNø- W w. F¶n¬ am{Xta
bpsS A—-\-Ω-am¿ {]tXyIw {i≤n-°-Ww,                      Ip´n°p kv]jvS-ambn D®-cn-°p-hm≥ iIvXn
[m{Xnsb t]m‰p- h m≥ Ign- b mØ \n¿[- \ ¿                 D≠m-hp-I-bp-≈q. AXXp h¿WßfpsS ÿm\-
_p≤n, ]cm-{I-aw, BtcmKyw F∂o KpWß                       {]-bXv\ßfpw (D-Zm-l-cWw ]dbmw˛ "]' Imc-
fp≠m-°p∂ acp-∂p-Iƒ, tN¿Ø Ijm-b-Øn¬                      Øn\v HmjvT-amWv ÿm\w. kv]rjvS-amWv {]b-
B´n≥]m- t em, ]ip- h n≥]mtem tN¿Øv                                                       -
                                                        Xv\w. F∂p sh®m¬ c≠p Np≠p-Isfbpw Iq´n-
Ip´n°psImSp-°Ww, {]khw Ign-™m¬ inip-
                -                                       t®¿Øv D®-cn-°Ww F∂¿Yw.) {lkz-Zo¿L-
hn-s\bpw AΩtbbpw th≠p-thmfw ip≤-hm-                     πpXßfpw kv]jvS-ambn D®-cn-°p-hm-\pw, a[p-
bp-hp≈ as‰mcp ÿe-tØ°p am‰n-°n-SØWw.        - -          c-hpw, Kw`o-c-hpw, kpµ-c-hp-amb kzc-Øn¬
AhnsS IÆn\v IuXp-I-ta-Ip-∂-Xpw, ]cn-afw                 A£-cw, am{X, ]Zw, hmIyw, k‘n, hncmaw
]c-Øp-∂-Xp-amb ]Zm¿Y-߃ hbv°p-I. {]k-                   F∂nh hy‡-ambn tIƒ°-Ø-°-hÆw ]d-bp-
hn® kv{Xo ]cn-ip-≤-amb hmbp-hp≈ {]tZ-i-                 hm\pw ]Tn-∏n-°-Ww. Ip´n-Iƒ Iptds» kwkm-
Øp-am-{Xta k©-cn-°m-hq. [m{Xo-kvX\yw, ]ip-              cn-°p-hm\pw Imcy-߃ a\- n-em-°p-hm\pw XpS-
hn≥]m¬, B´n≥]m¬ F∂n- h - s bm∂pw                        ßn- b m¬ a[p- c - a mbn kwkm- c n- ° p- h m\pw
In´mØ {]tZ- i - ß - f n¬ DNnXw t]mse                    apXn¿∂-h¿ ka-∑m¿ Cf-b-h¿ amXm-]n-Xm-°-
{]h¿Øn-°-Ww. inip-hns‚ icocw P\-\n-                     ∑m¿, am\y-∑m¿, cmPm-°-∑m¿ hnZzm-∑m¿, apX-
bpsS ico-cmwißfn¬ \n∂m-Wp-≠m-Ip-∂-Xv.                   em-b-h-tcmSv kw`m-jWw sNtø-≠p∂ k{º-
AXn-\m¬ {]k-hn-{Xn-bpsS icocw _e-lo-\-                  Zm-b-hpw, s]cp-am-td-≠p∂ coXnbpw a‰pw Ah¿
                                                                              -
                                                        °v ]Tn-∏n®p sImSp-°Ww. F¶n¬ Imcyßfn¬
3 [m{Xn ae-bm-f-°-c-bn¬ Cu k{º-Zmbw {]Nmc-an-√.         Ah¿ Hcn-SØpw Atbm-Ky-ambn s]cp-am-dp-I-


                                                   22
              c≠mw kap-√mkw                                                                 kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
bn-√. F√mbnSØpw BZ-chp t\Spw. kzk-¥m-                                        -
                                                         W¿Yw. arX-icocw Zln®p `kvaam-bm¬ ]ns∂      -
\-ßsf PntX-{µn-b-∑m-cpw, hnZym-`ym-k-Øn¬                 AXn\v `qXw F∂p-t]¿. ""C∂ t]tcm-Sp-Iq-Snb
{i≤-bp-≈-hcpw k÷-\-kw-k¿K-Øn¬ Bk-                        Hcp-h≥ D≠m-bn-cp-∂p. Ah≥ Ign-™p-t]mbn''
‡n-bp-≈-h-cp-am-°phm≥ F√mhcpw ]cn-{i-an-                 F∂v Xmev ] - c yw. Hcp- I m- e Øv P\n- ® - h cpw
°-Ww. hy¿Y-amb {IoU, Ic-®n¬, Nncn, hg-                   C°meØv Pohn-®n-cn-°m-Ø-h-cp-amb P\-߃
°p-Iq-´¬, kt¥m-jw, hyk-\w, I≠-sX√mw                      `qX-Im-e-Øn-ep-≈-h-cm-I-bm¬ `qX-߃ F∂p
In´p-hm≥ sImXn, Akqb shdp-∏v, apX-em-b-                  ]d- b p- ∂ p- s h- t ∂- b p- f - f q. {_“¿jn XpSßn
sXm∂pw Ip´n-Iƒ ioen-°-cp-Xv. Kply-{]-tZ-                 CtX- h - s c- b p≈ kIe hnZzm- ∑ m- c p- s Sbpw
isØ kv ] ¿i- \ hpw a¿±- \ hpw ip¢- £ - b -               kn≤m¥w C{]-Im-c-am-Wv. F∂m¬ kwib
Øn\pw Zp¿K-‘-Øn\pw \]pw-k-I-Xz-Øn\pw                     ioe- a p- ≈ - h cpw Ip’n- X - c mb Bfp- I - t fmSv
Imc-W-am-Ipw. AXn-\m¬ Ip´n-Iƒ D]-tÿ-{µn-                 kwk¿Kw sNøp-∂-h-cpw, Zpjn® kwkvIm-c-ap-
bsØ kv]¿in®p ioen-°-cp-Xv.                               ≈-h-cp-amb P\߃ `bhpw kwi-b-hp-ap-≠m-
    F√m-bvt]mgpw kXyw ]d-bp-I, iucyw,                    °p∂ `qX߃, t{]X߃, adp-Xm, ]nimNv
ss[cyw, apJ-{]-k-∂X apX-emb KpW-߃                       apX- e m- b - h - b p- s ≠∂ A‘- h n- i zm- k - Ø m¬
Ip´n- I ƒ°p- ≠ m- I - Ø - ° - h n- [ - Ø n¬ Ahsc         ZpxJn-X-cm-bn-Øo-cp-∂p. t\m°pI! Hcp Pohn acn-
hf¿Ø-Ww. A©m-asØ hb-kn¬ B¨Ip-                            °p-tºmƒ AXns‚ Poh≥ kzbw-Ir-X-amb
´n-I-tfbpw s]¨Ip-´n-I-sfbpw Hcp-t]mse \mK-               ]m]-]pWy߃°[o-\-ambn Cuizcs‚ \n›-
cm-£-chpw A\y-cm-Py-ß-fnse `mj-I-fpsS                        -     -
                                                         b-a\p-kcn®v kpJ-ZpxJßf\p-`hn-°m≥ as‰mcp  -
en]nbpw A`y- k n- ∏ n- t °- ≠ - X m- W v . ]n∂oSv        P∑w kzoI-cn-°p-∂p. \mi-c-ln-X-\mb k¿th-
t{ijvT-amb hnZym-`ym-ksØ \¬Ip-∂-h-bpw,                   iz-cs‚ B \n›-b-sØ-˛-]m-]-]p-Wy-hy-h-ÿ-
hnZy [¿aw, Cuiz-c≥ F∂n-h-sb-°p-dn®v {]Xn-                sb˛ C√m- X m- ° p- h m≥ B¿s°- ¶ nepw Ign-
            -
]m-Zn-°p-∂hbpw A—≥, AΩ, BNm-cy≥, AXn-                    bptam? Adn-hn-√mØ P\߃ sshZy-im-kv{Xw,
Yn, hnZzm-∑m¿, `c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-Iƒ, P\߃, Xd-              {]IrXn hn⁄m-\obw F∂nh ]Tn-°p-I-tbm,
hm-´n-ep-≈-h¿, Nm¿®-°m¿, ktlm-Z-co-k-tlm-                tIƒ°p-Itbm sNøm-sXbpw kzbw Btem-
Z-c-∑m¿, `rXy-∑m¿ ap-X-em-b-h-tcmSv s]cp-am-             Nn®p t\m°m-sXbpw k∂n-]m-X-Pzcw XpS-ßnb
td≠ coXnsb D]-tZ-in-°p-∂-h-bp-amb a{¥ß                   imco-cnI tcmK߃°pw NnØ-{`aw apX-emb
ƒ, t«mI߃, kq{X߃, KZy-`mK߃, ]Zy-                       am\-kn-I-tcmK߃°pw `qX-_m[, t{]X-_m[
`mK߃ F∂n-h-sb√mw A¿Y-tØm-Sp-IqSn                        Fs∂√mw t]cp- s Im- S p- ° p- ∂ p. Ah¿ B
lrZn-ÿ-am-°n-°Ww. Aßs\bm bm¬ Ip´n-                       tcmK߃°pff Huj[߃ tkhn°p-I-tbm,
Iƒ If-f-∑m-cpsS NXn-{]-tbmKß fn¬ s]´p-                   ]Yym- Z n- I - f m- N - c n- ° p- I tbm sNømsX I≈-
t]m- h n- √ .   hnZy- b v°pw,           [¿aØn\pw         ∑mcpw, AXy-¥-aq-V-∑m-cpw, Zpcm-Nm-c-\n-c-X-∑m-
hncp≤ßfmb taml- P meßfnte°p \bn-                         cpw, kzm¿Y-am-{X-]cm-b-W-∑m-cpw, I©m-hp-Ip-
°p∂ euInI hyh-lm-c-ß-sf-∏‰n th≠p∂                              -
                                                         Sn-b∑m-cp-amb tæ—-∑m-sc-t∏mepw hniz-kn®v ]e
D]-tZi߃ sImSp-°p-∂-Xm-bm¬ `qX-t{]-Xm-                   {]Im-c-Øn-ep-ap-ff h©-\-Ifpw hymPßfpw
Zn- I - f mb anYym- h - k v X p- ° - f n¬ Ah¿°p          Im]Syßfpw Im´n, F®n¬ Xn∂p-I, Nc-Sp-P-
hnizmkw D≠m-hm-Xn-cn-°pw.                                ]n®p sI´pI, a{¥ßƒ P]n-°p-I, XIn-Sp-Iƒ
Kptcmx t{]Xky injykvXp ]nXr-ta[w kam-                    _‘n-°pI apX-emb anYym-Nmc߃ sNbvXv
N-c≥. t{]X-lmsscx kaw X{X Zi-cm-t{XW                     [\w apgp-h\pw If-™p-Ip-fn-®v, kzk-¥m\ß
ip≤yXn(a-\pkvarXn˛5.65)                                  fpsS tcmKßtfbpw Zpc-h-ÿ-tbbpw h¿≤n-
    acn-®p-t]mb Kpcp-hns‚ kwkvIm-c-I¿aw \S-                                -
                                                         ∏n®v ZpxJ-ap-fhm-°n-s°m≠v \S-°p-∂p. A⁄m-
Øp∂ injy≥ ihw FSp-Øp-sIm≠p t]mb-                         \m-‘-∑m-cmb [\n-I¿ ]m]n-Ifpw kzm¿Yn-I-fp-
h-scm-cp-an®v ]Øp-Zn-hkw sIm≠v ]cn--ip-≤nsb              amb B Zp¿_p-≤n-IfpsS ASp-°¬ sN∂v,
{]m]n-°p∂p F∂mWv apI-fn¬ sImSpØ a\p-                     ""kzman≥, Cu Ip™p߃°v F¥p kw`-hn®p
kvarXn hN-\-Øns‚ A¿Yw. t{]Xw F∂ ]Z-                      F∂v a\- n-em-Ip-∂n-√. F¥m-W-h¿°p h∂p
Øn\v arX- i - c ocw As√- ¶ n¬ ihw F∂m-                   ]nW-™Xv?'' F∂p tNmZn-®m¬ Ah¿ C{]-
                                                         Imcw adp-]Sn ]dbpw:˛ ""Chs‚ tZl-Øn¬

                                                    23
    kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                             hnZym-`ymk k{º-Zmbw
Hcp henb `qXw. t{]Xw, ss`c-h≥, hkq-cn-                  As√-¶n¬ B Adn-hn-√m-Ø-h¿ {Kl-{K-
ame apX-emb aq¿Øn-I-sf√mw _m[n-®n-´p-≠v.            kvX\pw {Kl-cq-]nbpw Bb Hcp tPymXn-jm-
Ah¿°p th≠p∂ Hgn-hp-Iƒ sNøp-∂Xphsc                   `m- k - ⁄ s‚ ASp- ° ¬ sN∂v, ""Ch\v
Ah hns´m-gn-bp-I-bn-√. Hcp kabw Chs‚                F¥mWv? H∂p t\m°n-bms´'' F∂p ]d-bp-
{]mWs\ IqSn sIm≠p-t]m-tb-°pw. R߃°v                 ∂p. At∏mƒ Abmƒ ]d- b pw, ""kqcymZn
th≠p-thmfw ]e-lmcßfpw h√ Z£n-Wbpw                   {Klßsf√mw tZmj-ÿm-\-Øm-Wv, Ah-bpsS
IqSn Xcp-∂-Xm-bm¬ R߃ Ahsb a{¥                      tIm]-im¥n hcp-Øp-hm≥ th≠p∂ P]w, ]qP,
߃ P]n®pw tlmaw sNbvXpw HmSn-®p-Ifbmw.''- -         Zm\w F∂o Hgn- h p- I - s f√mw sNøn- ° - W w.
C{]-Imcw ]d-bp-tºmƒ B A⁄m-\m-‘-∑m¿                  As√-¶n¬ Ch≥ hfsc IjvS-∏mSpIƒ A\p-
]dbpw:˛ ""kzman≥, RßfpsS k¿h-kzhpw                  `-hn-°pw. {]mW-lm\n t]mepw hcmw.''
\in-®mepw Chs‚ `qX-_m-[-b-I‰n Chs\                      DØ-cw˛ KWIm! `qan-tb-t∏mse Xs∂
kpJ-s∏-Sp-Øn-Ø-cnI am{Xw sNbvXm¬ aXn.''             AtN- X \ßfmWv kqcymZn temIßfpw.
Ah¿ Cßs\ ]d-bp-∂-tXm-Sp-IqSn B ZpjvS-               NqSpw shfn-®hpw Xcp-hm-\-√msX as‰m∂pw
∑m-cpsS B{Klw kn≤n-°p-∂p. Ah¿ XpScpw:˛              sNøp-hm≥ Ahbv°v Ign-hn-√. tIm]n-®m¬
""icn C{X Hcp-°p-Iƒ thWw. C{X ]Ww                   ZpxJ- t Øbpw {]km- Z n- ® m¬ kpJ- t Øbpw
Z£nW Xc-Ww. tZh-Xbv°p _en sImSp-°-                  D≠m-°p-hm≥ Ah tNX\ßtfm?
Ww. {Kl-im-¥n°p th≠p∂ Zm\hpw sNø-                       tNmZyw˛ cmPm-°-∑mcpw {]P-Ifpw AS-ßnb
Ww.'' arZw-Kw, Ce-Øm-fw, sN≠, tNße, apX-            Cu temI-Øn¬ Nne¿ kpJ-ap-≈-h-cmbpw a‰p
emb hmZyßsfSpØv Ah¿ Ahs‚ apºn¬                      Nne¿ ZpxJ-a-\p-`-hn-°p-∂-Xmbpw ImW-s∏-Sp-∂p.
sN∂v \n∂v sIm´n-∏m-Sp-∂p. XpS¿∂v Ah-cn-             AsX√mw {Kl-ÿn-Xn-bpsS ^e-at√?
semcp I]-S-am-{¥n-I≥ Ien-sIm≠v Xpf-fn-®m-
Sn, ""Rm≥ Chs‚ {]mW-s\-Øs∂ sIm≠p-                       DØ- c w˛ AsX√mw ]pWy- ] m]ßfpsS
t]mIpw'' F∂p ]d-bp-∂p. At∏mƒ B aqV-                 ^e-amWv
∑m¿ B \oN-am-{¥n-I-cpsS Im¬°¬hoWv                       tNmZyw˛ tPymXnximkv{Xw tIhew If-
""Ahn-Sp∂v CjvS -ap-≈ -s X√mw FSp-Ø m- s´.          hmtWm?
Chs‚ Pohs\ am{Xw hn´-b-°tW'' F∂v                        DØ-cw˛ A√. B imkv{X-Øn-e-S-ßnb
At]- £ n- ° p- ∂ p. AXp- t Iƒ°p- t ºmƒ B            A¶-K-Wn-Xw, tcJm-K-WnXw, _oP-K-WnXw
ZpjvS≥ ]d-bp-∂p. "'Rm≥ l\p-am-\m-Wv. sIm                             -
                                                    apX-emb KWn-X`mKßsf√mw icn-bm-bn-´p-≈-
≠phm eÕp, Pnte-_n, FÆ, knµq-cw, Ht∂-                Xm-Wv. ^e-`mKw apgp-h\pw ip≤ta hymP-am-
Im¬ a∂p L\-ap-ff Hcp H‰-N-∏m-Øn, Nph∂               Wv.
et¶m- ´ n- s Im- ≠ phm'' AX- s √- ¶ n¬ ""Rm≥            tNmZyw˛ PmXIw Xosc \njv^-e-amtWm?
ss`c-h-\m-Wv. Rm≥ `{Z-Im-fn-bmWv A©p-Ip∏n
I≈v, Ccp-]Xp tImgn, A©v tImem-Sv, Ipsd                  DØ- c w˛ AtX; AXn\v PmX- I - s a- ∂ √
]e-lm-cw, Hcp ap≠v, CsX√mw sIm≠p-hm.''              timIZw F∂mWv ]d-tb-≠-Xv. k¥m\w D≠m-
F∂v ]d- b p- ∂ p. "'th≠- s X√mw FSp- Ø p-           -Ip-tºmƒ kI-e¿°pw B\µw D≠mIm-dp-≠v.
sImƒI'' F∂p ]d™v aµ-_p-≤n-Iƒ sImSp-                 F∂m¬ B B\µw k¥m-\-Øns‚ PmXIw
°p-tºmƒ B {`m¥s‚ Xp≈epw Nm´hpw A[n-                 FgpXn {Kl-^ew ]d-™p-tIƒ°p-∂-Xp-hsc
I-am-Ip-∂p. F∂m¬ _p≤n-bp-≈-h¿ h√-hcpw               am{Xta \ne-\n¬°p-∂p-≈q. PmXIw Fgp-Xn-
sN∂v, Ah¿°v Xncp-ap¬°m-gvN-bmbn sNcn-                       -
                                                    t°-≠Xm-sW∂p tPym’y≥ ]d--bp-tºmƒ Ip´n-
∏p- s Im- t ≠m, ssIsIm- t ≠m, hSn- s Imt≠m          bpsS A—-\-Ω-am¿ tPym’y-t\mSv "'hfsc
A©v {]l-c-tam, \√ sXmgntbm sImSp-°p∂                hnti-j-s∏´ PmX-I-am-bn-cn-°Ww'' F∂p ]d-
]£w Ah-cpsS l\p-am-\pw, `{Z-Im-fn-bpw, ss`c-        bp-∂p. ]d-t™-ev]n-®Xp [\n-I-\m-sW-¶n¬
h\pw F√mw hfsc thK-Øn¬ {]km-Zn®v a≠n-               NpI∏pw       a™bpw            hc- I ƒsIm≠pw
°-f-bpw. a‰p-≈-h-cpsS ]Ww X´n-°p-hm-\mbn            Nn{X߃sIm≠pw tamSn]nSn-∏n-®pw, Zcn-{Z-\m-
{]tbm-Kn-°p∂ I]-S-\m-SIßfmWn-sX-√mw.                sW- ¶ n¬ km[m- c - W - k - { º- Z m- b - Ø nepw Hcp
                                                    PmXIw FgpXn D≠m- ° n- s °m≠p hcpw.

                                               24
              c≠mw kap-√mkw                                                        kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
At∏mƒ Ip´n- b psS amXm- ] n- X m- ° - ∑ m¿               ct≠m Cc´n ]Ww aS°n hmtß-≠-Xm-Wv.
tPym’ys‚ apºn¬ Ccp∂p tNmZn-°p-∂p.                        Ip´n Pohn-®n-cn-°p-∂-Xm-bmepw Aßs\ aS°n
""Chs‚ PmXIw \√- X p- X - s ∂- b t√?''                   taSn-°pI Xs∂-bmWp th≠-Xv. Fs¥-∂m¬,
tPym’y≥ ]d- b p- ∂ p. ""D≈Xp apgp- h \pw                 "'AXv Ahs‚ I¿a-^-e-am-Wv. Cuiz-cs‚ \nb-
]d™p tIƒ∏n-t®-°mw. Ip™ns‚ P∑-{K-                         asØ ewLn-°p-hm≥ B¿°pw i‡n-bn√''
lhpw an{X-{K-lhpw iq`ßfmIp-∂p. AXns‚                     F∂v tPym’y≥ ]d-bp-∂-Xp-t]mse ""Ahs‚
^e-ambn Ip´n henb [\n-I\pw Io¿Øn-am\pw                   I¿a-^-ehpw Cuiz-cs‚ \nb-a-hp-amWv Ahs\
Bbn-Øo-cpw. GXp k`bn¬ sN∂mepw Chs‚                                   -
                                                         c£n-®Xv, \nßfpsS {]hr-Øn-b√'' F∂v Abm-
tXP v a‰p- ≈ - h - c p- t S- X n- t \- ° mƒ anI®p        tfmSpw ]d- b m- h p- ∂ - X m- W v . Zm\ßfpw a‰p
                                  -
\n¬°pw. \√ Btcm-Ky-ap-≈h\pw cmPm-°∑m¿         -          I¿aßfpw A\p-jvTn-∏n®v {]Xn-^ew hmßn-
IqSn _lp-am-\n-°p-∂-h\pw Bbn-Øo-cpw.'' Cu                bn-´p≈ Kpcp apX-em-b-h-tcmSpw tPym’y-t\mSv
hm°p-Iƒ tI´v Ip´n-bpsS A—-\Ωam¿ ]d-bpw.- -               ]d-™-Xp-t]mse Xs∂, ]d-tb-≠-Xm-Wv.
""sIm≈mw Aßv \√ tPym’y-cm-Wv.'' F∂m¬                         hkq-cn-ame apX-emb tZh-X-Ifpw a{¥w,
CXp-sIm-s≠m∂pw Xs‚ Imcyw km[n-°p-I-bn-                   X{¥w, b{¥w F∂n-hbpw F√mw, CXp-t]mse
s√∂v tPym’y- \ - d n- b mw. AXp- s Im≠v                  Xs∂ ip≤hymP-am-Wv. AXp-sIm≠p \S-°p-
tPym’y≥ ]nt∂bpw ]d-bp-∂p˛ "" Cu ]d™                      ∂-h¿ {]h¿Øn-°p-∂Xv apgp-h\pw I]-S-am-Wv.
{Klßsf√mw hfsc A\p-Iqe߃ Xs∂.                            Ah-cn¬ Nne¿ Cßs\ ]d-bp-∂p, ""R߃
F∂m¬ Cu ip`-{Kl߃ thsd Nne {Iqc-                         NcSp P]n-®p-sIm-Sp-°p-Itbm b{¥w Fgp-Xn-
{KlßtfmSv IqSn-t®¿∂m-Wn-cn-°p-∂-Xv. AXp-                 s°m-Sp-°p-Itbm sNøp-∂-Xm-bm¬ AXv sI´p-
\n-anØw Cu Ip´n°v F´m-asØ hb- n¬                         ∂- h ¿°v AXns‚ amlmflyw sIm≠v
arXyp- t bmKw ImWp- ∂ p.'' CXp tIƒ°p-                    bmsXmcp _mt[m-]-{Z-hhpw ]oUbpw D≠m-Ip-
tºmtg°pw A—-\-Ω-am¿ ]p{X-\p-≠mb B\-                      ∂-X-√.'' Ah¿°v sImSp-t°≠ adp-]Sn CXm-
µ-sa√mw XyPn®v ZpxJn-X-cmbn tPym’y-t\mSv                 Wv. ""ac-W-Øn¬ \n∂pw Cuiz-cs‚ \nb-a-
]d- b p- ∂ p˛ "" tPym’y- t c, R߃ F¥p                    Øn¬ an∂pw I¿a-^e-Øn¬ \n∂pw a\p-jysc
sNøWw?'' tPym’y¿ DSt\ ]d-bpw˛ ""AXn\p                    c£n- ° p- h m- \ p- ≈ i‡n \n߃°pt≠m?
]cn-lmcw sNø-Ww.'' ]cn-lm-c-am¿Kw F¥m-                   \nßfpsS a{¥-i‡n apgp-h\pw {]tbm-Kn-®n´pw
sW∂v Krl-ÿ≥ tNmZn-°p-tºmƒ tPym’y≥                        F{X Ip´n-I-fmWv acn-®p-t]m-Ip-∂-Xv. \nßfpsS
ho≠pw ]d-bpw˛ ""Zm\߃ sImSp-°-Ww. {Kl-                   ho´n- e p- ≈ - h ¿ Xs∂ acn- ® p- t ]m- I p- ∂ nt√?
im-¥n-°p≈ a{¥ßƒ P]n-°-Ww. Znh-kw-                        \n߃°p Xs∂ ac-W-Øn¬ \n∂v kzbw
tXmdpw {_m“- W sc Im¬I- g p- I n- ® q- ´ - W w.          c£n-°p-hm≥Ign-bptam?'' Cßs\ tNmZn-°p-∂-
F¶n¬ {Kl-∏ng Xocp-sa-∂m-W-\p-am-\n-t°-≠-                 Xm-bm¬ Ah¿°v kam-[m-\-sam∂pw ]d-bp-
Xv.'' tPym’y≥ ChnsS A\p-am-\-sa∂p ]d-                    hm≥km-[n-°p-I-bn-√. "'kq{X-sam∂pw ChnsS
™Xv hfsc ap≥I-cp-X-tem-sS- IqSn-bmWv. Hcp-               ^en-°n√'' F∂-h¿ a\- n-em-°p-Ibpw sNøpw.
]t£ Ip´n acn-®p-t]m-Ip-∂-Xm-bm¬ Abmƒ                         AXn-\m¬ CØcw If-f-Øcßsfsb√mw
]dbpw: ""R߃ F¥p-sNøpw? Cuiz-c-\p-]cn                    XyPn-®v, [m¿an-Icpw kIe tZi߃°pw D]-
Bcp-an-√. R߃ hfsc {]b-Xv\n-®p. \nßfpw                   Imcw sNøp- ∂ - h cpw bmsXmcp hymPhpw
]eXpw sNøn-®p. ]t£ Ahs‚ I¿a^ew                           IqSmsX F√m-h-scbpw hnZy-I-f-`y-kn-∏n-°p-∂-
Aßs\bm-Wv.'' Ip´n Pohn-s®-¶n¬ At∏mgpw                    hcpw DØ-acpw hnZzm-∑m-cp-am-b-h¿ temI-Øn\v
Abmƒ°p ]d-bmw, "" t\m°pI! RßfpsS                         GXp-hn-[-Øn¬ D]-Imcw sNøp-∂pthm AXp-
a{¥ßfpsS-bpw, R߃ D]m-kn-°p∂ tZh-                        t]mse Xs∂ Ah¿°pw {]Xyp-]-Imcw sNøp-
X-am-cp-sSbpw {_m“-W-cp-sSbpw i‡n F{X                    I. Cu I¿Ø-hysØ Hcn-°epw ssIhn´p If-
hep- X mWv ! \nßfpsS Ip´nsb c£n- ® p- X -                b- cp- X v . CXp- t ]m- se- Xs∂ At\- I - h n- [ - Ø n-
∂nt√!'' hmkvX-h-Øn¬ P]w sIm≠v ^e-sam-                    ep≈ ckm- b - \ - { ]- t bmKßtfbpw amc- W w,
∂p- a p- ≠ m- b n- s √- ¶ n¬ B [q¿X- ∑ m- c psS          taml-\w, D®m-S-\w, hio-I-cWw apX-emb \oN-
ssIøn¬ \n∂v Ah¿°v sImSp-Ø-Xn¬ Ht∂m                       I¿aßtfbpw D]-tZ-in®p \S-°p-∂-hcpw alm

                                                    25
     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                                      hnZym-`ymk k{º-Zmbw
aqV-∑m-cm-sW∂p a\- n-em-t°-≠-Xm-Wv. C∏-                                               -
                                                               n¬, {_m“-Wcm-sW-¶n¬ B¨Ip-´n-Isf D]-
                                 -
d-™Xpw CXp-t]m-se-bp-≈Xp-amb kIe ambm-                                              -     -- -   - --
                                                              \-bn®v Kpcp-Ip-eØn-te-°v˛AXm-bXv˛]q¿W-]m-
{]-tbmKßfpsSbpw kXysØ Ip´n-°m-eØp                             WvUnXyw kºm-Zn® hnZzm-∑mcpw hnZp-jn-Ifpw
Xs∂ a\- n¬ ]Xn™p InS-°-Ø-°-hÆw                                hnZymZm\w sNbv X v s Im- ≠ n- c n- ° p∂ ÿe-
a°ƒ°v a\-   n- e m°n sImSp- t °- ≠ - X m- W v ,               tØ°v Ab-°-Ww. s]¨Ip-´n-I-tfbpw CXp-
F∂m¬ Ah¿ B amXn-cn-bp≈ bmsXmcp                                t]mse Kpcp-Ip-e-Øn-te°v Ab-t°-≠-Xm-Wv.
taml-Pmeßfnepw AI-s∏´v ZpxJsØ {]m]n-                             ]Tn- ∏ n- ° p- t ºmƒ Hcn- ° epw emfn- ° msX
°m≥ CS-h-cp-∂-X-√. hocysØ c£n-°p-∂-                                                         - -
                                                              imkn-°p-Iam{Xw sNøp-∂hcpsS k¥m\߃
Xnep≈ B\-µ-em-`-sØbpw, \in-∏n®p If-bp-                                                  -
                                                              am{Xta kpin-£n-X∑mcpw hnZzm-∑mcpw kwkvIr-
∂Xp sIm≠p≈ ZpxJ-sØbpw Ip´n-Iƒ°v a\-                           X-lr-Z-bcpw Bhp-I-bp-≈q. CXn\v {]amWw
 n-em-°n-s°m-Sp-°-Ww. ""GsXm-cp-hs‚ ico-c-                    hymI-c-W-`m-jy-Øn-ep-≠v:˛kmarssXx ]mWn-
Øn¬ hocyw kpc- £ n- X - a m- b n- c n- ° p- ∂ pthm            `ncv L v \ ¥n Kpcthm \ hntjm£nssXx.
Ah\v Btcm-Kyw, _p≤n, _ew, ]cm-{Iaw                            eme-\m-{i-bntWm tZmjm-kvXm-U-\m-{i-bn
F∂n-h-sb√mw h¿≤n-®p-h-cn-Ibpw AXp-\n-                         tWm KpWmx 4
anØw Ah≥ Af-h‰ kpJw A\p-`hn-°p-Ibpw     -
sNøp-∂p. kv{Xo hnj-b-sØ-∏‰n kwkm-cn-°p-                          A¿Yw:˛ k¥m\ßtfbpw injy-∑m-scbpw
I, hnj-b-tem-ep-]-∑m-cmb P\ßtfmSv kl-                         XmUn-°p∂ amXm-]n-Xm-°-∑mcpw A[ym-]-Icpw
h-kn-°p-I, hnj-bkpJm-\p-`hßsf∏‰n Nn¥n-                        kzk-¥m\ßtfbpw injy-∑m-scbpw kz¥w
°p-I, kv{XoI-sfm-cp-an®v GIm¥ hmkw sNøp-                      ssII- f m¬ AarXw IpSn- ∏ n- ° p- ∂ p. kzk-
I, Ah-tcmSv kw`m-jWw sNøp-I, Ahsc                             ¥m\ßtfbpw injy-∑m-scbpw emfn-°p∂
kv]¿in-°pI F∂n-h-sb√mw h¿Pn®v AI-∂n-                          A—-\-Ω-amcpw Kpcp-\m-Y-∑mcpw Ahsc Xßfp
cp∂p sIm≠mWv {_“-Nm-cn-Iƒ DØ-a-hn-Zym-                        sS ssI sIm≠v hnjw IpSn-∏n®p \in-∏n-°p-
`ym-khpw ]q¿W-amb sshZp-jyhpw t\tS-≠-                         ∂p. emf\w sIm≠v k¥m\ßfpw injy-∑mcpw
Xv. GsXm-cp-hs‚ ico-c-Øn¬ hocyw C√tbm                         Zpjn-®p-t]m-hp-Ibpw XmU-\w-sIm≠v \√-h-cm-
Ah≥ \]pw-k-Ihpw ]pcp-j-e-£-W-an-√m-Ø-                         Ip-Ibpw sNøp-∂p. k¥m\ßfpw injy-∑mcpw
h\pw hfsc hncq- ] - \ p- a m- b n- Ø o- c pw. AXp-            XßfpsS A—- \ - Ω - a mcpw A≤ym- ] - I cpw
t]mse Xs∂ {]ta-l-tcmKw _m[n-°p-∂-h≥                           Xßsf in£n®p hf¿Øn-bm¬ AXp-sIm≠v
tZl-_-ew, ico-c-Im-¥n, _p≤n, i‡n, D’m                         F√m-bvt]mgpw kt¥m-jn-°p-Ibpw Hma-\n®v
lw, ss[cyw, ]cm-{Iaw F∂o KpW ßsfm∂p-                                         - --
                                                              hf¿Øp-∂Xmbm¬ AXp-sIm≠v ZpxJn-°p-Ibpw
an-√m-Ø-h-\m-bn-Øo¿∂v \in-°p-∂p. t{ijvT-                      sNtø-≠-Xm-Wv. F∂m¬ AΩbpw A—\pw
amb in£-Ww, hnZym-k-ºm-Z-\w, hocy-k-ºm-                       A[ym-]-I\pw Akq-b-sImt≠m tZzjw-sIm
Z\w F∂n-h-bv°p≈ Cu ImesØ hy¿Y-am-                             t≠m Ip´n-Isf ASn-°-cp-Xv. Ahsc `b-s∏-Sp-
°n-bm¬ Cu P∑-Øn¬ C\n-sbm-cn-°¬ Cub-                                  -
                                                              Øp-∂Xmbn ]pdta \Sn-°p-Ibpw D≈n¬ hm’-
h-kcw IWn-Im¨am≥ t]mepw In´p-∂-X-√.                           ey-tØm-Sp-IqSn {]h¿Øn-°p-Ibpw sNtø-≠Xm-     -
R߃ Pohn- ® n- c n- ° p∂ ImeØp Xs∂                            Wv. a‰p ]eXpw ]Tn-∏n-°p∂ Iq´-Øn¬ tamj-
\n߃ hnZym-`ymkw sNbvXv sshZpjyw kºm-                         Ww, hy`n-Nm-cw, aSn, sX‰p-Iƒ, el-cn-tk-h,
Zn- ° p- I - b pw, ico- c - _ ew h¿≤n- ∏ n- ° p- I bpw        A¿Y-an-√mØ kwkm-cw, lnwk, {IqcX, Akq-
sNbvXp-sIm-≈-Ww.'' F∂v Ip´n-Isf DXv-t_m-                      b, shdp∏v apX-emb Zpxkz-`mhßsf hn´p-I-f-
[n-∏n-°-Ww. CXp-t]m-se-bp≈ a‰p ]e D]-                         bp-hm\pw kXysØ ssIs°m-≈p-hm\pw ]Tn-
tZißfpw amXm-]n-Xm-°ƒ a°ƒ°v sImSp-t°-                         ∏n-°-Ww. Hcp-h≥ as‰m-cp-hs‚ apºn¬ sh®v
≠-Xm-Wv. CsX√mw kqNn-∏n-°m-\mWv ap≥]-                         Hscm‰ {]mh-iy-sa-¶nepw tamjvSn-°p-Itbm
d™ {]am-W-Øn¬ ""amXr-am≥ ]nXr-am≥''                           hy`n- N - c n- ° p- I tbm AkXyw ]d- b p- I tbm
F∂o ]Z߃ {]tbm- K n- ® n- ´ p- ≈ - X v . A©p                  sNbvXp-t]m-bm¬ ]ns∂ ac-W-]-cy¥w Ah≥
hb p XnI-bp-∂Xp hsc AΩbpw, AXns‚                              _lp-am-\-]m-{X-am-hp-I-bn-√. {]Xn-⁄m-ew-L-
tijw F´p-h-bkv Ign-bp-∂-Xp-hsc A—-\pw,
Ip´n- I sf ]Tn- ∏ n- ° - W w. Hº- X m- a sØ hb-               4 alm-`mjyw 8.1.8


                                                         26
               c≠mw kap-√mkw                                                        kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
I\p t\cn-Sp-∂-Xp-t]m-se-bp≈ tZmjw as‰m-                     ""[¿am-\p-krXß fmb I¿aßsf√mw kzoI-
cp-h\v D≠m-Im-dn-√. AXn-\m¬ {]Xn-⁄-sN-                      cn- ® p- s Im- ≈ p- I . GtXXp     I¿a߃
bvXm¬ AX-\p-k-cn®v {]h¿Øn-°-Ww. Rm≥                         \nµyßfmtWm Ah-sb√mw XyPn-°p-I. kXy-
C∂ ka-bØv \nß-fpsS ASp-°-te°v hcmw,                         am-sW∂p tXm∂p-∂-Xns\ ]d-bp-Ibpw {]N-
Ft∂m ""Rm≥ C∂ ka-bØv C∂ km[\w                               cn-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNøp-I. I≈-k-\ym-knbpw Zpcm-
Xcmw'' Ft∂m {]Xn⁄ sNbvXn´v Aßs\                             Nm-cn-bp-amb Hcp-h-t\bpw hniz-kn-°-cp-Xv. A—-
sNøm-Xn-cp-∂m¬ Ahs\ ]n∂oSv Bcpw hniz-                       \-Ω-amcpw Kpcphpw B⁄m-]n-°p∂ kXvI¿a-
kn-°p-I-bn-√. AXn-\m¬ Ghcpw Ft∏mgpw                         ß-f-\p-jvTn-°-Ww. Ip´n-Isf amXm-]n-Xm-°ƒ
kXyw ]d- b p- ∂ - h cpw {]Xn- ⁄ m- ] m- e - I cpw           ImWmsX ]Tn-∏n-®n-´p≈ [¿aw, hnZy, kZm-Nm-
Bbn- c n- ° - W w. Zpc- ` n- a m\w D≠m- I p- ∂ Xv           cw, F∂n-h-sb-°p-dn-®p≈ t«mI߃, \nL-
B¿°pw \√-X-√. If-hv, Im]-Syw, IrX-Lv\X                      ≠p, \ncp- ‡ w, hymI- c - W - k q{X߃, a‰p
F∂n-h-sIm≠v Ah-\-h\p Xs∂ am\-knI                            kq{X߃, thZ-a{¥ßƒ apX-em-b-h-bpsS
ZpxJ-ap-≠m-Ip-∂p. At∏mƒ Ah a‰p-≈-h¿°v                       A¿Yw Kpcp Ahsc ]Tn-∏n-°-Ww. {]Y-tam-√m-
F{X-tbsd ZpxJ-Im-c-W-am-Ip-sa∂v ]d-b-W-sa-                  k-Øn¬ Cuiz-cs\ GXp hn[-Øn¬ h¿Wn-
∂n-√. a\-kn-sem∂p hnNm-cn®pw ]pd-sØm∂p                      ®pthm AtX hn[- Øn¬ D≈n¬ hn`m- h \
Im´nbpw A\y-∑msc taml-h-e-bn¬ IpSp°n                        sNbvXv D]m-kn-°-Ww. Btcm-Kyw, hnZy, _ew
Ah¿°v t\cn-Sm-hp∂ tZmj-sØ-∏‰n Btem-                         F∂nh ssIh-cp-hm≥ tbmPn® hn[w `£-Ww,
Nn-°msX kzm¿Yw km[n-°p-∂-Xn-s\-bmWv                         hkv{X-[m-cWw apX-em-bh ioen-°p-Ibpw ioen-
Im]Syw F∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xv. A\y≥ sNbvX D]-                       ∏n-°p-Ibpw sNø-Ww. hni-∏-S-ßp-hm≥ Bh-
Im- c sØ hnkv a - c n- ° p- ∂ - X n- s \- b mWv IrX-        iy-ap-≈-Xn¬ Aev]w Ipdt® `£n-°m-hq. aZy-
Lv\X F∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xv. t{Im[w, ITn-\-`m-                      amw-km-Zn-Iƒ h¿Pn-°-Ww. Bg-sa-{X-bp-s≠∂v
jWw F∂nh shSn™v arZp-a[p-cambn kwkm- -    -                 Adn-bm-sX sh≈-Øn¬ CdßcpXv. Fs¥-
cn-°p-hm≥ ioen-°-Ww. shdpsX Pev]n-°-cp-                     ∂m¬ Pe- P - ¥ p- ° - f n¬ \nt∂m thsd h√
Xv. th≠Xp apgp-h\pw ]d-b-Ww. th≠m-Ø-                        hkvXp-°-fn¬ \nt∂m D]-{Zhw D≠m-tb-°mw.
sXm∂pw ]db-cp-Xv. Kpcp-P\ßsf _lp-am-\n-                     \o¥p hi-an-s√-¶n¬ apßn-t∏m-Imw. ""\mhn-
°-Ww. Ahsc I≠m¬ Fgp-t∂‰v "\akvtX'                           ⁄mtX Pem-i-tb'' 6 F∂ a\p-h-N-\-a-\p-k-
F∂v ]d™v hµn®v tbmKy-amb Ccn-∏nSw                           cn®v Bg-a-dn-bmØ Pem-i-b-Øn¬ Cdßn Ipfn-
\¬I-Ww. Ah-tc-°mƒ Db¿∂v Ccn-°-cp-Xv.                        °-cp-Xv. 7 ZrjvSn-]qXw \ytk-Xv]m-Zw, hkv{X-
as‰m-cp-h≥ h∂v Fgp-t\¬°p-hm≥ ]d-bm≥ CS-                     ]qXw Pew ]nt_Xv. kXy-]qXmw htZ-Zzm-Nw,
bm- I m- Ø - h Æw Ah- \ - h \v A¿l- a mb                    a\x-]qX kam-N-tc-Xv.
ÿm\Øp am{Xta Ccn-bv°m-hq. BtcmSpw                               Xmsg t\m°n \S-°-Ww. hkv{Xw sIm≠v
hntcm[w D≠m°cpXv. hnth- I - ] q¿∆w                          Acn® sh≈ta IpSn-°m-hq. kXyw-sIm≠v ]cn-
tZmjßsf X≈n KpWßsf sIm≈- W w.                               ip-≤-am-°nb hmt° ]d-bm-hq. a\-kp-sIm≠v
         -
k÷-\kw-k¿Kw sNø-Ww. Zp¿P-\klhmkw            - - -           Btem-Nnt® {]h¿Øn-°m-hq.
           -       - -
XyPn-°Ww. Ah-chcpsS amXm-]n-Xm-°ƒ, Kpcp-                        amXm-i{Xpx ]nXm sshco tb\ _mtem
°- ∑ m¿ F∂n- h sc icocw, a\ v , [\w                         \ ]mTnXx, \ tim`tX k`m-at≤y lwk-
apXembh-bm¬ kt¥m-j-]q¿hw ip{iq-jn-°-                        at≤y _tIm -b-Ym 8. Fs∂mcp Ihn ]d-bp-
Ww.                                                         ∂p. a°sf th≠-hÆw hnZym-`ymkw sNøn-
   ""bm\y-kvamI(Mv)kpN-cn-Xm\n Xm\n -Xz-                    °mØ amXm-]n-Xm-°-∑m¿ Ah-cpsS ]ca i{Xp-
tbm-]m-kym\n t\m CX-cmWn'' CXv ssXØn-                       °-fm-Ip-∂p. Ah-cpsS aqV-k-¥-Xn-Iƒ hnZzm-
cob hN-\ 5-am-Wv. amXm-]n-Xm-°-∑m-cpw, A[ym-                ∑m-cpsS k`-bn¬ sN∂m¬, Ac-b∂ßfpsS
]- I cpw XßfpsS Ip™p߃°pw injy-
∑m¿°pw F√m-bvt]mgpw kXyw D]-tZ-in-°p-                       6   a\pkvarXn 4.129
∂- t Xm- s Sm∏w CXp- I qSn D]- t Z- i n- ° Ww:˛             7   a\pkvarXn 6.46
                                                            8           -
                                                                NmW-Iy-iXIw
5 ssXØcob D]\n-jØv in£m-h√n 11                              9   NmW-Iy-\oXn 2, 11


                                                       27
     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                                             A[y-b\ A[ym-]\ k{º-Zmbw
a[y-Ønse sIm‰n-sb-t∏m-se, tim`n-°msX
Xnc-kvIr-X-cm-Ip-∂p. ico-cw, a\-kv, [\w F∂n-
h-bm¬ kzk-¥m\ßsf hnZzm-∑mcpw [¿an-jvT-
cpw, kwkvIr-X-Nn-Ø-cpw, t{ijvT-in-£Ww e`n-
®-hcpw B°p-I-sb-∂Xv amXm-]n-Xm-°-∑m-cpsS
I¿Ø- h yhpw ]c- a - [ ¿ahpw tIƒhn- t I´
I¿ahpw BIp-∂p. _me-∑m-cpsS in£-W-{I-a-
sØ-∏‰n Ipd-s®-gp-Xn-b-Xn¬ \n∂v _p≤n-am-
∑m¿°v hf-sc-b-[-nIw a\-kn-em-°m-hp-∂-Xm-Wv.
             -                -
C\n {_“-Ncyw, Kpcp-in-jy-_‘w, A[ym-]\w
F∂n-h-sb-∏‰n ]d-bmw.
    {ioa-±-bm-\µ kc-kzXn kzman-I-fm¬
     hnc-Nn-X-amb kXym¿Y-{]-Im-i-Øn¬
        _me-in-£-W-sØ-°p-dn-®p≈
          ZznXo-tbm-√mkw Ign-™p.



                                                 c≠mw kap-√m-k-Ønse
                                                 kwkvIrX D≤-c-Wn-Iƒ

 amXr-am≥ ]nXr-am-\m-Nm-cy-hm≥ ]pcptjm thZ., .............................. OmtµmKy D]\n-jXvv 6.14.2

 Kptcmx t{]Xky injykvXp ]nXr-ta[w kam-N-c≥.
 t{]X-lmsscx kaw X{X Zi-cm-t{XW ip≤yXn..................................................... a-\pkvarXn 5.65

 kmarssXx, ]mWn-`n¿Lv\¥n Kpcthm \ hntjm£n
 ssXx eme-\m-{i-bntWm tZmjm-kvX-U-\m-{i-bntWm KpWmx ......................... alm-`mjyw 8.1.8

 bm\y-kvamI(Mv)kpN-cn-Xm\n Xm\n -
 Xz-tbm-]m-kym\n t\m CX-cmWn .........................................................ssXØcob D]\n-jØv 1.11

 \mhn-⁄mtX Pem-i-tb .................................................................................................. a-\pkvarXn 4.129

 ZrjvSn-]qXw \ytk-Xv]m-Zw, hkv{X-]qXw Pew ]nt_Xv.
 kXy-]qXmw htZ-Zzm-Nw, a\x-]qX kam-N-tc-X. .......................................................... a-\pkvarXn 6.46

 amXm -i{Xpx ]nXm sshco tb\ _mtem \ ]mTnXx,
 \ tim`tX k`m-at≤y lwk-at≤y _tIm- b-Ym ............................................. NmW-IriXIw 9

                 {]ikvXm [m¿anIo amXm hnZytX bky k amXr-am≥



                                                                   28
                 aq∂mw kap-√mkw                                                           kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw




                                                          3
                                          aq∂mw kap-√mkw

                        kXym¿Y-{]-Imiw
                   A[y-b\ A[ym-]\ k{º-Zmbw
                 AY A[y-b-\m-[ym-]-\-hn[nw hymJym-kymax
aq∂m-asØ kap-√m-k-Øn¬ A[y-b\w A[ym-                                h-cpw, ktXym-]-tZiw sIm≠pw hnZym-Zm\w
]\w F∂n-h-sb-∏‰n {]Xn-]m-Zn-°mw. DØ-a-hn-                          sIm≠pw temI- Ø n- e p≈ P\ßfpsS
Zy, t{ijvT-in-£-Ww, KpWw, I¿aw, kz`mhw                                                 -    - -
                                                                   ZpxJßsf Zqco-Icn-°p-∂hcpw, thZ-hn-ln-Xamb    -
              -
F∂n-hbm-Ip∂ `qjWßsfs°m≠v Ip´n-Isf                                  I¿aßfm¬ A\y¿°v D]-Imcw sNøp-∂-h-cp-
Ae- ¶ - c n- ° p- ∂ Xv amXm- ] n- X m- ° - ∑ m- c p- s Sbpw        amb P\ßfmWv `mKy-hm-∑m-cm-bn-´p-≈-h¿.
A[ym-]-I-∑m-cp-sS-bpw, _‘p-P\ßfpsSbpw                              AXn-\m¬ F´m-asØ hb-kn¬ Xs∂ B¨Ip-
                                -
I¿Øhyßfn¬ {][m-\am-Wv. kz¿Æw, sh≈n,                                ´n-I-sfbpw s]¨Ip-´n-I-sfbpw Ah-c-h-cpsS
amWn-Iyw, apØv, ]hngw apX-emb cXv\߃                               hnZym-e-b-Øn¬ tN¿°-Ww. Zpcm-Nm-cn-I-fmb
sIm≠p-≠m-°nb B`-cW߃ AWn-bp-∂-Xp-                                  ]pcp- j - ∑ mcpw Zp¿hr- Ø - I - f mb kv { XoIfpw
sIm≠v a\p-jys‚ Bflmhv Hcn-°epw Aew-                                 A[ym- ] - I - ] Zw hln- ° p- h m≥ tbmKy- c - √ .
Ir-X-amhpIbn-√. 1 B B`-c-W-ßf-Wn-™m¬                               ]q¿Wssh- Z pjyw kn≤n® [¿am- \ p- j v T m- \ -
tZlm-`n-am-\w, hnj-b-kp-Jm-k-‡n, I≈-∑msc                           Øn¬ {i≤-bp≈ kv{Xo]p-cp-j-∑m-cmWv Ip´n-
                                  -
`bw, F∂nh h¿≤n-°p-Itb-bp-≈q. F∂p am{X-                             Isf ]Tn-∏n-°p-hm\pw kwkvIm-c-ap-≈-h-cm-°p-
a√; Nne-t∏mƒ acWw IqSn kw`-hn-°p-∂-Xm-                             hm\pw tbmKy¿. ho´n¬ sh®p-Xs∂ B¨Ip-
Wv. B`-cWßfWn™p \S-°p∂ Ip´n- I -                                   ´n-Iƒ°p D]-\-b-\hpw s]¨Ip-´n-Iƒ°v hn[n-
tfbpw a‰pw ZpjvS-∑m¿ sIm√m-dp-≠-t√m.                               bmw-h-Æ-ap≈ hnZym-cw` kwkvIm-chpw sNbvX-
    hnZym-hn-em-k-a-\tkm [rX-io-e-in£mx                                              -       --         - -
                                                                   tijw Kpcp-Ip-eØn-te-°v˛hn-Zym-ebØn-te-°v˛
    kXy-{hXm cln-X-am-\-a-em-]-lmcmx                               Abbv-°-Ww. hnZym-ebw hnP-\-amb {]tZ-i-
    kwkm-c-Zp-xJ-Z-e-t\\ kp`q-jnXm tb                              Øm-bn-cn-°-Ww. hnZym¿Yn-I-fpsS hnZym-ebw
    [\ym \cm hnln-X-Icva ]tcm-]-Imcmx                              hnZym¿Yn-\n-I-fpsS hnZym-e-b-Øn¬ \n∂v \mep
    hnZym-`ym-k-Øn¬ Bk-‡n-bp≈ a\- v,                               \mgnI AI-se-bm-bn-cn-°-Ww. A[ym-]-I¿,
kpµ-c-amb ioe-hpw, kz`m-hhpw F∂n-h-tbm-                            `rXy¿, apX- e mbn B¨]≈n- ° q- S - Ø n¬
Sp- I q- S n- b - h - c pw, kXyw ]d- b p- I , XpS- ß nb                                            -
                                                                   BWpßfpw s]¨]-≈n-°q-SØn¬ kv{XoIfpw
\nbaßsf ]cn-]m-en-°p-∂-h-cpw, Al-¶m-cw,                            Bbn-cn-°-Ww. _me-∑m-cpsS hnZym-e-b-Øn¬
A]-hn-{XX apX-emb tZmjßfn√m-Ø-h-cpw,                               A©p-h-b p XnI™ Hcp s]¨Ip-´n-t]mepw
a‰p-≈-h-cn-ep≈ amen-\ysØ AI-‰n-°-f-bp-∂-                           {]th-in-°-cp-Xv. AXp-t]mse Xs∂ _men-I-
                                                                   am-cpsS hnZym-e-b-Øn¬ A©p hb- mb Hcp
  1 tIbq-cmWn \ `qj-b¥n ]pcpjw                                     B¨Ip-´n-t]mepw {]th-in-°-cp-Xv. B¨Ip-´n-
    lmcm\ Nt{µm-÷zem (\oXniXIw.15)                                 Iƒ {_“-Nm-cn-I-fmbpw s]¨Ip-´n-Iƒ {_“-

                                                              29
     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                        A[y-b\ A[ym-]\ k{º-Zmbw
Nm- c n- W n- I - f mbpw Ccn- t °≠ Ime- t Ømfw        ]n∂oSv Kpcp-Kr-l-Øn¬ h®pw D]-\-bn-°-Ww.
                     - -
Ah¿ ]c-kv]cap≈ Z¿i-\w, kv]¿i-\w, GIm-                 A—- \ - Ω - a mtcm BNm- c yt\m Bsc- ¶ nepw
¥-hm-kw, kw`m-j-Ww, hnjb kpJßsf°p-                    B¨Ip-´n-Iƒ°pw s]¨Ip-´n-Iƒ°pw Kmb-{Xo-
dn-®p≈ IYm-Jym\߃, {IoUm-hn-t\mZ߃,                   a{¥w A¿Y-tØm-Sp-IqSn D]-tZ-in-®p-sIm-Sp-°-
hnj- b - k p- J - s Ø- ° p- d n- ® p≈ kvacW           Ww. B a{¥w CXmWv:˛
F∂nßs\ F´p {]Im- c - Ø n- e p≈ ssaYp-                    Hmw `qcv`phx kzx
\sØ Xosc shSn-b-Ww. A[ym-]-I¿ Ahsc                       X’-hn-Xpcvh-tcWyav
B hnjbßfn¬ \n∂v AI‰n \n¿Ø-Ww.
F¶n¬ am{Xta Ah¿ DØa in£-Ww, ioew,                        `cvtKm tZhky [oaln
kz`m-hw- F-∂nh t\Sn ico-c-_-ehpw Bfl-i-                   [ntbm tbm \x {]tNm-Z-bm-Xv 3
‡nbpw kºm-Zn®v \nXy-ku-JysØ h¿≤n-∏n-                     Cu a{¥-Øns‚ {]Y-am-£-c-amb "Hmav' s‚
         -
°p-Ibp-≈q.                                            A¿Yw {]Y-tam-√m-k-Øn¬ Fgp-Xn-bn-´p-≈Xv
    hnZym- e b߃ ]´Wßfn¬ \n∂pw                        t\m°p-I. C\n aq∂v alm-hym-lr-Xn-I-fpsS
{Kmaßfn¬ \n∂pw Hcp tbmP-\-˛-F-´p-\m-gnI               A¿Yw Npcp-°n-∏-d-bmw.
Zqcw˛ AI-∂n-cn-°-Ww. Ipt_-cs‚ ]p{X-\m-                   `qx˛ "'`qcnXn ssh {]mWx'' bx {]mW-bXn
bmepw \n¿[-\s‚ ]p{X-\m-bmepw hnZym¿Yn-                Ncm-fNcw PKXv k `qx kz-bw-`q-co-izcx kI-e-
bm-bn-cn-°p-tºmƒ F√m-h¿°pw Hcp-t]m-se-                                                   -
                                                      PKØn-s‚bpw \ne-\n-ev]n\v B[m-chpw, {]mW-
bp≈ hkv{Xßfpw `£- W hpw Ccn-                          t\-°mƒ {]nb\pw kzbw `qhpw Bb {]mW-
∏nSßfpta sImSp-°m-hq. Ah-sc√mw X]-                    hm-Nn--bmIbm¬ `qx Cuiz-c-\m-a-am-Wv.
kzn-I-fm-bn-cn-°-Ww. Ip´n-Iƒ A—-\-Ω-amsc
                                                         `phx˛ ""`qh-cn-Xy-]m\x''bx kcvhw ZpxJ-a]m-
ImWphm- t \m, A—- \ - Ω - a m¿ Ip´n- I sf
                                                      \-bXn tkmf]m\x ZpxJ-c-ln-X-\pw, Pohm-flm-
kµ¿in- ° p- h mt\m A\p- h - Z n- ° - c p- X v.
                                                      °ƒ°v ZpxJ-hn-ap-‡nsb {]Zm\w sNøp-∂-h-
A—\Ωamcpw a°fpw XΩn¬ IØn-S-]mSv
                                                      \p-amb Cuiz-cs‚ t]cmWv `phx F∂-Xv.
\S-Øp-hm≥ t]mepw A\p-hZn°p∂Xv icn-
b-√. Aßs\ AI-∂n-cp-∂m¬ am{Xta Ah¿                        kzx˛ ""kzcnXn hym\x'' ""tbm hnhn[w PK-
euInI Nn¥-Iƒ IqSmsX hnZym-`n-hr-≤n-bn¬                Zvhym\-bXn hym]vt\mXn k hym\x'' hnhn[
am{Xw {i≤n-°m≥ i‡-cm-hp-I-bp-≈q. ]mT-                 temIßfnseßpw hym]n®v F√m-Øn-t\bpw
im-ebn¬ \n∂p ]pdØp t]mIp-tºmgpw Ah-
       -                                              [mcWw sNøp∂ Cuiz-c≥ F∂¿Yw. ""`qcnXn
cpsS IqsS A[ym-]-I-∑m¿ D≠m-bn-cn-°-Ww.                ssh {]mWx'' CXymZn aq∂p hmIy߃
Aßs\bmbm¬ NoØ {]hr--Øn-Iƒ, aSn,                       ssXØncobm-c-Wy-I-Øn-ep-≈-h-bm-Wv. 4
sX‰p-Iƒ F∂n-h-sbm∂pw Ah¿ ioen-°p-                                                      -
                                                         k-hnXpx (bx kpt\m-Xyp-ev]m-ZbXn kcvhw
I-bn-√.                                               PKXv k khnXm Xky) temIßsfsb√mw
    I\ym\mw kw{]-Zm\w N Ipam-cmWmw N                  Dev]m-Zn-∏n-°p-Ibpw F√m sFizcyßsfbpw
c£-Wav 2. a\p-kvar-Xn-bn-ep≈ Cu hN-\-                 \¬Ip-Ibpw sNøp-∂, tZhky (tbm-Zo-hyXn
Øns‚ XmXv]cyw CXm-Wv˛ ""A©p-h-b-s m,                  ZohytX hm k tZhx) kIe kpJßfpw
F´p hbs m Ign™ B¨Ip-´n-I-tfbpw                        \¬Ip∂ AYhm Bsc {]m]n-°p-hm≥ F√m-
s]¨Ip´nIsfbpw kzKr- l - Ø n¬ h®p                      hcpw B{K- l n- ° p- ∂ pthm B Cuiz- c s‚
hf¿Øp-hm≥ ]mSn-√. hnZym-e-b-ß-fn-te°v                 htcWyw (hcvØp-acvlw) `cvKx (ip-≤-kzcq-
Abbv- ° - W w. Aßs\ sNøm- Ø - h ¿                     ]w) kzoI-c-Wo-bhpw AXn-t{i-jvThpw ip≤-
in£m¿l-cm-Wv. F∂nßs\ tZio-b-amtbm                     kz-cq-]hpw ]mh-\hpw tNX-\-hpamb {_“-kz-
kmap-Zm-bn-I-amtbm \nbaw D≠m-bn-cn-°-                 cq-]-Øns‚ (X-Xv) B ]c-am-flm-hns\ \mw
Ww.''                                                 [oaln ([tc aln) [cn-°p-∂p. F¥n-s\∂p
    B¨Ip-´n-Isf BZyw kzKr-l-Øn¬ h®pw                  ]d-bp-∂p˛ bx (P-K-Zo-iz-cx) khn-Xmhpw tZh-
                                                        3 bPpcvthZw˛36.3
  2 a\pkvarXn 7.152                                     4 ssXØcob BcWyIw˛7.5

                                                 30
                  aq∂mw kap-√mkw                                                           kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
\p-am-bn-cn-°p∂ ]c-am-flmhv \x (A-kvam-Iw)                            AwKßfmb kv\m\w, BN-a-\w, {]mWm-bmaw
\ΩpsS [nbx (_p- ≤ ox) _p≤n- i - ‡ n- I sf                            apX-em-b {Inb-I-sf√mw ]Tn-∏n-°-Ww. ico-c-
{]tNm-Z-bmXv (t{]-c-tb-Xv) t{]cn-∏n-°p-am-dm-I-                      Øns‚ _mlym-h-bh߃°v ]cn-ip-≤nbpw
s´. ZpjvIrXyßfn¬ \n∂v am‰n kXvI¿a                                                             -
                                                                     Btcm-Kyhpw D≠m-°p-∂Xp-sIm-≠mWv kv\m\-
ßfn¬ {]h¿Øn-∏n-°s´ F∂¿Yw. ""tl! ]c-                                  Øn\v {]m[m\yw \¬In-b-Xv. AXn\p {]amWw
ta-izc! tl! k®n-Zm-\-µ-kz-cq]! tl! \nXy-                             a\p-kvar-Xn-bn-ep-≠v.
      -         -        -
ip-≤_p-≤ap-‡kz-`mh! tl! AP! \nc-RP\!                     v              AZv`ncvKm-{Xm-Wn -ip-[y¥n
                                     -
\ncvhn-Imc! tl kcvhm-¥cym-an≥! tl kcvhm                                 a\x ktXy\ ip[yXn
[mc PKZv]tX! kIe PK-ZpXv]m-ZI! tl                                       hnZym-X-t]m`ymw `qXmflm
A\mtZ! hnizw-`c! kcvh-hym-]n≥! tl Icp-                                  _p≤ncv⁄m-t\-\- ip-[y-Xn 5
Wm- a rXhmcnt[! khn- X pcv t Z- h ky Xh-                                sh≈w- s Im≠v ico- c - Ø ns‚ _mlym- h -
btZmw `qcv`p-hx- kzcvh-tcWyw `cvtKmfkvXn                                                - - -
                                                                     bhßfpw kXym-NcWØm¬ a\- pw, hnZybpw
XZzbw [oaln Z[o-aln [tc-aln [ymtbav                                  X]kpw sIm≠v (F√m t¢ißfpw kln-®p-
                                   -
hm. Ikvssa {]tbm-P\m-tb-Xy-{Xml˛-tl `K-                              sIm≠v [¿aw A\p-jvTn-°p-∂-Xn-\m¬) Pohm-
h≥! bx khnXm tZhx ]c-ta-iztcm `h∂-                                   flm-hpw, ⁄m\w sIm≠v AXm-b-Xv, ]rYnhn
kvamIw [nbx {]tNm-Z-bm-Xv. k Ghm-kvamIw                              XpSßn PK- Z o- i z- c ≥ hsc- b p≈ kIe
]qPy D]m-k-\ob CjvS-tZthm `hXp; \m                                   ]Zm¿Yßtfbpw hnth-Nn-®-dn-bp-∂Xp sIm≠p
tXmf\yw `h-Øpeyw `h-tXmf[nIw N I©nXv                                 _p≤nbpw ]cn-ip-≤-am-Ip-∂p. AXn-\m¬ `£-
IZm-Nn≥a-\ym-atl.'' am\-hsc! ka¿Y-∑m-cn¬                                                        -
                                                                     W-Øn\p apºp-Xs∂ Ipfn-°Ww. c≠m-atØXv
h®v G‰hpw ka¿Y-\pw, k®n-Zm-\-µ-kz-cq-]-                              {]mWm-bm-a-am-Wv. AXn\p {]am-W-ambn:-˛
\pw, \nXy-ip-≤-_p-≤-ap‡ kz`m-h-\pw, Icp-                                ""tbmKmMvKm-\p-jvTm-\m-Z-ip-≤n-£tb
Wm-km-K-c-hpw, bYm-tbmKyw \ymbw \S-Øp-
                                                                        ⁄m\-Zo-]vXncmhn-th-I-Jym-tXx'' 6
                     - - -
∂-h\pw P\-\acWmZn t¢ißfn√m-Øh\pw,                    - -                                                7
\ncm-Im-c-\pw, k¿h-⁄\pw kIe ]Zm¿Y                                       F∂p tbmK-im-kv{X-Øn-se            hN-\w.
ßfpsSbpw {kjvSmhpw ]nXmhpw k¿h h                                     {]mWm-bmaw sNøp∂ a\p-jys‚ ico-c-Ønse
kvXp-°-fp-sSbpw B[m-c-`q-X-\pw, A∂m-Zn-]-                            Aip≤n £bn-°p-Ibpw ⁄m\w {]Im-in-°p-
Zm¿Yßfm¬ Poh- P meßsf apgp- h \pw                                    Ibpw sNøp-∂p. tam£w e`n-°p-∂-Xp-hsc
t]mjn-∏n-°p-∂-h-\pw, kakvX sFiz-cy-bp-                               Ahs‚ Bfl-⁄m\w {Ia-Øn¬ h¿≤n-®p-sIm-
‡-\pw, temI-{k-jvSm-hpw, ip≤-kz-cq-]-\pw,                            ≠n-cn-°pw.
{]m]n-°p-hm≥ B{K-ln-°-Ø-°-h\pw Bb                                       Zlyt¥ [vamb-am-\m\mw [mXq\mw ln
B ]c-am-flm-hns‚ ip≤-amb tNX-\-kzcq-                                  bYm aemx XtY-{µn-bm-Wmw Zly-t¥ -tZmjmx
]sØ \mw [cn-°p-am-dm-I-Ww. B PK-Zo-iz-                               {]mWky \n{K-lm-Xv 8
c≥ \ΩpsS Bflm-hnepw _p≤n-bnepw A¥-                                       kz¿Ww apX-emb teml-ßsf Np´p-]-gp-∏n-
cym-an-bm-bn-cp∂v \sΩ Zpcm-Nmcßfn¬ \n                                ®m¬ Ah-bnse amen\yw \oßn ip≤-am-Ip-∂-
∂pw A[- ¿ a- a m¿K- Ø n¬ \n∂pw AI‰n                                  Xp-t]mse, {]mWm-bmaw sNøp-∂-hs‚ a\kv
t{ijv T m- N mcßfnepw kXy- a m¿K- Ø nepw                             apX-emb C{µnb-ßfpsS tZmj-sa√mw \in®v
{]h¿Øn-∏n-°p-am-dm-Is´! B Cuiz-c-s\-b-                               \n¿a-e-am-Ip-∂p. {]mWm-bma hn[n C{]-Im-c-
√msX as‰mcp hkvXp-hns\ \mw [ym\n-°-cp-                               am-Wv.
Xv. Fs¥-∂m¬ At±-l-tØ-°mƒ alm-t\m,                                       {]—cvZ-\-hn-[m-c-Wm`ymw hm {]mW-ky 9
At±-l-Øn\p Xpeyt\m Bcp-an-√. \ΩpsS                                   i‡n-]q¿hw O¿±n-°p-tºmƒ tNmdpw sh≈hpw
{kjvSm-hpw, cmPm-hpw, \ymbm-[n-]-Xnbpw
At±lw Xs∂. \ap°v kI-ehn[ kpJ߃         -                               5 a\pkvarXn 5. 109
                                                                       6 tbmKZ¿i\w 2.28
Xcp-∂Xpw At±lw Xs∂.                                                                             -      -
                                                                         (tbmKmw-Km-\p-jvTm-\m-Zip-≤n-£tb...)
    C{]-Imcw Kmb-{Xo-a-{¥-Øns‚ A¿Yw D]-                                                                       -
                                                                       7 tbmKZ¿i\w 2.52 (XXx- £o-btX {]Im-im-hcWav)
tZ- i n- ® p- s Im- S p- Ø n- ´ v , kt‘ym- ] m- k - \ - b psS          8 a\pkvarXn 6.71
                                                                       9 tbmKZ¿i\w 1.34


                                                                31
    kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                         A[y-b\ A[ym-]\ k{º-Zmbw
]pd-tØ°p t]mIp-∂-Xp-t]mse {]mW-hm-bp-                ∏v, kwkmcw apX-emb Imcy-ßfpw hen-b-h-
hn-s\ i‡n-]q¿hw ]pd-tØ°p hn´v BIm-hp-                tcmSpw sNdn-b-h-tcm-Sp-ap≈ s]cp-am-ddw F∂n-
∂{X kabw shfn-bn¬ \ntcm-[n®p \n¿Øp-                  h-sb-∏‰n th≠ \n¿t±i-߃ Ip´n-Iƒ°p ]d-
I. C- ß s\ sNøp- t ºmƒ aqte- { µn- b sØ              ™p-sIm-Sp-°-Ww. {_“-b-⁄-sa∂p IqSn
apIƒ`m- K - t Ø°v sXs√m∂p BI¿jn®p                    ]dbp∂ kt‘ym-]m-k-\-bpsS {Iahpw ]Tn-∏n-
\n¿Ø- W w. C- ß s\bm- b m¬ {]mW- h m- b p-           ®p- s Im- S p- ° - W w. BN- a - \ - a mWv AXns‚
hns\ IqSp-X¬ kabw XSpØp-\n¿Øp-hm≥                                             -   -
                                                     BZysØ {Inb. IWvT\m-fØns‚ NphSp hsc
Ign-bpw. hnjaw A\p-`-h-s∏-Sp-tºmƒ hmbp               FØp-hm≥ F{X sh≈w thtWm A{X-am{Xw
Aev]m-ev]-ambn D≈n-te°p hen-s®-Sp-°pI                sh≈w-˛-A-Xn-e-[n-I-am-hp-I-tbm, Ipd-bp-Itbm
]n∂oSv AXns\ apºn-esØ a´n¬ Xs∂ ]pd-                  sNø-cp-Xv-˛-ssI-sh-≈-bn¬ FSp-Øv, AXns‚
tØ°p hnSpI A-ßs\ i‡nbpw C—bpw                        a[y-Øn¬ Np≠p-Iƒ h®v hen-s®-Sp-ØmWv
D≈n- S - t Ømfw Bh¿Øn- ° p- I . B ka- b -            BN-a\w sNtø-≠Xv A-ßs\ sNbvXm¬
sØ√mw a\km HmwImcw P]n-°-Ww. C{]-                           --
                                                     IWvTØn-ep-≈- I^hpw ]nØhpw sX√p ian-
Imcw A\p-jvTn-®m¬ Bflm-hn\pw a\- n\pw                 °pw. ]n∂sØ {Inb am¿-P\-am-Wv. a≤yam (\-
]cn-ip-≤nbpw ÿnc-Xbpw e`n-°pw.                       Sp-hn-c¬) A\m-anIm (tam-Xn-c-hn-c¬) F∂o
    {]mWm-bmaw \mep-hn-[-ap-≠v. H∂m-a-tØXv           ssIhn-c-ep-I-fpsS A‰w sIm≠v IÆnepw a‰pw
_mly-hn-j-bw. Zo¿L-t\cw {]mWs\ shfn-                 sh≈w Xfn-°p-∂-Xn-s\-bmWvam¿-P\w F∂p
bn¬ \n¿ØpI F∂¿Yw. c≠m-a-tØXv B`y-                    ]d-bp-∂-Xv.am¿-P\w sNøp-∂-Xp-sIm≠v Ae-
¥-cw. {]mWs\ Ign-bp-∂{X D≈n-sem-Xp°n                 kX amdp-∂p. Ae-kX C√m-Øt∏m-gpw, sh≈w  -
\n¿Øp-∂-Xp-sIm≠v B`y-¥cw F∂p ]d-bp-                  Cs√-¶nepwam¿-P\w sNø-W-sa-∂n-√.am¿-P\w
∂p. aq∂m-a-tØXv kvXw`-hr-Øn-bm-Wv. hmbp-             Ign-™v a{¥-tØm-Sp-IqSn {]mWm-bm-aw, a\km
hns\ bYm-i‡n kvXw`n-∏n®p \n¿Øp-∂-Xp-                 ]cn-{I-aWw 'D]-ÿm\w' Cuiz-c-kvXp-Xn,
sIm≠v kvXw`-hr-Øn-sb-∂p ]d-bp-∂p. \mem-              Cuiz-c-{]m¿Y\ F∂o {Inb-I-fpsS A\p-jvTm-
a-tØXv _mlym-`y-¥cm-t£-]n-bm-Wv. {]mW≥
                     -                               \-co-Xn-I-fpw. ]n∂oSv a\km t]mepw ]m]w
D≈n¬ \n∂v ]pd-tØ°p t]mIp-tºmƒ A-                     Nn¥n-°m-Xn-cn-°phm-\p≈ AL-a¿j-Whpw
ßs\ hnSmsX AXn\p hncp-≤-ambn ]pdØp                   ioen-°-Ww. Cu kt‘ym-]m-k\ GIm-¥-ÿ-
\n∂v AI-tØ°p {]mWs\ hen-°p-Ibpw                      eØv GIm-{K-Nn-Ø-tØm-Sp-IqSn A\p-jvTn-°-
AI- t Ø°p hcp- t ºmƒ, AI- Ø p- \ n∂p                 Ww.
XS™p ]pdØp \n¿Øp-Ibpw sNøp-∂-XmWv                       A]mw kaot] \nbtXm ss\XyIw hn[n-
_mlym-`y¥-c-hn-j-bw. C-ßs\ ]c-kv]-c-hn-cp-           am-ÿnXx; kmhn-{Xo-a-]y-[o-boX KXzm-cWyw
≤-ambn {In-b-I-f-\p-jvTn®v {]mWm-bmaw ioen-          kam-ln-Xx 10
®m¬ c≠n-s‚bpw KXn \ne®v {]mW≥ hi-K-                     Im´n¬-˛-hn-P-\-ÿ-e-Øp-˛-sN-∂v, kmh-[m\w
am- h p- I bpw XZzmcm a\kpw C{µnb- ß fpw             Pe-Øn-\-Sp-Øn-cp-∂v, GIm-{K-Nn-Ø-\m-bn, \nXy-
kzm[o-\-am-hp-Ibpw sNøpw. _ehpw ]pcp-                I¿aw sNbvXv kmhn{Xn AYhm Kmb-{Xo--a{¥w
jm¿Yhpw h¿≤n®v _p≤n XojvWhpw                         P]n-°p-Ibpw AXns‚ A¿Yw Nn¥n-°pIbpw
kq£vahpw Bhp-Ibpw kq£vahpw ITn-\hp-                  AX- \ p- k - c n®v {]h¿Øn- ° p- I bpw thWw.
amb hnjb-߃ t]mepw {]bmkw IqSmsX                     F∂m¬, a\km P]n-°p-∂-XmWv DØaw.
{Kln-°p-hm≥ Ign-bp-Ibpw sNøpw. IqSmsX
ico-Øn¬ hocy-hr-≤n-bp-≠m-hp-Ibpw _ew,                   ASpØ A\p-jvTm\w tZh-b-⁄-am-Ip-∂p.
]cm-{I-aw, PntX-{µn-bXzw F∂o KpW-߃                  A·n-tlm{Xw F∂p-IqSn t]cp≈ B A\p-
D≠m-hp-Ibpw Aev]-Imew sIm≠v kI-e-im-                 jvTm\w hnZzm-∑m-cpsS kwk¿Khpw ip{iq-jbpw
kv{X-ßfpw ]Tn®p hbv°p-hm≥ Ign-bp-I-bpw               sIm≠p-thWw \n¿h-ln-°p-hm≥. kt‘ym-]m-
sNøpw. kv{XoIfpw C{]-Imcw tbmKm-`ymkw                k-\hpw A·n-tlm-{Xhpw cmhn-sebpw kmbw-
sNtø-≠-Xm-Wv.                                        k-‘ybv°pw am{Xta sNøm-hq. cm]-Iep-IfpsS     -
    `£-Ww, hkv{X-[m-c-Ww, Ccn-∏v, \nev]v, \S-          10 a\pkvarXn 2.104


                                                32
               aq∂mw kap-√mkw                                                    kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
k‘n-thf ct≠ D≈q; thsd-bn-√. Ipd-™-
]£w Hcp aWn-°q-sd-¶nepw [ym\-Øn-en-cn-t°-
≠-Xm-Wv. tbmKn-Iƒ kam-[n-bn-en-cp∂p ]c-am-
flm- h ns\ [ym\n- ° p- ∂ - X p- t ]m- s e- b mWv
kt‘ym-]m-k\ sNtø-≠-Xpw.
    kqtcym- Z - b - Ø n\p tij- h pw, Akv X - a - \ -
Øn\p apºp-amWv A·n-tlm-{X-Øns‚ ka-bw.
A·n-tlm{Xw sNøm≥ aÆntem As√-¶n¬
teml-Øn-tem, D]-cn-`mKw ]{¥t≠m ]Xn-
\mtdm AwKpew Bg-tØm-Sp-Iq-Sn-bpw, ]{¥
t≠m ]Xn-\mtdm AwKpew \ofw hoXn-bn¬
       -   -
ka-NXp-cØnepw A{Xbpw AwKpew, Bg-tØm-
Sp-Iq-Snbpw aqt∂m \mtem AwKpew hoXw \ofw
hoXn-bn¬ ka-N-Xp-c-amb ASn-Ø-t´m-Sp-Iq-Snbpw
Hcp thZn \n¿an-t°-≠-Xm-Wv. ka-N-Xp-c-amb
                                                                 Xmsg ]d-bp∂ a{¥-߃ sNm√n tlman-
thZn-bpsS apIƒ`m-K-Øns‚ \men-sem-∂m-bn-
                                                            °p-I˛
cn-°Ww ASn-Ø-´ns‚ hen-∏w. Cu tXmX-\p-
k-cn®v thZn-bpsS Afhp IW-°m-°-Ww. thZn-                          Hmw `qc-·tb {]mWmb kzmlm. `phcvhm-
bn¬ Nµ-\w, πmiv, amhv apX-emb t{ijvThr£-      -             bthf]m\mb kzmlm. kzcm-Zn-Xymb hym\m
ßfpsS XSn-°jW-߃ apdn®v thZn-bpsS hen-
                 -                                          b kzmlm. `qcv`phx kzc-·nhmbzm-Zn-tXy`yx
∏-Øn-\-\p-k-cn®v IjW-ßfmbn ]Sp-°p-I.                        {]mWm-]m-\-hym-t\`yx kzmlm.
AXns‚ a≤y-Øn¬ A·n Pzen-∏n®v AXns‚                                A·n-tlm-{X-Øn\p {]tXy-I-ambn hn[n-°-
apI-fn¬ sNdnb hnd-Ip-I-jW-߃ hbv°p-I.                       s∏-´n-´p≈ Cu a{¥-ßfn¬ Hmtcm-∂n-t\bpw
AXns‚ tijw, kz¿Ww sImt≠m, sh≈n-                             sNm√n Hmtcm BlpXn hoXw sNøp-I. AXn-
sImt≠m acwsImt≠m \n¿an® Hcp t{]m£-                          e-[nIw BlpXn sNø-W-sa-∂p-s≠-¶n¬˛
Wo-]m-{Xw, Hcp {]Wo-Xm-]m-{Xw, Hcp BPy-ÿm-                    hnizm\n tZh khn-XcvZp-cn-Xm\n ]cm
en, Hcp {kphw F∂o tlma-]m{X-ßsfSp-Øv                          kph bZv `{ZwX∂ B kp-h 11
{]- W oXm]m{X- Ø nepw t{]m£- W o- ] m- { X-                      F∂ a{¥w sImt≠m ap≥sNm∂ Kmb-{Xo-
Ønepw sh≈hpw BPy-ÿm-en-bn¬ Dcp-°nb                          a- { ¥w- s Imt≠m tlman°p- I . ""Hmw `qx''
s\øpw \nd- ® p- s h- b v ° p- I . {]Wo- X m- ] m{Xw                           -
                                                            ""{]mWx'' F∂p-Xp-Sßn-bp≈ Cu \ma-ßsf√mw
sh≈w \nd-®p-sh-°p--hm-\p-≈Xpw t{]m£-Wo-                     Cuiz-cs\ Ipdn-°p-∂-Xm-Wv. Ch-bpsS A¿Yw
]m{Xw AXn¬\n∂p ssI Igp- I p- h m- \ mbn                     ]d-™p-I-gn-™p. kzml-mbpsS A¿Yw CXm-
sh≈w FSp-°p-hm≥ kuI-cy-Øn\p th≠n-bp-                        Wv˛ Ah-c-h-cpsS Adn-hn\p X° hÆw kwkm-
≈-Xp-am-Ip-∂p. CsX√mw Hcp-°n-sh-®-tijw                      cn-°-Ww. hn]-co-X-ambn ]mSn-√. temI-Øn¬
s\øv NqSp-]n-Sn-∏n®v AXns\ \√-hÆw ]cn-                      ImWp∂ kIe ]Zm¿Y-ßtfbpw Cuiz-c≥
tim-[n®v                                                    k¿h-{]m-Wn-I-fp-sSbpw kpJ-Øn-\mbn krjvSn-
                                                            ®-Xp-t]mse a\p-jycpw ]tcm-]-Imcw sNtø-
                                                            ≠-Xm-Wv.
                                                                 tNmZyw:˛ tlmaw sIm≠v F¥p-]-tbm-K-am-
                                                            Wp-f-fXv?
                                                                 DØcw: Zp¿K-‘-ap≈ hmbphpw sh≈hpw
                                                            tcmK-Im-c-W-am-sW∂pw tcmK-߃ Pohn-Iƒ°v
                                                                      -                    -
                                                            Zp:Jap-fhm-°p-sa∂pw F√m-h¿°p-adnbmw. AXp-
                                                             11 bPpcvthZw 30.3


                                                       33
    kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                        A[y-b\ A[ym-]\ k{º-Zmbw
t]mse kpK-‘-ap≈ hmbphpw \√ Pehpw                   F{X-tØmfw Zp¿K‘w D≠m-bn, hmbp-hn¬
a\p-jy¿°v BtcmKyw \¬Ip-∂p. tcmK-an-√m-             hym]n-®v, hmbp-hn-t\bpw Pe-Øn-t\bpw Zpjn-
Xm-bm¬ Zp:Jan-√m-Xm-Ipw. Zp:Jan-√m-Xm-bm¬          ∏n®v tcmtKm-ev]-Øn°p Imc-W-am-bn, Pohn-
kpJw {]m]vX-am-Wv.                                 Iƒ°p ZpxJ-ap-≠m-°p-∂pthm A{X-tØmfw
    tNmZyw:˛ Nµ\w B¿s°-¶nepw Ac-®p-]p-             ]m]w B a\p-jy-\p-≠v. B ]m]-Øns‚ ]cn-
c-´p-hm\pw s\øv Ign-°m\pw sImSp-°p-∂Xt√ -          lm-c-Øn-\v, aen-\-am-°n-b-{X-tØmfw hmbphpw
{]tbm-P-\-{]Zw? Xoøn-en´p \in-∏n-°p-∂Xv            Pehpw ip≤- a m- ° - W w. s\øv , Ign- ° p- ∂ -
_p≤n-bp-≈-h¿°p tNcp-∂-Imcy-amtWm?                  XpsIm≠v Ign-°p-∂-h\p am{Xta {]tbm-P-\-
    DØ-cw˛ \n-߃°v {]IrXn XØz-imkv{Xw              ap-ffq. Hcp-h≥ `£n-°p-∂{X s\øpw kpK-‘-
Adn-bm-sa-¶n¬ C-ßs\ ]d-bp-I-bn-√m-bn-cp-∂p.        {Zhy-ßfpw tlman-®m¬ AXp-sIm≠v ]c-e£w
Hcp ]Zm¿Yhpw \in-®p-t]m-Ip-∂n-√. t\m°q!            P\-߃°v D]-Imcw D≠m-hpw. F∂m¬ s\øpw
tlmaw sNøp∂ ÿeØp \n∂p hfsc Zpsc                    a‰p \√ ]Zm¿Y-ßfpw `£n-°m-Øh¿ °v tZl-    -
\n¬°p-∂-bm-fn\v AXns‚ kpK‘w e`n-°p-                _-ehpw Bfl-_-ehpw D≠mhp-I-bn-√. AXn-
∂p. AXp-t]mse Zp¿K-‘hpw Adn-bphm≥ Ign-             \m¬ \√ ]Zm¿Y-߃ Xn∂p-Ibpw IpSn-°p-
bpw. CXn¬\n∂v a\-kn-em-t°-≠-Xv, tlmam-             Ibpw sNø-Ww. ]t£ AXp-sIm≠v tlmaw
·n- b n¬ \nt£- ] n® hkv X p kq£v a - a mbn         sNøp-∂Xv hf-sc-b-[nIw DNn-X-am-bn-´p-≈-Xm-
Xo¿∂v \mep-]mSpw hym]n-®v, hmbp-hn-eqsS            Wv. AXn-\m¬ tlmaw sNøp-∂Xv AXym-hiyw
]c∂v Zp¿K-‘-sa√mw \in-∏n-°p-∂p-sh-∂m-Wv.           Xs∂.
                                      -
    tNmZyw˛ A-ßs\bm-sW-¶n¬ Ip¶p-a∏q-hv,                tNmZyw˛ Hmtcm a\p-jy\pw F{X BlpXn
                         -
IkvXq-cn, aW-ap≈ ]pjv]߃, AØ¿ apX-                 hoXw sNøWw? Hmtcm Blp-Xn-bptSbpw
em-bh ho´n¬ kq£n-®p-h-®m¬ Ah ho´n-                 Afhv F¥m-bn-cn-°Ww?
ep≈ hmbp-hns\ kpK-‘-bp-‡hpw kpJ-                       DØ- c w˛ Hmtcm a\p- j y\pw ]Xn- \ mdv
{]-Z-hp-am-°pInt√?                                 BlpXn hoXw tlman-°-Ww. Hmtcm Blp-
    DØ-cw˛ Ah-bpsS kuc-`y-Øn\v Krlm-               Xn°pw Bdp a©m-Sn-Øq°w s\øpw addp {Zhy-
¥¿`m-KsØ Zpjn® hmbp-hns\ ]pd-Øm°n                  ßfpw thWw. AXn-e-[nIw D≠m-bm¬ hfsc
ip≤-hm-bp-hns\ AI-tØ°p {]th-in-∏n-°p-                           -           - -
                                                   \∂v. Bcy-P\m-t{K-kc∑mcpw al-Øp-°fp-amb        -
hm≥ i‡n-bn-√. Ahbv°v t`Z-I-i‡n C√m-                Ejn-am¿, al¿jn-am¿, cmPm-°-∑m¿ alm-cm-Pm-
Ø-XmWv Imc-Ww. Zpjn® hmbp-hn-s\bpw                 °-∑m¿ F∂n-h-sc√mw hfsc tlma-߃ \S-
Zp¿K-‘-bp-‡-amb hkvXp-°-sfbpw t`Zn®v               Øp-Ibpw \S-Øn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXn-cp-∂Xv AXn-
eLq-I-cn®v ]pd-Øm°n ]pd-Øp≈ ip≤-hm-bp-             \m-em-Wv. tlmaw sNøp∂ k{º-Zmbw \ne-\n-
hns\ AI- t Ø°p {]th- i n- ∏ n- ° p- h m≥           ∂n-cp∂ Imew hsc Bcym-h¿Øw tcmK-c-ln-
A·n°p am{Xta kma¿Yy-ap-≈q.                         Xhpw kpJ- ] q¿W- h p- a m- b n- c p- ∂ p. Ct∏mgpw
    tNmZyw˛ F¶n¬ tlmaw sNøp- t ºmƒ                 tlma- Ø n\v {]Nmcw D≠m- I p- ∂ - X m- b m¬
a{¥w sNm√p-∂-Xp-sIm≠v F¥mWv {]tbm-                 A∆Æw `hn-°pw.
P\w?
    DØ-cw˛ a{¥m¿Y-hym-Jym-\-Øn¬ \n∂v                   C-ßs\ c≠v b⁄-߃, AYhm {_“-b-
tlmaw sNøp-∂-Xp-sIm-≠p≈ ^ew F¥m-                   ⁄w˛ ]Tn-Øw, ]Tn-∏n-°¬, kt‘ym-]m-k-
sW∂v a\- n-em-Ip-∂p. IqSmsX a{¥-߃                 \, Cuiz- c - k v X p- X n, {]m¿Y- \ , D]m- k - \ ,
Bh¿Øn-®p-P-]n-°p-∂-Xp-sIm≠v Ah lrZn-               F∂nh sNøp-I. c≠m-asØ tZh-b-⁄w˛
ÿ-am-Ip-Ibpw thZ-ßfpsS A[y-b-\w, A[ym-             A·n-tlm{Xw apX¬ Aiz-ta[w hsc-bp≈
]-\w, kwc-£Ww F∂nh \S-°p-Ibpw sNøp-                b⁄- ß fpw hnZzm- ∑ m- c psS ip{iq- j bpw
∂p.                                                kº¿°- h pw- ˛ - B - W p- ≈ - X v . {_“- N - c ym- { i- a -
    tNmZyw˛ tlmaw sNøm-Xn-cp-∂m¬ ]m]w              Øn¬ {_“-b-⁄hpw A·n-tlm-{Xhpw am{Xw
Dt≠m?                                              A\p-jvTn-®m¬ aXn.
    DØ-cw˛ D≠v. Hcp-hs‚ ico-c-Øn¬ \n∂v                          -
                                                       {_m“-Wkv{XbmWmw hcvW\m-ap-]\b\w   -      - -
                                                                  -
                                                   IcvØp-acvlXn. cmPt\ym Zzb-ky. sshtiym

                                              34
              aq∂mw kap-√mkw                                                kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
sshiy-ssky-th-Xn. ip{Z-a]n Ipe-Kp-W-k-              `h-Xn.
                         -   - -   -
º∂w a{¥-hcvPa\p-]\o-Xa[ym-]tb-Zn-tXy-tI.                3. AY bm\n NXp-›-Xzm-cnw-i-ZzcvjmWn
   Cu hN\w kp{ip-Xs‚ kq{X-ÿm-\-Øn¬                                              -
                                                    X∑m[yµn\w kh\w NXp-›Xzm-cnw-iZ£cm     - -
c≠m-asØ A[ym-b-Øn-ep-≈-Xm-Wv. {_m“-                 {XnjvSp]v ss{XjvSp`w am[y-µn\w kh\w
W\v aq∂p h¿W- ß sfbpw ({_m- “ - W ≥,                XZky cp{Zm A\zmbØmx {]mWm hmh cp{Zm
£{Xn- b ≥, sshiy≥ F∂o aq∂p h¿W-                     GtX loZw kcvhw tcmZ-b-¥n.
ßtfbpw) £{Xn- b \v £{Xn- b - s sh- i y- ∑ m-            4. Xw tNtZ-X-kvan-\z-bkn In©n-Zp-]-X-
scbpw sshiy\v sshiys\ am{Xhpw D]-\-                 t]’ {_qbmXv{]mWm cp{Zm CZw ta am[y-
                                 -
b\w sNbvXp ]Tn-∏n-°m-hp-∂Xm-Wv. Ipeo-\\pw           µn\w kh\w XrXob kh\-a\p k¥-\p-
ip`-e-£-W-ß-fp≈h\p-amb iq{Zs\ a{¥-kw-               tXXn amlw {]mWm\mw cp{ZmWmw at[y
ln-X-sbm-gn-sI-bp≈ kIe imkv{Xßfpw ]Tn-              bt⁄m hntem- ] v k o- t b- X yp- s s≤h XX
∏n-°mw. F∂m¬ iq{Zs\ D]-\-bn-°-cp-Xv. C{]-           GXy-KtZm l `h-Xn.
Imcam Wv BNm-cy-∑mcpsS aXw.                                             v  -
                                                        5. AY bm\y-jSm-NXzm-cn-iw-ZzcvjmWn XXv
   A©m-asØ hb-kntem As√¶n¬ F´m-                     Xr-Xobkh-\-a-jvSm-NXzm-cn-i-Z-£cm PKXo
asØ hb-kntem B¨Ip-´n-Ifpw s]¨Ip-´n-                 PmK- X w - X r- X ob kh\w XZ- k ym- Z n- X ym-
Ifpw Ah-c-h¿°p≈ ]mT-im-e-bn¬ tNc-Ww.                \zmbØmx {]mWm hmhm-ZnXym GtX loZw
F∂n´v Xmsg-]-dbp∂ \nb-a-a-\p-k-cn®v A[y-            kcvh-am-Z-Z-tX.
b\w Bcw-`n-t°-≠-Xm-Wv.                                  6. Xw tNtZ-X-kvan≥ hbkn In©n-Zp-]-X-
   jSv { Xnw- i - Z m_v Z nIw Ncbyw Kpscu           t]’ {_qbmXv{]mWm BZnXym CZw ta
ss{Xssh-ZnIw {hXw; XZcv[nIw ]mZnIw hm               XrXo-b-k-h\ ambp-c-\p-kw-X-\p-tXXn amlw
{Kl-Wm-¥n-I-tah hm12.                               {]mWm\mam-Zn-Xym\mw at[y bt⁄m hntem
   F´m-asØ hb-kn¬ XpSßn \mev]-Øn-\m-                -]vko-tb-Xyp-ss≤h XX GXyKtZm sslh
em-asØ hb-kp-h-sc, aq∂p thZ-ßfp≈-Xn¬                `hXn
Hmtcm∂pw kmwtKm-]mwKw ]Tn-°p-hm≥ Hmtcm                  Cu hmIy-߃ Omtµm-tKym-]-\n-j-Øn-ep-
hymg-h´w hoXw ap∏-Øn-bmdp sIm√-°m-ew,               ≈-h-bm-Ip-∂p 13.
{_“-Ncyw A\p-jvTn-t°-≠-Xm-Wv. As√-¶n¬
]Xn-s\´p kwh-’-cw˛ AXm-bXv F´p apX¬                 {_“N-cyw -˛-I-\n-jvTw, a[y-aw, DØaw F∂n-
Ccp--]-Ømdp hb-kp-h-sc-˛-A-Xpas√¶n¬ Hº-             ßs\ aq∂p hn[-Øn-em-Wv.
Xp-sIm-√-°m-e-sa-¶nepw {_“-Ncyw A\p-jvTn-           1. Ah-bn¬ I\n-jvT-amb {_“-Ncyw C{]-Im-c-
°-Ww. AYhm ]q¿W hnZym-{K-l-W-Øn-\m-h-               am- W v . ]pcp- j ≥ AYhm A∂- c - k - a - b - a mb
iy-amb A{Xbpw Imew {_“-Ncyw A\p-jvTn-               tZlhpw B tZl- Ø n¬ IpSn- s Im- ≈ p∂
°-Ww.                                               Bflmhpw b⁄-am-Ip-∂p. AXm-bXv kXvKpW-
   1. ]pcptjm hmh b⁄kvXky bm\n                      ßtfmSp IqSn-bXpw kXvI¿Ø-hy-hp-am-Ip∂p
NXpcvhnw-iXn hcvjmWn XXv{]mXx kh-\w,                F∂¿Yw. AXn-\m¬ B ]pcp-j≥ Xs‚ Bbp-
NXpcvhnw-iXy-£cm Kmb{Xo Kmb{Xw {]mXx-
            -                                       kn¬ 24 hbkp XnI-bp-∂-Xp-hsc PntX-{µn-
k-h-\w, XZky hk-thmf\zmbØmx {]mWm                   b\pw {_“-Nm-cnbpw Bbn-cp∂v thZmZn hnZy-
hmh hkh GtX loZw kcvhw hmk-b¥n.                     I- t fbpw th≠pw hÆ- a p≈ in£- W hpw
                                                    {Kln®v hnhmlw sNbvXmepw kv{Xoe-º-S-\m-
   2. Xt©-tZ-X-kvan≥ hbkn In©n-Zp-]-X-                                        -
                                                    ImsX Ign-bp-hm≥ ioen-°Ww. A-ßs\ sNøp-
t]’ {_qbmXv{]mWm hkh CZw ta {]mXx-                                                 - -
                                                    ∂-bm-fns‚ {]mW-߃ _e-ap-≈hbm-bn, KpW-
k-h\w am[y-µn-\w- k-h-\-a-\p-kw-X-\p-tXXn           k-ºq¿Æ-ambn `hn-°pw.
amlw {]mWm\mw hkq\mw at[y bt⁄m
hntem-]vko-tb-Xyp-ss≤h XX GXy-KtZm l                    2. hnZym-`ym-k-Øn\v X]kp sNøp∂ {_“-
                                                    Nmcn A[ym-]I≥ D]t-tZ-in°pw ]Sn i]Yw
  12 a\pkvarXn 3.1                                    13 OmtµymKy D]\n-jXv 3.16.1


                                               35
    kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                          A[y-b\ A[ym-]\ k{º-Zmbw
sNbvXv {hX-sa-Sp-°-Ww. ""Rm≥ Cu BZy-h-b-              tem]w hcp-ØmsX c£n-°p-∂-h¿ tcmK-an-
kn¬ Aßp ]d-bp-∂-Xp-t]mse {_“-N-cy-a-\p-               √msX Pohn®v [¿am¿Y-I-atam£-߃ t\Sp-
                          -
jvTn®v Fs‚ ico-cØn\pw Bflm-hn\pw Btcm-                 ∂p.
Kyhpw _ehpw ssIh-cpØn kIe kZvKpW-                        NXkvt{Xmf-hÿmx ico-cky hr≤ncv-bu-
                        -            -
߃°pw Ccn-∏n-Sam-Ipw. Fs‚ {_“-Ncy-Øn\v                h \w kºqcvWXm In©nXv ]cn-lm-Wn-t›-
tem]w hcm-Ø-hn-[-Øn¬ \n-߃ \n-ßfpsS                                 -
                                                      Xn. Btjm-Uim-Zv hr≤nx. B ]©-hnwi-tXcv-
kpJ-ßsf h¿≤n-∏n-®p-sIm-≈p-I. 24 hbkp                  bu-h-\w. BN-Xzm-cnw-iXx kºqcvWXm XXx
XnI-™-Xn\p tijw hnhmlw sNbvXv Krl-                              -
                                                      In©n-Xv]cn-lm-Wn-t›-Xn. ]©-hnwti XtXm
ÿm-{iaw kzoI-cn-°p-∂-Xm-bm¬ tcmK-c-ln-X-              hcvtj ]pam≥ \mcoXp tjmUti ka-Xzm-
\m- b n- c n- ° m- s a∂pw Bbp v Fgp- ] tXm            KX hocyu Xu Pm\o-bmXv Ipitem `nj-
F¨]tXm sIm√-tØmfw \o≠p \n¬°p-sa-                      Iv. 14
∂p-≈Xpw {]kn-≤-am-W-t√m.
                                                                        -               -
                                                         Ch kp{ip-XØnse kq{X-ÿm-\Øn¬ ap∏-
              -       -       -
    3. a[y-a{_-“Ncyw C{]-Im-cam-Wv˛ GsXmcp            Ø-©m-a-≤ym-b-Øn-ep-≈-h-bm-Wv. Cu ico-c-
a\p-jy≥ 44 hb p Ign-bp-∂-Xp-hsc {_“-Nm-               Øn\v \mev Ah-ÿ-I-fp-≈-Xn¬ BZy-tØXv
cn-bm-bn-cp∂pw sIm≠v thZm-[ym-b\w sNøp-               hr≤n BIp-∂p. ]Xn-\m-dm-asØ hbkp apX¬
∂pthm Ahs‚ {]mW- \ pw, C{µnb- ß fpw,                  Ccp-]-Ø-©m-asØ hbkp hsc ico-c-Ønse
A¥x-I-c-W-hpw, Bflmhpw F√mw ]pjvSn                     [mXp-°-sf√mw hf¿®sb {]m]n-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-
{]m]n-®v, ZpjvSsc Ic-bn-∏n-°p-∂Xpw injvSsc            °p-∂p. c≠m-asØ Ahÿ buh\-am-Wv.
]cn-]m-en-°p-∂-hbpw BIpw.                             AXv Ccp]-Øn-b©mw hb-kns‚ Ah-km-\-
    4. \n-߃ ]d-bpw-hÆw Cu {]Y-a-h-b-kn¬              Øntam Ccp-]-Øn-bmdmw hbkns‚ XpS-°-
Rm≥ Ipd®v X]-k-\p-jvTn-®m¬ cp{Z-cq-]-amb              Øntem Bcw- ` n- ° p- ∂ p. aq∂m- a sØ Ah-
{]mW-t\m-Sp-Iq-Snb {_“-Ncyw F\n°v ssIh-               ÿsb kºq¿WX F∂p ]d-bp-∂p. buh-\m-
cpw. AXn-\m¬ A√tbm {_“-Nm-cn-I-tf, {_“-               cw-`-tØm-Sp-IqSn XpS-ßp∂ ico-c-]pjvSn ]q¿W-
N-cysØ h¿≤n-∏n-°p-I. Fs‚ Ncybv°p `wKw                 am-Ip-∂Xv 40 hbkp XnI-bp-tºm-gm-Wv. \mem-
hcp-ØmsX b⁄-kz-cq-]-\mbn BNm-cy-Ip-e-                 asØ Ah-ÿ-bmWv In©n¬ ]cnlmWn
Øn¬\n∂p aS- ß n- h ∂v tcmK- c - l n- X - \ mbn                        -             -
                                                      F∂p ]d-bp-∂Xv. AXv \mev]Xm-asØ hbkp
h¿Øn-°p-am-dm-I-Ww. Fs∂-t∏mse \√ I¿aw                 XnI-bp-∂-tXm-Sp-IqSn XpS-ßp-∂p. kIe [mXp-
\n-ßfpw sNbvI.                                        °fpw kmwtKm-]mwKw ]q¿W-h-f¿® {]m]n-®p-
    5. aq∂m-asØ DØa {_“-Ncy-Øns‚ Imew
                                -                     I-gn-™m¬ ]n∂o-Sp-≠m-Ip∂ hf¿® ico-c-
48 kwh-’-c-am-Wv. PKXo F∂ Oµkv 48                     Øn¬ \n¬°p-I-bn-√. B hf¿® ([m-Xp-hr-≤n)
A£c-ßfp≈-Xm-Wv. AXp-t]mse \mep hymg-                  kz]v \ w, tkzZw F∂nh hgn ]pd- t Ø°p
h´w bYm-hn[n {_“-Ncyw A\p-jvTn-°p-∂-bm-               t]mhp-Itb D≈q. B \mev]Xmw hb-kmWv
fns‚ {]mW≥ A\p-Iq-e-ambn kIe hnZym-{K-                hnhm-l-Øn\v DØ-a-Im-ew. \mev]-sØ´mw hb-
lWw km[y-am-°p-∂p.                                     m-Is´ AXyp-Øa Ime-hp-am-Wv.
    6. Kpcp-°-∑mcpw amXm-]n-Xm-°-∑m-cpw, X-              tNmZyw˛ {_“NcysØ kw_-‘n® Cu
ßfpsS injy-∑mcpw k¥m\-ßfpw hnZzm-∑mcpw                \nbaw kv{XoIƒ°pw ]pcp-j-∑m¿°pw Hcp-
KpW-hm-∑m-cp-am-I-Ø-°-hÆw Ahsc {]Y-a-h-               t]mse _m[-I-amtWm?
b- n¬ X]-kzn-I-fm-°p-Ibpw {_“-Ncyw A\p-                  DØcw: A√. ]pcp-j≥ 25 hbkp hsc {_“-
jvTn-°m≥ D]-tZ-in-°p-Ibpw sNø-s´. injy-               Ncyw ]men-°p-∂-Xm-bm¬ kv{Xo 16 hbkp
∑mcpw k¥m\-ßfpw apS°w C√mØ {_“-                                                   -
                                                      hscbpw ]pcp-j≥ 30 hb-kp-hsc-sb-¶n¬ kv{Xo
Ncyw A\p-jvTn®v aq∂m-asØ DØ-a-{_-“-N-                 17 hb-kp-h-scbpw ]pcp-j≥ 36 hb- p-h-sc-bm-
cy-{h-XsØ apgp-an-∏n®v ]q¿W-am-b-˛-A-Xm-bXv           14 kp{ip-X-kq-{X-ÿm\w 35/25 Ct∏mƒ e_v[-amb
400 sIm√sØ Bbp--kn-s\˛ {]m]n-°-s´. \n-                   kq{X-ÿm-\-]mTw `n∂-am-Wv. kp{ip-Xs‚ Hcp hr≤-
ßfpw A-ßs\ Bbp- ns\ h¿≤n∏n-®p-sIm-                    ]m-Thpw D≠m-bn-cp∂p hr≤-kp-{ip-Xs‚ At\I ]mT-
≈p-I. {_“-N-cy-{hXw ssIs°m-≠v, AXn\v                  ߃ {]mNo\ {KŸ-ß-fn¬ DZv[r-X-am-Wv.


                                                 36
               aq∂mw kap-√mkw                                                       kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
sW-¶n¬ kv{Xo 18 hbkp hscbpw ]pcp-j≥                          ∏n-°p-I. (A-·-bx) Bl-h-\n-bmZn A·n-I-
40 hbkp hsc-bm-sW-¶n¬ kv{Xo 20 hb p                          tfbpw an∂¬ apX-em-b-h-tbbpw Adn™v hnZy-
hscbpw ]pcp-j≥ 44 hbkp hsc-bm-sW-¶n¬                         Iƒ A`y- k n- ° p- I bpw A`y- k n- ∏ n- ° p- I bpw
kv{Xo 22 hb-kp-h-scbpw ]pcp-j≥ 48 hb-kp-                     sNøWw (A- · n- t lm- { Xw) A·n- t lm{Xw
h-sc-bm-sW-¶n¬ kv{Xo 24 hb-kp-h-scbpw                        sNbvXp-sIm≠vv ]Tn-°p-Ibpw ]Tn-∏n-°p-Ibpw
{_“-Ncyw ]men-°-Ww. 48 hb p Ign-™m¬                          sNø-Ww. (A-Xn-Y-bx) AXn-Yn-Isf k¬°-cn-
]ns∂ ]pcp- j \pw 24 Ign- ™ m¬ ]ns∂                           ®p-sIm≠v ]Tn-°p-Ibpw ]Tn-∏n-°p-I-bpw sNø-
kv{Xobpw {_“-Ncyw A\p-jvTn-t°-s≠-∂¿                          Ww. (am- \ p- j w) a\p- j y¿°p tbmKy- a mb
Yw. F∂m¬ Cu ]d™ \nbaw hnhmlw                                 euInI hyh-lm-c-ßsf bYm-hn[n \n¿h-ln-
sNøp-hm≥ Dt±-in--°p∂ kv{Xo]p-cp-j-∑m¿°p-                     ®p-sIm≠v ]Tn-°p-Ibpw ]Tn-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNø-
≈-Xm-Wv. hnhmlw sNøm≥ B{K-l-an-√m-Ø-                         Ww. ({]-Pm) k¥m\-ßsfbpw cmPy-tØbpw
h¿, Ign-bp-sa-¶n¬ BPo-h-\m¥w {_“-Ncyw                        ]cn-]m-en-®p-sIm≠v ]Tn-°p-Ibpw ]Tn-∏n-°p-
]men- ° p- ∂ Xv \√- X p- X - s ∂- b mWv F∂m¬                 Ibpw sNø-Ww. ({]-P-\x) hocysØ c£n-°p-
]q¿W-ssh-Zp-jyhpw PntX-{µn-b-Xzhpw \n¿a-e-                   Ibpw h¿≤n-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp-sIm≠v ]Tn-
amb tbmK-kn-≤nbpw D≈ kv{Xo]p-cp-j∑m¿°p      -                °p-I, ]Tn-∏n-°p-I. ({]-Pm-Xnx) kzk-¥m\-
am{Xta CXp km[n-°q. Imam-th-isØ AS°n                         ßtfbpw injy- h ¿K- t Øbpw ]cn- ] m- e n- ® p-
C{µnb-ßsf \nb-{¥n®p \n¿Øp-∂Xv AXn                            sIm≠v ]Tn-°bpw ]Tn-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNtø-≠-
Zpjv°-c-am-Wv.                                               Xm-Wv.
   EXw N kzm[ym-b-{]-h-N-t\ -N.                                      bam≥ tk-thX kXXav
   kXyw N kzm[ym-b-{]hNt\ N.                                         \ \nb-am≥ tIh-em≥ _p[x 16
   X]-ivN kzm[ym-b-{]-h-N-t\- N.                                     bam≥ ]-X-Xy-IpcvhmtWm
   Za› kzm[ymb {]h-N-t\ -N.                                          \nb-am≥ tIh-em≥ `P≥. 17
   ia-›- kzm-[ym-b-{]-h-Nt\ N.                                       X{Xm-lnw-km-k-Xym-kvtX-b-
   A·-b› kzm[ym-b-{]-h-Nt\ N.                                        {_-“-N-cym-]-cn-{K-lm -b-amx. 18
   A·n-tlm-{X› kzm[ymb {]h-Nt\ N.
   AXn-Y-b› kzm[ymb{]hNt\ N.                                    baw A©p hn[-am-Wv. (A-lnw-k) Hcp Pohn-
   am\pjw N kzm[ym-b- {]-h-Nt\ N.                            tbmSpw sshc-an-√m-Xn-cn-°p-I. (k-Xyw) Nn¥-
   {]Pm N kzm[ym-b-{]-h-Nt\ N.                               bnepw hm°nepw I¿a-Ønepw kXysØ ]men-
   {]P-\› kzm[ym-b-{]-hNt\ N.                                °p-I. (B-kvtX-bw) a\km hmNm I¿aWm
   {]Pm-Xn› kzm[ymb{]h-Nt\ N.                                Ifhp Im´m-Xn-cn-°p-I. ({_-“-N-cyw) D]-tÿ-
                                                             {µnb kwb-aw, (A-]-cn-{K-lw) AXym-{K-lhpw
   Cu hmIy-߃ ssXØ-co-tbm-]-\n-j-Øn-ep-                      Xt‚sX∂v A`n-am-\-hp-an-√m-Xn-cn-°pI F∂o
≈- h - b m- W v 15. A[y- b \w sNøp- ∂ - h ¿°pw               A©v ba-ßsf kZm A\p-jvTn-°-Ww.
A[ym- ] \w sNøp- ∂ - h ¿°p- a p≈ \nba-
                                                             iuN-k-t¥m-j-X-]x-kzm-[ym-tb-izc{]Wn-[m-
                              -
ßfmWn-h. (E-Xw) A[y-b\hpw A[ym-]\hpw            -
bYm¿Y-amb BNm-c-tØm-Sp-IqSn sNtø-≠-Xm-                       \m\n \nbamx 19 (iu-Nw) ipNnXzw (k-t¥m-
Wv. (k-Xyw) kXy-am-N-cn-®p-sIm≠v kXy-hn-Zy-                  jw) {]k-∂-X-tbmsS sXmgn-sem-∂p-an-√m-sX-
I- f - ` y- k n- ° p- I bpw A`y- k n- ∏ n- ° p- I bpw        bn-cn-°p-∂-X√, Ign-bp-∂{X ]cn-{i-an®v em`-
sNtø≠XmWv . (X- ] x) X]- k zn- b m- b n- c p∂v                     -
                                                             \jvSßfp≠m-Ip-tºmƒ B\-µn-°p-Itbm ZpxJn-
([¿am-\p-jvTm\w sNbvXp-sIm-≠v) thZmZn-im-                    °p-Itbm sNøm-Xn-cn-°p-∂XmWv kt¥m-jw.
kv{X߃ ]Tn-°p-I. ]Tn-∏n-°pI (Z-ax) _mtly-                    (X-]x) IjvS-s∏´pw [m¿anI I¿a-ßf\p-jvTn-
{µnb-ßsf Zpcm-Nmc-ßfn¬ \n∂v \ntcm-[n®p                       °p-I. (kzm-[ym-bw) ]Tn-°bpw ]Tn-∏n-°p-Ibpw
\n¿Øn-s°m≠p ]Tn-°p-Ibpw ]Tn-∏n-°p-Ibpw                         16 a\p-kvar-Xn-
sNøp-I. (i-ax) NnØ-hr-Øn-Isf kI-e-hn-[-                           ""\ \nXyw \nb-am¬ _p[x'' F∂p ]mTw
tZmj-ßfn¬ \n∂pw Zpco-I-cn®v ]Tn-°p-I, ]Tn-                     17 a\p-kvar-Xn-˛4.204
                                                               18 tbmK-Z¿i\w˛2.30
  15 ssXØcob D]\n-jXv in£m-h√n A\p. 9.1                        19 tbmK-Z¿i\w˛2.32


                                                        37
     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                            A[y-b\ A[ym-]\ k{º-Zmbw
sNøp-I, (Cu-iz-c-{]-Wn-[m-\w) Cuiz-c-t\m-                cnjp kwbta bXv \ - a m- X njv t T ZznZzm≥
Sp≈ `‡n-hn-ti-j-Øm¬ kzbw Cuiz-c-k-                       bt¥h hmPn-\mw. 22 (a-\pkvarXn) a\-kn-
a¿∏Ww sNbvI F∂o A©mWv \nba-߃.                           t\bpw Bflm-hn-t\bpw ZpjvIrXy-ßfnte°v
ba-ßfn√msX \nb-a-߃ A\p-jvTn-°-cp-Xv.                    sIm≠p-t]m-Ip∂ hnjb-ßfn¬ hnN-cn-°p∂
ba \nb-a-߃ c≠n-t\bpw A\p-jvTn-°-Ww.                     C{µnb-ßsf ka¿Y-\mb kmcYn IpXn-c-Isf
ba-ßsf XyPn®v \nba-߃ am{Xw A\p-jvTn-                                         -
                                                         ]nSn®p \n¿Øp-∂Xp-t]m-se, \nebv°p \n¿Øp-
°p-∂-h\v A`yp-Z-b-a-√, At[m-K-Xn-bm-Wp-≠m-               ∂-Xn\v F√m {]bXv\-ßfpw sNø-Ww. Fs¥-
hp-I.                                                    ∂m¬˛
    Imam-flXm \ {]ikvXm \                                     C{µn-bmWmw {]kw-tK\ tZmj-ar-—-Xy-kw-
    ssNth-lm-kvXy-Im-aXm;                                ibw k∂nb-ay Xp Xmt\yh XXx -kn≤nw
    Imtaym ln thZm-[n-Kax                                \nb-—-Xn 23 (a-\pkvarXn) Pohm-flmhv C{µnb-
    Icva-tbm-K› sshZn-Ix 20                              ߃°v ASn-a-s∏-´p-t]m-bm¬ \n›-b-ambpw
    henb AXym-{K-lhpw Xosc \jvIm-a-Xbpw                  alm-tZmj-ßsf {]m]n-°pw. C{µnb-ßsf kzh-
                - -
B¿°pw t{ijvTa√. ip≤ta \njvIm-a\m-bm¬   -                 i-K-am-°n-bm¬ am{Xta Pohm-flmhv kn≤nsb
thZm-Zn-I-fpsS A[y-b-\hpw sshZnI kXvI¿a-                 {]m]n-°p-I-bp-≈q.
ßfpsS A\p-jvTm-\hpw \S-°msX hcpw. AXn-                       thZm- k v X ym- K › b⁄m› \nb- a m›
\m¬˛                                                     X]mw-knN, \ hn-{]-Zp-jvS-`m-h-ky- kn-≤nw- K-
    kzm[ym-tb\ {hssXcvtlmssa                             —-¥n- Icvln-Nn-Xv. 24 Zpcm-Nm-cnbpw C{µnb-
    kvss{Xhn-tZy-t\-Py-bm -kpssXx
    alm-bss⁄› bss⁄›                                      ßfpsS ASn-abpw Bb-h\v thZ-߃, XymKw,
                                                         b⁄w, \nb-aw, X]-kv, kXvI¿a-߃ Ch-
    {_m“obw {InbtX X\px. 21                              sbm∂pw Hcn-°epw kn≤n-°p-I-bn-√.
    (kzm-[ym-tb-\) kIe hnZy-Ifpw ]Tn-°p-                     thtZm-]-I-ctW ssNh kzm[ymtb ssNh
Ibpw ]Tn-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNøpI. ({h-ssXx) {_“-                ss\XytI \m\p-tcmt[mfkvXy\-[ym-tb- tlm-
Ncyw kXy`m- j Ww XpS- ß nb \nba- ß ƒ
]men-°p-I. (tlm-ssax) A·n-tlm{Xw apX-                    a-a-t{¥jp ssNh ln. ss\XytI \mkvXy-\-
emb tlma-߃ sNøp-I. kXysØ ssIs°m-                        [ymtbm {_“-k{Xw ln XXv kvarXw; {_“m-
≈p-I, Ak-XysØ XyPn-°p-I, kXy-hn-Zym-                     lp-Xn-lpXw ]pWy-a-\-[ymb hj-SvIrXw 25
Zm\w (ss{X-hn-tZy-\) thZ-{]-Xn-]m-Zn-X-amb               (a-\pkvarXn) thZ-߃ A`y-kn-°p-Ibpw A`y-
I¿tam-]m-k-\, ⁄m\w, hnZym-{K-lWw (C-Py-                  kn-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNøp-I, kt‘ym-]m-k\ XpS-
bm) ]£w-tXmdpw sNtø≠ CjvSn apX-em-                       ßnb ]©-a-lm-b⁄-߃ A\p-jvTn-°p-I,
bh sNøpI (kp-ssXx) k’-¥m-t\m-Xv]m-Z\w                    tlma- a {¥- ß ƒ D®- c n- ° pI F∂n- h bv ° v
(a-lm-b-ss⁄x) {_“-b⁄w tZh-b-⁄w,                          apS°w (H-gn-hv-˛-A-h-[n) B{K-ln-°-cp-Xv. Fs¥-
]nXr-b⁄w sshiz-tZhw AXn-Yn-]qP F∂o                       ∂m¬ \nXy-I¿a-߃°v Ah-[n-bn-√. izmtkm-
]©- a - l m- b ⁄- ß sf A\p- j v T n- ° p- I . (b-        —zmk- ß ƒ F√m- b v t ]mgpw sNøp- ∂ p- ≠ v .
ss⁄x) A·n-jvtSmaw XpS-ßnb A[zc-ßfpw                      AXns\ XS-™p-\n¿Øp-hm≥ Ign-bp-I-bn-√.
inev]-hn-Zym-hn-⁄m\w apX-emb b⁄-ßfpw                     AXp-t]mse Xs∂ \nXy-I¿a-߃°pw apS°w
\S-Øp-I. F∂o I¿a-ßsfs°m≠v \ΩpsS                                                     -
                                                         ]mSn-√. Fs¥-∂m¬, apS-°Zn-hk-ßfn¬ A·n-
icocw {_m“n-˛-A-Yhm thZ-Øn-s‚bpw Cuiz-                   tlm{Xw XpS-ßnb kXvI¿a-߃ sNbvXm¬
c-`-‡n-bp-sSbpw B[m-c-amb {_m“-W-i-co-c-                 AXv ]pWy- a mbn ]cn- W - a n- ° m- X n- c n- ° n- √ .
ambn `hn-°p-∂p. C∏-d-™h apgp-h-\p-an-√msX                AkXyw ]d- ™ m¬ ]m]hpw kXyw ]d-
{_m“-W-i-cocw kw`-hy-a-√.                                ™m¬ ]pWyhpw F√m-bvt]mgpw D≠m-Ip-∂-
    C{µn-bmWmw hnN-cXmw hnj-tbjz]-lm-                      22 a\pkvarXn 2.88
                                                           23 a\pkvarXn 2.93
  20 a\pkvarXn 2.2                                         24 a\pkvarXn 2.97
  21 a\pkvarXn 2.28                                        25 a\pkvarXn 2.105-˛106


                                                    38
             aq∂mw kap-√mkw                                                     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
Xp-t]mse Xs∂ ZpjvIrXy-߃ sNøp-∂-Xn\v                   amb DØ-a-X-]- ns\ {ItaW B¿Pn®v h¿≤n-
F√m-bvt]mgpw apS-°hpw kXvI¿a-߃ apS-°-                 ∏n-°-Ww.
an-√msX A\p-jvTn-t°-≠-Xp-am-Wv.                           tbmf\-[oXy ZzntPm thZ-a-\y{X IpcptX
    A`n-hm-Z-\-io-eky \nXyw hrt≤m-]-tk-                {iaw k Poh- t ∂h ip{Z- X z- a mip K—Xn
hn\x; NXzm-cn- Xky hcv≤t¥ Bbp¿hnZym                    km\zbx 31 thZm[y-b\w sNømsX CXc
btim _ew 26 (a-\pkvarXn) hn\-b-ap≈                     hnjb-ßfn¬ ]cn-{iaw \S-Øp∂ ]pcp-j≥
s]cp-am-‰w, hnZym-hr-≤-∑msc ip{iq-jn-°pI               Xs‚ ]p{X-]u-{X-∑m-tcmSp IqSn iq{Z-XzsØ
F∂o kz`mh- ß fp≈- h \v Bbp- k v , hnZy,                io{Lw {]m]n-°p-∂-Xm-Wv.
Io¿Øn, _ew F∂o \mepw kZm h¿≤n-®p-                         1. hcv P - t b- ∑ [pamwk© K‘w ameyw
                           -
sIm≠n-cn-°pw. A√m-Øh\v Ah \mepw h¿≤n-                  ckm≥ kv{Xnbx ip‡m-\n- bm\n kcvhmWn
°p-I-bn-√.                                             {]mWn\mw ssNh lnwk\av
    Alnw-k-ssbh `qXm\mw Imcyw t{itbm-                     2. A`y-MvK-a-RvP\w Nm£vtWm-cp-]m-\-—-
f\p-im-k\w; hmIv ssNh a[p-cm-«£vWm                     {X-[-mc-Ww, Imaw t{Im[w N tem-`wN \cvØ
{]tbmPym [cva-an-—Xm bky hmMva-\tk 27                  \w KoX-hm-Z\av
ipt≤ kay§p]v-t-X N kcvhZm k ssh kcv-
                                                          3. ZyqXw N P\-hmZw N ]cn-hmZw XYmf\r
h-a-hm-]vt\mXn thZm-t¥m-]-KXw ^ew. 28
                                                       Xav kv{XoWmw N t{]£Wm-ew-`-ap-]-LmXw
(a-\pkvarXn) hnZzm-∑mcpw hnZym¿Yn-Ifpw sshc-
                                                       ]cky N.
_p-≤nsb XyPn-®v, kI-e¿°pw awK-f-I-c-amb
am¿K-߃ D]-tZ-in-°-Ww. A-ßs\ D]t-Z-in-                    4. GIx iboX k¿h{X \ tcXx kvIµ-
°p- ∂ Xv kuay- a mbpw a[p- c - a mbpw Bbn-             tbXv Iz-NnXv, Imam≤n kvIµ-b≥tctXm
cn°Ww. [¿a-Øns‚ D∂Xn B{K-ln-°p-∂-                      ln\kvXn {hX-am-fl-\x 32
h¿ kZm kXy-]-Y-Øn¬ Ncn-°p-Ibpw kXyw                       1. {_“-Nm-cnbpw {_“-Nm-cn-Wnbpw aZyw,
am{Xw D]-tZ-in-°p-Ibpw sNøWw. ip≤hpw                   amwkw,. kpK-‘-{Zhy-߃, ame, ck-߃
kpc-£n-X-hp-amb hm°pw a\kpw D≈-h≥                      kv{Xo]p-cp-j-kw-K-aw, ]pfn-bp≈ hkvXp-°ƒ,
thZm- ¥ - s Ø- ˛ - A - Y hm thZ- ß fpsS- s b√mw        P¥p-lnw-k,
kn≤m-¥-`q-X-amb ^e-sØ-˛-{]m-]n-°p-∂p.                     2) Xncp-Ω¬, Imc-W-an-√msX D]tÿ-{µn-b-
    kΩm-\mZv {_m“tWm \nXy-ap-Zzn-tPX                   kv]¿i-\w, IsÆ-gp-Øv, sNcp-∏v, IpS, Imaw,
hnjm-Znh Aar-X-tkyh NmImMvt£-Z-h-am-                   t{Im[w, tem`w, tamlw, `bw, timIw,
\ky kcvh-Zm. 29 A\y-∑m-cn¬\n∂p e`n-                    Cu¿jy, tZzjw, \rØw, kwKo- X w, hmZy-
°p∂ _lp-am-\sØ kZm hnj-Xpeyw `b-                       tLmjw
s∏-Sp-Ibpw A]-am-\sØ Aar-X-Xpeyw Icp-Xp-                  3) NqXp-I-fn, ]c-Zq-j-Ww, ]c-`m-j-Ww, Ak-
Ibpw sNøp∂ {_m“-W≥ am{Xta Cuiz-c-                               -                -            - -
                                                       Xy-`m-jWw, kv{Xo]p-cp-j∑m-cpsS ]c-kv]cap≈
s\bpw thZ-ßsfbpw ]q¿W-ambn Adn-bp-I-                   Z¿i- \ - k v ] ¿i\- ß ƒ, ]c- ] oU apX- e mb
bp-≈q.                                                 ZpjvI¿a-߃, F∂n-h-sb√mw XyPn-°-Ww.
    At\\ {Ia- t bm- t K\ kwkv I r- X mflm                  4) GIm-In-bmbn Xs∂ InS-∂pd-ßWw. Hcn-
ZznPx iss\x; Kpcu- h - k ≥ kwNn- \ p- b mZv            °epw ip¢sØ kvJen-∏n®p If-b-cp-Xv. Imaw
{_“m-[n-K-anIw X]x. 30 C-ßs\ D]-\-bn®v                 \nanØw hocysØ kvJen-∏n-°p-∂-h≥, If-
ZznP-\m-°nb _v“Nm-cn-bmb Ipam-c\pw {_“-                bp-∂-h≥ Xs‚ {_“-N-cy-{h-XsØ \in∏n-°p-
Nm-cn-Wn-bmb I\y-Ibpw thZm¿Y-⁄m-\-cq-]-                s∂-∂-dn-b-Ww.
  26 a\pkvarXn 2.121
                                                          thZ-a\q-Nym-Nm-tcymf-t¥-hm-kn-\-a-\pim
  27 a\p-kvar-Xn-bn¬ hmMva-\kn F∂mWv ]mTw              kvXn. kXyw hZ. [cvaw Nc. kzm[ym-bm∑m
  28 a\p-kvar-Xn 2.159 & 160
  29 a\p-kvar-Xn 2.162                                   31 a\p-kvar-Xn 2.168
  30 a\p-kvar-Xn 2.164                                   32 a\p-kvar-Xn 2.180


                                                  39
     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                                 A[y-b\ A[ym-]\ k{º-Zmbw
{]aZx. BNm-cymb {]nbw [\-am-lrXy {]Pm-                         a‰pw sNø-cp-Xv. R-ßfn¬ kXvkz-`mh-ßfp≈-
X¥pw am hy-h-t—Xvkox kXym∂ {]aZn                               hsb kzoI-cn-°p-I. Zpxkz-`mh-ßsf Hcn-°epw
Xhyw. [cvam∂ {]a-Zn-Xhyw. Ipi-em∂ {]a-                         kzoI-cn-°-cp-Xv. Rß-fpsS Iq´-Øn-ep≈ hnZzm-
Zn-X-hyw. `qssXy \ {]a-Zn-X-hyw. kzm[ymb                       ∑mcpw [¿an-jvT-cp-amb hn{]-t{i-jvT-∑m-cpsS
{]h-N-\m`ymw \ {]a-Zn-Xhyw. tZh-]n-Xr-Im-                      ASp-°¬ sN∂n-cn-°p-Ibpw Ahsc hniz-kn-
cym`ymw \ {]a-Zn-Xhyw.                                         °p-Ibpw sNøp-I. {i≤-tbm-Sp-IqSn Zm\w sImSp-
    amXr-tZ-thm- `h ]nXr-tZ-thm- `h BNm-cy-                    °-Ww. A{i-≤-tbm-Sp-IqSn Zm\w sNø-Ww. apJ-
tZ-thm- `h AXnYn tZthm `h bm\y-\hZym\n        - -              {]-kmZ-tØm-Sp-IqSn sImSp-°-Ww. e÷-tbm-Sp-
IcvamWn Xm\n tkhnX hym\n t\m CX-                               IqSn sImSp-°-Ww. `b-tØm-Sp-IqSn sImSp-°-
cmWn, bm\y-kvamIw kpN-cn-Xm\n Xm\n                             Ww. {]Xn-⁄-tbm-Sp-IqSnbpw sImSp-°-Ww. \n-
Xztbm-]m-kym\n t\m CX-cm-Wn. tb tI                             ߃°v Ft∏m-sg-¶nepw I¿a-Øn-tem, BNm-c-
Nmkv a t—bmwtkm {_m“- W m- k v t Xjmw                          Øn-tem, D]m-k-\-bn-tem, hn⁄m-\-Øntem
Xzbm-k-t\\ {]iz-kn-Xhyw, {i≤bm tZbw                            h√ kwi-b-hpw-D-≠m-bm¬ ka-Z¿in-Ifpw ]£-
A{i≤-bm tZbw. {inbm tZbw, {lnbm tZbw,                          ]m-X-c-ln-X-cpw, tbmKn-I-tfm, Atbm-Kn-Itfm
`nbm tZbw, kwhnZm tZbw, AY bZn tX                                         -
                                                               Bbn-´p-≈hcpw B¿{Z-Nn-Øcpw [¿am-flm-°fpw
I¿a-hn-Nn-In’m hm hrØ-hn-Nn-In’m hm                            [¿an- j vSTcp- a m- b - h ¿     kzoI- c n- ° p∂
kymXv. tb X{X {_m“Wmx kaZcvint\m                               [¿aam¿KsØ Ah- e w- _ n- ® p- s Im- ≈ - W w.
bp‡m Abp‡m Aeq£m [cva-Imamx kyp                                CXmWv B⁄, CXmWv D]-tZ-iw, CXp-X-s∂-
cyYm tX X{X hcvtØ-c≥. XYm X{X hcvtØ                            bmWv thZ-Øns‚ D]-\n-j-Øv, CXp-X-s∂-
Ymx Gj BtZi (Gj D]-tZi) Gjm                                    bmWv in£-W-hpw, CXp-X-s∂-bmWv s]cp-am-
thtZm]\n-j-Xv. GX-Z\p-im-k-\w. Gh-ap-]m-                       ‰ 34 kwln-X-bpw. Ah-\-hs‚ s]cp-am-‰sØ
kn-Xhyw Gh-ap-ssN-X-Zp-]mkyw. 33                               ip≤o-I-cn°p-hm-\p≈ am¿K-hpw.
    BNm-cy≥ Xs‚ At¥-hm-kn-I-fmb injy-                             AIm-aky {Inbm ImNnZv ZriytX t\l
∑m¿°pw injy-Iƒ°pw-˛-\¬tI≠ D]-tZ-i-am-                          Icvln-NnXv. bZy≤n IpcptX In©nXv XØXv
Wn-Xv˛ F√mbvt]mgpw kXyw ]d-bp-I. [¿aw                          Imaky tNjvSn-Xav. 35
BN-cn-°p-I. ZØ-Nn-Ø-\m-bn-cp∂v A[y-\hpw                           \njv I m- a - \ mb ]pcp- j s‚ t\{X- ß ƒ°v
A[ym-b-]-\hpw sNøpI. ]q¿W-amb {_“-N-                           kt¶m-N-hn-Imk-߃ D≠m-hpI Akw-`m-hy-
cy- t Øm- S p- I qSn kI- e - h n- Z y- I fpw A`y- k n®v        am-Wv. AXn-\m¬ Bsc-¶nepw Fs¥-¶nepw
BNm-cy\v CjvS-amb [\w D]-lmcw \¬In-                            {]h¿Øn-°p-∂p-s≠-¶n¬ AsX√mw kIm-a-
bn-´v, hnhmlw sNbvXv k¥m-t\m¬]m-Z\w \S-                        amb (C-—-tbm-Sp-Iq-Sn-b) tNjvS-I-fm-Wv. C—-bn-
ØpI. {]amZw (A-{i-≤) sIm≠v Hcn-°epw                            √msX {]hr-Øn-bn-√.
kXysØ XyPn-°-cp-Xv. {]am-Z-Øm¬ [¿asØ                              BNmc ]ctam [cvax {ipXyp‡x kvamcv
Dt]-£n-°-cp-Xv. {]am-Z-Øm¬ Btcm-Kyhpw                          Ø Gh N. Xkvam-Z-kvan\vkZm bpt‡m \n
NmXp-cyhpw ssIhn-S-cp-Xv. DØ-a-amb sFizcyw                     Xyw kymZm-fl-hm≥ ZznPx. BNm-cmZzn-NyptXm
h¿≤n-∏n-°p-∂-Xnepw {]amZw hc-cp-Xv. {]am-Zw-                   hnt{]m \ thZ-^-e-a-iv\ptX, BNm-tc-W Xp
sIm≠v A[y-b-\m-[ym-]\-ßsf Hcn-°epw                             kwbp‡x kºqcvW-^-e-`m-Kv `-th-Xv 36
XyPn-°-cp-Xv. tZh-∑m-cpsS (hn-Zzm-∑m-cp-sS)bpw
amXm-]n-Xm-°-∑m-cp-sSbpw ip{iq-j-bn¬ {]amZw                       ]d-bpI, tIƒ°p-I, ]d-™p-tIƒ∏n-°p-I,
hc-cp-Xv. hnZzm-∑msc Bcm-[n-°p-∂-Xp-t]mse                      ]Tn-∏n-°p-I, CXn-s‚-sb√mw ^ew thZ-ßfnepw
Xs∂ A—-\-Ω-am-tcbpw Kpcp-hn-t\bpw AXn-                         thZm-\p-Iq-e-amb kvarXn-I-fnepw {]Xn-]m-Zn-®n-
Yn-tbbpw F√m-bvt]mgpw ]qPn-°p-I. \ntj-[-                       ´p-≈, [¿a-ßsf BN-cn-°p-I-bm-Wv. AXn-\m¬
an-√m-ØXpw [¿a-bp-‡-hp-amb kXvI¿a-߃
                                                                 34 thZ-Øns‚ D]-\n-jXv = thZ-Øns‚ ASp-Øp-
sNøp-I. hn]-co-X-amb anYym-kw-`m-jWßfpw                             \n∂p e`n-°p∂ ⁄m\w
                                                                 35 a\pkvarXn 2.4
  33 ssXØcob D]\n-jXv in£m-h√n 11.1-˛4                           36 a\p-kvar-Xn 1.108 ˛ 109


                                                          40
                 aq∂mw kap-√mkw                                                         kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
[¿am- \ p- j v S m- \ - Ø n¬ kZm Xev ] - c - \ m- b n- c n-        ∂m¬ [¿am-[¿a-ßsf thZ-Øn¬\n-∂p-am-{Xta
°Ww. 2) [¿asØ bYm-hn[n A\p-jvTn-°m-                                icn-bmbn \nivN-bn-°p-hm≥ Ign-bq.
Ø-h\v thZ-{ ]-X n-] m-Z nX [¿a-Øn¬ \n∂p                                BNm-cy≥ Xs‚ injy-∑m¿°v C-ßs\ D]-
≠mIp∂ kpJ^ew e`y-a-√. hnZym-`ymkw                                  tZiw \¬I- W w. hnti- j n®v cmPm- ° - ∑ m¿,
Ign®v [¿am-N-cWw sNøp-∂-h-\t{X kºq¿Æ                               a‰p≈ £{Xn-b-∑m¿, sshiy-∑m¿, DØ-a-cmb
kpJsØ {]m]n-°p-∂-Xv.                                               iq{Z-∑m¿ F∂n-h-tcbpw hnZym-`ymkw sNøn-
    tbmf-h-a-t\yX tX aqte tlXp-im-kv{Xm-                           °-Ww. Fs¥-∂m¬, {_m“-W¿ am{Xw hnZym-
{i-bmZv ZznPx. k km[p-`ncv_-ln-jvImtcym                            `ymkw sNøp-Ibpw £{Xn-bcpw a‰pw hnZym-
\mkvXntIm thZ-\n-µ-Ix 37                                           `ymkw shSn-bp-Ibpw sNbvXm¬ hnZy, [¿aw,
                                                                   cmPyw, [\w apX-em-b-h-sbm∂pw Hcn-°epw
    thZ-ßtfbpw, thZm-\p-Iq-e-ßfpw B]vX-]p-                         A`n-hr-≤n-s∏-Sp-I-bn-√. {_m“-W¿ am{Xw ]Tn-
cp-j-∑m¿ Fgp-Xn-b-Xp-amb imkv{X-ßtfbpw                             °p-Ibpw ]Tn-∏n-°pIbpw sNbvXm¬ Ah¿°v
\nµn°p∂ \mkvXn-I-∑m-cmb thZ-\n-µ-Isc                               £{Xn-bm-Zn-I-fn¬ \n∂v D]-Po-h-\-am¿Kw t\Sn
\m´n¬ \n∂pw, PmXn-bn¬ \n∂pw Iq´-Øn¬                                         -
                                                                   Poh-k‘m-cWw sNøm-sa-¶nepw {_m“-W¿ A-
\n∂pw ]pdw-X-f-f-Ww. Fs¥-∂m¬˛                                      ßs\ D]-Po-h-\-Øn\v ASn-a-s∏-´v, £{Xn-bm-
    {ipXnx 38 kvarXnx kZm-Nmcx kzky N                              Zn-Isf th≠pw hÆw imkn®p in£n-°m-Xn-
{]nb- a m- fl - \ x˛ GX- ® - X pcv h n[w {]mlpx                     cp-∂m¬ {_m“-W-cpƒs∏sS kI-ecpw A[¿a-
km£m≤¿ aky e£-Wav 39                                               Øn¬ s]´p-t]m-Ipw. £{Xn-bm-Zn-Iƒ°pw hnZym-
    thZw, kvarXn-˛-th-Zm\p-km-cnbpw B]vX-c-Nn-                     `ymkw e`n®m¬ {_m“-Wcpw hnZym-`ymkw
X-hp-amb a\p-kvarXn apX-emb imkv{X-߃,                             sNøp-∂-Xnepw [¿am-\p-jvTm-\-Ønepw A[nIw
\√-hcpsS BNmc-߃, k\m-X\-߃, AYhm
       -                                                           PmK-cq-I-cm-Ipw. IqSmsX hnZzm-∑m-cmb £{Xn-
thZ-ßfn¬ Cuizcm-\p-im-k\w sNbvX I¿a-                                      -
                                                                   bm-Zn-IfpsS apºn¬ hymPhpw Im]-Syhpw ImWn-
߃, Bflmhn\v {]nb-amb˛B-flmhv F¥ns\                                  °p-hm≥ {_m“-W¿°p km[n-°p-I-bp-an-√.
B{K-ln-°p-∂pthm AXv, kXy-`m-j-WmZn-Iƒ˛                             £{Xn-bcpw a‰pw Adnhpw ]Tn-∏pw C√m-Ø-h-
Cu \mepw [¿a-Øns‚ e£W-ßfmIp-∂p.                                    cm-bm¬ {_m“-W¿ X∂njvSw sNøp-Ibpw
[¿am-[¿a-ßsf Xocp-am-\n-°p-∂-Xn-\p≈ Af-                            sNøn-°p-Ibpw sNøpw. t{ib- p-≠m-IWsa∂v  -
hp- t Im¬ Ch- b m- W v . ]£- ] mXw IqSmsX                          {_m“- W ¿ B{K- l n- ° p- ∂ p- s ≠- ¶ n¬ Ah¿
\ymbw, kXyw, F∂nh kzoI-cn-®v, Ak-XysØ                              £{Xn-bm-Zn-I-sfbpw ]Wn-s∏´pXs∂ thZmZn
XyPn-°p-∂-Xt{X icn-bmb [¿aw. CXn\v hncp-                                                  -
                                                                   imkv{X-ßf`y-kn-∏n-°Ww. hnZy, [¿aw, cmPyw,
≤-ambn ]£-]m-X-tØm-Sp-IqSn A\ym-bw, Ak-                            kº-Øv, F∂n-hsb h¿≤n-∏n-°p-∂Xv £{Xn-
Xyw, F∂n-hsb kzoI-cn®v kXy-\o-Xn-Isf                               bm-Zn-I-fm-Wv. Ah¿ Hcn-°epw `n£m-hr-Øn-°m-
XyPn-°p-∂Xv A[¿a-hp-am-Wv.                                         c-√. AXn-\m¬ Ah¿ hnZym-`ym-k-hn-j-b-Øn¬
                                                                   kzbw {i≤-bp-≈-h-c-√. hnZym-`ym-k-Øn\pw
    AcvY-Im-ta-jz-k-‡m\mw [cva-⁄m\w                                in£WØn\pw k¿h{X {]Nmcw kn≤n-®m¬
hn[o-btX [cva-Pn-⁄m-k-am-\m\mw {]amWw                              hymPhpw A[¿ahpw \nd™ Im]Sy-ßsf
]caw {ipXnx 40                                                     B¿°pw {]N-cn-∏n-°p-hm≥ km[n-°p-I-bn-√.
    A¿Y-Øn\pw (kz¿Ww, cXv\-߃ apX-em-                              £{Xn-bm-Zn-Isf [¿aw, \ymbw F∂n-h-bpsS
b-h) Ima-Øn\pw (kv{Xo tkh apX-em-b-h)                              hgn-bn-eqsS k©-cn-∏n-°p-∂Xv {_m“-W-cpw,
         -          -
ASn-as∏-Sm-Øh\p am{Xta [¿a-⁄m\w D≠m-                               k\ym-kn-am-cp-am-sW-∂pw, {_m“-W¿, k\ym-
Ip-∂p-≈q. [¿a-⁄m\w C—n-°p-∂-h≥ thZ-                                kn- a m¿ F∂n- h sc \ymb- a mb am¿K- Ø n¬
Øn¬ \n∂v AXns\ \n¿W-bn-°-Ww. Fs¥-                                                                   -
                                                                   {]h¿Øn-∏n-°p-∂Xv £{Xn-bm-Zn-IfpamsW∂pw
                                                                   CXn¬ \n∂p kn≤n-°p-∂p. AXn-\m¬ kv{Xo]p-
  37 a\p-kvar-Xn 2.11                                              cp-j-t`Zw IqSmsX Fhn-sSbpw hnZym-`ym-kw,
  38 a\p-kvar-Xn-bn¬ thZx F∂p ]mTw                                 [¿aw F∂n-hsb AXym-h-iy-ambpw {]N-cn-∏n-
  39 a\p-kvar-Xn 2.12
  40 a\p-kvarXn 2.13.                                              °-Ww.


                                                              41
     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                         A[y-b\ A[ym-]\ k{º-Zmbw
   ]Tn-°p-Ibpw ]Tn-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂Xv                 kw⁄bv ° pw kw⁄n°pw XΩn- e p- ≠ mb
hnjb-ßsf \√-hÆw ]co-£n®p t\m°n-b-                      _‘-Øn¬ \n∂p-f-hm-bXv BI-cp-Xv. Hcp-h≥
Xn-\p-tijw thWw. ]co£ A©p-hn-[-ap-≠v.                  as‰m-cp-h-t\mSv "'sh≈w sIm≠p-hcq'' F∂p
   H∂m-atØ-X˛ Cuiz-cs‚ KpW-I¿a-kz-`mh-
             -     v                                   ]d-bp-∂p. Ah≥ sh≈w sIm≠p-h∂v Acn-
߃°pw thZ- ß ƒ°pw A\p- I q- e - a m- b -               IØp h®v, "'CXm -sh≈w'' F∂p ]d-bp-∂p.
sX√mw kXyhpw A√m-Ø-sX√mw Ak-Xy-                        ChnsS sh≈w F∂ c≠- £ c- ß fS- ß nb
hp-am-Wv.                                              kw⁄sb sh≈w sIm≠p-h-∂-h\pw AXv
   c≠m-a-tØ-Xv˛ krjvSn-{I-a-Øn-\-\p-Iq-e-am-           Bh-iy-s∏-´-h\pw Im¨am≥ Ign-bp-I-bn-√.
b-sX√mw kXyhpw hncp-≤-am-b-sX√mw Ak-                   sh≈w F∂ ]Zw GsXmcp hkv X p- h ns‚
Xyhpw BIp- ∂ p. amXm- ] n- X m- ° - ∑ m- c psS         t]cmtWm B hkvXp-hns‚ {]Xy-£Pv-Rm\-
kwtbmKw IqSmsX ]p{X≥ P\n®p F∂p ]d-                     amWv D≠m-Ip-∂-Xv. i_vZ-P-\y-amb ⁄m\w
bp-∂Xv krjvSn-{I-a-Øn\p hncp-≤-am-I-bm¬                i_vZ-{]-am-W-Øn\v hnj-b-am-Wv. {]Xy£w
Ak-Xy-am-bn-cn°pw F∂Xv DZm-l-c-Ww.                     Ahy-`n-Nm-cn-bp-am-bn-cn-°-Ww. Hcp-h≥ cm{Xn-k-
                                                       a-bØv Hcp ac-°p‰n I≠v a\p-jy-\m-sW∂p
   aq∂m-a-tØ-Xv˛ B]vX-∑m-cpsS ˛A-Xm-bXv                \n›-bn-®p. ]n∂oSv ]I¬k-a-bØp ho≠pw
[m¿an-I-∑m-cpw, hnZzm-∑mcpw kX-y-hm-Zn-Ifpw            AXp I≠-t∏mƒ cm{Xn Ah-\p-≠mb ac-°p‰n
        - - -        - -
\njvI]S∑m-cp-am-bhcp-sS˛ {]hr-Øn-Iƒ°pw                 a\p- j y\m sW∂p≈ {`aw \in- ® p- t ]m- b n.
D]- t Zi- ß ƒ°pw A\p- I q- e - a m- b - s X√mw         AsXmcp ac-°p-‰n-bm-sW∂ ⁄m\w Xs∂
{Kmlyhpw AXn\p hncp- ≤ - a m- b - s X√mw               ho≠pw D≠m-bn. C-ßs\ \in-®p-t]m-Ip∂
XymPy-hp-am-Wv.                                        PvRm-\-sØ-bmWv hy`n-Nmcn F∂p ]d-bp-∂-
           -             -
   \me-atØ-Xv˛ Ah-\hs‚ Adn-hn-\pw, a\x-                Xv. A{]-Im-c-ap≈ ⁄m\hpw {]Xy-£-a-√.
km-£n°pw \nc-°p-∂Xp am{Xta A\p-jvTn-                   {]Xy£w hyh-km-bm-fl-I-am-bn-cn-°-Ww. Hcp-
°m-hq. Ah-\-h\v kpJw CjvShpw, ZpxJw                    h≥ AIse \n∂p- s Im≠v Hcp ]pg- b nse
A\n-jvS-hp-am-bn-cn-°p-∂-Xp-t]mse a‰p-≈-               aW¬Øn-´-I-≠v, ""AhnsS ap≠p-W-°m≥ hncn-
h¿°pw kpJw CjvShpw, ZpxJw A\n-jvS-hp-                  ®n-cn-°tbm? AtXm sh≈w sI´n \n¬°p-
am-Wv.                                                 Itbm! As√-¶n¬ thsd h√-Xptam?'' F∂p
   A©m-atØ-Xv˛ {]Xy-£w, A\p-am-\w, D]-
               -                                       tNmZn- ° p- ∂ p. AXp- t ]m- s e- X s∂ AIse
am-\w, i_vZw, sFXn-lyw, A¿Ym-]-Øn,                     \n¬°p∂ ]pcp-j-s\-°-≠v, "" Ah≥ tZh-Z-
kw`hw, A`mhw F∂o F´v {]amW-ßfmWv                                        -
                                                       Øt\m b⁄-ZØt\m'' F∂p kwi-bn-°p-∂p.
{]Xy-£m-Zn-{]-amW-ßfpsS e£Ww ]d-bp-∂,                  Ch \n›n-X-am-Ip-∂-Xp-hsc {]Xy-£-⁄m-\-
Xmsg-sIm-Sp-°p∂ kq{X-߃ \ymb-Z¿i-\-                    a√ Ahy-]-tZ-iy-hpw, Ahy-`n-Nm-cnbpw \n›-bm-
Øns‚ H∂pw c≠pw A[ymb-ßfnte-Xm-Wv.                      fl-I-hp-amb ⁄m\w am{Xta {]Xy-£-sa∂
   C{µn-bmcvY-k-∂n-IcvtjmXv]∂w ⁄m\-a-                  t]cn\v A¿l-am-Ip-∂p-≈q.
hy-]tZ-iy-ahy-`n-Nmcn hyh-km-bm-flIw {]Xy
      -          -                                     c≠m-a-tØXv A\p-am-\-am-Wv.
£av (\ym-bZ¿i\w. A[ymbw 1. B”nIw 1.                       AY XXv]qcvhIw {Xnhn-[-a-\p-am\w
kq{Xw 4.)                                                 ]qcvh-h-t—jh-Xv km-am-\ytXm ZrjvS©
H∂m-a-tØ-Xv {]Xy£w                                                            --
                                                       (\ym-b.1.1.5) {]Xy-£]q¿h-I-amb ⁄m\amWv
   sNhn, Xz°v, IÆv, \m°v, aq°v F∂o C{µnb-              A\p-am-\w. GsX-¶nepw ÿe-Øp-h®v Ft∏m-
߃°v i_vZw, kv]¿iw, cq]w ckw, K‘w                      sg-¶nepw ]q¿W-amb Hcp hkvXp-hn-s\tbm
F∂o ]Zm¿Y-ßtfmSv Ahy-h-ln-X-amb Bh-                    As√-¶n¬ AXns‚ Hcp `mK-tØtbm {]Xy-
c-W-c-ln-X-amb _‘hpw C{µnb-߃°v a\-                    £-ambn I≠-dn™ Hcp-h≥, Imem-¥-c-Øn¬
kn- t \mSpw a\- k n\v Bflm- h n- t \m- S p- a p≈        as‰mcp ÿe-Øp-h®v B ]q¿W]-Zm¿Y-Øns‚
kwtbm- K hpw D≠m- I p- t ºmƒ P\n- ° p∂                 kl-Nm-cn-bm-bn-cn-°p∂ Hcp `mKw I≠p-ap-´p-
⁄m\sØ {]Xy£w F∂p ]d- b p- ∂ p.                         tºmƒ AZr-iy-amb Ah-b-hn-bpsS ⁄m\w
F∂m¬ B ⁄m\w hy]- t Ziyw AYhm                           Abmƒ°p-≠m-Ip-∂p. AXn-s\-bmWv A\p-

                                                  42
             aq∂mw kap-√mkw                                                 kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
am\w F∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xv. ]p{Xs\ ImWp-tºmƒ                  ]Zm¿Y-Øns‚ km[¿ayw sIm≠p]pXp-Xmbn
Ah\v ]n-Xm-hp-s≠-∂pw, ae-ap-I-fn¬ ]pI                  Adn-tb≠ hkvXp-hns‚ ⁄m\-ap-≠m-°p∂
ImWp-tºmƒ AhnsS Xobp-s≠-∂pw, temI-                     {]am-W-amWv D]-am-\w. ""D]-ao-btX tb\ XZp-
Ønse kpJZpxJ-߃ ImWp-tºmƒ ]q¿h-                        ]-am-\w-'' Hcp-h≥ Hcp `rXy-t\mSv "'\o hnjvWp-
P∑w Ds≠∂pw Adn- b p- ∂ Xv A\p- a m\w                   an-{Xs\ hnfn-®p-sIm-≠phm'' F∂p ]d-™p.
sIm≠m-Wv. A\p-am\w aq∂p {]Im-c-Øn-ep-≠v.               At∏mƒ `rXy≥, ""Rm≥ Abmsf Hcn-°epw
   1 ]q¿h-h-Xv                                                                               -
                                                       I≠n-´n-√t√m'' F∂p adp-]Sn ]d-™t∏mƒ ""Cu
   Im¿taLw ImWptºmƒ ag-bp-≠m-Ip-sa-∂pw,                \n¬°p∂ tZh- Z - Ø - s \- t ∏m- s e- b mWv B
hnhmlw I≠n´v k¥mt\mev]Øn D≠m-Ip-                       hnjvWp-an-{X≥'' F∂v bP-am-\≥ hni-Zo-I-cn-®p.
sa-∂pw, hnZym¿Ynsb I≠n´v Ah\v hnZym-em`w               Abmƒ sN∂v tZh-Z-Ø-s\-t∏m-sem-cp-hs\
D≠m-Ip-sa∂pw \n›-bn-°p-∂Xv A\p-am-\-Øm-                I≠v, ""Cbm-fmWv hnjvWp-an-{X≥'' F∂p \n›-
em-Wv. C-ßs\ Imc-W-Øn¬ \n∂pw Imcy-                     bn®v Abm-sf Iq´n-s°m-≠p-h-∂p. \oe-°mf
Øns‚ ⁄m\w D≠m-Ip-∂n-S-sØ√mw ""]q¿h-                    F∂p t]¿ ]d-bp∂ arKw ]ip-hn-s\-t∏m-se-
hXv'' F∂ A\p-am\w _m[-I-am-Wv.                         bp≈XmsW∂p tI´-dn-hp-≈-bmƒ Im´n¬ ]ip-
                                                       hn-s\-t∏m-se-bp≈ Hcp arKsØ ImWp-Ibpw
   2 tij-h-Xv                                          ""CXmWv \oe-°mf'' F∂p Xocp-am-\n-°p-Ibpw
                         -
   Imcyw I≠n´v Imc-WØns‚ ⁄m\w D≠m-                     sNbvXp. CØcw kmZr-iy-PvRm-\-amWv D]-am-
Ip-∂-XmWv tij-h-Z-\p-am-\w. ]pg-bn¬ sh≈-               \w.
s∏m°w I≠n´v D]-cn-`m-K-Øp-≠mb ag-tb-bpw,               \mem-a-tØXv i_vZ-{]-am-W-am-Ip-∂p.
]p{Xs\ I≠v ]nXm-hn-s\-bpw, temI-krjvSn
I≠n´v AXn\v A\m- Z n- b mb Imc- W hpw                      B]vtXm-]-tZix i_vZx. (\ym-b. 1.1.7) ]cn-
I¿Øm-hmb Cuiz-c-\p-ap-s≠-∂pw, kpJ-ZpxJ-                ]q¿W- ] m- W v U nXyw kn≤n- ® , [¿am- fl mhpw
߃ I≠n´v ]pWy-]m]-߃ D≠m-bn-cn-°p-                     ]tcm-]-Im-cn-bpw, kXy-hm-Znbpw ]ucp-j-ap-≈-
sa∂pw A\p-am-\n-°p-∂-Xns\ tij-h-Z-\p-am\w              h\pw C{µnb-ßsf Iog-S-°n-b-h\pw X\n°p
F∂p ]d-bp-∂p.                                          kn≤n® Adn-hn-t\bpw kpJw e`n® hgn-I-
                                                       tfbpw a‰p-≈-h¿°p a\-kn-em-°n-s°m-Sp-°-W-
   3 kam-\ytXm ZrjvSw                                                    -   -
                                                       sa-∂p≈ B{K-lap-≈h\pw a\p-jy-cp-sS-sb√mw
   Imcy-Im-c-W-`mhw C√mØ c≠p ]Zm¿Y-                    t{ib- n-\mbn ]rYn-hn-sXm´v Cuiz-c≥ hsc-
߃°v ]c- k v ] - c - a p≈ GsX- ¶ n- e p- s amcp        bpff kIe ]Zm¿Y- ß fpsSbpw ⁄m\w
km[¿aysØ am{Xw Bkv]-Z-am°n A\p-am-                     kºm-Zn-®v, D]-tZi-߃ \¬Ip-∂-h-\p-amb
\n-°p-∂-Xn\v "kma-\y-tXm-ZrjvSw' F∂p ]d-                                                  --
                                                       alm-]p-cp-j-\mWv B]vX≥. B]vX∑mcpsS D]-
bp-∂p. \S-°pI F∂ {Inb IqSmsX Hcn-S-Øp-                 tZi-ßfpw kºq¿W B]v-X-\mb Cuiz-c≥
\n∂v as‰m- c n- S - t Ø°v Hcp- h \v FØp- h m≥          D]t-Z-in® thZ-ßfpamWv i_vZ-{]-am-Ww.
km[n-°p-I-bn-√. AXp-t]m-se-X-s∂, a‰p-≈-                A©m-a-tØXv sFXn-ly-am-Ip-∂p.
h¿°pw Hcn-S-Øp-\n∂p as‰m-cn-S-sØ-Øp-hm≥
\S-°msX Ign-bp-I-bn√ F∂-\p-am-\n-°p-∂-                     \ NXp-jvSv-hssa-Xn-lymcvYm-]-Øn-kw-`-hm-
Xns\ kmam-\y-tXm-ZrjvSw F∂p ]d-bp-∂p.                  `mhm {]mamWymXv. (\ym-b. 2.2.1) CXn l F∂-
A\p-am-\-Øns‚ A¿Yw˛ ""A\p AcvYmXv                      Xn\v CXv C{]-Imcw Bbn-cp∂p F∂¿Yw.
{]Xy-£ky ]›m-∑o-btX ⁄mbtX tb\                          Ah≥ A{]-Im-c-sa√mw {]h¿Øn®p F∂p ]d-
XZ-\p-am\w'' {]Xy-£-⁄m-\-Øn\p tijw                     bp∂ {]amWw, AXm-bXv Hcp-hs‚ Poh-N-cn-
D≠m- I p∂ ⁄m\w [qa- Ø ns‚ {]Xy- £ -                    {X-amWv sFXn-lyw.
⁄m\w IqSmsX A{]-Xy-£-amb A·nsb                         Bdm-a-tØXv A¿Ym-]-Øn-bm-Ip-∂p.
A\p-am-\n-°p-hm≥ km[y-a-√-t√m.                             ""AcvYmZm-]-ZytX km AcvYm-]-Ønx. tI\-
aq∂m-a-tØXv D]-am-\-am-Ip-∂p.                          Nn-Zp-NytX: kXvkpLt\jp hrjvSnx kXn
   {]kn-≤-km-[cvaym-’m-[y-km-[-\-ap-]-am-\w.           ImctW Imcyw `h-XoXn Ina{X {]k-Py-tX.
(\ymb. 1.1.6) apºv {]Xy-£-ambn Adn™                    AkXv k p Lt\jp hrjv S nckXn Imc-


                                                  43
    kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                          A[y-b\ A[ym-]\ k{º-Zmbw
tW(N) Imcyw \ `hXn'' Hcmƒ CX-c-t\mSp                  hnbv ° pw Pe- Ø n- \ p- a p≈ kam- \ - [ ¿a- a mWv
]d-bp-∂p."taL-߃ D≈-t∏mƒ ag D≠m-Ip∂p.                 Cßs\ km[¿ay-Øn-s‚bpw ]rYnhn ISp--∏-ap-
ImcWw D≠m-Ip-tºmƒ Imcyw D≠m-Ip∂p.''                   ≈Xpw Pew arZp-hp-am-Wv. ISp-∏hpw am¿±-hhpw
CXn¬ \n∂v thsdmcp kwK-Xn, FSp-Øp-]-d-                 bYm-{Iaw ]rYn-hn-bnepw Pe-Øn-ep-ap≈ `n∂-
bmsX Xs∂ a\-kn-em-Ip-∂p-≠v. taL-an-s√-                [¿aß-fmWv F∂n-ßs\ ssh[¿ay-Øn-s‚bpw
¶n¬ ag-bp-≠m-hn-s√-∂pw, ImcWw IqSmsX Hcn-             ⁄m\w D≠m-bn. {Zhyw, KpWw, I¿aw, kmam-
°epw Imcyw D≠m-hn-s√-∂p-am-W-Xv. CXns\                \yw, hnti-jw, ka-hmbw F∂o Bdp ]Zm¿Y-
A¿Ym-]Øn F∂p ]dbp-∂p.                                 ß- f psS XØz- ⁄ m\w D≠mbn XZzmcm
Ggm-a-tØXv kw`-h-am-Ip-∂p.                            tam£w {]m]n-°p∂p.
   ""kw`-hXn bkvan≥ k kw`hx'' ""A—-\-                               -
                                                          ]rYn-hym-]kvtX-tPm-hm-bp-cm-Imiw Imtem
Ω-am-cn-√msX k¥m-\-ap-≠m-bn. At±lw acn-               ZnKmflm a\ CXn {ZhymWn (ssh. 1.1.5) ]rYn-
®-hs\ Pohn-∏n®p. ae-sb-SpØp s]m¥n-®p. IS-             hn, Pew tXP-kv, hmbp BIm-iw, Imew, Zn°v,
en-\p-aotX Icn-¶√p ]Sp-Øp, N{µs\ apdn®p               Bflm-hv, a\kv F∂o HºXp ]Zm¿Y-ß-fmWv
IjWw Ij-W-am-°n-°-f-™p. Cuiz-c≥ Ah-                   {Zhy-߃.
                            -
X-cn-®p. a\p-jy\v sImºp-ap-f®p, Hcp h‘y-bpsS              {Inbm-Kp-W-h-’-am-hm-bn-Im-c-W-anXn {Zhy-
aI≥ as‰mcp h‘y-bpsS aIsf thfn Ign-®p.''               e-£-Wav (ssh 1.1.15) ""{Inbm› KpWm›
F∂pw a‰pw ]d-™m¬ Ah-sb√mw Akw-`m-                     hnZyt¥ bkv a nw- k v X Xv {Inbm- K p- W - h Xv ''
hy-am-sW∂v Xo¿®-s∏-Sp-Ømw. Fs¥-∂m¬ Cu                 GsXmcp ]Zm¿Y-Øn¬ {Inb, KpWw, F∂nh
]d- ™ - s X√mw krjv S n- { I- a - Ø n\v hncp≤-        c≠ptam As√-¶n¬ KpWw am{Xtam Ds≠∂p
ßfmWv. krjvSn-{I-a-Øn\p hncp-≤-a-√m-Ø-                ImWp-∂pthm AXns\ {Zhy-sa∂p ]d-bp-∂p.
Xns\ kw`-h-sa∂p ]d-bp-∂p.                             ap≥]-d™ HºXp {Zhy-ß-fn¬ ]rYn-hn, Pew,
F´m-a-tØXv A`m-h-am-Ip-∂p.                            tXP- k v , hmbp, a\- k v , Bflmhv F∂o
   ""\ `hXn bkvan≥ tkmf`mhx'' Hcp-h≥                  Bdnepw {Inbbpw KpWhpw D≠v. BIm-iw,
as‰m-cp-ht\m-Sv, ""B\sb sIm≠p hcnI'' F∂p
          -                                           Zn°v F∂n-h-bn¬ {Inb C√; KpWw D≠v.
]d-bp-∂p. AhnsS B\-bn-s√∂p I≠ Abmƒ                        ""ka-thXpw ioew bky XXv ka-hmbn
B\ D≠m-bn-cp-∂n-SØp sN∂v B\sb sIm                     {]mKvhr-ØnXzw ImcWw ka-hmbn NX-XvIm-
≠p-h-∂p. 41 Ch-bmWv F´p {]amW-߃. Ch-                 cWw N ka-hmbn Imc-Ww, e£ytX tb\
bn¬ i_vZ-{]-am-W-Øn¬ sFXn-lyhpw A\p-                  X√-£Ww''. H∂n®p tN¿∂n-cn-°p∂ kz`m-h-
am-\-Øn¬ A¿Ym-]-Øn, kw`-hw, A`mhw                     ap-≈-Xns\ ka-hmbn F∂pw, Imcyw D≠m-Ip-
F∂n-hbpw A¥¿`-hn-°p-∂-Xmbn K-Wn-®m¬                   ∂-Xn\p apºp-≈-Xns\ ImcWw F∂pw IÆp-
\mep {]amW-߃ am{Xta tijn-°p-I-bp-                    sIm≠p cq]w I≠-dn-bp-∂-Xp-t]m-se, e£yw
≈q. C∏-d™ A©p-hn-[-Øn-ep≈ ]co-£-                                         -
                                                      GXp-sIm≠v Adn-bs∏-Sp-∂pthm AXns\ e£-
I-sf-s°m≠v a\pjy≥ kXym-kXy-ßsf                        W-sa∂pw ]d-bp-∂p.
\n›- b n- ° p- h m≥ i‡- \ mbn `hn- ° p- ∂ p.              cq]-c-k-K-‘-kv]cvi-hXo ]rYn-ho. (ssh.
kXym-kXy-ßsf \n¿W-bn-°p-hm≥ a‰p am¿K-                 2.1.1)cq]w, ckw, K‘w, kv]¿iw F∂n-h-bp≈
sam-∂p-an-√.                                          ]Zm¿Y-amWv ]rYn-hn. A·n, Pew, hmbp F∂n-
   [cva-hn-ti-j-{]-kq-XmZv {Zhy-Kp-W-Icva-km-         h-bpsS kwtbmKw sIm≠mWv ]rYn-hn-bn¬
am-\y-hn-tijka-hm-bm\mw ]Zm¿Ym\mw (km                 cq]w, ckw, kv]¿iw F∂o KpW-߃ D≠m-
[cvay-ssh-[cvaym`ymw) XØz⁄m\m-∂nx-t{i-                Ip-∂-Xv.
b-kav. (ssh.1.1.4) a\p-jy≥ [¿asØ bYm                      hyhÿnXx ]rYnhymw K‘x (ssh. 2.2.2)
tbmKyw A\p-jvTn-®m¬ ]hn-{X-\m-Ip-Ibpw                     K‘w F∂ KpWw ]rYn-hn-bn¬ kzm`m-hn-
km[¿ayssh[¿ay-ß-fpsS˛A-Xm-bXv ]rYnhn                  I-am-bp-≈-Xm-Wv. AXp-t]m-se, Pe-Øn¬ ck-
PU-amWv, Pehpw PU-amWv PUXzw ]rYn-                    hpw, tXP-kn¬ cq]hpw hmbp-hn¬ kv]¿ihpw
  41 B\ C√m-Øn-SØv B\-bpsS A`mhw D≠v                  BIm-i-Øn¬ i_vZhpw kzm`m-hnI KpW-ß-


                                                 44
               aq∂mw kap-√mkw                                                     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
fm-Wv.                                                      Imem-tJy-Xn. (ssh. 2.2.9) \nXy-h-kvXp-°-fn¬
   cq]-c-k-kv]cvi-hXy Bt]m {Zhmx kv\n                       C√m-ØXp sIm≠pw A\n-Xy-h-kvXp-°-fn¬
Kv[mx. (ssh. A. 2 . 1. 2) cq]w, ckw, kv]¿iw                 am{Xw D≈-Xp-sIm≠pw Imc-W-Øn¬ Xs∂-
F∂o KpW-ß-fp-≈Xpw {Zhhpw kv\nKv≤-hp-                        bmWv Ime-kw-⁄.
am-bn-´p≈ {Zhy-sØ-bmWv Pew F∂p ]d-bp-                           CX CZ-anXn bXkv-X-±niyw enwKav. (ssh.
∂-Xv. Pe-Øns‚ kzm`m-hnI KpWw ck-am-Wv.                      2.2.10) Ing-°v, sX°v, ]Sn-™m-dv, hS-°v, apIƒ,
cq]w kv]¿iw F∂o KpW-߃ A·n-bp-sSbpw                         Xmsg F∂o hn[-Øn¬ hyh-l-cn-°p-∂-XmWv
hmbp-hn-s‚bpw kwtbmKw sIm≠p-≠m-Ip-∂-                        Zn°v.
h-bm-Wv.                                                        BZn-Xy-kw-tbm-KmZv `qX-]qcvhmZv `hn-jy
   A]vkp ioXXm (ssh. 2.2.5) Pe-Øn¬                          tXm `qXm® {]mNo (ssh. 2.2.14) BZn-Xys‚
ioXXzw (Ip-fn¿a) F∂ KpWhpw IqSn kzm`m-                      kwtbmKw GsXmcp Zn°n-emtWm {XnIm-e-ß-
hn-I-am-bv´p-≈-Xm-Ip-∂p.                                    fnepw H∂m- a - X mbn D≠m- I p- ∂ Xv AXns\
   tXtPm cq]-kv]¿i-hXv (ssh. 2.1.3) cq]w                    Ing°v F∂pw BZn- X y≥ Akv X - a n- ° p∂
kv]¿iw F∂o KpW-ß-tfmSp IqSn-b-XmWv                          Zn°ns\ ]Sn-™mdv F∂pw ]d-bp-∂p. Ing-
tXP-kv. tXP-kns‚ kzm`m-hn-I-Kpaw cq]-am-Ip-                 t°m´p t\m°n-\n¬°p∂ Bfns‚ he-Xp-`mKw
∂p. kv]¿iw hmbp-hns‚ kº¿°w sIm≠p-                           sX°pw CS-Øp-`mKw hS°pw BIp-∂p.
≠m-Ip-∂-Xm-Wv.                                                  GtX\ ZnK- ¥ - c m- e m\n hymJym- X m\n
   kv]cvi-hm≥ hmbpx (ssh. 2.1.4) kv]¿i-                     (ssh. 2.2.16) Ing-°n\pw sX°n\pw a[y-Øn¬
KpWw am{X-ap-≈-XmWv hmbp. kv]¿i-Øn\v                        BKv-t\bo Zn°pw sX°n\pw ]Sn-™m-dn\pw
NqSpw Ipfn¿abpw D≠m-Ip-∂Xv tXP-kn-t‚bpw                     a[y-Øn¬ ss\cv-EXo Zn°pw ]Sn-™mdv hS°v
Pe-Øn-t‚bpw kwtbmKw sIm≠m-Ip-∂p.                            F∂n-h-bpsS a[y-Øn¬ hmb-ho-Zn-°pw, hS-
   X BImti \ hnZy-t¥. (ssh. 2.1.5) cq]w,                    °n\pw Ing-°n\pw CS-bn¬ sFim-\-Zn-°p-am-
ckw, K‘w, kv]¿iw, F∂o KpW-ß-sfm∂pw                          Wv.
BIm-iØ-n¬ C√. BIm-i-Øn-ep≈ KpWw                                 C—m-tZz-j-{]-b-Xv\-kp-J-Zpx-J-⁄m-\m-\ym-
i_vZw am{X-am-Ip-∂p.                                        flt\m enMvK-an-Xn. (\ym-b. 1.1.10) C—. tZzjw,
   \njv { I- a Ww {]th- i - \ - a n- X ym- I m- i ky        {]b-Xv\w, (]p-cp-jm¿Yw), kpJw, ZpxJw, Adnhv
enwKav (ssh. 2.1.20) \njv{I-aWw _ln¿`m-K-                   F∂o KpW- ß ƒ D≈- X m- W v , Pohm- fl m- h v .
tØ°v Ka\w, {]th-i\w˛A¥¿`m-K-tØ°v                            sshti-jn-I-Z¿i-\-Øn¬ hnti-jm-¬ ]d-™n-
BK-a\w F∂o c≠p {Inb-Iƒ D≈ {Zhy-amWv                         cn-°p-∂-Xn-{]-Im-c-am-Wv.
BIm-iw.                                                         {]mWm-f]m-\\n-ta-tjm-t∑j Poh-\at\m-K-
                                                                             -                    - -
   Imcym-¥cm-{]m-Zpcv`m-hm® i_vZx-kv]cvih-
              -                                    -        Xo-{µn-bm-¥cv hnImcmx kpJ-, ZpxtJ—mtZzj-
Xm-aKpWx (ssh. 2.1.25) ]rYnhn apX-emb Imcy-
    -                                                       {]-b-Xv\m-›m-flt\m enMvKm\n (ssh. 3.2.4)
ß-fn¬ \n∂v i_vZw {]I-S-am-Im-bvI-bm¬                        ({]m-W) hmbp-hns\ AI-Øp-\n∂p ]pd-tØ°p
i_vZw, kv]¿i-Kp-Wap≈ `qan apX-em-bhbpsS
                      -                      - -            X≈p-I, (A-]m-\) ]pd-Øp-\n∂v AI-tØ°v
KpW-a-√. {]XypX BIm-i-Øns‚ KpW-am-Ip-                       hmbp-hns\ hen-s®-Sp-°p-I 42, (\n-ta-j) IÆ-
∂p.                                                         S-°p-I, (D-t∑-j) IÆp-an-gn-°p-I, (Po-h-\)
                                                            {]mW-[m-cWw sNøp-I, (a-\x) a\-\w, Nn¥,
   A]-c-kvan-∂-]cw bpK-]-®ncw £n{]-anXn                     Adnhv (K-Xn) btYjvSw Ncn-°pI (C{µn-b)
Ime-enw-Km\n (ssh. 2.2.6) A]cw (]n-∂o-Sv)
]cw (ap-ºv) bpK-]Xv (H-tc-k-a-bw) Nncw (hn-                 42 {]mW≥, A]m-\≥ F∂nh bmYm-{Iaw hmbp-hns\
fw-_w) £n{]w (th-Kw) apX-emb {]tbm-K-                          D≈n-te-s°-Sp-°p-I. ]pd-tØ°p hnSpI F∂n-h-bm-
߃ GsXm- ∂ n- e p- ≠ m- I p- ∂ p- t hm, AXmWv                  sW∂ anYym-t_m[w s]mXp-hm-bp-≠v. apJ-\m-kn-
                                                                                  -                   - - -
                                                               Im`ymw _lncv∂n- c≥hm-bpx-{]mWx A¥cvK—∂]m-
Imew.                                                          \x. hmbnepw aq°nepw IqSn ]pd-tØ°p hnSp∂ hmbp
   \ntXyjz-`m-hm-Z\n-tXyjp `mhm-Xv Im-ctW
                    -                                                                             -
                                                               {]mW\pw AI-tØ-s°-Sp-°p-∂Xv A]m-\\p-am-sW∂v
                                                               kmb-W≥ AY¿hth-Z-`m-jy-Øn¬ (18. 2.46)


                                                       45
     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                             A[y-b\ A[ym-]\ k{º-Zmbw
C{µn- b - ß sf hnj- b - ß - f n¬ {]h¿Øn- ∏ n®v            c≠v F∂n-ßs\ FÆp-∂-XmWv kwJy. L\w
Ahsb {Kln-°p-I, (A-¥¿hn-Im-c) hni-∏v,                               -
                                                          Ipd-™Xv, L\w IqSn-bXv F∂o ⁄m\-Øn\p
Zmlw, ]\n, thZ\ apX-emb hnIm-c-ß-fp-≠m-                   Imc-W-amb KpW-amWv ]cn-am-Ww 45. At\ym
                -                   -
hp-I, kpJZpx-J߃, C—m-tZz-j߃, {]bXv\w                    \yw AI-∂n-cn-°p-∂Xv ]rYIvXz-hpw, ]c-kv]cw
F∂nh Bflm- h ns‚ enMv K - ß ƒ AYhm                         IqSn-t®¿∂n-cn-°p-∂Xv kwtbm-Khpw H∂n-®n-cn-
Bflm-hns‚ KpW-I¿a-ß-fm-Ip∂p.                               °p-∂h th¿]n-cn-bp-∂Xv hn`m-Khpw BIp-∂p.
     bpK-]-Pv-⁄m-\m-\pX-v]-Øncva-\-tkm- en-               ""AXn¬\n∂v CXv ]c-amWv'' F∂Xv ]c-Xz-
MvKav (\ym. 1.1.16) Htc kabw c≠p ]Zm¿Y-                   hpw. ""CXv AXn¬ \n∂v A]-c-amWv'' F∂Xv
ßsf {Kln-°p-hm≥ i‡n-bn-√m-Ø-Xns\ a\-                      A]- c - X zhpw BIp- ∂ p. \∑bpw Xn∑bpw
s ∂p ]d-bp-∂p. C{]-Imcw {Zhy-ß-fpsS kzcq-                 th¿Xn- c n- ® - d n- b p- ∂ Xv _p≤n- b m- W v . B\- µ -
]hpw e£Whpw ]d-™p. C\n KpW-߃ ]d-                         Øns‚ ]cym-b-amWv kpJw. t¢iw F∂Xv
bmw.                                                                                        -
                                                          ZpxJ-am-Wv. C—bv°v B{K-lsa∂pw tZzj-Øn\v
     cq]-c-k-K-‘-kv]cvimx kwJymx:-˛-˛]-cn-am-             hntcm-[-sa-∂p-am-W¿Yw. hnhn[ ]pcp-jm¿Y-b-
Wm\n ]rY‡zw kwtbm-K-hn-`msKu ]c-Xzm-                      Xv \ - ß ƒ {]b- X v \ hpw BIp- ∂ p. KpcpXzw
f-]-ctXz _p≤bx kpJ ZpxtJ C—m-tZzju                        L\hpw {ZhXzw Hgp°pw BIp-∂p. {]oXn-
{]b-Xv\m› KpWmx (ssh. 1.1.6) cq]w, ckw,                                           - -
                                                          sb∂pw kv\nKv≤Xsb-∂p-amWv kvt\l-Øns‚
K‘w, kv]¿iw, kwJy, ]cn-am-Ww, ]rY-‡zw,                    A¿Yw. as‰m-∂ns‚ kwtbmKw sIm≠p-≠m-
kwtbm-Kw, hn`m-Kw, ]c-Xzw, A]-c-Xzw, _p≤n,                Ip∂ hmk-\-bmWv kwkvIm-cw. \ymbm-N-c-
kpJw, ZpxJw, C—, tZzjw, {]b-Xv\w, (Kp-cpXzw               Whpw ITn-\-Xzm-Zn-I-fp-amWv [¿aw. A\ym-bm-
  43
     , {Zh-Xzw, kvt\lw, kwkvIm-cw, [¿aw,                  N-c-Whpw ITn-\-Xz-Øn\p hncp-≤-amb tIma-
A[¿aw, i_vZw) F∂n-ßs\ Ccp-]-Øn-\mep                       fXzw apX-em-bhpw A[¿a-am-Wv. Cßs\ Ccp-
KpW-ß-fm-Ip-∂p.                                           ]-Øn-\mep KpW-ß-fm-Wp-≈-Xv.
            -     -
{Zhym-{i-øKp-Whm≥kw-tbm-Khn-`m-tKjz-Im-c-
                                  -                                        - - - -        -
                                                             DXvt£-]Waht£-]Wam-Ip-©\w {]km-
W-a\t]£ CXn KpW-e£Wav (ssh. 1.2.16)
       - -                  - -                           cWw Ka\anXn IcvamWn (ssh. 1.1.7) DXvt£-
{ZhysØ B{i-bn-°p-Ibpw A\y-Kp-W-ßsf                        ]-Ww-˛-ap-I-fn-te-°p≈ Ne\w Ah-t£-]-Ww˛
[mcWw sNøm-Xn-cn-°p-I-bpw, kwtbmK hn`m-                   Xmtgm-´p≈ Ne\w BIp-©\w kt¶m-Nn-°p-
K-ß-fn¬ Imc-W-am-Im-ØXpw ]c-kv]-cm-t]£                    I, {]km-cWw ]c-ØpI Ka-\w˛ t]mhpI hcnI
IqSmsX h¿Øn-°p-∂-Xp-amWv KpWw.                            Np-‰n-Øn-cn-bpI apX-emb {Inb-Iƒ, Cßs\
     t{imt{Xm-]-e-_v[ncv _p≤ncv\ncv{Kmlyx                 A©p- h n- [ - Ø n- e mWv I¿a- ß ƒ. C\n I¿a-
{]tbmtKWm-f`n-Pz-enX BIm-i-tZix i_vZx                     Øns‚ e£Ww ]d-bmw.
(a-lm-`m-jyw) 43 sNhn-sIm≠v {]m]n-°m-hp-                                    -                 -
                                                             GI-{Z-hy-aKpWw kwtbm-Khn-`m-tK-jz-\t]-          -
∂-Xpw, _p≤n-bm¬ {Kln-°m-hp-∂Xpw {]tbm-                    £-Im-cW anXn Icva-e-£-Wav (ssh. 1.1.11)
K- Ø m¬ {]Im- i n- ° p- ∂ - X pw, BIm- i - Ø n¬           Hcp {ZhysØ B{i-bn-®n-cn-°p-∂-Xpw, KpW-c-
h¿Øn-°p-∂-Xp-amWv i_vZw.                                  ln-X-amb kwtbm-K-hn-`m-K-ß-fn¬ At]-£m-
                                                          c-ln-X-amb Imc-Whp-am-bn-´p-≈-XmWv I¿aw.
     IÆp-sIm≠v {Kln-°p∂ KpW-amWv cq]w.                    As√-¶n¬ sNøp-∂Xv I¿aw F∂pw e£Ww
\m°p-sIm≠v Adn-bp∂ a[p-cm-Zn-t`-Z-ß-fmWv                  ]d-bmw.
ckw. aq°p-sIm≠v Adn-bp∂ KpW-amWv K‘w.
Xz°p-sIm≠v {Kln-°p-∂Xv kv]¿i-am-Wv. H∂v,                     {Zhy-Kp-W-IcvaWmw {Zhyw-Im-cWw kmam-
                                                          \yav (ssh. 1.1.18) KpWw, I¿aw F∂n-hbpsS          -
43 {]b-Xv\-Øn-\p-tijw "N' F∂-Xp-sIm≠v KpcpXzw,                    -
                                                          Imc-W{Z-hy-amb Imcy-{Z-hy-Øns\ kmam-\y-{Zhyw
   {ZhXzw kwkvImcw AZrjvSw ([¿am-[¿a-߃) i_vZw            F∂p ]d-bp-∂p.
   F∂n-hsb `mjy-Im-c≥ FÆp-∂p. Aßs\ 17+7=24
   (N i_vZ kap-®n-Xm› KpcpXz {ZhXz kvt\l                  45 ChnsS ""Af-hv, AWp, al-Øv, \of-ap-≈X-v,
                  v -
   kwkvIm-cm-Zr-jSi_vZmx k]vssX-th-tXyhw NXpcvhnw-           C√m-ØXv F-∂n-Xym-Zn-Iƒ°pw ImcWw ]cn-amWw
                      - - -          -   - - -
   iXn KpWmx ({]-ikvX]m-Z`mtjy Dt±-i{]-IcWav)                F∂p htc-≠-Xm-Wv. L\-°p-dhpw
44 alm-`mjyw 1.1.1                                           IqSp-Xepw Kpcp-XzsØ kw_-‘n-°p-∂-Xm-Wt√m


                                                     46
               aq∂mw kap-√mkw                                                    kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
    {ZhymWmw {Zhyw Imcyw kmam- \ yav                       amWv ssh[¿ayw. ]rYn-hn-bn-ep≈ ImTn-\yw,
(ssh.1.1.23) Imcy-Xz-Øm¬ F√m Imcy-ßfnepw    -              ipjvI-X, K‘-hXzw F∂o [¿a-߃ Pe-Øn-
kmam-\y-ambncn°p-∂Xv {Zhy-ß-fpsS Imcy-{Z-                  ep≈ ImTn-\yw, am¿±-hw, ck-hXzw F∂o
hy-am-Ip-∂p.                                               [¿aßfn¬ \n∂p hncp≤ßfmI- b m¬
    {Zhy-Xzw, KpW-Xzw, IcvaXzw N kmam-                     ssh[¿ay-ß-fm-Wv.
\ym(\n) hnti-jm› (ssh. 1.2.5) {Zhy-ß-fn¬                       Imc- W - ` m- hmXv Imcy- ` mhx (ssh. 4.1.3)
{Zhy-Xzhpw KpW-ß-fn¬ KpW-Xzhpw I¿a-ß-                      ImcWw Ds≠-¶nte Imcyw D≠m-hq.
fn¬ I¿a-Xz-hpw-k-am\yßsf∂pw hnti-j-ß-                          \ Xp Imcym-`m-hmXv Imc-Wm-`mhx (ssh.
sf∂p ]d-bp-∂p. {ZhyXzw {Zhyßfn¬ kmam-                      1.2.2.) Imcyw D≠m-bn-´n-√m-bvI-bm¬ ImcWw
\y-am-Wv. KpW-Xzw, I¿aXzw F∂n-h-bn¬ \n∂p                   Cs√∂p hcp-∂-X-√.
{ZhyXzw hnti-j-hp-am-Ip-∂p. Cßs\ k¿h{X                         Imc- W m-- f `m- h mXv Imcym--f `mhx (ssh.
Adn-™p-sIm-≈-Ww.                                           1.2.1)ImcWw Cs√-¶n¬ Imcyw Hcn-°epw D≠m-
    kmam\yw hntij CXn _p≤y-t]-£av                          hp-I-bn-√.
(ssh. 1.2.3) kmam\yw hntijw F∂nh                               Imc-W-Kp-W-]qcvh-Ix-Im-cy-KptWm ZrjvSx
_p≤nsb At]-£n®v kn≤-am-Ip-∂p. a\p-jy-                      (ssh. 2.1.24) Imc-W-Øn¬ ImWp∂ KpW-߃
cn¬ kmam-\y-am-bn-´p-≈Xv a\p-jy-Xz-am-Wv. arK-                                             -
                                                           am{Xta Imcy-Ønepw ImWp-Ibp-≈q. ]cn-amWw
Xzm-Zn-Isf At]-£n®v AXv hnti-j-am-Ip-∂p.                   c≠p-hn-[-Øn-em-Ip-∂p.
a\p-jy-cn¬ kv{XoXzw, ]pcp-j-Xzw, {_m“-W-                       AWp al-ZnXn Xkvan≥ hnti-j-`m-hm-Zzn-
Xzw, £{Xn-b-Xzw, sshiyXzw, iq{ZXzw, F∂o                    ti-jm-`m-hm® (ssh. 7.1.11) AWp (kq-£vaw)
[¿aßsf√mw hntijßfmIp- ∂ p. {_m“-                           alXv (h-ep-Xv) F∂nßs\ ]cn-amWw c≠p-
WXzw {_m“-W-cn¬ kmam-\yhpw £{Xnbm-                         hn-[w. {Xk-tcWp Ip∂n-tb-°mƒ sNdpXpw
Zn- I sf At]- £ n®v hnti- j hpw BIp- ∂ p.                  hr£-tØ-°mƒ hep-Xp-am-Ip-∂p. AXp-t]m-se-
Cßs\ F√m-bn-SØpw Adn-bp-I.                                 Xs∂ ]¿hXw `qan-tb-°mƒ sNdpXpw hr£-
    Ctl-Z-anXn bXx- Im-cy-Im-c-Wtbmx (k)                   tØ-°mƒ hepXpw BWv.
ka-hmbx (ssh. 7.2.26) Imcy-Im-c-W-߃˛                          kZnXn btXm {Zhy- K p- W - I cv a kp km
AXm-bXv Ah-bhpw Ah-b-hn-bpw, {Inb-bpw                      kØm (ssh. 1.2..7) ""kXv{Z-hyw, kZvKp-Wx,
I¿Ømhpw, KpW-hpw KpWn-bpw, PmXn-bpw                        kXvIcvax'' kØm-b-{Zhyw kØmb KpWw
hy‡nbpw F∂n-hbv°p XΩn-ep≈ _‘w                              kØmb I¿aw F∂n- ß s\ h¿Ø- a m\
\nXy-am-Ip-∂p. B \nXy-_-‘-amWv ka-hm-bw.                   ImesØ Ipdn-°p∂ kXv F∂ i_vZ-tØm-Sp-
a‰p ]Zm¿Y-߃°v ]c-kv]-c-ap≈ _‘w (kw-                       IqSn {Zhy KpW-I¿a߃°p≈ A\z-b-sØ-
tbm-K-_-‘w) A\n-Xy-_‘w BIp-∂p.                             bmWv kØ-sb∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xv.
    {Zhy- K p- W tbmx kPm- X o- b bmcw- ` - I Xzw              `mthm-- f \p-hr-tØ-tch tlXp- hmXv kmam-
km[cvay-av. (hm. 1.1.9) kam-\-Pm-Xo-b-ß-fmb                \y-tah (ssh. 1.2.4) kØ F∂ `mhw kIe
{Zhy- K p- W - ß sf Dev]m- Z n- ∏ n- ° p- ∂ - X n\v        hkvXp-°-fnepw A\p-h¿Øn®p ÿnXn-sN-øp-
km[¿ayw F∂p ]d-bp-∂p. ]rYn-hn-bn¬ PU-                      ∂-Xp-sIm≠v AXns\ alm-km-am\yw F∂p
Xzw, IpSw, apX-em-b-h-bpsS Dev]m-Z-I-Xzhpw                 ]d-bp-∂p. Cu ]d-™Xp apgp-h\pw `mh-]-
kzk-Zr-i-[¿a-ß-fm-Wv. Pe-Øn¬ PU-Xzhpw                      Zm¿YsØ kw_-‘n-®m-Wv. A`mhw A©p
kPm-Xo-b-amb lna-Øns‚ Dev]m-Z-I-Xzhpw                      hn[-Øn-em-Wv.
D≠v. AXn-\m¬ ]rYn-hn°p Pe-Øn-t\mSpw Pe-
Øn\v ]rYn-hn-tbmSpw km[¿ayw D≠v. Cu                            {Inbm-Kp-W-hy-]-tZ-im-`m-hm-Xv {]m-K-kXv
]d™ km[¿ay-e-£Ww sIm≠v ""{Zhy-Kp-W-                                                                -
                                                           (ssh.9.1.1) {Inbm-KpWßfpsS hnti-j\n-an-Ø-
tbmcvhn-Pm-Xo-bm-cw-`-IXzw ssh[cvayw'' F∂                  Øns‚ A`m-h-Øn\p apºp≈ AkXv (C-√m-
ssh[¿ay-e-£Ww IqSn ]d-tb-≠-Xmbn hcp-                       bva, A`m-hw) F∂¿Yw. IpSw, hkv{Xw apX-
∂p. {Zhy-Kp-W-ß-fn-ep≈ hncp-≤-[¿a-ß-fp-                    em-bh Dev]-Øn°p apºv D≠m-bn-cp-∂n-√. B
sSbpw hnPm-Xo-b-Im-cy-ß-fp-sSbpw Dev]m-Z-I-Xz-             C√m-bva-bmWv {]mK-`m-hw.

                                                      47
    kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                          A[y-b\ A[ym-]\ k{º-Zmbw
   c≠m-a-tØXv                                         Zn-Kp-W-߃ \nXy-hp-am-Wv.
   kZ-kXv (ssh. 9.1.2) D≠mb IpSw C√m-                     kZ-Im-cWh∂n-Xyav (ssh. 4.1.1) kØ-tbm-
Xm-bn-t∏m-Ip-∂-Xp-t]mse Hcn-°¬ D≠m-bn´v               Sp-Iq-Sn-bXpw Imc-W-an-√m-Ø-Xp-amb ]Zm¿Y-
]n∂oSv C√m-Xp-Ip-∂-Xns\ {]≤zw-km-`mhw                                   -             - - - -
                                                      amWv \nXy-am-bXv. ""kXvIm-cWhZ\nXyw'' Imc-
F∂p ]d-bp-∂p.                                                             -              - -
                                                      W-tØm-Sp-Iq-Sn-bhbpw Imcy-cq-]ßfp-amb KpW-
   aq∂m-a-tØ-Xv˛                                      ߃ A\n-Xy-ß-fmWv F∂p IqSn a\- n-em-
   k®m-kXv (ssh. 9.1.4) Ds≠∂pw ]p\-cn-                °mw,
söpw ""AsKu-c-tizm-\-tizmKu'' IpXnc ]ip-                 AtkyZw Imcyw ImcWw kwtbmKn
h√; ]ip IpXn-c-bp-a-√. IpXn-cbn¬ IpXn-c-bp-           hntcm[n ka-hmbn tNXn sseMvKn-Iav (ssh.
sS-bpw, ]ip-hn¬ ]ip-hn-s‚bpw `mhw D≠v.                9.2.1) ka-hm-bn, kwtbm-Kn, GIm¿Y-k-a-hm-bn,
AXp-t]mse IpXn-c-bn¬ ]ip-hn-s‚bpw ]ip-                hntcm-[n, F∂o \mep hn[-Øn-emWv Ah-b-h-
hn¬ IpXn-c-bp-sSbpw A`mhw D≠-t√m. Cu                  ]-c-amb PvRm\w AYhm Ah-bhw Ah-bhn
A`m-hsØ At\ym-\ym-`mhw F∂p ]d-bp-∂p.                  F∂n-h-bpsS tN¿® sIm≠p-≠m-Ip∂ Adn-hv.
   \mem-a-tØ-Xv˛                                                              -            -
                                                      ""BImiw ]cn-am-WtØm-Sp-Iq-Sn-bXmWv F∂Xv
                                                      ka-hm-bn-bp-sSbpw'' ""icocw Xzt°m-Sp-Iq-Sn-b-
            - - - -   - -
   b®m-\y-ZkZXkvXZkXv (ssh. 9.1.5) ap≥]-              Xm-Ip-∂p.'' F∂v \nXy-kw-tbm-KsØ ImWn-
                  - -
d™ aq∂v A`m-hßfn¬ \n∂pw `n∂-amb A`m-                  °p-∂Xv kwtbm-Kn-bp-sSbpw ZrjvSm-¥w. H∂n¬
h-Øn\v AXy-¥m-`mhw F∂p ]d-bp-∂p. a\p-                 Xs∂ c≠ns‚ ÿnXn GIm¿Y-k-a-hm-b-am-Wv.
                        -
jys‚ sImºv, BIm-iIp-kp-aw, h‘ym-]p-{X≥                Imcy-cq-]-amb kv]¿iw, Imcy-Øns‚ Ah-b-
apX-em-b-h-bpsS A`mhw Cu C\-Øn¬ s]Sp-                 h- a m- W v . s]bv X ag s]øp- h m≥ t]mIp∂
∂p.                                                   agbv°v FXn-cm-b-Xm-sW-∂Xv hntcm-[n-°p≈
   A©ma-tØXv:˛                                        DZm-l-c-W-am-Ip-∂p.
   \mkvXn LtSm tKl CXn ktXm LSky                                    - -             -         - -
                                                          \nb-X[cvakm-ln-Xy-ap-`tbm-tc-IXcky hm
tKl- kw-kcvK {]Xn-tj[x (ssh. 9.1.10)                                        -   - -
                                                      hym]vXnx. \nP-i‡yp-Zv`han-Xym-Nmcymx Bt[-
ho´n¬ IpS-an√ F∂p ]d-™m¬ as‰-hn-sStbm                 b-i-‡n-tbmK CXn ]©-inJx (kmw-Jy-kq-
Ds≠-∂pw, hoSn-t\mSv IpS-Øn\p _‘-an-s√-                {Xw. A. 5 kq. 29.31.32) A\p-am-\-Øm¬ Adn-
∂p-am-W¿Yw. CXns\ kw_-‘m-`m-h-sa∂p ]d-                tb- ≠ - X ns\ km[y- s a∂pw km[y- ⁄ m\w
bp-∂p. Cßs\ A`mhw A©phn-[-Øn-em-Wv.                   D≠m-°p-∂-Xns\ km[-\-sa∂pw ]d-bp-∂p.
   C{µnbtZmjm-Xv kw-kvImctZmjm-®m-hnZym               km[yw km[\w F∂o c≠n-t‚-bp-tam, GsX-
(ssh. 9.2.15) C{µn-b-ß-fp-sSbpw kwkvIm-c-             ¶nepw H∂ns‚ am{Xtam \n›nX [¿a-amb
Øn-s‚bpw tZmjw-sIm≠v AhnZy D≠m-Ip-∂p.                 kl-Nm-c-amWv hym]vXn F∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xv. Xo,
   X±p-jvS-⁄m-\av (ssh. 9.2.11) ZpjvS-amb             ]pI F∂n-h-bpsS kl-Nm-cnXzw CXn-\p-Zm-l-
⁄m\w-˛-hn-]-co-X-⁄m-\w-˛-BWv Ahn-Zy.                  c-Ww. (29)
   AZpjvSw hnZym. (ssh. A. 9 B. 2. kq. 12)                hym]y-am-bn-cn-°p∂ ]pIbv°v kz¥w i‡n
AZp-jvS-amb ⁄m\w AY-hm, bYm¿Y-⁄m-\-                   sIm≠p- ≠ m- I p- ∂ Xv as‰m- c p- h n- [ - Ø n- e pff
amWv hnZy.                                            hym]vXn-bm-Ip-∂p. tZim-¥-csØ {]m]n® ]pI,
                                                      A·n- s b- ° qSmsX kzbw ÿnXn- s N- ø p- ∂ p.
  ]rYn-hym-Zn-cq-]-c-k-K-‘-kv]¿im {Zhym\nXy-          A·n-bpsS tOZ-\-˛-t`-Z-\-˛-km-a¿Yy-ß-fn¬
Xzm-Z\nXym›. (ssh. 7.1.2) GtX\ \ntXyjp                PemZn ]Zm¿Y-߃ ]pI-bm-bn-Øo¿∂v {]I-S-
\nXyXz-ap-‡av (ssh. 7.1.9) Imcy-cq-]-amb ]rYn-        am-Ip-∂p. (31)
hymZn ]Zm¿Y-ß-sf√mw A\n-Xy-ß-fm-b-Xp-
sIm≠v Ah- b n- e p≈ cq]w, ckw, K‘w,                       al-Ø-Øzm-Zn-I-fn¬ {]Ir-Xym-Zn-Iƒ°p≈
kv]¿iw XpS-ßnb KpW-ßfpw A\n-Xyhpw                     hym]-IX _p≤ym-Zn-I-fn-ep≈ hym]yX F∂o
ImcW-cq-]-amb ]rYn-hymZn \nXy-{Z-hy-ß-fn-             [¿a-ß-fpsS _‘-Øns‚ t]cmWv hym]vXn.
ep≈ (\m-ian-√mØ ]c-am-Wp-°fn-ep-≈) K‘m-
          -               -                           i‡n, i‡n-am≥ F∂nh XΩn¬ D≈ Bt[-


                                                 48
                aq∂mw kap-√mkw                                                          kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
bm-[mc _‘w DZm-l-c-Ww.                                                      --
                                                               bpsS DZm-lcWw a\-kn-em-°-Ww. `mKx A[ym-
    Cßs\ imkv{X-{]-am-W-ß-sf-s°m≠v ]co-                        bx. \mbIx kvXmh-Ix, ImcIx F∂o ]Z-ß-
£n-®nt´ ]Tn-°p-Ibpw ]Tn-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNøm-                       sf√mw DZm-l-c-W-ß-fm-Ip-∂p.
hq. A\yYm hnZym¿Yn-Iƒ°v Hcn-°epw kXy-                             `mKw :˛ `Pv F∂ [mXp-hn\p ]c-ambn LRv
t_m[w D≠m-hp-I-bn-√. ]Tn-∏n-°p-hm-\p≈                          {]Xybw hcp-∂p. {]Xy-b-Øn-ep≈ LImcw
{KŸ-ßsf C{]-Imcw ]cn-tim-[n-®v, kXy-am-                        RImcw F∂o c≠p h¿W-߃ CXvkw⁄
                                      -
b-hsb am{Xta ]Tn-∏n-°m-hq. hncp-≤amb {KŸ-                      h∂v tem]n®v AImcw am{Xw tijn-°p-∂p.
ßsf ]Tn-°p-Itbm, ]Tn-∏n-°p-Itbm sNø-cp-                        `PvA F∂p tijn-°p-∂-Xn¬ `Pv F∂ {]Ir-
Xv. Fs¥-∂m¬, e£-W-{]-am-Wm`ymw hkvXp-                          Xn-bn-ep≈ `Im-c-Øn¬ \n∂p ]chpw PIm-c-
kn≤nx. ""K‘-hXo ]rYnho'' K‘-ap-≈-XmWv                          Øn¬ \n∂p ]q¿h- h p- a mb AIm- c - Ø ns‚
]rYnhn CXymZn e£-W-ß-sfbpw {]Xy-£mZn                           ÿm\- Ø n¬ hr≤nkw⁄- t bmSp IqSnb
{]am-W-ß-sfbpw sIm≠mWv F√m kXym-k-                             BImcw h∂v `mPv A F∂m-Ip-∂p. ]ns∂
Xy-ßfpw ]Zm¿Y-X-Øzhpw \n¿W-bn-°p-∂-Xv.                         PIm-c-Øns‚ ÿm\-Øn¬ KImcw hcn-Ibpw
e£- W - { ]- a m- W - ß - f n- √ msX H∂n- t \bpw               HSp-hn¬ `mKx F∂ cq]w kn≤n-°p-Ibpw sNøp
\n¿Wbn-°m-hp-∂-X-√.                                            ∂p.
         AY ]T\ ]mT\ hn[nx                                        A[ymb :--:˛ A[n F∂ D]-k¿K-tØm-Sp-Iq-
    C\n ]Tn-°p-Ibpw ]Tn-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNøm-                       Snb CMv [mXp-hn-ep≈ {lkz CIm-c-Øns‚
\p≈ coXn hnh- c n- ° mw. H∂- m - a Xp ]Tn- ∏ n-                ÿm\-Øv, LRv {]Xybw ]c-am-bn, sF F∂p
t°≠Xv ]mWn-\o-ap\n cNn® kq{X-cq-]-Øn-                                   -
                                                               hr≤n-hcp-∂p. ]n∂oSv sFIm-cØn\v Bbv F∂v -
ep≈ in£-bm-Wv. Hmtcm h¿W-Øn-t‚bpw                              BtZiw h∂v F√mw IqSn tN¿∂v A[ymbx
ÿm\-{]-b-Xv\-ßfpw Imc-Whpw H∂m-a-Xmbn                          F∂ cq]-ap-≠m-Ip-∂p.
]Tn-∏n-°-Ww. Hcp-Zm-l-cWw ]d-bmw. "]' Imc-                        \mb-I :-˛ \oRv [mXp-hn\v ]c-ambn Wzpev
Øns‚ ÿm\w HmjvT-am-Wv. kv]rjvS-amWv                            {]Xybw hcp-tºmƒ [mXp-hn-ep≈ Zo¿L-amb
{]bXv\w; {]mW-s‚bpw Pnlz-bp-sSbpw {Inb-                                   -
                                                               CuIm-cØns‚ ÿm\Øv sFImcw hr≤n, B
bmWv IcWw F∂n-{]-Imcw F√m A£-c-ß-                                         -
                                                               sFIm-cØn\v Bbv F∂v BtZiw h∂v, (AI,
fp-tSbpw D®m-c-W-{Iaw amXm-]n-Xm-°-∑mcpw                       F∂ {]Xy-bm-tZiw tN¿∂v 46) \mbIx F∂
Kpcp-°-∑mcpw Ip´n-Isf ]Tn-∏n-°-Ww.                             cq]w \njv]-∂-am-Ip-∂p.
    ]n∂oSv hymI-c-Ww, AXm-bXv AjvSm-[ym-                          kvXmh-I :˛ kvXp [mXp-hn¬ Wzpev {]Xy
bn- b psS kq{X- ] m- T - a mWv A`y- k n- t °- ≠ - X v .        bw tNcp-tºmƒ [mXp-hnse {lkz-Im-c-Øns‚
hr≤n-cm-ssZNv F∂ kq{Xw ]Tn®v, hr≤nx BXv                        ÿm\Øv HuImcw hr≤n, HuIm-c-Øn\v Bhv
sFNv Ft∂m As√-¶n¬ hr≤nx BssZNv                                 F∂v BtZ-iw. F√mw tN¿∂v kvXmhIx F∂
Ft∂m ]Z-t—Zw sNbvXv, B®v sF®v BssZNv                           cq]w D≠m-Ip∂p
F∂n-ßs\ hn{K-ln-®v, ""BssZNmw hr≤n-
                                                                  Imc-I :˛ IrRv [mXp-hn\p ]c-ambn Wzpev
kw⁄m {InbtX'' B, sF, Hu F∂o h¿W-
                                                               {]Xybw hcp-∂p. {]Xy-b-Øns‚ BZy-Øn-
߃°v hr≤n F∂p kw⁄-sN-øp∂p F∂v
                                                               ep≈ W Imc-Øn\pw Ah-km-\-Øn-ep≈ e
A¿Yw {Kln-°p-I. ""Xx ]tcm bkvamXv X]cx
                                                               Im- c - Ø n\pw CXvkw⁄bpw tem]hpw
kvXmZ]n ]c-kvX]cx'' GsXm-∂n¬ \n∂v
                                                               tijn® hp F∂-Xn\v AI F∂v BtZ-ihpw
XImcw ]c-am-bn-cn-°p-∂pthm AXv X]cw, XIm-
                                                               hcp-∂p. [mXp-hn-ep≈ EIm-c-Øns‚ ÿm\Øv
c-Øn¬ \n∂v ]c-am-bn-´p-≈Xpw X]cw F∂p-
                                                               Bcv F∂v hr≤n h∂v ImcIx F∂p kn≤n-
≈-Xp-sIm≠v BssZNv F∂-Xnse XImcØn
                                                               °p-∂p.
s‚ apºpw ]nºp-ap≈ B sFNv F∂nh c≠pw
X]-c-ß-fm-sW∂p kn≤n-°p-∂p. AXp-sIm-                               ]q¿hm--] - c - { ]- t bm- K - ß - s f- ∏ ‰n GsX√mw
≠p≈ {]tbm-P\w {lkz-ß ƒ°pw Zo¿L-                                kq{X- ß tfs°m≠v Fs¥√mw Imcy- ß ƒ
߃°pw hr≤n-kw⁄ hcn-I-bn-s√-∂-Xm-Wv.                            hn[n-®n-´pt≠m AsX√mw ]d-™p-sIm-Sp-°p-
C{]-Imcw kq{Xm¿Yw ]Tn-®n-´v, hr≤n-kw-⁄-                                   -               - -
                                                                 46 tImjvTØn-teXv ]cn-`m-jIt‚-Xm-Wv.


                                                          49
    kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                        A[y-b\ A[ym-]\ k{º-Zmbw
Ibpw {]{In-b-bpsS {Iaw apgp-h\pw C{]-Imcw           Aev]-hn-j-b-ßsf am{Xw kv]¿in-°p∂ Hcp
FgpØv ] e- I - b n¬ Fgp- X n- ° mWn°p- I bpw        hnti-j-hn-[n-bm-Ip-∂p. D’¿K-hn-[n-bpsS hnj-
sNtø- ≠ - X m- W v . ˛`P+LRv + kp F∂- X n¬          b- Ø n¬ A]- h m- Z h- n [n ssII- S - Ø p- ∂ - X p
BZyw LIm-c-Øn\pw ]ns∂ RIm-c-Øn-\pw                  t]mse A]- h m- Z - h n- [ n- b psS hnj- b - Ø n¬
tem]w hcp-∂p. At∏mƒ `Pv +A+kp F∂m-                  D’¿K-hn[n {]h¿Øn-°p-∂-X-√. N{I-h¿Øn-
bn. AXns‚ tijw {]Ir-Xn-bn-ep≈ AIm-c-                bpsS km{am-Py-Øn¬ \mSp-hm-gn-Ifpw CS-{]-`p-
Øns‚ ÿm\Øv hr≤n-bmbn BIm-chpw PIm-                  °-∑mcpw `cWw \S-Øpw. AXp-t]mse \mSp-
c-Øn\v KIm-cm-tZ-ihpw h∂v, `mKv+A+kp                hm-gn-I-fp-sSbpw CS-{]-`p-°-∑m-cp-sSbpw aWvU-
F∂m-Ip-∂p. ]n∂oSv {]Ir-Xnbpw LRv {]Xy-              e- Ø n¬ km{am´v CS- s ]- S p- I - b n- √ - t √m. 47
b-Øns‚ Ah-i n-jvS -amb AIm-c hpw IqSn-              D’¿Km-]-hm-Z-{I-a-Øn-emWv ]mWn-\oa-l¿jn
t®¿∂v, `mK+kp F∂m-Ip-∂p. A\-¥cw kp                  AJne i_vZ-ß-fp-sSbpw Ah-bpsS A¿Yhpw
F∂-Xn-ep≈ DIm-c-Øn\v CXv kw⁄bpw                     _‘n-∏n®v Hmcm-bncw t«mI-ß-fn¬ Npcp°n
tem]hpw kv F∂-Xns‚ ÿm\Øv cp F∂                      ]-d™n-´p-≈-Xv. [mXp ]mT-Øn\p tijw DWm-
BtZ-ihpw hcp-∂p. cp F∂ BtZ-i-Ønse                   Zn-KWw ]Tn-∏n®v kp_-¥-i-_vZ-ßsf kw_-
DIm-chpw CXv kw⁄ h∂v tem]n®p t]mIp-                 ‘n- ® p≈ kIe hnj- b - ß fpw \√- h Æw
I-bm¬ `mK+cv F∂m-bn-Øo-cp-∂p. cv F∂                              -
                                                    t_m[n-∏n-°Ww. AXns‚ tijw ]q¿h-]£w,             -
h¿W-Øns‚ ÿm\Øp hnk¿Kw (x) h∂v                       kam-[m-\w, hm¿Øn-I-߃, Imcn-I-Iƒ, ]cn-
Ah-km\w `mKx F∂ cq]w kn≤n-°p-Ibpw                   `m-j-Iƒ apX-em-b-h-tbmSp IqSn c≠m-a-sXm-cn-
sNøp-∂p.                                            °¬ IqSn AjvSm-[ym-bn-bpw XpS¿∂v alm-`m-
   GsX√mw kq{X-߃, GsX√mw Imcy-߃                   jyhpw ]Tn-∏n-°-Ww.
{]{Inbbv°v hn[n-°p-∂p-thm, B kq{X-ßfpw                                       --
                                                        _p≤n-am\pw \njvI]-S-\p-amb hnZym-`n-hr-
Imcy-ßfpw bYmXY-ambn ]Tn-∏n-®v, Fgp-Xn-®v,          ≤nsb B{K-ln-°p∂ hnZym¿Yn aSp-ßmsX
{]{Inb ]d-bn-°-Ww. C{]-Imcw ]Tn°p-Ibpw              ]Tn°p-Ibpw tbmKy-cmb Kpcp-°-∑m¿ ]Tn-∏n-
]Tn-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNbvXm¬ AXn-thKw Dd®                 °p- I bpw sNøp∂ ]£w H∂- c - s °m√w
⁄m\w D≠m- I pw. Cßs\ Hcp XhW                        sIm≠v Ajv S m- [ ym- b nbpw H∂- c - s °m√w
AjvSm-[ymbn apgp-h\pw ]Tn-∏n-®n´v [mXp-]mTw         sIm≠v alm-`m-jyhpw ]Tn®v aq∂p-sIm√w
apgp-h\pw A¿Y-tØm-Sp-Iq-Sn, ]Øp eIm-c-ß-            sIm≠v XnI™ sshbm-I-c-W-\m-hp-Ibpw
fpsS cq]-ßfpw {]{In-b-tbm-Sp-IqSn D’¿K-             sshZn-I-ßfpw euIn-I-ßfpamb i_vZ-ß-sf-
kq{Xw ]n∂oSv AXns‚ A]-hm-Z-kq{Xw F∂o                sb√mw hymI- c Ww sIm≠- d n- ™ v , CXc
{Ia-Øn¬ ]Tn-∏n-t°-≠-Xm-Wv. kmam-\y-amb              imkv{X-ßsf Bbm-k-sat\y ]Tn-°p-hm\pw
Hcp hn[nsb ]d-bp∂ kq{X-amWv D’¿K-kq-                ]Tn-∏n-°p-hm\pw i‡-\m-hp-∂-Xp-am-Wv. hymI-
{Xw. ""Icva-WyWv'' F∂Xv Hcp D’¿K kq{X-              cW imkv{Xm[y-b-Øn-s\m-∂n\pw th≠n hcp-
am-Ip-∂p. I¿a-hm-N-I-amb ]Zw D]-]-Z-am-Ip-          ∂{X ]cn-{iaw a‰p imkv{Xm-[y-b-\-Øn-s\m-
tºmƒ Hmtcm [mXp-hnepw AWv {]Xybw hcpw               ∂n\pw th≠n hcp-∂n-√.
F∂mWv Cu kq{Xw sIm≠p hn[n-°p-∂-Xv.                      ap≥]-d™ {KŸ-߃ A`y-kn-®m¬ aq∂p-
Ip`-Imcx F∂Xv CXn-\p-Zm-l-c-Ww. ""BtXm-             sIm√w sIm≠p-≠m-Ip-∂n-S-tØmfw Adn-hv,
\p-]-k¿tK Ix'' F∂Xv CXns‚ A]-hmZ                    kmc-kz-Xw, N{µn-I, Iuap-Zn, at\m-ca apX-emb
kq{X-am-Ip-∂p. D]-k¿K-an-√mØ BIm-cm¥                {KŸ-߃ ]Tn-°p-∂-Xm-bm¬ AºXp sIm√w
[mXp-hn¬ I¿aw D]-]-Z-am-I-bm¬ I {]Xybw
hcpw F∂mWv AXn-\¿Yw. I¿aw D]-]-Z-am-Ip-                                               -
                                                    47 AjvSm-[ymbn kq{X-߃ KZy-cq-]Øn-em-Wv.
tºmƒ F√m [mXp-°-fnepw AWv {]Xybw                       GsX-¶nepw KZy-{K-Ÿ-Øns‚ hen∏w F{X-sb∂p
h∂p `hn-°p-∂p. CXv A[nI hnj-b-ßsf                      ]d-bp-∂-Xn\v \ne-hn-en-cp∂ {]mNo-\-co-Xn-bmWv
kv]¿in-°p∂ kmam-\y-hn-[n-bm-Wv. Cu hn[n-               Ah-bnse A£-c-ß-sfÆn A\p-jvTp-]vO-µ-kns‚
bpsS hnj-b-ß-fn-e-¥¿`-hn-®n-´p≈ BIm-cm¥                A£-c-kw-Jy-bmb 32-sIm≠v lcn-®v, B kwJy-bpsS
                                                       A{Xbpw t«mI-߃ AXn-ep-s≠∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xv.
[mXp°sf {]Xybw hngp-ßn-°-f-™p. CXv                                                           - -
                                                       AjvSm-[ym-bn-bn¬ 1000x32=32000 A£-cßfp-≠v.


                                               50
              aq∂mw kap-√mkw                                                    kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
]Tn-®mepw ssIh-cp-∂-X-√. Fs¥-∂m¬ alm-                     `mhm¿Y-hn-h-c-Wk-lnXw A[ym-]-I-∑m¿ ]Tn-
∑m-cmb al¿jn-am¿ Kuc-h-ta-dnb hnj-b-ß-                    ∏n-°p-Ibpw hnZym¿Yn-Iƒ ]Tn-°p-Ibpw sNø-
sf-t∏mepw A\m-bm-tk\ a\- n-em-°-Ø-°-                      Ww. CXn\v Hcp h¿jw aXn. ]ns∂ ]q¿h-ao-
hÆw Xß- f psS {KŸ- ß - f n¬ shfn- h m- ° n-               amw- k , sshti- j n- I w, \ymbw, tbmKw,
bn´p≠v. AØcw hnj-b-{]-Xn-]m-Z\w £p{Z-_p-                  kmwJyw, thZm¥w F∂o Bdp Z¿i-\-ß-sf,
≤n-Iƒ sI´n-®-a® {KŸ-ß-fn¬ Fßs\ D≠m-                       (im-kv{X-ß-sf) In´m-hp-∂n-S-tØmew Ejn-{]-
Im≥? al¿jnamcpsS Bi-b-{]-Xn-]m-Z\w Ign-                   Wo- X - ß - f mb hymJym- \ - ß tfmSp IqSntbm
bp-∂{X kpK-ahpw Aev]-Imew sIm≠v {Kln-                     AXn-s√-¶n¬ DØ-a-hn-Zzm-∑m-cpsS kc-f-hym--Jym-
°m-hp-∂-Xp-am-bn-cn°pw. £p{Z-_p-≤n-Iƒ cNn-                \-ß-tfmSp IqSntbm ]Tn-°p-Ibpw ]Tn-∏n-°p-
°p∂ IrXn-Iƒ ]Wn-s∏´p ]Tn-®mepw AXy-                       Ibpw sNø-Ww. F∂m¬ thZm-¥-kq-{X-߃
ev]-amb ⁄m\-em`w am{Xw D≠m-I-Ø-°-hn-                      ]Tn-°p-∂-Xn\p apºv Cuim-hm-kyw, tI\w,
[-Øn¬ Ign-bp-∂{X ITn-\am°n cNn-®n-cn-°p-                  ITw, {]iv\w, apWvU-Iw, amWvUq-Iyw, sFX-
∂p. Ah-cpsS {KŸ-߃ A`y-kn-°p-∂-Xv, ae-                    tc-bw, ssXØn-co-bw, Otµm-Kyw, _rl-Zm-c-
a-dn®v Nn√n-°miv Is≠-Sp-°p-∂-Xn\v Xpey-am-                WyIw F∂o ]Øv D]-\n-j-Øp-Iƒ ]Tn-°-
Wv. B¿j-{K-Ÿ-ß-fpsS A[y-b-\-am-I-s´, H‰                   Ww. AXn-\p-tijw Bdv Z¿i-\-ß-fpsS aqe-
apßn\v hne-tb-dnb \nc-h[n apØp-Iƒ hmcn-                   kq-{X-ßsf Ah-bpsS hrØn-tbmSpw `mjy-
s°m≠p hcp-∂-Xp-t]m-se-bm-Wv. hymI-cWw                     tØmSpw IqSn c≠p-sIm-√-Øn-\Iw ]Tn-∏n-°p-
]Tn-®-Xn\p tijw bmkvI-ap\n cNn® \nL-                      Ibpw ]Tn-°p-Ibpw sNø-Ww. ]ns∂ sFX-
≠phpw 48 \ncp-‡hpw A¿Y-tØm-Sp-IqSn Gsg-                   tc-bw, iX]-Yw, kmaw 50, tKm]-Yw, F∂o
´p-amkw sIm≠v ]Tn-°p-Ibpw ]Tn-∏n-°p-Ibpw                  \mep {_m“-W-ß-tfmSp IqSn \mep thZ-ßfpw
sNø-Ww. \mkvXn-I-∑m¿ \n¿an-®n-´p≈ Aa-c-                   kzcw, i_v Z w, A¿Yw, kw_- ‘ w, {Inb
tIm- i mZn 49 {KŸ- ß - f n¬ A\- h [n Imew                 F∂nh klnXw Bdp-sIm√w sIm≠v ]Tn-°-
hy¿Y-am-°-cp-Xv. ]n∂oSv ]nwK-fm-Nm-cy≥ D≠m-               Ww. CXn\p {]am-Ww:˛
°n-bn-´p≈ Otµm-{KŸw ]Tn-®v, sshZn-I-ßfpw                     ÿmWp- c bw `mc- l mcx Inem- ` q- Z - [ oXy
euIn-I-ß-fp-amb Oµ- p-I-fpsS (hr-Ø-ß-fp-                  thZw \ hnPm-\mXnftbmfcvYav. tbmfcvY⁄
sS) \nb-a-ßfpw ]Zy-c-N-\m-co-Xnbpw a‰pw hgn-              CXvkIew `{Z-aiv\ptX \mItaXn ⁄m-\-
t]mse a\- n-em-°-Ww. Otµm-{K-Ÿw, t«mI-                    hn-[qX]m]vam. 51
c-N-\m-co-Xn, {]kvXm-c-߃, F∂nh \mep-am-                     Fs∂mcp a{¥w \ncp-‡-Øn¬ D≠v. thZ-
kw- s Im≠v ]Tn- ° p- I - b pw ]Tn- ∏ n- ° p- I bpw        Øns‚ kzchpw ]mThpw am{Xw ]Tn®v A¿Yw
                --
sNømw. Aev]_p-≤n-I-fpsS cN-\-bmb hrØ-                                          -            -  -
                                                          {Kln-°msX Ign-bp-∂h≥, sNdn-bNn-√Iƒ, Ce-
c-Xv\m-Icw apX-embhbn¬ Imew ]mgm-°-cp-                    Iƒ, ]qhv, Imbv, ]gw F∂n-hsb hln-°p∂
Xv. ]n∂oSv a\p-kvar-Xn, hmevao-In-cm-am-b-Ww,             acw-t]m-sebpw [m\ym-Zn-h-kvXp-°ƒ Npa∂p
alm-`m-c-X-Ønse DtZym-K-]¿h-Øn-ep≈ hnZp-                  sIm≠p t]mIp∂ P¥p-hn-s\-t∏m-sebpw "`mc-
c-\oXn apX-em-b, Zpcm-Nm-c-ßsf Zqco-I-cn-°p∂              hmln " AYhm `mcw hln-°p-∂-h≥ am{X-am-
kwkvIm-c-k-ºm-Z-I-ß-fmb DØ-a-`m-K-߃                      Wv . bYm- h n[n thZw ]Tn®v bYm- X - Y - a mb
Imhyw ]Tn-∏n-°p∂ coXn-bn¬ ]Z-t—-Zw, A¿Yw,                 A¿Yw {Kln-bv°p-∂-h≥ Pohn-X-Øn¬ Xs∂
A\z- b w, hnti- j - W - h n- t i- j y߃ F∂nh              ]cn-]q¿W-amb B\µw A\p-`-hn®v , ac-Wm-\-
48 \ncp‡w 7˛13 ¬ c≠p-X-hW kam-avt\ F∂                     ¥cw Xs‚ ⁄m\w sIm≠v ]m]-ß-sf√mw
   DØ-a-]p-cp-j-{Inb ImWp-∂-Xn¬ \n∂v                      £bn-∏n®v , [¿am-\p-jvTm-\-Øns‚ al-Øz-
   \nL-≠phpw bmkvI-Ir-Xn-sb∂p sXfn-bp-∂p,                 Øm¬ ]c-am-\-µsØ {]m]n-°p-∂-Xp-am-Wv.
                   -
49 thZm¿Y-t_m-[ap-≠m-Ip-hm≥ Ch-sbm∂pw {]tbm-P\
   {]Z-a-√m-bvI-bm-epw, \ncp-‡w, \nL≠p F∂n-h-bpsS            DX Xzx ]iy∂ ZZcvi hmN-ap-X- Xzx -ir-
   A[y-b\w sshZn-I˛eu-InI i_vZm¿Y-t_m[w
                       --                                 Wz∂ irtWm-tXy-\m-av. DtXm Xzkvssa X\zw
   \¬Ip-∂-Xn-\mepw al¿jn Aa-c-tImiw kn≤m¥
   IuapZn BZn-bm-b-h-bpsS A[y-b-\sØ X≈n-∏-d-bp-                       - -      -
                                                          50 kma-{_m-“W߃ Fs´-Æap-≠v.
   ∂-Xm-W.v                                               51 \ncp‡w 1.1.8.


                                                     51
     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                                 A[y-b\ A[ym-]\ k{º-Zmbw
hnkkvt{X Pmtb-h- ]Xy DiXo kphm-kmx.                           ]ncn-hp-I-fp-≠v. cmPy-X-{¥-Øn¬ H∂m-a-Xmbn
(E-.10.71.4) ]Tn-∏n-√m-Ø-h¿ tIƒ°p-∂p-s≠-                      ssk\y-\n-b-{¥-Ww, ikv{Xm-kv{X-hn-Zy, \m\m-
¶nepw tIƒ°p-∂n√ ; ImWp-∂p-s≠-¶nepw                            {]-Im-c-Øn-ep≈ hyql-\n¿amWw F∂nh A`y-
ImWp-∂n√.- kw-km-cn-°p∂ps≠¶nepw kwkm-                         kn-°-Ww. hyql-\n¿am-W-amWv C°m-esØ
cn-°p-∂n-√,- hn-Zym-`ym-kw sNøm-Ø-h¿ Cu                       Ihm-Øv. AXv i{Xp-°-tfmSv bp≤w sNøp-
hm°p-I-fpsS A¿Yhpw Cu hnZy-bpsS cl-                           tºmƒ {]tbm-Kn-°p-hm-\mbn \∂mbn A`y-kn-
kyhpw Adn-bp-hm≥ i‡-cm-Ip-∂n√ F∂¿Yw.                                             - -
                                                              °-Ww. {]Pm-kw-c£Ww. A`n-hr-≤n-s∏-Sp-ج
i_v Z m- ¿ Ykw_- ‘ - a - d n- b p∂ Hcp- h - \ m- I s´,        \ymb-]q¿hw \m´msc A\p-c-RvPn-∏n-°p∂ \b-
tamSn-bmbn BSbpw, `wKn-bn¬ B`-c-W-ß-fp-                       X-{¥w, ZpjvS∑msc bYm-tbmKyw Aa¿Ø¬
a-Wn-™v, ]Xn-bm¬ Iman-X-bmbn Xs‚ ico-c-                       injvS-]-cn-]m-e-\-{I-aw, F∂n-h-sb√mw ]Tn-°-
tØbpw kuµ-cy-tØbpw ]Xn-bpsS apºn¬                             Ww. Cu cmjv{S-X-{¥sØ Cu c≠v sIm√w-
{]Im-in-∏n-°p∂ ]Xv\n-tb-t∏mse, hnZy Xs‚                       sIm≠v ]Tn-°-Ww. ]n∂oSv Km\-hnZy F∂p
kzcq-]sØ hnZzm≥am¿°v kzb-tah {]Im-in-                         ]d-bp∂ Km‘¿h thZ-Ønse kzcw, cmKw,
∏n- ° p∂p; ]Tn∏n- √ m- Ø - h ¿°v {]Z¿in- ∏ n--                cmKn-Wn, Imew, Xmfw, {Kmaw, Xm\w, hmZn-
°pIbn√.                                                       {Xw, \rØw, KoXw F∂nh bYm-hn[n ]Tn-°-
    EtNm A£tc ]cta thyma≥ b-kvan≥                             Ww. Ah-bn¬ {][m-\-ambn kma-th-Z-Øns‚
tZhm A[n hntiz \ntj-Zpx. bkvX∂ thZ                            Km\-coXn hmZn-{X-hm-Z-\-tØm-Sp-IqSn A`y-kn-
InarNm Icn-jyXn b CØ-Zzn-Zp-kX- Cta kam-
                                     v                        °-Ww. \mc-Z-kw-lnX apX-emb Ejn- {]-Wo-X-
k-tX. (E.1.1.64.39) Fßpw \nd-™n-cn-°p∂,                       ß-fmb kwKo-X-im-kv{X-{K-Ÿ-ßfpw ]Tn-°-
F√m-h-tc-°m-fp-ap-∂-X-\mb Cuiz-c-\nemWv                       Ww. F∂m¬ hnZq-j-I-∑m¿ thiymw-K-\-am¿,
kIe hnZz-÷-\-ßfpw kqcym-Zn-I-fmb kIe                          sshcm-Kn-Iƒ F∂n-h-cpsS hnj-bm-k‡n P\-
temI-ßfpw {]XnjvTnX-am-bn-cn-°p-∂-Xv. thZ-                    I-amb ]Sp-]m-´p-Iƒ ]Tn®v IgpX Ic-bp-∂-Xp-
ß-fpsS apJy-amb s]mcpƒ apgph\pw B PK-                         t]mse i_vZn®p ioen-°-cp-Xv. inev]-hnZy
Zo-iz-c-\n-emWv ]cy-h-km-\n-°p-∂-Xv. Aß-s\-                   F∂p ]d-bm-dp≈ A¿Y-th-Z-amWv XpS¿∂v
bp≈ B ]c-{_-“sØ Adn-bm-Ø-h≥ EtKz-                                             -
                                                              A`y-kn-t°-≠Xv. AXn¬ ]Zm¿Y-ßfpsS KpW--
Zm-Zn-Ifm¬ sX√p kuJy-sa-¶nepw t\Sp-hm≥                        hn-⁄m\w {Inbm-Iu-iew \m\m-hn[ hkvXp-
i‡t\m? Hcn- ° epw A√. thZm- [ y- b \w                         °- f psS \n¿amWw F∂p XpSßn ]rYnhn
sNbvXv, [m¿am-flm-hpw,-tbm-Kn-bp-ambn. A∆-Æ-                   apX¬ BImiw hsc-bp-f-f hnZy-I-f-`y-kn-°-
sa-√m-ap≈ {_“sØ Bcm-™dn-bp-∂hsc√mw -        - -               Ww. sFiz-cy-k-ºØp h¿≤n-∏n-°p∂ Cu
Cuiz-c-\n¬ ÿnXn sNbvXv tam£-am-Ip∂ ]c-                        hnZy°p tijw tPymXnximkv{X-amb kqcy-
am-\-µsØ {]m]n-°p-∂p. AXn-\m¬ ]Tn-°p-                         kn-≤m-¥-Ønse _oP-K-Wn-Xw, A¶-K-Wn-Xw,
Ibpw ]Tn-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂Xv apgp-h\pw                        `qtKm-f-im-kv{Xw, BIm-i-hn-Zy, `qK¿`-hnZy
A¿Y-⁄m-\tØmSp IqSn Bbn-cn-°Ww.                                F∂nh c≠p-sIm√w sIm≠p ]Tn-°-Ww. AXp
    Cßns\ F√m thZ- ß fpw A[y- b \w                            Ign-™m¬ F√m hn[-Øn-ep≈ ssIsØm-gn-
sNbvX-tijw Bbp¿th-Zw,-N-c-Iw, -kp-{ip-Xw,-                    ep- I ƒ b{¥- h nZy apX- e m- b Xp ]Tn- ° mw.
ap- X - e mb Ejn {]- W o- X - ß - f mb sshZy-                 F∂m¬ {Klw, \£- { Xw, PmX- I w, cmin,
imkv{X{K-Ÿßƒ A¿Y-klnXw tOZ\w ˛t`-
              -                  -                            aplq¿Øw apX-em-b-h-bpsS ^e-߃ ]d-bp∂
Z-\w˛ ikv{X-{In-bIƒ, \nZm\w, Huj[w {Zhy-
                  -                                           {KŸ- ß - s f√mw hymP- ß - f m- I - b m¬ Ah-
KpWw, ]Yym-]-Yy-߃, ico-cw, tZiw, Im-                         sbm∂pw ]Tn-°-cp-Xv. Cßs\ Ccp-]tXm Ccp-
ew, hkvXp-°ƒ F∂n-h-sb√mw a\- n-em-°n-                         ]-Øn-sbm-t∂m 52 sIm√w-sIm≠v kIe hnZy-
s°m≠v \mep sIm√-Øn\p-≈n¬ ]Tn-°p-                              52 ChnsS h¿j-K-W-\-bn¬ A]m-IX kw`-hn-®-Xmbn
Ibpw ]Tn-∏n-°p-I-bbpw sNtø-≠-Xm-Wv. A\-                          ]e hnZzm-∑mcpw KWn-°p-∂p. al¿jn-bpsS as‰mcp
                                                                 IrXn-bmb kwkvIm-c-hn-[n-bn¬ A[y-b-\-Imew 31
¥cw A`y- k nt°≠Xv cmPy- k w- _ - ‘ - a mb                                                                -   - -
                                                                 h¿j-am-sW∂v Fgp-Xn-bn-´p-≠v. (th-Zm-cw-`{]-IcWw,
[\p¿th-Z-am-Ip-∂p. CXn\v \nP-cmP ]pcp-j-                         Ah-km\ JWvUn-I) AhnsS Ime-K-W\ C{]-Im-c-
kw-_-‘n, {]Pm-kw-_‘n F∂n-ßs\ c≠p                                 am-Wv. hymI-cWw 3 h¿jw \ncp-‡hpw ]nMvK-f-


                                                         52
              aq∂mw kap-√mkw                                                     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
Ifpw A`y-kn®v DØa hnZym-`ymkw t\Sn IrX-                 ]cXx{]amWß-fm-Wv. Ah-bpsS {]mamWyw
Ir-Xy-cmbn kZm B\-µ-Øn¬ h¿Øn-°-Ww.                      thZ-hm-Wn°v A[o-\-am-Ip-∂p. thZ-Øns‚
Cu coXn-bn¬ Ccp-]tXm Ccp-]-sØmt∂m                       hnti-j-hym-Jym\w EtKz-ZmZn `mjy-`q-an-I 53
h¿jw sIm≠v e`n-°p∂ ⁄m\w as‰mcp                          t\m°n Adn™p sImt≈-≠-Xm-Wv. Cu {KŸ-
coXn-bn-em-bm¬ \q‰m≠p sIm≠pw e`n-°n√.                   Ønepw A\y{X bYm-bp‡w {]kvXpX hnj-
al¿jn-am¿ henb hnZzm-∑m-cpw, kI-e-im-kv{X-              b-sØ-∏‰n {]Xn-]m-Zn-°p-∂-Xm-Wv.
hn-im-c-Z∑mcpw [¿am-flm-°-fp-am-bn-cp-∂-Xp-sIm-              C\n ]cn- X y- P n- ° - s∏- t S≠ {KŸ- ß- t f- h -
≠mWv Ah-cpsS {KŸ-ßsf A[y-b\w sNø-                       sb∂p t\m°mw. Xmsg t]¿ ]d-bp∂ {KŸ-
W-sa∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xv. a‰p-≈-h¿ A[nIw ]Tn-                  ß-sf√mw Ak-Xy-{K-Ÿ-ß-fm-Ip-∂p. 1. hymI-c-
                -
°mØ Aev]⁄cpw ]£-]m-Xn-Ifp-am-Ibm¬ -     -               W-Øn¬ ImX-{¥x, kmc-kzXw, N{µnI apKv≤-
Ah-cpsS IrXn-Ifpw A{]-Im-c-am-bn-cn-°mt\                t_m-[w, IuapZn, at\m-c-a, tiJcw apX-em-b-
CS-bp-f-fq.                                             h. 2. tImi-Øn¬ Aa-c-tImiw apX-em-b-h.
    ]q¿h- a o- a mw- k °v hymk- a p\n cNn®              3. Oµx-im-kv{X-Øn¬ hrØ-c-Xv\m-Icw XpS-
hymJym-\w, sshti-jnI kq{X-߃°v KuX-                     ßn-b-h. 4. in£- b n¬ AY- i n£mw {]h-
a-ap\n \n¿an® `mjyw, \ymb-kq-{X-߃°v                    £yman ]mWn-\obw aXw -bYm F∂p XpS-
hm’ym-b-\-ap\n D≠m-°nb `mjyw, ]X-                       ßp-∂-Xv. 5. tPymXn-j-Øn¬ io{L-t_m-[w,
RvPen al¿jn-bpsS tbmK-kq-{X-߃°v hym-                   aplq¿Ø-Nn-¥m-aWn apX-em-b-h. 6. Imhy-
k-a-lm-ap-\n-bpsS `mjyw, I]n-e-ap-\o-Ir-X-              Øn¬ \mbn-Im-t`-Zw, Iph-e-bm-\-µw, cLp-hw-
amb kmwJy-kq-{X-߃°v `mKp-cn-ap\n cNn®                  iw, amLw, Incm-Xm¿Pp-\obw apX-em-b. 7.
`mjyw, hymk- a p- \ n- b psS thZm- ¥ - k q- { X-        aoamw-k-bn¬ [¿a-kn-‘p, {hXm¿°w apX-em-
߃°v hm’ym-b-\-ap-\ntbm _u[m-b-\ap-                     bh 8. sshti-jn-I-Øn¬ X¿°-kw-{Klw XpS-
\n-tbm cNn® `mjyw, F∂o B¿j-{K-Ÿ-ß-                      ßn-b-h. 9. \ymb-Øn¬ PmK-Zoio apX-em-bh
sf√mw \∂mbn ]Tn-°p-Ibpw ]Tn-∏n-°p-Ibpw                  10 tbmK-Øn¬ lT{]-Zo-]nI apX-em-bh 11.
sNø-Ww. CXym-Zn-Isf Iev]mw-K-ß-fmbn KWn-                kmwJy-Øn¬ kmwJy-X-Øz-Iu-apZn apX-em-
°mw. EIv, bPp-kv, kmaw, AY¿hw F∂o                                         -
                                                        b-h. 12. thZm-¥Øn¬ tbmK-hm-kn-jvTw, ]©-
\mep thZ-߃ Cu-iz-c-Ir-X-ß-fmWv. AXp-                   Zin apX- e m- b - h. 13. sshZy- i m- k v { X- Ø n¬
                           -
t]mse sFX-tc-bw, iX-]Yw, kmaw, tKm]Yw                   im¿MvK-[-c-kw-lnX apX-em-b-h. 14. kvarXn-
F∂o \mev {_m“-W-ßfpw in£, Iev]w,                        bn¬ a\p-kvar-Xn-bn-ep-≈ {]£n]vX t«mI-
hymI- c - W w, \nL- ≠ p˛\ncp- ‡ w, Oµ- k v ,            ßfpw as‰√m kvarXn-I-fpw. 15. kIe X{¥-
tPymXn-jw F∂o Bdv thZmw-K-ßfpw aoamw-                   {K-Ÿ-߃, kIe ]pcm-W-߃, F√m D]-]p-
kmZn Z¿i-\-ßfm-Ip∂ Bdv imkv{X D]mw-K-                   cm-W-߃ Xpfko-Zmkcmam-bWw cp‹n-Wo-
ßfpw Bbp¿th-Zw, [\p¿th-Zw, Km‘¿h-                       aw-Kfw apX-emb `mjm-{K-Ÿ-߃ F∂n-h-
th-Zw, A¿Y-thZw F∂o \mep D]-th-Z-ßfpw                   sb√mw kzI-t]meIev]n-X-ß-fm-I-bm¬ sI´p-
Ejn-am-cmepw ap\n-am-cmepw D≠m-°-s∏´ {KŸ-                    - -
                                                        I-YIfm-Ip-∂p.
ß-fm-Ip-∂p. Ch-bn¬ thZ-hn-cp-≤-am-bn-´p-≈-                  tNmZyw˛ Cu ]d™ {KŸ-ß-fn¬ Ipd-®p-
sX√mw X≈n-°-f-b-Ww. thZ-߃ Cuiz-c-Ir-                   t]mepw kXy-ant√?
X-am-I-bm¬ sX‰n-√m-Ø-hbpw kzXx-{]-am-W-ß-
fp- a mWv . thZ- ß ƒ°v kzbw {]mamWyw                        DØ- c w˛ kzev ] w kXy- a p- ≠ v . ]t£ H∏w
Ds≠∂¿Yw.- {_m- “ - W mZn {KŸ- ß - s f√mw                A[nIw Ak- X yhpw D≠v . AXn- \ m¬ Ah-
                                                        sb√mw ""hnj- k w- ] r- ‡ m- ∂ hXv XymPymx''
   O-µkpw (8+4) 1 h¿jw, kmlnXyw 1 h¿jw ,                hnjw Ie¿∂ `£Ww t]mse XymPy- ß -
   Bdp Z¿i\w 2 h¿jw, \mep {_m“-W-߃
   klnXw thZw 6 h¿jw, Bbp¿thZw 4 h¿jw
                                                        fm- W v .
   cmjv{S-X{¥w (2+2) 4 h¿jw Km‘¿h-thZw4h¿jw
   A¿Y-thZw 4 h¿jw, tPymXnjw 2 h¿jw BsI                 53 ae-bm-f-Øn¬ thZ-]-cy-S\w F∂ t]cn¬ Cu
   31 h¿jw. CXv kºq¿W hnZym-`ym-k-Øn-\m-h-iy-              {KŸw X¿Pa sNbvXn-´p-≠v.
   amb ImeamWv. \n¿_-‘nX hnZym-`ymk Ime-a-√.                        -         -   -
                                                           (ssh-Zn-Ikm-ln-Xy-]cn-jØv, sNß-∂q¿).


                                                   53
     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                                A[y-b\ A[ym-]\ k{º-Zmbw
   tNm˛ Xm¶ƒ ]pcm- t W- X n- l m- k - ß sf                    hn[n°pw ]Sn Rm≥ {]h¿Øn-°p-∂p 56. thZw
AwKo-I-cn-°p-∂nt√?                                                                   -
                                                              F\n°v kzoIm-cy-am-Ibm¬ thZw Xs∂-bmWv
   D˛ D≠v . kXy- a m- b - X ns\ am{Xw. Ak-                    Fs‚ aXw. Cßs\ a\p-jy-sc√mw hninjy
XysØ AwKo-I-cn-°p-∂n-√.                                                -    -          -
                                                              t{ijvTam-\h¿ AwKo-Icn®p h¿Øn-t°-≠Xm-W.v     -
   tNm˛ GXmWv kXyw? GXmWv anYy?                                   tNm˛ kXym-k-Xy-ßfpw {KŸ-ß-fpsS ]c-
   D˛ {_m“-Wm-\o-Xn-lm-km≥ ]pcm-Wm\n                               - -                            -
                                                              kv]chn-tcm-[hpw a‰pw imkv{X-ßfnepw D≠v.
Iev]m≥ KmYm \mcm-iw-ko-cn-Xn 54. CXv Krly-                    DZm- l - c - W - Ø n\v krjvSn- h n- j - b - Ø n¬
kq- { X- Ø n- e p- ≈ - X m- W v . ""apºp ]d- ™ n- ´ p≈        jUvZ¿i-\-߃°p XΩn-ep≈ A`n-{]m-b-`n-
sFX- t c- b w, iX- ] Yw apX- e mb {_m“- W -                                              -
                                                              ∂X FSpØp ]d-bm-hp-∂Xm-Wv. krjvSn-bpsS
߃°v CXn-lm-kw, ]pcm-Ww, Iev]w, KmY                           D¤hw I¿a-Øn¬ \n∂m-sW∂v aoamw-kbpw
\mcm- i wko F∂nßs\ A©p t]cp- I -                              Ime-Øn¬ \n∂m-sW∂v sshti-jn-Ihpw, ]c-     -
                                                              am-Wp-°-fn¬ \n∂m-sW∂v \ymb-hpw. ]pcp-
fps≠''∂mWv CXns‚ A¿Yw. 55 {ioa-Zv`m-K-                        jm¿Y-Øn¬ \n∂m-sW∂v tbmK-hpw. {]Ir-
hXw XpS-ßn-bp-ff {KŸ-߃°v ]pcm-W-sa∂p                         Xn-bn¬ \n∂m-sW∂v kmwJy-hpw, {_“-Øn¬
t]¿ C√.                                                       \n∂m- s W∂v thZm- ¥ hpw ]d- b p- ∂ p. CXv
                        -
   tNm˛ Xt≈-≠Xmbn ]d™ {KŸ-ßfnse                 -             hntcm-[-at√?
kXyw kzoIm-cy-at√? F¥p-sIm≠v AXv,                                 D˛ H∂m-aXv, kmwJyw, thZm-¥w, F∂o c≠p
kzo-I-cn-°p-∂n√?                                              Z¿i-\-ß-fn-sem-gnsI a‰p \mep Z¿i-\-ß-fnepw
   D˛ Ah-bn¬ ImWp∂ kXy-sa√mw imkv{X-                          krjvSn-bpsS Dev]Øn hni-Z-ambn Fgp-Xn-bn-
ß-fn-ep-≈-Xm-Wv. Ah-bn-ep≈ Ak-Xy-am-I-s´,                     ´n-√. Fgp-Xn-bn-´p-≈-Xn¬ hntcm[w C√-Xm-\pw.
Ah-bpsS kz¥-hpw. thZmZn kXyim-kv{X-                           hntcm[w Ahn- t cm[w F∂n- h - s b- ∏ ‰n
ßsf ssIs°m-≈p-∂-Xm-bm¬ kXyw apgp-                             Xm¶ƒ°v ⁄m\- a n- √ . Rm≥ tNmZn- ° - s ´,
h\pw {Kln-°mw. anYym {KŸ-ßfn¬ \n∂p                            hntcm[w Fhn-sS-bm-Wp-≈Xv? Htc hnj-b-Øn-
kXyw {Kln-°p-hm≥ B{K-ln-°p∂ Bfn\v                             tem, AtXm hn`n∂ hnj-b-ß-fntem?
Ah-bnse Ak-Xyhpw IqSn kzoI-cnt® ]‰q.                              tNm˛ Hcp hnj-b-sØ-∏‰n ]e-cp-sSbpw
AXn-\m¬ ""Ak-Xy-an{iw kXyw Zqc-X-kvXym-                       hn`n-∂m-`n-{]mbØns\-bmWv hntcm[w F∂p-
Py-anXn'' AkXyw Ie¿∂ {KŸ-ßfnse kXy-       -                   ]-d-bp-∂-Xv. ChnsS "krjvSn' Hcp hnj-b-am-
hpw, hnjw Ie¿∂ `£Ww t]mse ]cn-Xym-                            Wv.
Py-am-Wv.
                                                                  D:˛ hnZy F∂Xv Ht∂m At\- I tam?
   tNm˛ Xm¶-fpsS aXw GXmWv?                                   H∂mWv: H∂m-sW-¶n¬ hymI-cWw, sshZyw,
   D˛ thZ-amWv Fs‚ aX-w. A\pjvTn°-Wsa-               -        tPymXnjw XpS-ßnb `n∂-hn-j-b-߃ F¥n-
t∂m, A\p-jvTn-°m-Xn-cn-°-cp-sXt∂m thZw                        \mWv? Htc hnZy-bn¬ hn`n-∂-ß-fmb At\Iw
54 Bizemb\ Krlykq{Xw 3.3.1 se ]mTw                            hnZy-I-fpsS Ah-b-h-߃ Iq´n-t®¿Øv {]Xn-
   {_m“-Wm\n Iev]m≥ KmYm                                      ]m-Zn-°p-∂Xv Fß-s\-bmtWm AXp-t]mse
                      -
   \mcm-iw-ko-cn-Xlmk ]pcm-Wm-\oXn F∂m-Wv.                    krjvSn-bpsS hn`n-∂-ß-fmb Bdv Ah-b-h-
   ssXØcob BcWyIw. 2.9 ¬ ChnsS D≤-cn®
   ]mTw ImWmw.                                                ßsf Bdv Z¿i-\-ß-fn¬ {]Xn-]m-Zn-®n-cn-°p-
55 kmb-W≥, ssXØncob BcWyIw 2.9 s‚                             ∂p. AXn¬ H´pw hntcm-[-an-√. Hcp IpSw D≠m-
               -                    -
   hymJym-\Øn¬ CXn-lmk ]pcm-W߃ F∂-Xn\v
              - - - -
   {_m“-WhN\߃ (C-Xn-lmkw, alm-`m-cXmZn   -                   56 hnln-X-am-bXp sNøp-I, Ahn-ln-X-am-bXv
   ]pcm-Ww, {_m“-W-߃) F∂p ]d-bp-∂p.                             XyPn-°pI F∂¿Yw. {]Xn-tj-[n-°m-Ø-Xns\
   A∆Æw Xs∂ ssXØncob BcWyIw 8.2 epw                              AYhm A\p-jvTn-°-W-sa∂v khn-ti-j-ambn \n¿t±-
   (]q\m FUn-j≥ t]Pv 563)                                                 -                      -
                                                                 in-°m-ØXns\ A\p-jvTn-°m-hp-∂Xm-Wv, aoamwkm
   _rl-Zm-c-Wy-tIm-]-\n-jØv 2.4.10 s‚ hymJym-\-                  Z¿i-\-Øn¬ ssPan\n ]d-bp-∂p. hntcms[ Xz\-
                   -       -
   Øn¬ {ioi-¶c≥ ]pcm-Wsa-∂Xn\v -                                 t]£yw kymZ-kXn ly\p-am\av (1.32) (th-Zhpw
            -            -
   {_m“-W{K-Ÿm-¥¿K-Xamb hninjvS                                  {_m“-Whpw ]c-kv]cw hncp-≤-ambn ]d-™m¬
   hN-\-ß-sf∂p \n¿tZ-in-°p-∂p.                                   thZ-am-W,v {_m“-W-a-√ {]am-Ww).


                                                         54
              aq∂mw kap-√mkw                                                          kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
°p- ∂ - X n¬ I¿aw, Imew, aÆv , hnNm- c w,                                  -
                                                          dn, ap°p-dn, `kva°pdn F∂nh [cn-°p-I, s]m´p-
kwtbm-Kw, hntbmKw XpS-ßnb ]pcp-jm¿Y-                      sXm-Sp-I, cp{Zm-£-ame [cn-°p-I, Xpf-kn-ame
߃ ({]-b-Xv\-߃). {]Ir-Xn-bpsS KpW-߃,                    [cn-°p-I, GIm-Zin t\m°p-I, {]tZm-j-{h-X-
Ipi-h≥F∂nhsb√mw Imc-W-ß-fm-Wv. AXp-                       am-N-cn-°p-I, Imin apX-emb ÿe-ß-fn-te°v
t]mse krjvSn-bpsS Imc-W-amb I¿a-Øns‚                      Xo¿Y-bm{X sNøp-I, cma≥, IrjvW≥, \mcm-
hymJym\w aoamw- k - b nepw Ime- Ø ns‚                                             -
                                                          b-W≥, inh≥, `K-hXn, KW-]Xn apX-emb \ma-
hymJym\w sshti-jn-I-Ønepw 57. D]m-Zm-\-                   kva-cWw F∂n-h-bm¬ ]m]-a-I∂p t]mIp-
Im-c-W-Øns‚ hymJym\w \ymb-Ønepw, ]pcp-                    sa∂p hniz-kn-°p-I, I]-S-k-\ym-kn-am-cpsS D]-
jm¿Y-Øns‚ hymJym\w tbmK-Øn-epw, XXz-                      tZiw tI´v hnZym-`ym-k-Øn¬ A{i-≤, hnZym-
ß- f psS A\p- { I- a - a mb ]cn- K - W - \ - b psS        [y- b - \ w, [¿am- \ p- j v T m- \ w, tbmKm- ` y- k - \ w,
hymJym\w kmwJy-Ønepw \nan-Ø-Im-c-W-am-                    Cuiz-tcm-]m-k\ F∂n-h-sb√mw shSn™v
bn-cn-°p∂ {_“-Øns‚ hymJym\w thZm-¥-                       ]pcm-W-sa∂p ]d-bp∂ `mK-hXw XpS-ßn-b-h-
Ønepw hnkvX-cn®p sNbvXn-cn-°p-∂p. Ch-                     bnse sI´p-IY tI´m¬ tam£w In´p-sa∂p
sbm∂pw ]c-kv]c hncp-≤-a-√. sshZyimkv{X-                   hniz-kn-°p-I, AXym-{K-lw, aqew [\-Øn¬
Øn¬ \nZm\w NnIn-’, Huj-[-{]-tbm-Kw,                       am{Xw {i≤n®v hnZysb shdp-°p-I, Aßp-anßpw
]Yyw apX-emb hn`n∂ {]I-c-W-ß-fp-≠v. Ah-                   shdpsX Ae-™p-Xn-cn-bpI Cßs\ ]e A\m-
bp- s S- s b√mw ]c- a - e £yw tcmK- \ n- h m- c Ww                  -               -
                                                          h-iy-ßfn¬ s]Sp-∂h¿ {_“-Ncyhpw hnZybpw  -
am{X-amWv AXp-t]mse krjvSn-bpsS Bdv Imc-                  kºm-Zn-°msX tcmKn-Ifpw aqV-∑m-cp-am-bn-Øo-
W-ß-fn¬ Hmtcm∂pw Hmtcm imkv{X-Im-c-∑m¿                    cp-∂p. PmXn-ap-d-b-\p-k-cn®v ZznP-cmb C°m-
hymJym-\n-®n-cn-°p-∂p. AXn-\m¬ AXn-sem´pw                 esØ {_m“-W¿ a‰p-≈-hsc hnZy, k’wKw
hntcm-[-an-√. CXns‚ hnkvXrX hymJym\w                      F∂n-h-bn¬ \n∂v AI‰n Xß-fpsS he-bn¬
krjvSn-{]-I-c-W-Øn¬ sNømw. A[yb-\m-[ym-                   IpSp°n Ah-cpsS ico-cw, a\-kv, [\w F∂n-
]-\-ß-fnse hnLv\-ß-sf-sb√mw XyPn-°-Ww.                    hsb \in-∏n-°p-Ibpw£{Xn-bmZn PmXn-°m¿
ZpjvS kwk¿Kw, I≈p-Ip-Sn, thiym-K-a\w,                     ]Tn®v hnZzm-∑m-cm-bm¬ Ah¿ Xß-fpsS IpSp-
_mey-hn-hm-lw, (C-cp-]-Øn-b©p hb- n\p                     °n¬ \n∂v c£-s∏´v Xß-fpsS I≈-Ø-c-sa-
apºv ]pcp-j-\pw, ]Xn-\mdp hb- n\p apºv                    √m-a-dn™v A]-am-\n-t®-°p-sa∂p hnNm-cn-°p-
kv{Xobpw hnhmlw sNøp-∂-Xv) ]q¿W-amb                       Ibpw sNøp-∂p. Cßs\-bp≈ hnLv\-ßsf
{_“-Ncyw ]men-°m-Xn-cn-°p-I, thZw XpS-                    `c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-Ifpw P\-ßfpw tN¿∂v Hgn-hm°n
ßnb kXy-im-kv{X-ßsf {]N-cn-∏n-°p-∂-Xn¬                    Xß-fpsS a°sf ]Tn-∏p-≈-h-cm-°p-hm≥ ico-
`c-Wm-[n-]≥, amXm-]n-Xm-°-∑m¿, hnZzm-∑m¿                  cw, a\-kv, [\w F∂n-h-bm¬ {]h¿Øn-°-Ww.
                                 -
F∂n-h¿°v sshap-Jyw, AXn-`m-jWw, A[nIw                         tNm˛ kv{XoIfpw iq{Z-∑mcpw thZw ]Tn-
Dd-°-sam-gn-°p-I, ]Tn-°p-∂-Xn-epw, ]co-£n-°-              °tWm? Ah¿ ]Tn-®m¬ ]ns∂ \mw F¥p
s∏-Sp-∂-Xnepw aSntbm Ifthm ImWn-°p-I,                     sNøpw? Ah¿ ]Tn-°Wsa∂-Xn\v {]amWw
hnZym-em-`sØ k¿thm-]-cn-bmbn Icp-Xm-Xn-cn-                Cs√-∂p am{X-a√ \ntj-[-ap≠p Xm\pw:˛
°p-I, {_“-N-cy-Øm¬ _ew, _p≤n, ]cm-{I-                     kv { Xo iq{Zu \m[o- b m- X m- a nXn {iptXx
aw, Btcm-Kyw, cmPyw, [\w F∂nh h¿≤n-°p-                    (kv{Xobpw iq{Z\pw ]Tn-°-cp-sX∂v {ipXnbp
sa∂p hniz-kn-°m-Xn-cn-°p-I, Cuiz-cs\ [ym\n-               ≠p F∂¿Yw) 58
°msX Icn-¶-√n¬ sImØnb AtN-X\ hn{K-                            D˛ kIe kv { Xo]pcpj- ∑ m¿°pw˛a- \ p-
l-ßsf hW-ßp-∂-Xn¬ shdpsX Imew If-                         jy¿s°-√mw-˛-]-Tn-°m≥ Ah-Im-i-ap-≠v. Cu
bp-I, A—-\-Ω-am¿, AXn-Yn, Kpcp, hnZzm-∑m¿                 {ipXn hmIyw \nß-fpsS kz¥w IrXn-bm-Wv.
F∂n-hsc k-Xy-hn-{K-l-ß-fmbn IcpXn Ah-                     {]mam-WnI {KŸ-ß-fn-sem-∂p-ap-≈-X-√. CXp-
cpsS ip{iq-jbpw kwk¿Khpw sNøm-Xn-cn-
°pI, h¿Wm{i-a-[¿a-ßsf XyPn®v tKm]n-°p-                                         -
                                                          58 \kv{Xo iq{Zu thZ-a[o-bm-Xm-av,
                                                                         -
                                                             F∂v aoamw-kbpsS \ymb-{]-Imi SoIm-Im-c≥
             -    -   -
57 tizXm-iz-Xtcm-]\n-jØn¬ (1.2) krjvSn-                                                     -
                                                             cY-Im-cs‚ At\ym-[m-\m-[n-Im-csa∂v
       - - -
   Im-cWßfn-sem-∂mbn Ime-Øns\ KWn-®n-´p-≠v.                       -              -
                                                             {]I-cWm-¥y-Øn-ep-≤cn-®n-´p-≠v.


                                                     55
    kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                        A[y-b\ A[ym-]\ k{º-Zmbw
ambn t]mbn InW-‰n¬ NmSn-s°mƒI. kIe                  Whpw ]T- \ hpw \njn- ≤ - s a- ¶ n¬ Ah¿°v
a\p-jy¿°pw thZmZn imkv{X-߃ ]Tn-°p-                 \m°pw-sN-hnbpw sImSp-Ø-sX-¥n\v? ]rYn-hn,
hm\pw sNm√n-t°ƒ°p-hm\pw A[n-Im-c-ap-s≠-             Pew, A·n, hmbp, N{µ≥, kqcy≥, A∂mZn
∂-Xn\v bPp¿thZw Ccp-]-Øn-bm-dm-a-≤ym-b-             ]Zm¿Y-߃ F∂n-h-sb√mw F√m-h¿°pw D]-
Ønse c≠m-asØ a{¥w {]am-W-amWv:˛                                                         -
                                                    tbm-Kn-°p-hm-\mbn krjvSn-®n-cn-°p-∂Xp-t]mse
   btY-amw hmNw Ieym-Woam-hZm\n Pt\`yx
                               -                    F√m a\p-jy¿°pw th≠n-bmWv thZ-{]-Im-i-
{_“-cm-P-\ym`ym(Mv) iq{Zmb Nmcymb N                 \-hpw. C\n iq{Z≥ A[y-b\w sNø-cp-sX∂p
kzmb Nmc-Wm-b.                                      h√ \ntj-[hpw Fßm\pw Ds≠-¶n¬ Xs∂
   Cuiz-c≥ ]d-bp-∂p˛ (b-Ym) Fßs\ Rm≥                AXns‚ A¿Yw C{]-Im-c-am-Wv. ]Tn-°p-Ibpw
(P-t\-`yx) kI-e-a-\p-jy¿°pw (C-amw) Cu (I-          ]Tn-∏n-°p-I-bpw sNbvXm¬ a\- n-em-°mØ
eym-Wow) awK-f-{]-Z-bmb AYhm kwkm-c-                                                  -
                                                    Ah≥ aµ-_p-≤nbpw aqV-\p-am-bXp-sIm≠v iq{Z-
Øn¬ \n∂v tam£-kpJw \¬Ip∂ (hm-Nw)                    \m-Wv. Ah≥ ]Tn-°p-∂Xpw Ahs\ ]Tn-∏n-
EtKz-ZmZn \mep thZ-hm-Wn-Isf (B hZm-\n)             °p-∂Xpw \njv^-e-am-Wv. AXp-t]m-se-X-s∂,
D]-tZ-in-°p-∂p-thm, Aßs\ \nßfpw sNbvXp-             kv{XoIƒ ]Tn-°-cp-sX∂v hne-°p-∂Xv \nß-
sIm-≠n-cn-∏n≥. ""ChnsS P\-i-_vZ-sa-∂-Xn\v           fpsS aqV-X-bp-sSbpw kzm¿Y-Øn-s‚bpw B[n-
ZznP-∑msc am{X-amWv {K-ln-t°-≠-Xv. Fs¥-                 -                -        -
                                                    Iy-a√msX as‰m-∂p-a√. I\y-Iam¿°v A[y-b\w
∂m¬, kvarXn-I-fnepw a‰p {_m“-W-˛-£-{Xn-b-           hn[n-°p∂ {]amWw t\m°p-I˛
˛-ssh-iy¿°p am{Xta thZm-[y-b-\-Øn¬ A[n-                {_“- N - t cyW I\ym- b p- h m\w hnµtX
Im-c-ap-≈-Xmbn ]d-™n-´p-≈q. kv{XoIƒt°m                                              -
                                                    ]Xnav (A-Y¿ 11.24.3.18) ]pcp-j∑m¿ {_“-Ncyw
iq{Zm-Zn-Iƒt°m A[n-Im-c-ap-s≠∂v ]d-™n-              A\p-jvTn-®v, ]q¿W-hn-Zym-`ym-khpw DØ-aamb
´n√'' F∂p kwibw tXm∂mw. AXn-\p-Ø-c-                 in£-Whpw t\Sn bphXnIfpw hnZp-jn-I-fpw,
ambn ]d-bp-∂-XmWv {_lva-cmP-\ym`ymw F∂p             A\p-Iq-e-I-fpw, A\p-cq-]-I-fpw, {]nb-I-fp-amb
XpS-ßp∂ a{¥-`m-Kw. Cuiz-c≥ Acp-fp-∂Xp               ]Xv\n-amsc kzoI-cn-°p-∂-Xp-t]mse (I-\ym)
t\m°p-I˛ ({_“-cm-P-\ym-`ymw) {_m“-W≥,               I\y-Ibpw ({_-“-N-tcy-W) {_“-Ncyw A\p-
£{Xn- b ≥ F∂n- h ¿°pw (A- c ym- b )                 jvTn-®v, thZm-Zn-im-kv{X-߃ ]Tn-®v, ]q¿W-hn-
sshiy\pw (iq-{Zm-b) iq{Z\pw (kzm-b) Xs‚                          -     -
                                                    Zybpw DØ-ain-£Whpw t\Sn ]q¿W buh\w
`rXy-∑m¿, kv{XoIƒ apX-em-b-h¿°pw (A-c-              {]m]n-°p-tºmƒ X\n°v Xpey\pw {]nb\pw
Wm-b) AXn-iq-{Z-∑m¿°p-am-bn-´mWv thZ-ßsf            hnZzm\pw (bp-hm-\m-av) bphm-hp-amb ]pcp-js\
\mw {]Im-in-∏n-®n-´p-≈Xv. F√m a\p-jycpw thZ-
                       -                            (hn-µ-tX) {]m]n-°s´ F∂¿Yw. AXn-\m¬
߃ ]Tn-∏n-°p-I-bpw, ]Tn-°p-I-bpw, tIƒ°p-            kv{XoIƒ°v {_“-N-cyhpw hnZym-`ym-khpw
I-bpw, tIƒ∏n-°p-Ibpw sNbvXv ⁄m\sØ                   AXy-¥m-t]-£n-X-am-Wv.
h¿≤n-∏n-®v, kXvI¿a߃ sNøp-Ibpw ZpjvIr-                 tNm˛ kv { XoIfpw thZm- [ y- b \w sNø
Xy߃ XyPn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXv, ZpxJ-ß-fn¬                tWm?
\n∂v hnap-‡-cmbn ]c-am-\-µsØ {]m]n-°p-                 D˛ \n›-b-am-bpw. {iuX-kq{Xw XpS-ßnb
am-dm-Is´ F∂¿Yw. C\n ]d-bp-I, \nß-fpsS              {KŸ-ß-fn¬ ""Caw a{¥w ]Xv\o ]tTXv'' 59.
hm°n-s\tbm, Cuiz-c-hm-Wn-tbtbm Rm≥                  bmK- Ø n¬ ]Xv \ n a{¥w sNm√Ww F∂p
hne hbv ° Ww? Cuiz- c o- b - h - N \w Xs∂
kΩm-\yw. F∂n´pw AXns\ am\n-°m-Ø-bmƒ                 59 ]Xv\nw hmN-bXn ta[ym-ta-ssh\mw ItcmXn
\mkvXn-I-\m-Wv. ""\mkvXntIm thZ-\n-µIx''               ]ssXy-{]-Zmb hmN-tb-Zv.... thtZmfkn hnØn-ckn
                                                       (Bizem-b\ {iuXkq{Xw 1. 11) bXv ]Xv\o
thZsØ \nµn-°p-Ibpw AwKo-I-cn-°m-Xn-cn-°p-                              -
                                                       ]ptcmf\p hmIym-a{_q-bmXv (ssXØcob
Ibpw sNøp-∂-h-\mWv \mkvXn-I≥. iq{Z-cpsS                {_m“Ww. 1.6.5.6.) ⁄mtX N hmN\w \ly
\∑ Cuiz-c≥ C—n-°p-∂nt√? thZm-[yb-\hpw                  hnZzm≥ hnlntXmf-kvXn.(ao-amwk 3.8.18)
thZ- { i- h - W hpw ZznP¿°p hn[n- ° p- I bpw           Ch-bn-se√mw a{¥-]mTw hnZp-jn-bmb kv{Xot°
                                                       sNøm≥ Ignbq F∂p hy‡-am-°p-∂p.
iq{Z¿°v hne-°p-Ibpw sNøp-hm≥ X°-hÆw                           -
                                                    60 iX]-Y{_m-“Ww14.6.6.
Cuiz-c≥ ]£-]m-Xn-bmtWm? iq{Z¿°v {ih-                               - -
                                                       Km¿Ko-bm-⁄hevIy-kw-hm-Zw.


                                               56
               aq∂mw kap-√mkw                                                       kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
\n¿t±-in-°p-∂p-≠v. thZm-Zn-im-kv{X-߃ A[y-                            -
                                                             km[y-a√. IW°v ]Tn-®n-s√-¶n¬ hc-hp-sN-ehp
b\w sNbvXn-´n-√mØ Hcp kv{Xo°v bmK-Øn¬                        IW-°p-Iƒ a\- n-em-°p-hm\pw a‰p-≈-h-tcmSp
kzc-k-lnXw a{¥w D®-cn-°m-t\m, kwkvIr-X-                      IW°p ]d-bp-hm\pw Ign-bp-∂-X-√. thZm-Zn-im-
Øn¬ kwkm-cn-°p-hmt\m Fß-s\ Ignbpw?                           kv{X-ß-fpsS ⁄m\-an-s√-¶n¬ Cuiz-c-t\bpw
`mc- X o- b - \ m- c o- k - a q- l - Ø ns‚ `qj- W amb        [¿a- t Øbpw Adn™v A[¿a- Ø n¬ \n∂v
Km¿Knbpw a‰pw thZ-im-kv{X-]-cwKXbmb hnZp-                    AI∂p \n¬°p-hm≥ km[y-a-√, AXn-\m¬
jn-bm-bn-cp-s∂∂v iX-]-Y-{_m-“Ww ]d-bp-                       {_“-N-cyw, DØ-a-in-£, hnZym-`ymkw F∂n-
∂p. 60 ]pcp-j≥ ]Tn-∏p-≈-h-\pw, kv{Xo ]Tn-∏n-                 h- b m¬ kzk- ¥ m- \ - ß - f psS ico- c - Ø n\pw
√m-Ø-h-fp-am-bn-cn-°pI AYhm ]pcp-j≥ ]ma-                     Bflm-hn\pw ]q¿W-_-e-ap-≠m-°n, Ahsc
c≥, kv{Xo hnZp-jnbpw F∂p h∂m¬ hoSp-                          amXm-]n-Xm-°ƒ, `¿Øm-hv, iz{ip-iziqc-∑m¿,
tXmdpw kZm tZhm-kp-c-bp≤w \S-°pw. ]ns∂                       `c- W m- [ n- ] ¿, P\- ß ƒ, Ab¬hm- k n- I ƒ,
Krl-kp-Jw FhnsS? kv{XoIƒ ]Tn-°m-sX-bn-                       kvt\lnX¿, _‘p-°ƒ, k¥m-\-߃ apX-em-
cp-∂m¬ I\ym-]m-T-im-e-bn¬ Ah-sc-ßs\                              -                            -
                                                             b-htcmSv [¿aw, tbmKyX F∂n-hbv°\p-kcn®v-       -
A[ym-]n-I-am-cmIpw? \ymb-m[n-]XnXzw XpS-                     s]cp-am-dm≥ {]m]vX-cm-°p∂ amXm-]n-Xm-°-
ßnb cmPy- I mcyw t]mse Kuc- h - a p≈                         fmWv IrX-Ir-Xycpw [\y-hm-Zm¿l-cpw. sImSp-
Krlÿm-{i-a-Ir-Xy-߃ \n¿h-ln-°p-I, Zº-Xn-                     °pw-tXmdpw Gdp∂ A£-b-\n[n CXp-X-s∂-
am¿ ]c-kv]cw {]oXn-tbm-Sp-IqSn h¿Øn-°p-I,                    bm-Wv. a‰p-ff kº-sØ√mw sNehp sNøpw-
Krl-`-cWw kv{XobpsS A[o-\-Øn¬ Imcy-£-                        tXmdpw Ipd-bpw. Ah-Im-in-Iƒ hoXw hs®-
a-ambn \S-°pI apX-em-bh kv{XoIƒ°v ]Tn-                       Sp°pw. hnZym-[\w am{Xta I≈-∑m¿°v I°m
∏n-√m-Xn-cp-∂m¬ Fßs\ \S°pw?                                  \pw Ah-Im-in-Iƒ°v hoXn-s®-Sp-°m\pw Ign-
    Bcym- h ¿Ø- Ø nse £{Xnb kv { XoIƒ                        bm-Ø-Xm-bp-≈q. AXns‚ c£-Ww, h¿[\w
[\p¿th-Zw-˛-bp-≤-hn-Zy-˛-IqSn \∂mbn Adn-™n-                  F∂nh `c- W m- [ n- ] - s ‚bpw P\- ß - f p- s Sbpw
cp-∂p. As√-¶n¬ ssItI-bnbpw a‰pw Zi-c-Y-                      Xpey-I¿Ø-hy-ßfmWv.
t\mSpw a‰pw tN¿∂v bp≤-`q-an-bn-en-dßn t]mcm-                     I\ym\mw k{º-Zm\w N Ipam-cmWmw N
Sn-b-sX-ßs\? 61 {_m“-W-kv{Xo-Ifpw kIe                        c£Wav (a-\p. 7. 152) _me-∑m-scbpw I\y-I-
hnZy-Ifpw A`y-kn-°-Ww. sshiy-kv{Xo-Iƒ                        am-scbpw ap≥]-d™ ImeØv {_“-N-cym-\p-
s]cp-am‰ coXnbpw iq{Z-kv{Xo-Iƒ sh∏p-]Wn                      jvTm-\-tØmsS ]Tn-∏n-t°-≠Xv `c-Wm-[n-]s‚
apX-em-bhbpw A`y-kn-°Ww. hymI-cWw, [¿a-
          -                          -       -               I¿Ø- h y- a m- W v . Cu B⁄sb A\p- k - c n-
im-kv{Xw, kmaq-ly-\oXn F∂n-h-sb√mw ]pcp-                     °mØ amXm-]n-Xm-°-∑msc in£n-°-Ww. F´p
j-∑m¿ Gsd-°psd A`y-kn-°p∂-Xp-t]mse                           hb p XnI™ B¨Ip-´n-Ifpw s]¨Ip-´n-
kv{XoIfpw hymI-cWw, [¿a-im-kv{Xw, sshZyw,
                         -                                   Ifpw Kpcp-Kr-l-Øn-e-√msX as‰mcp ho´nepw
KWn-Xw, inev]-hnZy F∂n-h-sb√mw \n›-b-                        ]m¿°-cp-Xv. kam-h¿Ø-\-Øn\p apºv hnhmlw
ambpw ]Tn-°Ww. ]Tn-®n-s√-¶n¬ kXym-k-Xy-                      sNøp-I-bp-a-cp-Xv. F∂p cmP-I-ev]\ D≠m-
ßsf Xncn-®dn-bpI `¿Øm-hn-t\mSpw a‰pw A\p-
                -                                            °Ww F∂¿Yw.
Iq-e-ambn s]cp-am-dp-I, k¥m\-߃°p P∑w                            kcvth-jm-tah Zm\m\mw {_“-Zm\w hnin-
\¬In bYm-hn[n hf¿Øn ]Tn-∏n-°p-I, Krl-                        jy-tX. hmcy-∂tKm-a-lo-hm-k-kvXn-e-Im-©-\-
Ir- X y- ß - s f√mw th≠- X p- t ]mse sNøp- I ,               kchv]n-jmav (a-\p. 4.233) Pew, A∂w, ]ip,
sNøn-°pI F∂n-h-sbm∂pw Ah¿°p Ign-bp-                          `qan, hkv{Xw, F≈v, kz¿Ww s\øv XpS-ßn-
∂-X-√. sshZy-⁄m-\-ap-s≠-¶nte Huj-[-Xp-                       bh Zm\w sNøp-∂-Xnepw t{ijvTw thZ-hn-Zym-
ey-amb A∂-]m-\m-Zn-Iƒ D≠m-°p-hm\pw D≠m-                            -
                                                             Zm-\am-Wv. AXn-\m¬ ico-cw, [\w, a\ v F∂n-
°n-°p-hm\pw km[n°q. inev]-hn-Zy-bn¬ Adn-                     h-bm¬ Ign-bp-∂{X ]cn-{i-an®v hnZym-`n-hr-≤n-
hn-s√-¶n¬ hoSp ]Wn-bn-°p-hm-\pw, hkv{X-߃,                   bp-≠m-°-Ww. {_“-N-cyw, hnZym-`ym-kw, thZ-
B`- c - W - ß ƒ F∂nh D≠m- ° n°p- h m\pw                      hn- l n- X - [ ¿aw F∂n- h bv ° pw A¿l- a mb
61 hmevaoIn cmam-bWw,
                  -                                          {]Nmcw kn≤n-°p∂ cmPy-amWv ku`m-Ky-ap≈
   Atbm-[ym-ImWvUw 9.11 & 11.18 &19                          tZiw.

                                                        57
    kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                hnZym-`ymk k{º-Zmbw
  {_“- N - c ym- { i- a - Ø nse in£W{Iaw
kwt£-]-ambn ]d-™p. ASpØ \memw kap-
√m- k - Ø n¬ kam- h ¿Ø- \ w. Krl- ÿ m- { ia
in£Ww F∂n-h-sb-gp-Xmw.
    {ioaZv-bm-\µ kc-kzXn kzman-I-fm¬
    hnc-Nn-X-amb kXym¿Y-{]-Im-i-Øn¬
      in£-W-hn-jbw {]Xn-]m-Zn-°p∂
         aq∂mw kap-√mkw Ign-™p.




                                              58
               \memw kap-√mkw                                               kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw




                                            4
                                      \memw kap-√mkw

   kam-h¿Ø\w, hnhm-lw, Krl-ÿm-{i-a-hn[n
          F∂n-h-sb-∏‰n ]dbmw
        AY kam-h¿Ø\ hnhm-l-Kr-lm-{i-a-hn[nw h£ymax
thZm-\-[oXy thZu hm thZw hm]n bYm-               tijw {_m“- W - ˛ - £ - { Xn- b - ˛ - s sh- i y- ∑ m¿
{Iaw. AhnπpX-{_-“-Ntcym Krl-ÿm-{ia               h¿Wm-\p-Iq-e-ambn kpµ-cnbpw e£-W-bp-‡-
amhn-tiXv. (a-\pkvarXn 3.2) {_“-N-cy-Øn¬         bp-amb I\y-Isb hnhmlw sNø-Ww.
BNm-cys\ A\p-k-cn®p hkn®v [¿am-\p-k-                Ak-]nWvUm N bm amXp-c-ktKm {Xm N
cWw \mtem aqt∂m ct≠m AYhm Hcp                    bm ]nXpx. km {]-ikvXm ZznPm-Xo-\mw Zmc-
thZtam AwK-ß-tfmSpw D]mw-K-ß-tfmSpw IqSn         IcvaWn ssaYpt\ (a-\pkvarXn 3.5)
A[yb\w sNbvX-tijw AJ-WvUnX {_“-                     AΩ-bpsS Ipe-Øn¬ Bdp Xe-ap-d-bmbn
Ncyw ioen® ]pcp-j\pw kv{Xobpw Krl-ÿm-                                  -
                                                 _‘w hbv°m-ØXpw ]nXr-tKm-{X-Øn¬ s]Sm-
{iaw ssIs°m-≈-Ww.                                Ø-Xp-amb I\y-Isb hnhmlw sNøp-∂-Xm-Wp-
   Xw {]XoXw kz[-cvtaW {_“-Zm-b-lcw              Nn-Xw. CXns‚ {]tbm-P\w ]tcm-£{]nbm Ch      -
]nXpx. {kKznWw Xev] Bko-\-acvl-tbXv              ln tZhmx -{]-Xy-£-Zznjx (i-X-]-Yw) 2
{]Y-aw-Khm. (a-\pkvarXn 3.3)
                                                    ]tcm- £ - h - k v X p- h n¬ Df- h m- I p∂ {]nbw
   ANvOs‚-b-Sp-°¬ \nt∂m BNm-cys‚                 {]Xy-£-h-kvXp-hn¬ \n›-b-ambpw D≠m-hp-I-
ASp-°¬ \nt∂m kz[¿aw A\p-k-cn®v {_“-              bn-√. Hcp-h≥ Iev°-≠-Øns‚ KpW-߃ tI´-
Zm-b-sØ-˛-hn-Zy-bm-Ip∂ `mK-sØ˛ kºm-Zn-®-         dn-™nt´ D≈q. Xn∂n-´n√. F¶n¬ Ahs‚
tijw ame- b - W n™v I´n- e n¬ Ccn- ° p∂          a\kv kZm Iev°-≠-Øn¬ Bk-‡-am-bn-cn-
hnZym¿∞nsb Kpcp BZy- a mbn tKmZm\w               °pw. ]tcm-£amb ]Zm¿∞Øns\ ]pI-gv-Øp-
sNbvXv k¬°-cn-°-Ww. I\y-I-bpsS ]nXmhpw           ∂Xp tIƒ°p-tºmƒ AXp In´p-hm≥ Ie-i-
Aßs\ tKmZm\w sIm≠v Abmsf k¬°-                    emb sImXn-bp-≠m-Ipw. AXp-t]mse Zqc-ÿ-
cn-°-Ww.                                         bm-b, kz¥w Ipe-Øn-tem AΩ-bpsS Ipe-
   Kpcp-Wm\paXx kv\mXzm kam-hrtØm                Øntem ASpØ Nm¿®-bn--√mØ I\y-Isb
bYm- h n[n. DZz- t lX ZzntPm `mcymav             Xs∂-bmWv hnhmlw sNtø-≠-Xv. AI-∂Xpw
khcvWmw e£-Wm-\znXmav (a-\pkvarXn 3.4)           ASp-Ø-Xp-amb hnhm-l-ß-fpsS KpW-tZm-j-
   Kpcp-hns‚ B⁄-{]-Imcw Ipfn-®v 1 Kpcp-          ߃ ]d-bmw.
Ip-e-Øn¬ \n∂v hn[n-{]-Imcw aSßn h∂-Xn\p             1. _mey-Imew apX¬ ASp-ØSpØp ]m¿Øv  -

1 Kpcp-Ip-e-Ønse _ncp-Z-[m-cn-bpsS t]cv             2    iX-]Yw 14.6.11.2
  kv\mX-Is\∂mWv.

                                            59
     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                          kam-h¿Ø\w, hnhm-lw, Krl-ÿm-{i-a-hn[n
Hcp-an-®p-I-fn-®v, CW-ßn-bpw ]nW-ßnbpw \S∂v                   Zmcn{Zyw D≠m-Ip-hm\pw CS-bp-≠v.
kz`m-h-Kp-Whpw tZmjhpw Ip´n-°m-esØ N]-                            8. `mcym-`¿Øm-°-∑m-cpsS ]nXr--Kr--l-߃
e-X-Ifpw Adn™v ]c-kv]cw \·cm-bn-t∏mepw                        ASp-Øn-cp-∂m¬ Ahn-sS-\n∂v klmbw e`n-
I≠n-´p-≈-h¿ XΩn¬ hnhmlw sNbvXm¬                               °p-sa∂ lp¶v Ccp-Iq-´¿°pw D≠m-Ip-∂-Xm-Wv.
Ah¿°v ]c-kv]-c-t{]aw Hcn-°epw D≠m-hp-I-                       AXp-\n-anØw `mcym-`¿Øm-°-∑m¿ sNdp-Xmbn
bn-√.                                                         ]nW-ßp-tºm-tg°pw `mcy -Xs‚ ho´n-tebv°p
    2. sh≈-Øn¬ sh≈w tN¿°p-∂-Xp-sIm≠v                          s]mbv°-f-bpw. X∑qew Ccp-Iq-´¿°pw XΩn¬
hne-£-W-Kp-W-sam∂pw D≠m-Ip-∂n√ AXp-                           \nµbpw hntZz-jhpw h¿≤n-°p-Ibpw sNøpw.
t]mse A—-s‚tbm AΩ-bp-sStbm Ipe-Øn¬                                                           -
                                                              Fs¥-∂m¬ an°-hmdpw s]Æp-ßfpsS kz`mhw
\n∂p hnhmlw sNøp-∂-Xp-sIm≠v ico-c-Øn-                         hfsc Xo£vWhpw arZphpw BIp-∂p.
ep≈ [mXp-°ƒ amdna-dn-bm-bvI-bm¬ k¥m-\-                            CXymZn Imc-W-ß-fm¬ ]nXr-tKm-{X-Øn¬
]-c-º-cbv°v D∂Xn e`n-°p-I-bn-√.                                                   - -
                                                              \nt∂m Bdp Xe-ap-dIfn¬ GsX-¶nepw _‘w
    3. ]men¬ i¿°-c-tbm Npt°m a‰p acp-∂p-                      h®n-´p≈ amXr-Ip-e-Øn¬ \nt∂m ASpØ
Itfm tN¿Øm¬ AXp IqSp-X¬ \√-Xm-Ipw.                            ÿeØp \nt∂m hnhmlw sNøp-∂Xv \√-X-
AXp-t]mse `n∂ tKm{X-ß-fn¬ P\n-®-h¿-˛-                         √.
A-—-s‚tbm AΩ-bp-sStbm hwiw hgn _‘-                                alm-¥y]n kar-≤m\n tKmfPmhn-[-\-[m-
an- √ m- Ø - h ¿ XΩn¬ hnhmlw sNøp- ∂ Xv                       \yXx. kv{Xo kw_t‘ Zssi-Xm\n Ipem\n
t{ijvT-am-Wv.                                                 ]cn-hcvP-tbXv (Sn. 3.6)
    4. Hcp tZiØp hkn-°p-tºmƒ tcmK-{K-kvX-                         [\w, [m\yw, ]ip, BSv, B\, IpXn-c,
\m-bn-cn-°p-∂-bmƒ ÿew amdn-Øm-a-kn-®m¬                        cmPyw, kv{Xo apX-em-b-h-sb√mw F{X kar-≤-
hmbp, `£-Ww, sh≈w, apX-em-b-h-bn¬ am‰w                        am-bp-s≠-¶n-epw C\n Fgp-Xp∂ ]Øp Ipe-ß-
hcp-∂-Xp-sIm≠v tcmK-ap-‡-\m-Ip-∂-Xp-t]mse                     fp-am-bp-ff hnhm-l-_‘w h¿Pn-°-Ww.
Zqc-tZ-io-b¿ XΩn-ep≈ hnhmlw DØa^ew                                lo\-{Inbw \njv]p-cpjw \oivOtµm tcma-
\¬Ipw.                                                        imcvikw. £øm-a-bm-hy-]-kvam-cn-izn-{Xn-Ip-
    5. kao-]-Øp-\n∂p hnhmlw sNbvXm¬                           jvTn-Ip-em\n N. (Sn. 307)
At\ym-\y-ap≈ kpJ-Zpx-J-߃ Adn-bp-hm\pw                            kXvI¿a-߃ sNøm-Ø-Xv, kXv]p-cp-j-∑m-
]c-kv]c hntcm-[-ap-≠m-Ip-hm\pw CS-bp-≠v.                      cn-√m-Ø-Xv, thZm[y-b-\-Øn¬ sshap-Jy-ap-≈-
AI∂p ]m¿°p-∂-h¿°v- C-Xn-\n-S-bm-hp-I-bn-√.                    Xv, DS-en¬ \o≠ tcma-ß-fp-≈-h-cp≈Xv, A¿i-
Zqcw h¿≤n°pwtXmdpw t{]a- X - ¥ p- h n\v                       kv, £bw, Imk-izm-k-߃, A·n-am-µyw, A]-
ssZ¿Lyhpw Zm¿Vyhpw h¿≤n-°pw. kao-]ÿ-               -          kvam-cw, ]m≠v, IpjvTw, F∂o tcmK-ß-fp-f-f-
cpsS Imcy-Øn-en-ßs\ kw`-hn-°n-√.                              Xv , F∂o Ipe- ß - f n¬ ]nd- ∂ - h ¿ XΩn¬
                - -
    6. Zqc-tZ-ißfn¬ _‘w h®m¬ Ahn-SpsØ                         hnhmlw ]mSn-√. Fs¥-∂m¬ Cu ]d™
h¿Ø-am-\-ß-f-dn-bp-hm\pw ]Zm¿∞-߃ In´p-                       tZmj-ßfpw tcmK-ßfpw ]I-cp-∂-Xm-Wv. AXn-
hm\pw Ffp- ∏ - a p- ≠ v . ASpØ {]tZ- i Øp                     \m¬ DØ-a-Ip-e-ß-fn-ep-≈-h¿ XΩn¬ am{Xta
hnhmlw sNbvXm¬ AXv km[y-a-√. AXp-sIm-                         hnhmlw ]mSp-≈q.
≠mWv ZplnXm ZpcvlnXm Zqtc lnXm `h-Xo-                             t\mZz-tl-Xv I-]nemw I\ymw \m[n-ImwKow
Xn 3 I\y-Isb Zqc-ÿ-eØv hnhmlw sNbvX-                          \tcm-KnWow. \mtem-anImw \mXn-temamw \
bbv-°p-∂Xv t{ib-kvI-c-am-I-bmepw ASpØp                        hmNmSmw \ ]nwKfmw (Sn. 3.8)
sNbv X - b bv - ° p- ∂ Xv A√m- b v I - b m- e p- a mWv
                                                                  a™-\n-d-ap-≈-hƒ, ]pcp-j-t\-°mƒ XSn-an-Sp-
Ahƒ°v ZplnXm F∂p t]cp h∂-Xv.
                                                              °p-≈-hƒ, tcmKn-Wn, Xosc tcma-an-√m-Ø-hƒ,
    7. s]¨Ip-´n-Iƒ ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn-tebv°p                        hfsc tcma-ap-≈-hƒ, hmbm-Sn, Nph∂ IÆp-
sN√p-tºm-sg√mw Ah¿°p h√Xpw sImSptØ                            ≈- h ƒ, Cß- s \- b p≈ s]¨In- S m- ß sf
Xocq. AXn-\ m¬ I\ym-] n-Xm-h ns‚ ho´n¬                        thƒ°-cp-Xv.
3 \ncp‡w 3.4

                                                         60
               \memw kap-√mkw                                                      kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
           -          - -
    \cv£hr-£\Zo-\mav\ow \m¥y-]cvhX\m-        - -            hnhm-lhpw \S-∏p≈ cmPyw ZpxJ-Øn¬ apgp-
anImw. \ ]£y-ln-t{]-jy-\mav\ow \ N `oj-                                             -     -
                                                            Ip-∂p. Fs¥-∂m¬, {_“-Ncy-\n-jvTamb hnZym-
W-\m-an-Imw. (Sn. 3.9)                                      `ym-kw, hnhm-l-k-{º-Zmbw F∂nh ]cn-jv°-
    Aizn-\o. `c-Wo, tcmln-WotZ-hn, tch-Xo -                 cn-®m¬ F√mw \∂m-Ipw. Ch c≠pw Zpjn-®m¬
_m-bn, NnØco apX-emb \£-{X-\m-a-ß-fp-≈-                     F√mw Zpjn-°pw.
h¿, Xpf-ko, Im¥n, tdmkn, sNº-Iw, apX-emb                        tNm˛ (1) AjvS-hcvjm `th-ZvKuco \h-
hr£-\m-a-ß-fp-≈-h¿, KwKm, bap-\m, apX-em-                   hcvjm N tcmlnWo. Zi-hcvjm `thZv I\ym-
b \Zo-\m-a-ß-fp-≈-h¿; NWvUmfo apX-emb                       X-X -Ducv[zw cP-kzem.
tæ—- \ m- a - ß - f p- ≈ - h ¿ hn‘y, lnam- e - b n,             (2) amXm ssNh ]nXm Xkym tPyjvtTm-
]m¿hXn apX- e mb ]¿h- X - \ m- a - ß - f p- ≈ - h ¿,        {`mXm XssYh N. {Xb-kvtX- -\-cIw bm¥n
tImIn-e, ssa\, apX-emb ]£n-\m-a-ß-fp-≈-                     ZrjvSzm I\ym cP-kz-emav.
h¿ \mKo, `pPwKm apX-emb k¿∏-\m-a-ß-fp-
≈-h¿, amt[m-Zm-ko, aocm-Zm-kn, CXymZn t{]jy-                    Cu c≠p t«mI-߃ ]mcm-icn-bnepw 4
\m-a-ß-fp-≈-h¿ `oa-Ip-amcn NWvUn-Im, Imfo                   io{L-t_m-[Øn-epw 5 Fgp-Xn-°m-Wp-∂-h-bm-
                                                                         --
apX-emb `b-¶-c-\m-a-ß-fp-≈-h¿ Cß-s\-bp≈                     Wv. F´m-asØ hb- n¬ Kucn F∂pw Hº-
I\y-I-amsc hnhmlw sNø-cp-Xv. Fs¥-∂m¬                        Xm-asØ hb- n¬ tcmlnWo F∂pw ]Øm-
C∏-d™ t]cp-Iƒ Ip’n-Xßfpw a‰p ]Zm¿∞-
                                 -                          asØ hb-kn¬ I\ym F∂pw AXn\p tijw
ßsf Ipdn-°p-∂-h-bp-am-Ip-∂p. Ahyw-KmwKow                    cP-kzem F∂pw s]¨Ip-´n-Iƒ°v t]cp ]d-
skuay-\mav\ow lwk-hm-c-W-Km-an\ow. X\p-                     bp- ∂ p. ]Øp hbkp XnI- b p- ∂ - X p- h sc
tem-atI-iZi\mw arZzw-Ko-ap-Zz-tlXv kv{Xnbw
      -       - -                                           IeymWw Ign-®p-sIm-Sp-°msX, s]¨Ip-´nsb
(Sn. 3.10) sshI-eyhpw sshcq-]y-hp-an-√mØ                    cP-kz-e-bmbn ImWm-\n-S-bm-Ip∂ amXm-]n-Xm-
AwK-ß-fp-≈, btimZm kpJZm apX-emb a[p-                       °ƒ, tPy-jvTk-tlm-Z-c≥ F∂o aq∂p-t]cpw
c-\m-a-ß-fp-≈, lwk-Øn-s‚-tbm ]nSn-bm-\-bp-                  \c-I-Øn¬ ]Xn-°p-∂-Xm-Wv F∂mWv t«mI-
sStbm t]mse \S-∏p≈ kq£va-ß-fmb tcma-                        ß-fpsS A¿∞w.
߃, Xe-ap-Sn, ]√p-Iƒ, F∂n-h-bp≈ tIma-f-                         D˛ {_t“m-hmN ({_-“mhp ]d™p:)
ß-fmb AwK-ß-tfmSp IqSnb I\y-I-sb-bmWv                           (1) GI-£Wm `thZv Kucn Zzn£-tW-bw
hnhmlw sNtø-≠-Xv.                                           Xp tcmlnWo. {Xn£Wm km `thXv I\ym
    tNm:˛ hnhm-l-Øn\v G‰hpw \√ Imew                         lyX -Ducv[zw cP-kzem.
GXmWv? G‰hpw \√ coXn GXmWv?                                     (2) amXm ]nXm XYm {`mXm amXptem
    DØ-cw˛ ]Xn-\mdp apX¬ Ccp]Ø©p hb-                        `Kn\o kzIm. kcvh tX \cIw bm¥n ZrjvSzm-
 p-hsc I\y-Ibv°pw Ccp-]-Ø©p hb p                            I\ymw cP-kzemav.
apX¬ \mev]-sØ´p hbkp hsc ]pcp-j\pw                              CuønsS D≠m-°nb {_“-]p-cm-W-Øn-ep≈
hnhm-l-{]m-b-am-Wv. F¶nepw ]Xn-\mdmw hb-                    hN-\-am-Wn-Xv. F{X kabw sIm≠v Hcp ]c-
kn¬ kv{Xobpw Ccp-]-Øn-b©mw hb- n¬                           amWp Nen-°p-∂thm A{X ka-b-sØbmWv
]pcp-j\pw hnhmlw sNøp-∂Xv A[-a-am-Wv.                       Hcp £Ww F∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xv. Hcp s]¨Ip´n
18 As√-¶n¬ 20 hb- n¬ kv{Xobpw 30, 32                        ]nd-∂-m¬ Ahƒ°v BZysØ £W-Øn¬
AYhm 40 hb-   n¬ ]pcp- j \pw hnhmlw                         Kucn F∂pw c≠m- a sØ £W- Ø n¬
sNøp-∂Xv a≤y-a-am-Ip-∂p. 24 hb p XnI™                       tcmlnWn aq∂m-asØ £W-Øn¬ I\yI
kv { Xobpw 48 hb p XnI™ ]pcp- j \pw                         F∂pw kw⁄-Iƒ BIp∂p. \mem-asØ
XΩn¬ hnhmlw sNøp-∂-XmWv DØ-aw. C{]-                         £W-Øn¬ Ahƒ cP-kz-e-bm-bn-Øo-cp-∂p. (1)
Imcw t{ijvT-amb hnhml \nb-ahpw {_“-N-
cy-tØmSp IqSnb hnZym-`ym-khpw \∂mbn {]N-                    4 ]mcm-i-co-kvar-Xn°v eLp, _rlXv F∂o
cn-°p∂ tZi-amWv kpJ-k-ºq¿Æ-ambn `hn-                          ]mT-ß-fp-≠v. eLp-]m-T-Ønse 7˛mw
                                                              A[ymbw 6 Dw 8 t«mI-ß-fm-Wn-h.
°p-∂-Xv. {_“-N-cy-\n-jvT-amb hnZym-`ym-k-a-                 5 io{L-t_m[w 1˛mw A[ymbw t«m. 54,65 (]-Xn-∏ns‚
√msX _mey-Im-ehpw Atbm-Ky¿ XΩn-ep≈                                     - -    -
                                                              hyXym-ka\p-kcn®v t«mI-kw-Jybpw amdpw)

                                                       61
     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                          kam-h¿Ø\w, hnhm-lw, Krl-ÿm-{i-a-hn[n
A{]-Imcw cP-kzebmb I\y-Isb ImWp∂                              jvThp-amI-bmepw DØ-a-k-¥m\w P\n-°p-∂p.
£W- Ø n¬ Xs∂ Ah- f psS A—\pw                                   5
                                                                 F´p hb p {]mb-amb Ip´n°v k¥m-t\m-
AΩbpw ktlm-Z-c\pw AΩm-h\pw ktlm-Z-                            ev ] Øn Akw- ` - h y- a m- b n- c n- ° p- ∂ - X p- t ]mse
cn-amcpw F√mw \c-I-Øn¬ ]Xn-°p∂p (2)                           Kuco, tcmlnWo apX- e mb t]cn- S p- ∂ Xpw
F∂mWv CXns‚ A¿∞w.                                             Akw-`-h-am-Wv.
    tNm˛ Cu ]d™ t«mI- ß ƒ {]am- W -                                                   -
                                                                 I\yI Kuc-h¿W-b√. Idp-Øhfm-sW-¶n¬       - -
ßtfm?                                                         Kucn F∂p hnfn-°p-∂Xv icn-b-√. IqSmsX
    D˛ F¥p-sIm-≠-√. {_“m-hns‚ t«mI-߃                         Kucn alm-tZ-h-s‚-bpw tcmlnWn hkp-tZ-h-
t]mepw {]am-W-a-s√-¶n¬ \nß-fpsS ]Zy-ßfpw                      s‚bpw ]Xv\-n-am-cm-bn-cp-∂p. ]pcm-W-hn-izm-kn-
{]am-W-a-√.                                                   I-fmb \n߃ Ahsc amXr-Xpeyw _lp-am-
                   -
    tNm˛ sIm≈mw- sIm-≈mw. ]cm-ic\pw Imin-  -                                            -
                                                              \n-°p-∂p. kIe I\y-Iamcpw Kucn-bm-sW∂pw
\m-Y\pw {]mamWyw Cs√t∂m?                                      a‰pw k¶-ev]n-®m¬ ]ns∂ hnhmlw sNøp-∂-
                                                              Xm-sc-bmWv? AYhm sNbvXmepw B hnhmlw
    D:˛ _te-t`jv! {_“mhpw {]mam-Wn-I-\-s√-                    [¿am-\p-kr-X-am-Iptam? AXn-\m¬ \nß-fp-
t∂m. ]cm-i-c-t\bpw Imio-\m-Y-s\bpw Imƒ                        sSbpw Fs‚bpw t«mI-߃ shdpw `mh-\-bm-
{_“mhv hen-b-h-\-s√-t∂m.- \n-ß-ƒ {_“m-                        Wv. Rm≥ {_t“m-hmNm F∂p-]-d-™v t«mIw
hns‚ t«mI-ßsf hI hbv°p-∂n-s√-¶n¬ ]cm-                         D≠m-°n-b-Xp-t]mse ]cm-icm-Zn-I-fpsS t]cpw
i-c-s‚tbm Imio-\m-Y-s‚tbm t«mI-ßsf                            ]d™v t«mI-ap-≠m-°n. CØcw {]am-W-ß-
R߃°pw th≠.                                                   sf-sb√mw hen-s®-dn-™v, thZ-ßsf {]am-W-
    tNm:˛ \nß-fpsS t«mI-Øn¬ Akw-`-hy-ap-                      am°n F√m-Im-cy-ßfpw sNøWw. 6 a\p-kvarXn
≈-Xn-\m¬ {]am-W-a-√. P\-\-k-a-bØp Xs∂                         t\m°pI:˛
At\-Im-bncw £W-߃ Ign-™p-t]m-Ip-∂p.
AXn-\n-S-bn¬ hnhmlw Fßs\ \SØpw? B                                {XoWo hcvjm-Wyp-Zo-t£X Ipam-cyr-Xp-
ka- b Øp hnhmlw \S- Ø p- ∂ Xp sIm≠v                           aXo kXo. Ducv≤zw Xp Imem-tZ-X-kvam-Zzn-
bmsXmcp ^e-hp-an-√-Xm-\pw.                                    tµX kZriw ]Xnav (a-\p. 9. 90)
    D:˛ Fs‚ t«mI-Øn¬ Akw-`hy-tZm-j-ap-                           I\yI EXp-a-Xn-bmb tijw aq∂p-sIm√w
s≠-¶n¬ AXv \nß-fpsS t«mI-Øn-ep-ap-≠v.                         Ign-bp-∂-Xp-hsc `¿Øm-hns\ At\z-jn-®p-sIm-
Fs¥-∂m¬ F´v, HºXv As√-¶n¬ ]Øp                                 ≠n-cn-°p-Ibpw AXn-\p-tijw A\p-cq-]-\mb
hb p {]mb-am-Ip-tºmƒ hnhmlw sNøp-∂Xv                          ]pcp-js\ `¿Øm-hmbn hcn-°p-Ibpw sNø-
\njv^ew Xs∂. ]Xn-\mdp hb p Ign™v                              Ww. B¿Øhw amkw-tXm-dp-am-Wv. aq∂m-≠p-
Ccp- ] - Ø n- \ mep hb-   n- \ Iw hnhmlw                      sIm≠v ap∏-Ømdp {]mhiyw cP-kz-e-bm-b-Xn-
sNbv X m¬ ]pcp- j s‚ hocyw ]cn- ] - I zhpw                    \p-tijw hnhm-ln-X-bm-Ip-I-bm-Wp-Nn-Xw. apº-
icocw _en- j v T - h p- a m- I - b m- e pw kv { XobpsS        √.
K¿`m-ibw hf¿∂p Ign-™Xpw icocw _-en-                              Imaa-ma-c-Wm-Øn-jvtTZv Krtl I\ycvØp-

                                       - -
(a-l¿jn-bpsS ASn-°p-dn-∏m-WnXv ]cn-`m-jIt‚-X√) -              am-hp-∂n-√. Dev]-∂-am-bm¬Øs∂ Zo¿L-Imew Pohn-°p-
   * hnhm-tlm-Nn-X-amb hb-kns\ {]m]n-®n-´n-√mØ                                                -
                                                              I-bn-√. Pohn-®mepw Zp¿_-te-{µn-b\m-bn-cn-°pw. AXn-\m¬
kv{Xo]p-cp-j-∑m-cpsS K¿`m-[m-\sØ [\z-¥-co-ap\n                AXn-_m-eym-h-ÿ-bn¬ K¿`-[m-cWw ]mSn√ Cßs\
Cßs\ kp{ip-X-Øn¬\n-tj-[n-°p-∂p.                               krjvSn{Iaw ImWp-Ibpw _p≤n-sIm≠v Btem-Nn-°p-Ibpw
                -        -
Du\-tjm-Uicvh¿jm-bm-a{]m]vXx ]©-hnw-iXnav    -                sNøp-tºmƒ 16 hbkp XnI-bmØ kv{Xobpw 25 XnI-
bZym-[tØ ]pam≥ Kcv`w Ip£nÿx k hn]-ZytX                        bmØ ]pcp-j\pw k¥-Xyp-ev]m-Z-\-£-a-c√ F∂p sXfn-
                                           -
PmtXm hm \ Nnc-RvPo-th-÷o-th-Zzm-Zpcv_te-{µnbx                bp-∂p. CXn\p hn]-coXw sNøp-∂-h¿ ZpxJ-Øns‚ `mK-
Xkvam-Z-Xy-¥-_m-embw Kcv`m-[m\w \ Imc-tbXv                    `m-°p-I-fm-hpIbpw sNøpw.
(kp-{ip-Xw, ico-c-ÿm\w 10. 47-˛48)
A¿Yw:˛ ]Xn-\mdp hbkp XnI-bmØ kv{Xobn¬ Ccp-]-                  6 GX-Zp‡w `hXn at{¥-ssW-hm-\p-krXw IcvΩ-
Ø©p hbkp {]mb-am-ImØ ]pcp-j≥ K¿`m-[m\w sNøp-                     IcvØ-hyav (a-{¥-th-Z-ßsf A\p-k-cn®p am{Xta
∂-Xm-bm¬ B K¿`w Ip£n-bn-en-cp∂v hn]-Øns\ {]m]n-                  I¿aßf-\p-jvTn-°mhq F∂p ]d-™n-´p-≠v. kvIµ
°p-∂p, AXm-b-Xv, K¿`-Imew ]q¿W-am-b-tijw Dev]-∂-                -\n-cp-‡-So-Im-˛1-˛2. 1˛mw `mKw 19-˛mw t]Pv

                                                         62
              \memw kap-√mkw                                                     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
a-Xy]n. \ssN-ssh\mw {]b-t—Øp KpW-lo-                       t{ibm≥ `hXn Pmb- a m\x. Xw [ocmkx
\mb Icvln-NnXv (Sn. 9.89)                                  Ihb D∂b¥n kzmt[ym a\km tZh-b¥x.
    BWpw s]Æpw ac-W-]-cy¥w Ahn-hm-ln-                      (E. 3.8.4)
X-cm-bn-cn-°-s´. ]t£ Ak-Zr-i¿-˛-A-t\ym\yw                      2. B t[\thm [p\- b - ¥ m- a - i nizox
tN¿®-bn-√mØ KpW-I¿a kz`m-h-ß-tfm-Sp-Iq-                    k_cvZpLmx iibm A{]-ZpKv≤mx. \hym-
Sn-b-h¿ XΩn¬ hnhmlw Hcn-°epw ]mSn-√.                       \hym bph-Xtbm `h-¥ocvalt±hm-\m-a-kp-
{]mbw XnI-bp-∂-Xn\p aptºm tN¿®-bn-√m-Ø-                    c-Xz-ta-Iav (E. 3.55.1)
h¿ XΩntem hnhmlw sNøp-∂Xv icn-b-s√∂v                           3. ]qcv-ho-clw icZx i{i-amWm tZmjm -h-
CXp-sIm≠p kn≤n-°p-∂p.                                      kvtXmcpjtkm Pc-b¥ox. an\mXn {inbw
    tNm:˛ hnhmlw A—-\-Ω-amcpsS CjvSw                       Pcnam X\q-\m-a-]yq \p ]Xv\ocvhrj-tWm- P-
t]msetbm Ip´n-I-fpsS CjvSw t]msetbm                        Kaypx (E.1.179.1)
th≠Xv?                                                         1. GsXmcp ]pcp-j≥ (]-cn-ho-Xx) D]-\-b\w
    D:˛ Ip´n-I-fpsS CjvS-a-\p-k-cn®v hnhmlw                Ign-™-h\pw {_“-Ncy-a-\p-jvTn®vv DØ-a-in-£-
\S-Øp-∂-Xm-Wv DØ-aw. A—-\-Ω-am¿°v kΩ-                      Whpw hnZym-`ym-khpw t\Sn-b-h\pw (kp-hm-
X-am-sW-¶nepw Ip´n-I-fpsS kΩ-X-an-√msX                     kmx) `wKnbp≈ hkv{Xw [cn-®-h\pw {_“-
hnhmlw \S- Ø p- ∂ Xp \√- X - √ . ]c- k v ] c               Nm-cnbpw (bp-hm) ]q¿W-bu-h-\sØ {]m]n-®-
kwXr-]vXn-tbm-Sp-IqSn hnhmlw sNøp∂ Zº-                     h-\p-am-b -tijw hnZym-`ymkw sNbvXv Krl-
Xn-am¿°v ]c-kv]c hntcm[w hfsc°pd®p                         ÿm-{i-a-Øn¬ (B-Km-Xv) {]th-in-°p-∂pthm
                      -
am{Xta D≠m-hp-Ibp-≈q. k¥m-\߃ A[nIw -                      (k, D) Ah≥ Xs∂ hnZy-bm-Ip∂ c≠mw P∑-
\∂m- b n- c n- ° p- I bpw sNøpw. Akw- X r- ] v X n-        Øn¬ (Pm-b-am-\x) {]i-kvX-\mbn (t{i-bm≥)
tbmSp IqSn \S-Øp∂ hnhmlw kZm ZpxJ-{]-                                     -          - -
                                                           t{ib- p-≈h\pw awK-f{]-Z\p-ambn (`-hXn) `hn-
Z-am-hp-Itb D≈q. hnhm-l-Øns‚ ^ew A\p-                      °p-∂p. (kzm-[yx) icn-bmb [ym\-bp-‡-amb
`-hn-t°-≠-h¿ h[q-h-c-∑m-cm-Wv. amXm-]n-Xm-°-               (a-\-km) hn⁄m-\-Øm¬ (-tZ-h-b¥x) hnZym-
      -
∑m-c√. ]c-kv]cw kvt\l-ap-≠m-bm¬ kpJhpw                     `n-hr-≤nsb C—n-°p-∂-hcpw ([o-cm-kx) ss[cy-
hntcm-[-ap-≠m-bm¬ ZpxJhpw `mcy-m`¿Øm-°-                    ap-≈-h-cp-amb (I-h-bx) hnZzm-∑m¿ (Xw) Ah-
∑m¿°p am{Xta D≈q.                                          s\-bmWv (D-∂-b-¥n) D∂-X-]-Z-hn-bn¬ {]Xn-
    k¥pjvtSm `mcybm -`cvØm `cvØm `mcym                     jvTn-°p-∂-Xv. {_“Ncyw A\p-jvTn®v hnZybpw
XssYh N. bkv a n- t ∂- h - I pte \nXyw                     in£-Whpw kºm-Zn-°m-sXtbm _meym-h-ÿ-
IeymWw X{X ssh {[phav (Sn. 3.60)                           bntem hnhmlw sNøp∂ kv{Xo ]pcp-j-∑m-¿
    `¿Ømhv `mcy-tbmSpw `mcy `¿Øm-hn-t\mSpw                 Xosc A[x-]-Xn®v k÷-\-߃°v BZ-c-hn-√m-
kv t \l- ] q¿∆w h¿Øn- ° p∂ Ipe- Ø n¬                       sX-bm-bn-Øo-cp-∂p.
kpJhpw e£vanbpw Io¿Ønbpw \nh-kn-°p-                            2. (A-{]-Zp-Kv≤mx) Bcpw Id-∂n-´n-√mØ (t[-
∂p. ]c-kv]-c-hn-tcm-[hpw Ie-lhpw D≈n-SØv                   \-hx) ]ip-°-sf-t∏mse (A-izox) _meym-h-
ZpxJhpw Zmcn-{Zyhpw ZpjvIo¿Ønbpw IpSn-tb-                  ÿm-c-ln-Xcpw (k-_cvZp-Lmx) kIe kXv{]-
dp-∂p. AXn-\m¬ Bcymh¿Ø-Øn¬ ]c-º-c-                         hrØn--Ifnepw ka¿∞cpw (i-i-bmx) Iuam-c-Z-
bmbn \S-∂p-h-cp∂ kzbw-h-c-co-Xn-bmWv DØ-                   isb AXn-{I-an-®-hcpw (\-hym-\-hymx) G‰hpw
aw. hnhm- l n- X - c m- I p- h m≥ B{K- l n- ° p∂                              - -
                                                           ]pXnb in£-Wßfmepw Ah-ÿIfmepw ]cn-   - -
kv{Xo]p-cp-j-∑m-cpsS hnZy, hn\-bw, kz`m-hw,                ]q¿W-Ifpw (`-h-¥ox) Bbn-cn-°p∂ (bp-h-X-
cq]w, hb-kv, _ew, Ipew, ico-cØns‚ hen∏w
                                  -                                            - -
                                                           bx) ]q¿W-bu-h\tØm-Sp-Iq-Snb kv{XoIƒ (tZ-
XpS-ßnb F√m Awi-ßfpw ]c-kv]cw tbmPn-                       hm-\mav) {_“-N-cymZn {hX-ß-tfmSp IqSnb
°-Ww. tbmPn-∏n-s√-¶n¬ hnhm-l-Øn¬ H´pw                      ]q¿W-hn-Zzm-∑m-cpsS (G-I-av) AZzn-Xo-b-ambpw
kpJw D≠m-hp-I-bn-√. AXp-t]mse _mey-hn-                     (a-l-Xv) hnim-e-ambpw (A-kp-c-Xz-av) imkv{Xm-
hm-lhpw kpJ-{]-Z-a-√.                                      [y- b \w sIm≠p kwkv I - c n® _p≤n- b n¬
    1. bphm kphmkmx ]cn-hoX BKmXvk D                       ({]⁄bn¬) can-°p∂p F∂ `mhm¿∞sØ
                                                           {Kln- ® - h - f mbpw Xcp- W - \ mb `¿Øm- h ns\

                                                      63
      kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                                 kam-h¿Ø\w, hnhm-lw, Krl-ÿm-{i-a-hn[n
{]m]n-°p-Ibpw sNbvXv (B-[p-\-b-¥m-av) K¿`w                            cpsS a°ƒ°v Hcn-°epw {_m“-W-cm-Ip-hm≥
[cn-°s´. _mey-Im-eØv Hcn-°epw ]pcp-js\                                km[n-°p-I-bnt√?
                                  -
a\-km-t]mepw kvacn-°cp-Xv. Fs¥-∂m¬, Cl-                                  D:˛ km[n-°pw. At\Iw t]¿ Aßs\
tem-I-Ønepw ]c-tem-I-Ønepw kpJ-ap-f-hm-                               ap≥Im- e Øv {_m“- W - c m- b n- ´ p- ≠ v . Ct∏mƒ
°p∂ I¿aw CsXm-∂p-am-{X-am-Wv. _mey-hn-                                {_m“-W-cm-Ip-∂p-ap-≠v; taen¬ {_m“-W-cm-hp-
hmlw sIm≠v ]pcp-j-∑m¿°p-≠m-Im-hp-∂-                                   Ibpw sNøpw. Omtµm- t Kym- ] - \ n- j - Ø n¬,
Xnepw \miw kv{XoIƒ°p≠m-Ipw.                                           A—s‚ PmXn GXm- s W- ∂ - d n- ™ p- I q- S mØ
    3. Fßs\ (\p) thKw (i- { i- a m- W x)                              Pm_m-e-E-jn-bpw 7, alm-`m-c-X-Øn¬ £{Xn-
AXy¥w ]cn-{i-an-°p-∂-hcpw (hr-j-Wx) hocy-                             b-Pm-Xn-bn¬ P\n® hnizm-an-{X≥ 8, NWvUm-f-
tk-N\w sNøp-∂-Xn¬ ka¿∞cpw ]q¿W-bu-                                    Pm- X n- b n¬ ]nd∂ amXw- K - a p\n F∂n- h cpw
h-\-tØm-Sp-Iq-Sn-b-h-cp-amb ]pcp-j-∑m¿ (]-                            {_m“- W - c m- b - h - c m- s W∂p ]d- ™ n- ´ p- ≠ v 9
Xv\ox) buh-\-bp-‡-Ifpw a\-kn-\n-W-ßn-b-h-                             C°m-eØv hnZzm-∑mcpw k’z-`m-hn-I-fp-am-b-h¿
cp-amb `mcy-amsc (P-K-aypx) {]m]n-®n-´v, \qdp                         Xs∂-bmWv {_m“-W-cm-bn-cn-°m≥ tbmKy¿.
h¿jtam A[n-Itam Imew B\-µ-a-\p-`-hn-®v,                               ]Tn∏pw kz`m-h-Kp-W-hp-an-√mØ aqV-∑m¿ iq{Z-
]p{X- ] u- { Xm- Z n- I - t fm- S p- I qSn hkn- ° p- ∂ - X p-         cm-Wv. `mhn-bnepw Aß-s\-X-s∂.
t]mse kv{Xo]p-cp-j-∑m¿ kZm h¿Øn-°-Ww.
(]q¿hox) apºp≈ (i-c-Zx) EXp-°fpw (P-c-b-                                 tNm:˛ ctPmho- c y- ß ƒ tN¿∂p- ≠ mb
¥x) hm¿≤-IysØ D≠m-°p-∂-h-bmb (D-j-                                    icocw amdn as‰mcp PmXn-bm-Im≥ Fßs\
kx) Djkpw (tZm-jm) cm{Xnbpw (h-kvtXmx)                                tbmKy-amIpw?
]Iepw (X-\q-\m-av) ico-c-ß-fpsS ({in-b-av)                               D:˛ ctPm-ho-cy-߃ tN¿∂m¬ {_m“-W-i-
tim`sb (P-cn-am) Zqco-Icn®p Zu¿_-ey-sØbpw
                                    -                                 cocw D≠mhp-I-bn-√.
hm¿≤-Iy-tØbpw D≠m-°n-bn-cp-∂-Xp-t]mse                                    kzm[ym-tb\ Pss]cvtlm-ssa-kvss{X-hn-
(A-l-av) Rm≥-˛-kv{Xobpw ]pcp-j-\pw˛ (D) \√-                           tZy- t \- P ybmkpssXx alm- b - s s⁄iv O
hÆw (A-]n) \n›-bn-®v, {_“-Ncy-]q¿∆w hnZy-   -                         bss⁄› {_m“obw {InbtX X\px (a-
tbbpw in£-WtØbpw ico-c-i-‡n-tbbpw                                     \p. 2.28) CXns‚ A¿Yw apsºm-cn-SØp ]d-
Bfl-_-e-tØbpw kºm-Zn-®v, buh\w {]m]n-                                  ™n-´p-≠v 10. Chn-sSbpw Npcp-°n-∏dbmw. (kzm-
                                                                                                            - -
®Xn-\p-tijw am{Xta hnhmlw sNbvI-bp-≈q.                                [ym-tb-\) A[y-b-\w, A[ym-]\w (P-ss]x)
CXn\v hn]-co-X-amb hnhmlw thZ-hn-cp-≤-am-                             a\\w sNbvI, sNøn-∏n-°p-I, hnhn-[-tlm-a-
I-bm¬ Hcn-°epw kpJ-{]-Z-am-hp-I-bn-√.                                 ߃ sNøp-I, thZw -ap-gp-h\pw i_vZm¿∞-kw-
    Ejn-amcpw ap\n-P-\-ßfpw cmPm-°-∑mcpw                              _-‘-⁄m-\-tØmSpw kztcm-—m-c-W-tØmSpw
alm-cm-Pm-°-∑mcpw a‰pt{i-jvT-∑mcpw Cßs\                               IqsS ]Tn-°p-Ibpw ]Tn-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNøpI
{_“-N-cy-tØm-Sp-IqSn hnZym-`ymkw sNbvX-
tijw am{Xw kzbw- h - c - k - { º- Z m- b - Ø n¬                       7  km (Pm-_m-em) ssl\-ap-hmN \ml-ta-X-tZzZ XmX
hnhmlw sNbvXp-t]m∂ ImeØv Cu cmPyw                                        bZvtKm{X kvXzakn _lzlw Nc¥o ]cn-Nm-cnWo
A`yp-Z-bsØ {]m]n-®p-h-∂p. {_“-N-cy-]q¿∆w                                 buht\ Xzma-e-t`.............. Xw tlmhmN (B-Nm-cyx)
                                                                         ss\XZ {_m“tWm hnh-‡p-acvl-Xn.
hnZym- ` ym- k - a n- √ m- X m- h p- I bpw amXm- ] n- X m- ° -           (\ns‚ tKm{X-sa-sX-s∂-\n-°-dn-hn-√. ]cn-Nm-cn-Wn-
∑mcpsS CjvSm-\p-k-cWw hnhmlw sNøm\pw                                                          - -
                                                                         bmb Rm≥ hf-sc-bn-Sßfn¬ t]mbn-´p-s≠∂v AΩ
XpS-ßnb Imew apX¬°v Cu Bcym-h¿Ø-                                         ]d-™p-sh∂ kXyw Kpcp-hn-t\mSv ]d-™-t∏mƒ
tZ-i-Øns‚ A[x-]-X\w {Ia-ambn XpS-ßn.                                     Kpcp ""\o A{_m-“-W-\m-sW∂p hnh-£n-X-\m-Im≥
                                                                         A¿l-\√'' F∂p-]-d-™p) (Om D. 4.4.2-˛5)
AXn-\m¬ Cu ZpjvS-k-{º-Zmbw XyPn-®v, \√-                               8 IYw {]m]vXw alm-cmP £{Xn-tb-Walm-fl\m - -
              - -
h¿ kzbw-hccoXn kzoI-cn-°Ww. Cu hn-hmlw   -                               hnizm-an-t{XW [cvam-fl≥ {_m“-WXzw \ccvj-`.
h¿Wm-\p-{I-aØn-epw h¿Wm-\p-{Iaw KpW-˛I¿a-
                  -                                    -                 (a.-`m. A\p.3-˛1, 2)
˛-kz-`m-h-ßsf A\p-k-cn-®p-≈-Xp-am-bn-cn-°-Ww.                                      -                       -
                                                                      9 ÿmt\-aXwtKm {_m“-Wy-am-e`Zv `c-Xcvj`
                                                                         NWvUm-e-tbm\u PmtXm ln IYw {_m“-Wy-am-hm-
    tNm:˛ A—-\-Ω-am¿ {_m“-W-cm-sW-¶nte                                   ]vX-hm≥ (a. `m. A\p. 3.19)
Hcp-h≥ {_m“-W\m-hpIbpt≈m? A{_m-“W-
                         -                                -           10 t]Pv 88


                                                                 64
               \memw kap-√mkw                                                          kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
F∂n-h-bmepw (C-Py-bm)- ]u¿Wao Znhkw                          K—-∂- cn-jytX.(Sn. 4.178) A—≥ apØ-—≥
A\p-jTn-°p∂ CjvSn apX-em-b-h-bmepw (kq-                      F∂n-h¿ \S∂ am¿§-Øn-eq-sS-bmWv k¥m-\-
ssXx) apºv hnh-cn-®n-´p≈ hn[n-b-\p-k-cn®v                    ßfpw k©cn-t°-≠-Xv. F∂m¬ (k-Xm-av)
[¿am-\p-krXw k¥m-t\m-ev]m-Z\w sNøpI                          k÷-\-ß-fmb ]nXr]nXm-a-l-∑m-cpsS am¿K-
sIm≠pw (a-lm-b-ss⁄-›) ]q¿t∆m-‡-amb                           Øn-eqsS am{Xta Ncn-°m-hq. ZpjvS-cmb ]nXr-
{_“- b - ⁄ w, tZh- b - ⁄ w, ]nXr- b - ⁄ w,                   ]n-Xm-a-l-∑m-cpsS ]Ÿm-hn¬ Hcn-°epw k©-
sshiz-tZ-h-b-⁄w, AXn-Yn-b⁄w F∂n-ß-                           cn-°-cp-Xv. Fs¥-∂m¬ [¿am-flm-°-fmb ]pcp-
s\- b p≈ ]©- a lm b⁄- ß - s f- s °m≠pw                       j-t{i-jvT-cpsS am¿Kw ]n≥Xp-S¿∂m¬ ZpxJ-ap-
(bss⁄ivN) A·n-jvtSmaw XpS-ßnb b⁄-                            ≠m-hn-√. CXp \n߃ AwKo-I-cn-°p-∂nt√?
߃ hnZzm- ∑ m- c psS tkh- \ - k Xv ° m- c - ß ƒ,                D:˛ \n›-b-ambpw AwKo-I-cn-°p-∂p.
              -          -
kXy-`m-jWw, ]tcm-]Imcw apX-emb kXvI¿a-                          tNm:˛ IqSmsX PK-Zo-izc{]Im-in-X-amb
߃ F∂n-h-sb-s°m≠pw inev]-hnZy A`y-                           thZm-\p⁄ am{Xta k\m-X-\-am-bn-cn-°p-I-bp-
kn®v Zpcm-Nm-c-ßsf XyPn®v kZm-Nm-c-]q¿hw                     ≈q. AXn\p hncp-≤-am-b-sXm∂pw k\m-X-\-am-
Pohn-°p-∂-Xp-sIm≠pw (C-bw) Cu (X-\px)                        sW∂p hnNm- c n- ° mt\ hø. Cß- s \- b t√
icocw ({_m-“o) {_m“-W-t‚Xv ({In-b-tX)                        F√m-hcpw Nn¥n-t°-≠Xv.
Bbn `hn-°p-∂p.
                                                                D:˛ \n›-b-ambpw F√m-hcpw Cßs\Xs∂
   tNm:˛ Cu hN-\sØ \n߃ AwKo-I-cn-                           Nn¥n-°Ww. A√m-Ø-h-tcmSv Cßs\ tNmZn-
°p-∂pthm?                                                    °Ww:˛ Zcn-{Z-\mb ]nXm-hns‚ ]p{X≥ [\-
   D:˛ AwKo-I-cn-°p-∂p.                                      hm-\m-bmepw A—s‚ Zmcn-{ZysØ t{ib-kvI-
   tNm:˛ ctPm-hocy kwtbm-Kw-sIm-≠p≈                          c-sa-t∂m¿Øv km`n-am\w Xs‚ [\w hen-s®-
PmXn- h y- h - ÿ sb ]ns∂- ß s\ AwKo- I -                     dn-btWm? A‘s‚ ]p{X-\mbn ]nd-∂-h≥
cn°pw?                                                       IÆp- c ≠pw IpØn- s ∏m- ´ n®p If- b tWm?
   D:˛ Rm≥ am{X-a√ At\-I¿ ]c-º-c-bmbn                        Zpjv S s‚ aI≥ Zpjv { ]- h r- Ø n- I ƒ am{Xta
AwKo-I-cn-®n-´p-≈-Xm-Wv.                                     sNømhq F∂p \nb-a-apt≠m? C√ Hcn-°-ep-an-
   tNm:˛ \n߃ ]mc-ºcy-Øn-\p≈ {]mam-Wy-
                            -                                √. ]q¿h-]p-cp-j-∑m¿ ]c--º-cbm sNbvXp-t]m∂
tØbpw JWvUn-°p∂pthm?                                         t{ijvT-Ir-Xy-߃ sNbvIbpw ZpjvIr-Xy-ßsf
                                                             XyPn-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂-XmWv F√m-h¿°pw
   D:˛ C√. ]t£, \nß-fpsS sX‰n-≤m-c-Wsb                       DNn-Xw. ctPm-ho-cy-kw-tbm-Km-kv]-Zamb h¿W-
AwKo-I-cn-°msX JWvUn-°p-∂p-sh-t∂-bp-≈q.                      hy-hÿ AwKo-I-cn-°p-Ibpw KpW-I¿am-[n-
   tNm:˛ Fs‚ [mcW sX‰m-sW∂pw \nß-                            jvTnX-amb PmXn-hy-h-ÿsb Xnc-kvI-cn-°p-
fpsS [mcW icn-b m-s W-∂ p-a p-≈-Xn- \ p≈                     Ibpw sNøp-∂-h-tcmSv Cßs\ tNmZn-°-Ww.
sXfn-sh¥v?                                                   Xß-fpsS {_m“-W-PmXn shSn™v NWvUm-
   D:˛ sXfnhp Xcmw. \n߃ At©m Btdm                           e-t\m {InkvXym-\n-tbm apk¬amt\m Bb-
Xe- a p- d - b n¬ \S- ∂ p- h - ∂ Xv k\m- X - \ - a mb        hs\ F¥p-sIm≠v {_m“-W-s\∂v \nß-ƒ
\S∏msW∂p hnNm-cn-°p-∂p. R߃ thZhpw                           KWn-°p-∂n√? Ah¿ {_m“-W-hrØn XyPn-
krjvSnbpw D≠m-bXp-ap-X¬°v Ct∂-hsc-bp≈
                      -                   -                  ®-Xn-\m¬ {_m“-W-c-√m-Xm-sb-∂mhmw Cu
]mc-º-cysØ {]am-W-ambn kzoI-cn-°p-∂p.                                         -
                                                             tNmZy-Øn-\p-Øcw. CXn¬ \n∂v {_m“-W¿°p
t\m°p-I, t{ijvT\mb ]nXm-hn\v ZpjvS-\mb                       hnln- X - a mb DØ- a - I ¿a- ß - f - \ p- j v T n- ° p∂
]p{X-\p-≠m-Im-dp-≠v. \√-hs‚ ]nXmhv ZpjvS-                               -              -
                                                             {_m“-Wcpw \oN-Pm-Xn-Ifn¬ P\n-®hsc-¶nepw   - -
\m-bn-cn-°m-dp≠v. Nne-t∏mƒ ]nXmhpw ]p{X\pw                   DXvIr-jvS-Pm-Xn-°m-cpsS KpW-I¿a kz`m-h-Kp-
t{ijvTcpw Nne-t∏mƒ Ah-cn-cp-hcpw ZpjvScpw                    Wap-≈-hcpw D∂-X-Pm-Xn-bn¬ s]Sp-∂-Xmbn
Bbn-°m-Wp-∂p. \n߃ sX‰n-≤-cn-®n-cn-°p-∂p.                    Icp-X-W-sa-∂pw D∂-X-Pm-Xn-bn¬ P\n-®n´pw
   tb\mky ]nXtcm bmXm tb\ bmXm                               \oN-I¿a-߃ sNøp-∂-hsc \nIr-jvS-Pm-Xn-
]nXm-almx. tX\bmbm’Xmw am¿Kw tX\                                          - -              - -
                                                             bn¬ ]nd-∂hcmbn hnNm-cn-°Wsa-∂p-amWv a\-
                                                             kn-em-Ip-∂-Xv.

                                                        65
      kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                               kam-h¿Ø\w, hnhm-lw, Krl-ÿm-{i-a-hn[n
    tNm:˛ {_m“-tWmky apJ-am-koZv _mlp-                                  bkvam-tZ-tX -ap-Jym-kvX-kvam∑pJ-tXm -ly-
cm- P - \ yx- I rXx Ducq XZky bssZziyx                              kr-Py-¥ -C-XymZn 12
]Zv`ymMv iqt{ZmfAPm-b-X.                                                Ch¿ apJy-cm-b-Xp-sIm≠v apJ-Øn¬ \n∂p-
    bPp¿thZw 31-˛mw A[ymbw ]Xn-s\m∂mw                               ≠mbn F∂p ]d-bp-∂Xv kwK-X-am-Wv. apJw
a{¥-am-Wn-Xv. {_m“-W≥ Cuiz-cs‚ apJ-Øp-                              F√m Ah-b-h-ß-fnepw t{ijvT-am-Wv. AXp-
\n- ∂ pw £{Xn- b ≥ _mlp- ° - f n¬ \n∂pw                             t]mse ]q¿Wamb sshZpjyw, DØ-a-amb
sshiy≥ Ducp-°-fn¬ \n∂pw iq{Z≥ ]mZ-                                  KpW-I¿a-kz-`m-h-߃ F∂nh \nan-Øw a\p-
ß-fn¬ \n∂pw D≠mbn F∂mWv CXns‚                                       jy-h¿K-Øn¬ t{ijvTsc {_m“-W¿ F∂p
A¿∞w. apJw Iøm-hp-I-tbm Iøv apJ-am-                                 ]d-bp∂p F∂¿∞w. \ncm-Im-c-\mb Cuiz-c\v
hp-Itbm C√. A∆Æw {_m“-W¿ £{Xn-                                      apJw apX-emb Ah-b-h-߃ C√. At∏mƒ
bm-Zn-I-fm-hp-Itbm £{Xn-bm-Zn-Iƒ {_m“-W-                            Ah-bn¬ \n∂p P\n-°p-I-sb∂p ]d-bp-∂Xv
cm-hp-Itbm sNøp-I-bn-√.                                             h‘ym-]p-{Xs‚ hnhm-l-sa-∂-hÆw Akw-`-hy-
    D:˛ Cu a{¥- Ø n\p \n߃ ]d- b p∂                                 am-Wv. {_m“-Wm-Zn-Iƒ apJw apX-emb Ah-b-
A¿∞w icn-b-√. Fs¥-∂m¬ ChnsS ]pcp-                                   h-ß-fn¬ \n∂mWp P\n-®-sX-¶n¬ D]mZm-\-
j≥ AYhm \ncm-Im-c\pw k¿h-hym-]n-bp-amb                              Im-c-W-Øns‚ BIrXn Ah¿°p e`n-t°-≠-
]c-am-flm-hn-s\-∏-‰n-bmWv ]d-bp-∂-Xv. \ncm-Im-                       Xm-bn-cp-∂p. hrØm-Im-c-amb apJ-Øn¬ \n∂p-
c-\mb ]c-am-flm-hn\v apJhpw a‰-h-b-h-ßfpw                            ≠mb {_m“-W-cpsS ico-chpw hrØm-Im-c-am-
D≠m-hm≥ Xc-an-√. Ds≠-¶n¬ Ah≥ k¿h-                                   bn-cn-t°-≠-Xm-Wv. £{Xn-b-cpsS icocw _mlp-
hym- ] n- b - √ . k¿h- h ym- ] n- b - s √- ¶ n¬ k¿h- i -            °tf-t∏m-se-bpw sshiy-cpsS icocw Ducp-°-
‡≥, PK- Ø ns‚ krjv S n- ÿ nXn kwlm- c -                             tf-t∏m-se-bpw iq{Z-cpsS icocw ]mZ-ß-tft∏m-
I¿Øm-hv, Pohm-flm-°-fpsS ]pWy-]m-]-ß-ƒ                               sebpw Bbn-cn-t°-≠-Xm-Wv. F∂m¬ Imcyw
Adn™v ^e-hy-h-ÿ-Iƒ sNøp-∂-h≥, k¿h-                                  Aß-s\-b-√. IqSmsX ""Cuiz-c-ap-JØp \n∂p-
⁄≥, P\-\-a-c-W-an-√m-Ø-h≥ apX-emb hnti-                             ≠m-b-h¿°v {_m“-W-kw⁄ D≠m-bn-cp-∂p.
j-W-ß-ƒ°v A¿l-\p-a-√. AXn\m¬ Cu a-                                  F∂m¬ \nßfpw a‰p-≈-hsc t]mse K¿`m-i-
{¥-Øns‚ A¿∞w C{]-Im-c-amWv (A-ky) -                                 b-Øn¬ \n∂p-≠m-b-h-cm-I-bm¬ \n߃°v B
k¿h- h ym- ] n- b m- b n- c n- ° p∂ ]c- a m- fl m- h ns‚             kw⁄ e`n-°n-√. apJ-Øp-\n-∂p-≠m-ImsX
krjvSn-bn¬ (ap-J-av) apJ-sa-∂-t]mse F√m-                            {_m“-W-cmWv Xß-sf∂v hrYm A-`n-am-\n-°p-
‰nepw apJy≥- ˛ - D - Ø - a ≥- ˛ - B - b n- c n- ° p- ∂ - h ≥        ∂-h-cmWv F∂v \nß-tfmSv Bcm\pw ]d-t™-
({_m“- W x) {_m“- W \pw (_m- l q)                                   bv ° mw. \n߃ ]d™ A¿∞- a √ Rm≥
""_mlpcvssh _ew; _mlpcvssh- hocyw''                                 ]d™ a{¥m¿∞-amWv kXyw. A\y{X ]dbp-
_ew hocyw F∂n- h - b psS \mam- ¥ - c - a mWv                        ∂p.˛
_mlp; 11 F∂p iX-]-Y-{_m-“-W-Øn-ep-≈-Xn-                                 iqt{Zm {_m“-W-Xm-taXn {_m“-Wss›-
                      -            -
\m¬ _e-ho-cy-߃ A[n-Iap-≈h≥ (cm-P\yx)      -          -             Xn- iq-{Z-Xmav. £{X-n-bm-÷m-X-tahw Xp hnZym-
£{Xn-b\pw (Du-cp) Ac-s°-´ns‚ Nph-´nepw                              ssZz-iym-Ø-ssY-h N (a-\p. 10.65)
ap´ns‚ apI-fn-ep-am-bn´p≈ Ducp-hns‚ _ew-                                iq{Z- I p- e - Ø n¬ P\n- ® - h \v {_m“- W ≥
sIm≠v F√m-bn-SØpw k©-cn-°p-∂-h≥ (ssh-                                                                -
                                                                    £{Xn-b≥ sshiy≥ F∂n-hcpsS KpW-I¿akz-
iyx) sshiy- \ pw (]- Z v ` ymw) ico- c - Ø ns‚                           - -
                                                                    `m-hßfp-s≠-¶n¬ Ah≥ {_m“-Wt\m £{Xn-     -
XmgsØ Ah-b-h-amb ]mZw t]mse aqVX                                    b-t\m sshiyt\m BIp-∂p. AXp-t]mse
apX-emb A[-a-Kp-W-ß-tfmSp IqSn-b-h≥ (iq-                            {_m“W- s ‚- t bm £{Xn- b - s ‚- t bm sshiy-
{Zx) iq{Z\pw BIp-∂p. iX-]-Y-{_m-“Ww apX-                            s‚tbm Ipe-Øn¬ ]nd∂ Hcp-hs‚ KpW-I¿a-
emb a‰p {KŸ- ß - f nepw Cu a{¥- Ø ns‚                               kz-`m-h-߃ iq{Zs‚ BsW-¶n¬ Ah¿ iq{Z-
A¿∞w C{]-Imcw Xs∂-bmWv hymJym-\n-®n-                                                      -
                                                                    \m-Ip-∂p. £{Xn-bs‚tbm sshiys‚tbm Ipe-
´p-≈Xv.                                                             Øn¬ ]nd∂h¿°v {_m“-W-s‚tbm iq{Z-
                                                                    12 Xkvam-tZtX apJym apJtXm lykr-Py¥
11 Cu aqew C∂p e`y-amb iX-]-Y-Øn¬ Zriy-a-√.                            (ssX. kw 7.1.1.4) Xmc-X-aym¿Yw.

                                                               66
              \memw kap-√mkw                                                  kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
s‚tbm KpW-I¿a-kz-`m-h-ß-fp-s≠-¶n¬ Ah¿                   h¿W-ß-fn¬ \n∂v Ah¿°p e`n-°p-∂-Xm-Wv.
{_m“-Wtcm iq{Ztcm BIp-∂p. \mep PmXn-                    KpW-I¿a-ß-f-\p-k-cn-®p≈ Cu h¿W-hy-hÿ
I-fn-te-Xn¬ P\n-®mepw KpW-I¿a-߃°-\p-k-                 s]¨In-Sm-߃°p ]Xn-\mdp hb pw ]pcp-j-
cn®v kv{Xo]p-cp-j-∑m-cpsS PmXn \n¿Wbn-°-                ∑m¿°p Ccp-]-Øn-b©p hb pw D≈-t∏mƒ
W-sa-∂¿∞w.                                              sNøWw. {_m“- W ≥ {_m“n- W n- t b- b pw
   1. [cva-N-cybm PLt\ym hcvWx ]qcvhw                   £{Xn-b≥ £{Xn-b-tbbpw sshiy≥ sshiy-
]qcvhw hcvW-am-]-ZytX PmXn ]cn-hr-sØu.                  tbbpw iq{Z≥ iq{Z-tbbpw hnhmlw sNøWw
   2. A[cv a - N - c ybm ]qcv t hm hcv t Wm             F¶nte Ah-cpsS PmXn-[¿a-߃ bYm-{Iaw
                                                        \S-°p-Ibpw ]c-kv]-c-kvt\lw \ne-\n¬°p-I-
PL\yw PL-\yw 13 h¿W-am-]-ZytX PmXn                      bp-ap-≈q. C\n \mep h¿W-ß-fp-sSbpw KpW-
]cn-hrsØu                                               I¿aßsf hnh-cn-°mw.
   Cu B]kvXw-_-kq-{X-ß-fpsS A¿∞w ]d-                       1. A[ym- ] - \ - a- [ y- b \w bP\w bmP\w
bmw˛                                                    XYm. Zm\w {]Xn-{K-lw ssN-h -{_m-“-Wm-\m-
   1. \nIr-jvS-Pm-Xn-bn¬ P\n-®n-´p≈ Hcp-h≥              a-I-ev]-bXv (Sn. 1.88)
[¿am- \ p- j v T m\w sIm≠v DXv I r- j v S - a mb           2. itam Za-kvX]x iuNw £m¥n-cm¿P-h-
PmXnsb {]m]n-°p-∂p. tbmKy-X-b-\p-k-cn®v                 ta-h N ⁄m\w hn⁄m-\-am-kvXnIyw {_“-
PmXn-bn¬ Ahs\ KWn-°p-∂-Xm-Wv.                           Icva- kz-`m-h-Pav (Ko-X. 18.42)
   2. AXp-t]mse D∂-X-h¿W-Pm-X¿ A[¿am-                      1. ]Tn-°p-I, ]Tn-∏n-°p-I, b⁄w sNøp-I,
\p-jvTm-\-Øm¬ XmW-Pm-Xnsb {]m]n-°p-Ibpw                 sNøn-°p-I, Zm\-߃ sImSp-°p-I, {]Xn-{Klw
GXp h¿W-Øn¬ tNcp-hm≥ tbmKy-X-bpt≠m                      hmßp-I, Ch-bmdpw {_m“-W\p hn[n® I¿a-
B h¿W-Øn¬ Ahs\ KWn-°p-Ibpw sNøp-                        ß-fm-Ip-∂p. F∂m¬ {]Xn-{Klx {]Xy-hcx
∂p.                                                     F∂ a\p hN-\-Øm¬ {]Xn-{Klw hmßp-∂Xv
   ]pcp-j-∑msc tbmKy-X-b-\p-k-cn®v Hmtcm                \oN-I¿a-am-Wv. 14
PmXn-bn¬ KWn-°p-∂-Xp-t]m-se-bmWv kv{XoI-
fpsS PmXn-hy-h-ÿ-bpw. Cu hyh-ÿ- \n-anØw                    2. (i-ax) ZpjvI¿a-߃ sNøp-hm≥ C—n-°pI
F√m h¿Wßfpw Ah-c-h-cpsS KpW-I¿a-kz-                     t]mepw sNøm-Xn-cn-°p-I, A[¿a-am¿K-Øn¬
`m-h-ß-tfm-Sp-IqSn ]cn-ip-≤-ambn h¿Øn-°p-               Ncn-°p-hm≥ a\- ns\ A\p-h-Zn-°m-Xn-cn-°p-I.
sa∂p kn≤n- ° p- ∂ p. {_m“- W - I p- e - Ø n¬            (Z-ax) sNhn, IÆv, apX-emb ⁄mt\-{µn-b-
£{Xn-b-t\-tbm sshiy-t\tbm iq{Z-t\tbm                    ßsf A\ym-bm-N-c-W-Øn¬ \n∂p \ntcm-[n®v
t]mse Hcp-h≥ D≠m-bn-cn-°p-I-bn-√. CXp-                  [¿a- a m¿K- Ø n¬ {]h¿Øn- ∏ n- ° p- I ; (X- ] x)
t]mse £{Xn-b-ssh-iy-iq-{Z-h¿Wßfpw ]cn-                  {_“-Nm-cnbpw PntX-{µn-b-\p-am-bn-cp∂v kZm
ip-≤-am-bn-cn-°pw. h¿Wk¶-cX D≠m-Ip-∂-X-                 [¿aw A\p-jvTn-°pI (iu-Nw)˛
√. X∂n-anØw Hcp h¿W-Øn\pw \nµtbm                           AZv`ncv Km{XmWn ip[y¥n a\x- k-tXy\
Atbm-Ky-Xtbm D≠m-hp-Ibpan-√.                            ip[yXn hnZym-X-t]m`ymw `qXmflm _p≤n¿
   tNm:˛ Hcp-hs‚ GI-]p-{Xt\m ]p{Xntbm                   ⁄mt\\ ip[yXn
CX-c-h¿W-Øn¬ s]´m¬ ]ns∂ amXm-]n-Xm-                        (a-\p. 5. 109)
°-∑msc Bcp ip{iq-jn°pw? IqSmsX hwihn-                      Pew-sIm≠v ico-c-Øns‚ _mlym-h-b-h-ß-
t—Zw hcp-hm\pw CS-bp-≠v. CXn\v F¥mWp                    fpw kXym-N-c-W-Øm¬ a\-kpw hnZy [¿am-\p-
]cn-lmcw?                                               jvTm\w F∂n-h-bm¬ Pohm-flmhpw ⁄m\w
   D:˛ BcpsS ip{iq-jbv°pw XI-cm-dn-√. Xd-               sIm≠v _p≤nbpw ]cn-ip-≤-am-Ip-∂p. B¥-cn-
hmSp apSn-b p-I-b p-an-√ . Xß-fpsS a°ƒ°p                I-amb cmK-tZzjmZn tZmj-߃ _mly-am-en\yw
]Icw Xß- f psS PmXn- s °m- Ø - h - Æ - a p≈
k¥m-\-ß-sf, hnZzm-∑m-cpsS k`-bn-tem cmP-                14 a\p 10. 109 (b⁄w, A[ym-]\w apX-em-b-h-bm¬
                                                                     - -    -
                                                           Ime-bm-]\am-Wp-Øaw.)
k-Z- ntem sNøp∂ hyh-ÿ-{]-Imcw CXc-                                                   -
                                                           (ku-P\yw hmß-cp-sX∂v Xmev]cyw)
13 B]-kvXw_ [¿a-kq{Xw 2.5.11, 10-˛11

                                                   67
     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                    kam-h¿Ø\w, hnhm-lw, Krl-ÿm-{i-a-hn[n
F∂n-h AI‰n ]cn-ip-≤-\m-bn-cn-°p-I. kXym-                I-i-‡nbpw Bfl-_-e-hpw -h¿≤n-∏n-°p-I.
k-Xy-ßsf Xncn-®-dn™p kXysØ sIm≈p-                           (siu- c y- a v ) At\- I m- b ncw i{Xp- ° sf
Ibpw Ak-XysØ X≈p-Ibpw sNøp-I. Ch                        H‰bv°v FXn¿°p-∂-Xn¬ `b-an-√m-bva, (tX-Px)
]cn-ip-≤n-bn-te°v a\p-jys\ \bn-°p-∂p. (£m-              kZm tXPkv ˛Zo-\-`m-h-an-√mØ ZrV-Kmw-`ocyw
¥nx) \nµm {]iw- k - I ƒ, kpJ- Z px- J - ß ƒ,            ([r-Xnx) ss[cyw (Zm-£y-av) cmP-{]-Pm--kw-_-
iotXm-jvW-߃, em`-\-jvS߃, am\m-]-am-\-                 ‘n-X-amb F√m Imcy-ß-fnepw s]cp-am-‰-ß-fn-
߃, hni∏pw Zmlhpw apX-emb kt¥m-j-                       epw imkv{X-ß-fnepw alm-ssh-ZKv≤yw (bp-
k-¥m-]-߃ hI hbv°msX [¿a-Øn¬ ZrV-                       t≤) ]n¥n-cn™p ]mem-b\w sNømsX bp≤-
Nn-Ø-cm-bn-cn-°pI (BcvPh-av) s]cp-am-‰-Øn¬              Øn¬ \n¿`-b-Xzhpw AN-©-e-Xz-hpw˛ Fß-
]ucp-jw, A`n-am-\w, ITn-\-kz-`m-hw, IpSn-e-X,           s\bpw hnP-b-Øn-\mbn t]mcm-Sp∂ kz`m-hw˛
apX-emb tZmj-ßsf XyPn-°p-I, (⁄m-\-av)                   ]mem-b\w sNbvXm¬ Poh-c-£bpw Pbhpw
thZmZn kI-e-im-kv{X-ßfpw kmwtKm-]mwKw                   e`y-sa-¶n¬ Aßs\ sNøm≥ k∂-≤X (Zm-
]Tn-°p-Ibpw ]Tn-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNøp-hm-\p≈                  \-av) Zm\-ioew (Cu-iz-c-`m-hx) ]£-]mXw
kma¿∞yw, hnth-I-]q¿h-I-amb kXym-k-Xy-                   C√msX kI-e-tcm-Spw bYm-tbm-Ky-ap≈ s]cp-
\n¿Wbw, hkvXp-°sf bYmXYam-bn-˛-tN-X-                    am-‰w, \√Xpw NoØbpw Adn-™p-sIm≠v Zm\w
               -
\sØ tNX-\ambpw PUsØ PU-am-bpw˛ Adn-                     sNøp-I, {]Xn-⁄m-ew-L\w hcp-Øm-Xn-cn-°pI
bp-Ibpw s]cp-am-dp-Ibpw sNøpI (hn-⁄m-\-                 F∂n-ßs\ £{Xn-bcpsS KpW-I¿a-߃ ]{¥-
av) ]rYnhn XpSßn Cuiz-c-]-cy-¥-ap≈ kI-e-                s≠-Æ-am-Wv.
Xn-s‚bpw hnti-j-⁄m-\-tØm-Sp-IqSn Ahsb                       ]iq\mw c£Ww Zm\-an-Pym-[yb-\-ta-hN
tbmKy-ambn D]-tbm-Kn-°p-hm≥ Adn-bp-I. Cuiz-             hWn-Iv]Yw IpkoZw N sshiyky Irjn-
c≥, thZw, tam£w, ]p\¿÷∑w F∂n-h-bn-                      tah N. (a-\p. 1.90)
ep≈ hnizm-k-tØbpw [¿am-\p-jvTm-\w, hnZym-
[y-b-\w, k’wKw F∂n-h-tbbpw amXm-]n-Xm-                      (]-ip-c-£-Ww) I∂p-Im-en-Isf kwc-£n-
°ƒ, Kpcp, AXnYn F∂n-h-cpsS ip{iq-j-                     °pI (Zm-\w) hnZym-[¿a-ß-fpsS A`n-hr-≤n°v
tbbpw Hcp-\mfpw XyPn-°p-Itbm \nµn-°p-                   kºØp \¬IpI (C-Pym) A·n-tlm{Xw apX-
Itbm sNøm-Xn-cn-°p-I, Cßs\ ]Xn-\©p                      emb b⁄-߃ sNøp-Ibpw (A-[y-b-\w)
KpW- I ¿a- ß ƒ {_m“- W - P m- X n- b n- e p- ≈ -        thZm-Zn-im-kv{X-߃ A`y-kn-°pI (h-WnIv
h¿s°√mw Ahiyw D≠m-bn-cn-t°-≠-h-bm-Wv.                   ]Yx) k¿h-hn-[-amb I®-hSw \S-ØpI (Ip-
                                                        ko-Zw) \qdp-dp-∏n-Ibv°v \mtem Btdm Ft´m
    1. {]Pm\mw c£Ww Zm\-an-Pym-[y-b\tah- -              ]{¥t≠m ]Xn-\mtdm Ccp-]tXm AW-bn-e-
N. hnjt-b-jz-{]-k-‡n› £{Xn-bky kam-                     [nIw ]eni ]‰msX ]Ww sImSpØp hmßp-
kXx (a-\p. 1.89)                                        I˛ Hcp \q‰m≠p Ign-™mepw apX-ens‚ Cc-´n-
    2. iucyw tXtPm [rXncvZm£yw bpt≤                     bn¬ IqSp-X-emb ]en-i-hm-ßmsX ]W-hym-
Nm]y-]-em-b\w Zm\-ao-iz-c-`m-h› £m{Xw                   ]mcw sNøp-I. (Ir-jnx) Irjn-sNbvXp hnf-sh-
Icva-kz-`m-hPav (Ko-X. 18.43)                           Sp-°p-I. Ch-sb√mw sshiys‚ KpW-I¿a-ß-
    1. \ymb-ambn {]Pm-]-cn-]m-e\w sNøp-I˛               fm-Ip-∂p.
AXm-bXv ]£-]mXw IqSmsX \√-hsc c£n-                          GI-ta-hXp iq{Zky {]`px Icva kam-Zn-
°p-Ibpw ZpjvSsc in£n-°p-Ibpw sNbvXv                     iXv. GtX-jm-tah hcvWm\mw ip{iq-jm-a-\-
F√m-h-scbpw bYm-tbmKyw ]cn-]m-en-°p-I˛                  kq-bbm (a\p.1.91)
       -
(Zm-\av) hnZybpw [¿ahpw {]N-cn-∏n-°p∂Xn\pw                  \nµy, Cu¿jy, Al-¶mcw apX-emb tZmj-
k÷\-ßsf kXvI-cn-°p-∂-Xn\pw k-ºØp                        ߃ shSn- ™ v , {_m“- W - £ - { Xn- b - s sh- i y-
sNeh-gn-°pI. (C-Pym) A·n-tlm{Xw XpS-                    ∑msc th≠-hÆw ip{iq-jn®v PohnXw Ign-®p-
ßnb b⁄-߃ sNøp-I, sNøn-∏n-°pI (A-                       Iq-´p-I-am-{X-amWv iq{Zs‚ KpWhpw I¿a-hp-am-
[y-b-\-av) thZm-Zn-im-kv{X-߃ ]Tn-°pI ]Tn-              bn-´p-≈-Xv. Cßs\ \mep h¿W-ß-fp-sSbpw
∏n-°pI (hn-j-tb-jz-{]-k-‡nx) hnj-b-kp-Jm-               KpW-I¿a-߃ Npcp°n ]d-™p. Bcn¬ GXp
k-‡-\m-ImsX PntX-{µn-b-\mbn kZm Imbn-

                                                   68
             \memw kap-√mkw                                                        kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
h¿W-Øns‚ KpW-I¿a-߃ ImWp-∂pthm                            3. hcs‚ ssIbn¬ \n∂v kzev]w Zm\w
Ah¿°p am{Xta B h¿W-Øn¬ tNcm≥                          hmßn I\y-Isb Zm\w sNøp-∂-Xn\v "B¿jw'
A[n-Imcw \¬Im-hq. C{]-Imcw \nb-an-X-am-               F∂p ]d-bp-∂p.
bm¬ kI-e-P-\-߃°pw A`ypZ-b-ap-≠m-Ipw.                     4. [¿a-Øns‚ A`n-hr-≤nsb e£y-am°n \S-
Imc-Ww, DXvIrjvS h¿W-°m¿°v Xß-fpsS                    Øp∂ hnhm-l-Øn\v "{]mPm-]Xyw' F∂p ]d-
k¥m-\-߃ aqV-cm-bm¬ iq{Z-cm-bn-t∏m-Ip-                bp∂p
sa∂p `b-ap-≠m-Ipw. X߃°p hn[n® kz`m-                      5. hc\pw I\y-Ibv°pw ]Ww sImSpØp \S-
h-Kp-Whpw hnZym-`ym-khpw Cs√-¶n¬ X߃                  Øp∂ hnhmlw "Bkp-c-am-Wv.'
iq{Z-cmbn t]mIp-sa∂ `bw Ah-cpsS k¥m-
\-߃°pw D≠mbn-cn-°pw. \nIr-jvS-Pm-Xn-bn¬                  6. hnhm- l - Ø ns‚ ka- b- c o- X n- I - f - \ p- k - c n-
P\n-®-h¿°v DXv-Ir-jvS-h¿WsØ {]m]n-°p-                 °msX ]c-kv]-cm-\p-cm-K-Øm¬ `mcym-`¿Øm-
hm≥ Hu’pIyw h¿≤n-°pw. hnZy-tbbpw [¿a-                 °-∑m-cm-Ip-∂-Xns\ "Km‘¿hw' F∂p ]d-bp-
tØbpw {]N- c n- ∏ n- ° p- h m- \ p≈ A[n- I mcw        ∂p.
{_m“- W ¿°p Xs∂ sImSp- ° - W w. Ah¿                       7. bp≤w sNbvXp _em¬°m-tc-W-tbm I]-
]q¿W-ssh-Zpjyw kºm-Zn-®-hcpw [m¿an-I-cp-am-           S-amtbm I\y-Isb A]-l-cn-®p-sIm-≠p-t]m-Ip-
I-bm¬ Ah¿°v B tPmen sNøp-hm≥ Ign-hp-                  ∂-Xn\v cm£kw F∂p t]cm-Wv.
≠v. \mSp `cn-°p-hm≥ A[n-Imcw £{Xn-b¿°p                    8. Dd-ßp-I-tbm aZytam at‰m IpSn®v aXn-a-d-
am{Xw sImSp-Øm¬ cmPy-Im-cy-߃ Hcn-°epw                ∂n- c n- ° p- I tbm sNøp∂ I\y- I sb _em-
apS-ßp-I-bn-√. ]ip-]m-e\w apX-embh sshiy-             ’wKw sNøp-∂-Xn\v "ss]imNw' F∂pw t]¿.
∑m¿°p hn´p sImSp- ° - W w, B sXmgn¬                       C∏- d ™ F´p- X cw hnhm- l - ß - f n¬
\∂mbn sNøp-hm≥ Ah¿°p i‡n-bp≠v.                        AXnt{ijvTw {_m“-hn-hm-l-am-Wv. ssZhw,
iq{Z¿°p ip{iqjm-[n-Imcw am{Xw hn[n-®Xv                {]mPm- ] Xyw F∂nh a[y- a - ßfpw B¿jw,
Ah¿ ]Tn-∏n-√m-Ø-hcpw aqV-∑m-cp-am-I-bm¬,              Bkp- c w, Km‘¿hw, F∂nh \nIr- j v S - ß -
hn⁄m-\-kw-_-‘n-bmb {]hr-Øn-sbm∂pw                     fpamWv. cm£kw A[a-hpw ss]imNw AXn
sNøp-hm≥ Ah¿°v Ign-hn-√m-bvI-bm-em-Wv.                \oN-hp-a-t{X. h[q-h-c-∑m¿ hnhm-l-Øn\p apºv
F∂m¬ Ah¿°p Imbn-I-i-‡n-bp-≠v. C{]-                    GIm-¥-ambn ktΩ-fn-°-cp-sX∂v Xocp-am-\n-°m-
Imcw I¿a-i-‡n-b-\p-k-cn-®p≈ h¿W-ßsf                   hp-∂-Xm-Wv. kv{Xo ]pcp-j-∑m-cpsS bu∆-\-
Ah-c-h-cpsS ÿm\-ß-fn¬ {]h¿Øn-∏n-°p-                                      - -
                                                      Ønse GIm-¥ktΩ-f\w tZmj-Icam-Wv. I\y- - -
∂Xv `c-Wm-[n-]-cpsS I¿Ø-hy-am-Wv.                     Ibv°pw hc\pw hnhm-lIme-am-bm¬-˛-{_-“-N-
     hnhm-l-Øns‚ e£-W-߃                              cyhpw ]T- \ hpw apgp- h - \ m- ° p- h m≥ Ht∂m
   {_mt“m ssZh-kvX-ssY-hmcvjx {]mPm-                  Actbm sIm√w _m°n-bp-≈-t∏mƒ˛ I\y-I-
]XykvXYm-kpcx Km‘cvthm cm£-k-ss›-                     bp-sSbpw hc-s‚bpw Nn{Xw FSp-∏n®v s]¨Ip-
h- ss]-im-N-›m-jvS-tam-f[ax (a-\p. 3.21)                                   -
                                                      ´n-IfpsS A[ym-]I¿°v B¨Ip-´n-IfpsS Nn{X-  -
   {_m“w, ssZhw, B¿jw, {]mPm-]-Xyw,                   hpw B¨Ip-´n-I-fpsS A[ym-]-I¿°v s]¨Ip-
Bkp-cw, Km‘¿hw, cm£-kw, ss]im-Nw,                     ´n- I - f psS Nn{Xhpw Ab- ® p- s Im- S p- ° - W w.
F∂n-ßs\ hnhmlw F´p-hn-[-Øn-ep-≠v. Ch-                 GtXXp h[q-h-c-∑m¿°v tN¿® ImWp-∂pthm
bpsS e£-W-߃ ]d-bmw.                                  Ah-cpsS Poh-N-cn-{Xw-˛-P-\\w apX¬°v At∂-
                                                                               - - -
                                                      h-sc-bp≈ F√m Imcy-ßfp-aSßnb ]pkvXIw˛                 -
   1. hn[n-{]-Imcw {_“-N-cy-{h-X-tØm-Sp-IqSn          Ds≠-¶n¬ AXp hmßn A[ym-]-I¿ hmbn-®p-
                                   -
kºm-Zn® ]q¿W-ssh-Zp-jyw, [m¿an-IX, kuio-              t\m- ° - W w. KpW- I ¿a kz`m- h - ß ƒ°v
eyw, F∂n-h-tbm-Sp-IqSn h[q-h-c-∑m¿ ]c-kv]cw           s]mcpØw I≠m¬, Aß-s\-bp≈ kv{Xo]p-
t{]a-tØmsS \S-Øp∂ hnhm-l-amWv {_m“w.                  cp-j-∑m-cpsS Nn{Xhpw Ncn-{Xhpw At\ym\yw
   2. henb b⁄w \-S-°p∂ Ah-k-c-ß-fn¬                   sImSpØv Ah-cpsS A`n-{]mbw Adn-bn-°p-hm≥
EXzn-°ns\ Pmam-Xm-hmbn hcn-®v, s]m≥]-≠-               Kpcp-°-∑m¿ Ah-tcmSp ]d-b-Ww. Ccp-hcpw
ß-f-Wn™ I\y-Isb `mcy-bmbn \¬Ip-∂-                     hnhm-l-Øn\p kΩ-Xn-®m¬ Ccp-h-cp-sSbpw
XmWv "ssZh' hnhm-lw.
                                                 69
    kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                  kam-h¿Ø\w, hnhm-lw, Krl-ÿm-{i-a-hn[n
kam-h¿Ø\w Hcp-an®p \S-Ø-Ww. A[ym-]-I-                taevt]m´p hen-®p-]n-Sn-°-Ww. tbm\n-bpsS D]-
cpsS km∂n-≤y-Øn¬ hnhmlw \S-Øp-hm≥                    cn-`m-KsØ kt¶m-Nn-∏n-®v, hocysØ apI-fn-
CcpIq´cpw C—n-°p∂ ]£w Kpcp-Kr-l-Øn¬                  te°v BI¿jn®v K¿`m-i-b-Øn¬ ÿm]n-°-
ht®m Cs√-¶n¬ I\y-I-bpsS ]nXr-Kr-l-Øn¬                Ww.*
ht®m hnhmlw \S-Øp-∂-Xm-Wp-Nn-Xw. Ccp-                                         - -
                                                         ]n∂oSv Ccp-hcpw ip≤-PeØn¬ Ipfn-°Ww. -
hcpw t\cn´p I≠pI-gn-™m¬ Kpcp-°-∑m¿,                  hnZp-jn-bmb kv{Xo K¿`-ap-≠m-bm¬ At∏mƒ
amXm-]n-Xm-°ƒ, apX-em-b-h-cpsS apºn¬ sh®v            Xs∂ Adn- b pw. Hcp- a mkw Ign- b p- t ºmƒ
Ah-sc-s°m≠v kw`m-j-Whpw imkv{Xm¿∞-                   B¿Øhw \n∂p- t ]m- I p- t ºmƒ kIe
hm-Zhpw \S-Øn-°-Ww. Ah¿°v At\ym\yw                   kv{XoIƒ°pw K¿`-\n-›bw D≠m-Ip-∂-Xm-Wv.
cl-ky-ambn h√Xpw tNmZn-®-dn-b-W-sa-¶n¬               ]n∂oSv c≠p-t]cpw Np°v, tIk-cw, Aap-°ncw
                              -
k`-bn¬ h®p-Xs∂ Fgp-Øp-aq-eap≈ tNmtZym-               F∂o acp-∂p-I-fn´p Xnf-∏n® ]men¬ I¬°-
Ø-c-߃ sIm≠v Adn-™p-sIm-≈-Ww. c≠p-                   ≠hpw tN¿Øv CjvSw t]mse IpSn-®v, Ah-\-
t]¿°pw At\ym\yw Dd® t{]a-ap-s≠∂p                     hs‚ iø-bn¬ XΩn¬ sXmSmsX InS-∂p-d-ß-
I≠m¬ A∂p-ap-X¬ Ah¿°v DØ-a-`-£Ww                      Ww. K¿`m-[m\w sNøp-tºm-sg√mw C{]-Imcw
sImSp-∏n-°p-hm≥ G¿∏mSp sNø-Ww. {_“-N-                Xs∂-sN-øp-∂-Xm-Wp-Nn-Xw. Hcp amkw XnI-bp-
cyw, hnZym-[y-b\w F∂o X]kpw t¢i-ßfpw                 ∂- X p- h sc B¿Øhw ImWm- Xn- c n- ° p- I bpw
\nanØw Zp¿_-e-amb icocw N{µ-°e hf-                   K¿`-ap-s≠∂p Xo¿®-s∏-Sp-Ibpw sNbvXm¬
cpwt]mse Ipd-®p-Zn-hkw sIm≠v ]pjvS-am-Ipw.           A∂p-ap-X¬ Hcp sIm√-tØ°p kv{Xo]p-cp-j-
                                                     ∑m¿ kwtbmKw sNø-cp-Xv. Cßs\ sNbvXm¬
             K¿`-m[m-\-hn[n                          am{Xta DØ-a-amb k¥m\w D≠m-hp-I-bp-≈q.
   AXn-\p-tijw I\yI cP-kz-e-bm-bn-cp∂p               ]n∂o- S p- ≠ m- I p∂ k¥m\w \∂m- h m\pw
Ipfn®p ip≤-amb Znhkw hnhm-l-a-WvU-]hpw               CsXmcp Imc-W-am-Ipw. A\yYm hocyw- hy¿∞-
thZnbpw \n¿an®v kpK-‘-{Z-hy-߃sIm≠pw                 am-hp-Ibpw X∂n-anØw c≠p-t]-cp-sSbpw Bbp-
LrXm-Zn-IƒsIm≠pw tlmaw sNbvXv hnZzm-∑m-               p- £-bn-°p-Ibpw hnhn-[-tcm-K-߃ D≠m-hp-
scbpw hnZp-jn-I-tfbpw bYm-tbmKyw k¬°-                Ibpw sNøpw. F∂m¬ At\ym\yw
cn-°-Ww. ]n∂oSv K¿`m-[m-\-Øn\v tbmKy-amb             kkvt\lw k√-]n-°p-∂Xpw t{]a-]q¿hw s]cp-
Znhkw kwkvIm-c-hn[n F∂ {KŸ-Ønse                      am-dp-∂Xpw Bh-iy-am-Wv. kz]v\-Øn¬ t]mepw
hn[n-b-\p-k-cn®v kI-e-I¿a-ßfpw sNbvXv a[y-           hocy-kvJ-e-\-ap-≠m-ImsX ]pcp-j≥ AXns\
cm{Xn ka- b tØm Akv X - a n®p ]Øp- \ m- g n-         c£n-°-Ww. AXyp-Ø-a-amb cq]w, emh-Wyw,
                               -
Ibv°p tijtam AXy¥w {]k-∂cmbn kIe                     ]pjvSn, _ew, ]cm-{Iaw F∂n-h-bm¬ bp‡-
       -                            - -
P\-ßfp-sSbpw apºn¬ h®v ]mWn-{K-lW]q¿h-               ambn ]Ømw amk-Øn¬ P\n-°-Ø-°-hÆw
I-ambn hnhm-l-{Inb apgp-h\pw \SØn hnP-\-             Blm-c-h-kv{Xm-Zn-I-fm¬ kv{Xo K¿`-c£ sNø-
            -  -             -
amb ib-\Kr-lØn¬ {]th-in-°Ww. ]pcp-j≥                 Ww. \memw amkw apXepw hnti-jn®v F´mw
hn[n-{]-Imcw hocy-ÿm-]-\hpw kv{Xoho-cy-{K-           amk-Øn\p tij-hp-amWv K¿`-c£ sNtø-≠-
l- W hpw sNø- W w. {_“- N - c y- Ø nse               Xv. K¿`nWn hntc-N-I-hpw cq£-hpw amZ-I-hpw
hocysØ Ign-bp-∂n-S-tØmfw hy¿∞-am-°n-°-               _p≤n-˛-_-e-\m-i-I-hp-amb ]Zm¿∞-ß-sfm∂pw
f-bm-Xn-cn-°-Ww. B hocyhpw cPkpw IqSn-               `£n-°-cp-Xv. s\øv, ]m¬, \√ Acn, tKmX-ºv,
t®¿∂p-≠m-Ip∂ icocw DØ-a-k-¥m-\-am-Ip-∂-              sNdp-]-b¿, Dgp∂v apX-em-bh bp‡n-]q¿hw
Xm-Wv. hocyw K¿`m-i-b-Øn-te°p hogm-dm-Ip-            tZi-Im-e-ß-f-\p-k-cn®v `£n-°-Ww. K¿`-Im-
tºmƒ kv{Xo]p-cp-j-∑m¿ Ccp-hcpw ÿnc-i-co-             eØv \memw amk-Øn¬ ]pwk-h\w F´mw
c-cm-bpw IÆn\p t\sc IÆv, aq°n\p t\sc                 amk-Øn¬ koa-t¥m-∂-b\w F∂o kwkvIm-
aq°v F∂o {Ia-Øn¬ \nh¿∂p hf-hn-√msX
h¿Øn-°-Ww. teiw t]mepw Cf-I-cp-Xv. ]pcp-             *                           -
                                                          Cu hnjbw tKm]y-am-Ibm¬ C{X-am{Xw ]d-™n-´p-
                                                          ≈-Xn¬\n-∂p apgp-h\pw a\-kn-em-°n-s°m-≈-Ww.
j≥ Xs‚ ico-csØ Xf¿Ø-Ww. hocy-{]m-                         IqSp-X¬ hnkvX-cn-s®-gp-Xp-∂Xv DNn-X-a-√.
]vXn- k - a bw kv{Xo A]m- \ - h m- b p- h ns\                                                    - - -
                                                         (a-l¿jn-bpsS ASn-°p-dn-∏m-WnXv ]cn-`m-jIt‚-X√)


                                                70
             \memw kap-√mkw                                                  kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
c-߃ hn[n-{]-Imcw \S-Ø-Ww.                                                       - -
                                                       °-Ww. Ip´n-bpsS \ma-IcWmZn kwkvIm-c߃    -
    {]khw Ign-™m¬ AΩ-bp-sSbpw Ip´n-bp-                 kwkvIm-c-hn-[n-bnse coXn-b-\p-k-cn®v bYm-
sSbpw ico-c-kw-c-£-W-Øn¬ hfsc {i≤n-°-                  Imew sNø-Ww. kv{Xo ho≠pw cP-kz-e-bmbn
Ww. ipWvTo-]mIw AYhm ku`m-Ky-ip-WvTo-                  ip≤n-t\-Sn-bm¬ ho≠pw Cßs\ EXp-Zm-\-am-
]mIw F∂o acp-∂p-I-fn-sem∂v t\ctØ Xøm-                  Imw.
            -
dm°n hbv°Ww. {]k-htijw kv{Xosb kpK-
                           -                                                              -
                                                          EXp-Im-em-`n-Kmao kym’z-Zm-c\n-cXx kZm.
‘-ap≈ sNdp-Nq-Sp-sh-≈-Øn¬ Ipfn-∏n-°-W-w.               ]cvh-hcvPw {htP-ss®\mw XZv{htXm cXn-Im-
B sh≈w sIm≠p-Xs∂ Ip´n-tbbpw Ipfn-∏n-                   aybm (a-\p. 3.45)
°Ww ]n∂oSv Ip´n-bpsS ]p°nƒs°mSn-bpsS                      \nµym-kz-jvSmkp Nm\ymkp kv{Xntbm
Nph-´n¬ t\cnb Nc-Sp-sIm≠p sI´n \mew-Kpew               cm{Xn-jp-hcvP-b\v. {_“-Nm-tcyh `hXn b{X-
\n¿Øn, apI-fn¬ h®v apdn-°-Ww. ico-c-Ønse               X-{Xm-{ita hk≥ (Sn. 3.50)
c‡w Xp≈n-t]mepw ]pd-Øp-t]m-Im-Ø-hn-[-                     kz `mcy-bm¬ kwXr-]vX\pw EXp-Km-an-bp-am-
Øn¬ thWw sIt´-≠-Xv. ]n∂oSv Cu‰n√w                      b-h≥ Krl-ÿ-s\-¶nepw {_“-Nm-cn°p Xpey-
ip≤n-h-cpØn AXns‚ hmXn-en-\-IØp h®v                    \m-Wv.
s\øpw kpK-‘-{Z-hy-ßfpw sIm≠v tlmaw                        1. k¥pjvtSm `mcybm `cvØm `cv{Xm `mcym
sNø-Ww. AXn-\p-tijw ]nXmhv Ip´n-bpsS                   XssYh N. bkv a n- t ∂h Ipte \nXyw
sNhn-bn¬ thtZmkn (\ns‚ t]¿ thZ-sa-∂m-                  IeymWw Xss{Xh {[phav.
Wv) F∂p sNm√n-t°ƒ∏n-°-Ww. A\-¥cw                          2. bZn ln kv{Xo \ tcmtNX ]pamwkw \
s\øpw tX\pw tN¿Øv Hcp kz¿W-i-emI                       {]tam- Z - t bXv A{]- t am- Z mXv ]p\x ]pwkx
AXn¬ ap°n Ip´n-bpsS \mhn-t∑¬ Hmw F∂                    {]P\w \ {]h¿ØtX
A£cw FgpXn B iemI sIm≠p Xs∂                               3. kv{Xobmw Xp tcmN-am-\mbmw kcvhw
s\øpw tX\pw FSpØv Ip´n-bpsS \m°n¬                      Xt{Zm-NtX Ipew. Xkymw Xztcm-N-am-\mbmw
tX°-Ww. ]ns∂ Ip´nsb AΩ-bpsS ssIbn¬                     kcvh-tah \ tcmNtX (Sn. 3. 60-˛62)
sImSp-°-Ww. Ip´n°p s]‰-Ω-X-s∂-bmWv ape-                   1. `¿Ømhv `mcy-tbmSpw `mcy `¿Øm-hn-
∏m¬ sImSp-t°-≠-Xv. AΩbv°v ape-∏m-en-s√-                t\mSpw {]oXn-tbm-Sp-IqSn h¿Øn-°p-∂-Xmb
¶n¬ thsd h√ kv{Xotbbpw ]co-£n®v Ah-                    Ipe-Øn¬ Xs∂-bmWv F√m ku`m-Ky-ßfpw
cpsS ape-∏m¬ sImSp-°m-hp-∂-Xm-Wv. ]n∂oSv               sFiz-cy-ßfpw hkn-°p-∂-Xv. Ie-l-ap-≠m-Ip-
th≠p-thmfw ip≤-hm-bp-hp-≈ -th-sdmcp apdn-              ∂n-SØp Zu¿`m-Kyhpw Zmcn-{Zyhpw ÿnc-am-Ip-
°- I Øv Ip´n- t bbpw X≈- t bbpw InSØn,                 ∂p.
AhnsS cmhn-sebpw sshIp-t∂-chpw kpK-‘-                     2. `mcy `¿Øm-hns\ kt¥m-jn-∏n-°p-Ibpw
{Z-hy-ßsf sIm≠v tlmaw sNø-Ww. Bdp                      {]km-Zn-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNbvXns√-¶n¬ A{]-k-
Znhkw Ign- b p- ∂ - X p- h sc Ip´nsb amXmhp            ∂-\mb `¿Øm-hn\v Imaw D≠m-hp-I-bn-√.
Xs∂ ape-bq-´-Ww. amXmhv ico-c-]p-jvSn-°mbn                3. kv{Xo {]k-∂-bm-sW-¶n¬ Ipew {]k-
hnhn[ \√ ]Zm¿∞-߃ `£n-°-Ww. tbm\o-                     ∂w. Ah-fpsS A{]-k-∂-X-bn¬ \n∂t{X ZpxJ-
k-t¶mNw apX-em-bXpw sNtø-≠-Xm-Wv. Bdmw                 sa√mw D≠m-Ip-∂-Xv.
Znhkw amXm-hn\v kqXn-Im-Krlw shSn-bm-hp-                  1. ]nXr-`ncv{`m-Xr-`n-ss›Xmx ]Xn-`ncvtZ-h-
∂-Xpw Ip´nsb apebq-´p-hm≥ Hcp [m{Xnsb                  ssc-kvXYm. ]qPym `qj-bn-X-hym› _lp
      - -                     -
(t]m-‰Ωsb) \nb-an-°m-hp-∂Xp-am-Wv. [m{Xn°v             IeymWao]vkp`nx.
DØ-a-`-£Ww \¬Ip-hm≥ G¿∏mSp sNø-Ww.                        2. b{X \mcykvXp ]qPyt¥ cat¥ X{X
[m{Xn Ip´nsb ape- b q´n ]cn- ] m- e n- ° - W w.        tZhXmx. bss{X-XmkvXp \ ]qPyt¥ kcvhm-
F∂m¬ AΩ-bpsS ta¬t\m´w kZm Ah-cpsS                      kvX-{Xm-^emx {Inbmx.
taep-≠m-bn-cn-°-Ww. Ip´nsb hf¿Øp-∂-Xn¬                    3. timN¥n Pmatbm b{X hn\-iy-Xym-ip-
t\m´-°p-d-hp-≠m-I-cp-Xv. AΩ-bpsS ape-∏m¬               X-XvIpew. \ timN¥n Xp bss{XXm hcv[tX
{khn-°m-Xn-cn-°p-hm≥ kvX\m-{K-Øn¬ acp∂p                X≤n kcvhZm.
]pc-´-Ww. Blm-c-Im-cy-Ønepw hfsc {i≤n-                    4. Xkvam-tZXmx kZm ]qPym `qj-Wm-—m-Z-

                                                  71
     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                     kam-h¿Ø\w, hnhm-lw, Krl-ÿm-{i-a-hn[n
                              -
\m-iss\x. `qXn-Im-ssacv\ssccv\nXyw kXvIm-                bYm-tbmKyw ]Wn-sb-Sp-∏n-°p-I, ho´n¬ Xc-
tc-jq-’-thjp N                                           t°-sSm∂pw hcmsX tae-t\z-jWw \S-ØpI
   (Sn. 3˛55, 56, 57, 59)                                F∂n-h-sb√mw kv{XoIfpsS I¿Ø-hy-ß-fm-Ip-
   1. hfsc t{ib-kp-≠m-I-W-sa∂v B{K-ln-                   ∂p.
°p∂ ]£w ]nXm-hv, ktlm-Z-c≥, `¿Øm-hv,                         kv{Xotbm cXv\m-\ytYm hnZym kXyw-
Cf-b-`¿Ør-k-tlm-Z-c≥ F∂n-h¿ kv{Xo°v                      siuNw kp`m-jnXw. hnhn-[m\n N inev]m\n
B`-c-W-hpw kev°m-chpw \¬In kt¥m-jn-                      kam-tZ-bm\n kcvhXx (Sn. 2.240)
∏n-°-Ww.                                                     DØ-a-kv{Xo-Iƒ ]e-Xcw cXv\-߃, hnZy,
   2. kv{XoIsf _lp-am-\n-°p∂ Ipe-Ønse                    kXyw, ]hn-{X-X, \√-hm-°v, ]e-hn[ inev]-
hnZzm-∑m-cmb ]pcp-j-∑m¿ tZh-kw⁄ t\Sn                     hn- Z y- I ƒ- ˛ - s sI- s Øm- g n- e p- I ƒ˛ Ch- s b√mw
km\µw can-®p-h-kn-°p-∂p. kv{Xosb kw]q-                   F√m \mSp-I-fn¬ \n∂pw F√m a\p-jy-cn¬
Py-bmbn Icp-XmØ ho´n¬ F¥p sNbvXmepw                      \n∂pw t\Sp-Ibpw {Kln-°p-Ibpw sNøm-hp-∂-
F√mw \njv^-e-am-Wv.                                      Xm-Wv. 15
   3. kv{XoP-\-߃ ZpxJ-]o-Un-X-cmbn Zpcn-X-a-                1. kXyw {_qbm-Xv{]nbw {_qbm-∂-{_q-bm-
\p-`-hn-°p∂ X-d-hmSv apSn™v A\yw \n¬°p-                         -- -
                                                         ’-Xya{]nbw. {]nbw N \m\rXw {_qbm-tZj
hm≥ Imew hfsc th≠. kv{XoIƒ kk-                           [cvax -k-\m-X\x.
t¥mjw D’m-l-]q¿∆w {]k-∂-Nn-Ø-cmbn                            2. `{Zw `{ZanXn {_qbm-Zv`-{Z-an-tXyh hm
Ccn-°p∂ Ipew F∂pw A`n-hr≤nsb {]m]n-                      htZXv. ipjvI-sshcw hnhmZw N \ Ipcym-
®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂p.                                      XvtI-\-Nn-’l. (Sn. 4.138.139)
   4. AXn-\m¬ t{ib-kp-≠m-Im-\m-{K-ln-°p-∂-                   1. kZm kXyw ]d-b-Ww. CjvS-s∏-Sp∂
h¿ F√mw D’-hm-h-k-c-ß-fnepw BtLm-jm-                     kXyw ]d-b-Ww. A{]n-b-amb kXyw ]d-b-cp-
h- k - c - ß - f nepw kv { XoIsf B`- c - W - ß ƒ,        Xv. H‰-°-Æs\ H‰-°-Æ-s\∂p ]d-bp-Itbm
hkv { X- ß ƒ, `£y- ] - Z m¿∞- ß ƒ F∂nh                   hnfn-°p-Itbm AcpXv F∂¿∞w. A\ys\
\¬In kt¥m-jn-∏n-°-Ww.                                    kt¥m-jn-∏n-°p-hm≥ AkXyw ]d-b-cp-Xv.
   ""]qPm'' i_vZ-Øn\v kev°m-c-sa-∂m-W¿∞-                     2. F√m-h¿°pw lnX-amb hm°p-Itf ]d-
sa∂v kZm kvacn-°-Ww. AXn-\m¬ cm{Xn-t\-                   bm-hq. ipjvI-ssh-cw˛ sX‰p sNøm-Ø-h-t\mSv
cØpw ]I¬ ka-b-Øpw BZyambn XΩn¬                           shdpsX shdp-∏v˛ hmKzmZw F∂nh BtcmSpw
ImWp- t ºmgpw ]ncn- ™ p- t ]m- I p- t ºmgpw              Acp-Xv. a‰p-≈-h¿°p lnX-I-c-sa-¶n¬ ]c-Zq-j-
""\akvtX'' F∂p {]k-∂-cmbn At\ym\yw ]d-                   WsØ `b∂v AXp ]d-bm-Xn-cn-°-cp-Xv.
tb≠XmIp∂p.
                                                             ]pcpjm _lthm cmP≥ kXXw {]nbhm-
   kZm {]lr-jvSbm `mhyw Krl-Im-tcyjp                     Zn\x. A{]n-bky Xp ]Yyky h‡m t{imXm
Z£bm. kpkw-kvIr-tXm-]-kvI-cbm hytb
                                                         N Zp¿√-`x. 16
Nmap-‡-l-kvXbm (Sn. 5.150)
   kv{XoIƒ Krl-Ir-Xy-ß-fn¬ ka¿∞-I-fm-                        [rX-cm-jv{Ssc! a‰p-≈-hsc kt¥m-jn-∏n-°p-
bn-cn-°-Ww. kk-t¥mjw ho´n-ep≈ hkvXp-                     hm≥ kZm {]nb-hm°p ]d-bp∂ apJ-kvXp-Xn-
°-sf√mw kw-kvIcn®p shbv°p-I. hoSp hrØn-
                      -                                  °m¿ Cu temI-Øn¬ hf-sc-bp-≠v. F∂m¬
bm°n kq£n-°p-I. th≠-Xn-e-[nIw sNehp                      tIƒ°p-tºmƒ ckn-°m-ØXpw hmkvXhØn¬                - -
sNømXn-cn-°p-I, kI-e-km-[-\-ßfpw ip≤-                    t{ib-kvI-c-hp-amb hm°p-Iƒ ]d-bp-∂-h¿ Ipd-
am°n shbv°p-I, ]mIw sNø-s∏´ ]Zm¿∞-                       hm-Wv.
߃ Huj- [ - X p- e y- a mbn ico- c - Ø n\pw a\-              A\y-cpsS tZmj-߃ t\cn´p ]d-bp-Ibpw
kn\pw D≠m-Im-hp∂ tcmK-ßsf AI-‰p-hm≥
tbmKy-ambn ]mIw sNøp-I, sNehpIƒ IW-                       15 al¿jn, P¿a-\n-bnepw a‰pw C¥ym-°msc Ab®v
s°-gpXn h®v `¿Øm-hns\ t_m[n-∏n-°p-I,                         inev]m-Zn-Iƒ ]Tn-∏n-°p-hm≥ {]b-Xv\n-®n-cp-∂p.
ho´p-th-e-°m¿, ]cn-Nm-c-I¿, F∂n-h-sc-s°m≠v                   At±-l-sa-gp-Xnb Fgp-Øp-Iƒ CXn\p sXfn-hm-Wv.
                                                          16 alm-`m-cXw DtZymK -]¿hw˛37-˛15 (hn-Zp-c-\o-Xn)

                                                    72
                \memw kap-√mkw                                                         kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
Ah-\-hs‚ tZmj-ßsf Ah-cpsS hm°n¬                                    kzm[ym-tb-\mcvNtbZcvjo\vtlmssacvtZ-
\n∂v Adn-bp-Ibpw A\ys‚ KpW-ßsf ]tcm-                            hm-\y-Ym-hn[n. ]nXro≥ {imss≤› \r\-
£- a mbn ]d- b p- I - b p- a m- W v \√- h ¿°p- N n- X w.        ss∂cv`q-Xm\n _en-Icva-Wm. (Sn. 3.81)
t\cn¬ KpW-ßsf ]pI-gvØp-Ibpw A√m-Ø-                                  c≠v b⁄-ß-sf-∏‰n {_lva-N-cy-hn-[n-bn¬
t∏mƒ tZmjw ]d-bp-Ibpw sNøp-∂Xv ZpjvS-                           Fgp-Xn. H∂m-atØXv thZm-Zn-im-kv{X-ß-fpsS
∑m-cpsS coXn-bm-Wv. kz¥w tZmj-ßsf A\y-                          ]T-\-]m-T-\߃, kt‘ym-]m-k\w, tbmKm-
cpsS apºn¬ Xpd-∂p-]-d-bm-Xn-cn-°m≥ kz¥w                         `ymkw F∂n-h-b-S-ßnb {_lva-b⁄w; c≠m-
tZmj-ßsf shSn™v KpW-hm-\m-Ip-hm≥ i‡-                            a-tØXv hnZzm-∑m-cpsS tkh-\hpw kwk¿Khpw
\m-hp-I-bn-√. Hcn-°epw Btcbpw \nµn-°-cp-Xv.                     ]hn-{X-X, Znhy-Kp-W-߃, Zm\-`m-hw, hntZym-
""KptWjp tZmjm-tcm-]-W-a-kq-bm. AcvYmXv                         ∂Xn F∂nh kºm-Zn-°p-I, F∂n-h-b-S-ßnb
tZmtjjp KpWm- t cm- ] - W - a - ] y- k qbm                      tZh- b ⁄w; Cu c≠v bPv R - ß fpw cmhn-
KptWjp KpWm-tcm-]Ww tZmtjjp tZmjm-                              sebpw kmbm-”-Ønepw A\p-jvTn-°-Ww.
tcm-]Ww N kvXpXnx'' KpW-Øn¬ tZmj-                                  1. kmbw kmbw Krl-]-Xncvt\m A·nx
sØbpw tZmj-Øn¬ KpW-sØbpw Btcm-]n-                               {]mXx {]mXx skua\-k-ky- Zm-Xm.
°p-∂Xp \nµ-bm-Ip-∂p. KpW-ßsf KpW-ß-
sf∂pw tZmj-ßsf tZmj-ßsf∂pw ]d-bp-∂Xv-                              2.- { ]mXx {]mXcv K r- l - ] - X ncv t \m A·nx
kvXpXn-bm-Wv, Ak-Xy-`m-jWw \nµbpw kXy-                          kmbwkmbw skua\-k-ky- Zm-Xm. (A.-Imw.
`m-jWw kvXpXnbpw BIp∂p F∂¿∞w.                                   19,7, 3, 4) 17
   1. _p≤nhr≤nIcm- W ymip [\ym\n N                                 3. Xkv a m- Z - t lm- c m- { Xky kwtbmtK
lnXm-\n N. \nXyw imkv{Xm-Wy-th-t£X                              {_m“Wx k‘ym-ap-]m-koX. DZy-¥-akvXw
\nK-amw-ss›h sshZn-Im\v.                                        bm¥-am-Zn-Xy-a-`n-[ym-b\v. 18 ({_m-“-tW)
   2. bYm bYm ln ]pcpjx imkv{Xw ka-[n-                             4. \ XnjvTXn Xp bx ]qcvhmw t\m]mkvtX
K-—Xn. XYm XYm hnPm-\mXn hn⁄m\w                                 bkvXpx 19 ]›namw. k km[p-`ncv_lnjv
Nmky tcmN-tX. (a\p. 4. 19, 20)                                  Imcyx kcvh-kvamZv ZznP-IcvaWx (a-\p. 2. 103)
   1 . _p≤n°pw [\- Ø n- \ pw \∑bv ° pw                             1. k‘ybv°v tlman-°p∂ tlma-{Zhyw cmhn-
AXnthKw A`n-hr-≤n-bp-≠m-°p∂ imkv{X-ß-                           se-hsc hmbp-hns\ ]cn-ip-≤-am°n kpJw
sfbpw thZ-ß-sfbpw Znh-khpw tIƒ°p-Ibpw                           {]Zm\w sNøp-∂p.
tIƒ∏n-°p-Ibpw sNø-Ww. {_“-N-cym-{i-a-                              2. cmhnse A·n-bn¬ tlman-°p∂ tlma-
Øn¬ kv { Xo]p- c p- j - ∑ m¿ CsX√mw ]Tn- ® v ,                  {Zhyw kmbm”w hsc hmbp- h ns\ ip≤n-
a\\w sNøp-Ibpw a‰p-≈-hsc ]Tn-∏n-°p-Ibpw                         sNbvXv _ew, _p≤n, BtcmKyw F∂nh D≠m-
thWw.                                                           °p-∂p.
   2. Fs¥-∂m¬, imkv{X-ßsf IqSp-X-embn                              3. AXn-\m¬ cm{Xnbpw ]Iepw IqSn-t®-cp∂
B`y-kn-°pw- tXmdpw AXmXp hnZy-I-fn-ep≈                          k‘y-I-fn¬ DZ-bm-kvX-a-b-ß-fn¬ Cuiz-cs\
⁄m\hpw A`n-cp-Nnbpw h¿≤n-°p-∂p.                                 [ym\n-°p-Ibpw A·ntlm{Xw sNøp-Ibpw
                                                                Ahiyw thWw.
           ]©-a-lm-b⁄߃                                            4. Cu c≠p I¿aßfpw cmhn- s ebpw
   Ejn-b⁄w tZh-b⁄w `qX-b⁄w N                                    sshIn´pw A\p-jvTn-°m-Ø-hs\ k÷-\-߃
kcvhZm. \rb⁄w ]nXr-b⁄w N bYm-                                   ZznP-I¿Ω-ß-fn¬ \n∂p _ln-jvI-cn-°-Ww.
i‡n \ lm]-tbXv (a-\p. 4.21)                                     Ahs\ iq{Zs\t∏mse hnNm- c n- ° - W - s a-
   A[ym- ] \w {_“- b ⁄x ]nXr- b ⁄                               18 jUznwi {_m“Ww 4/5 & ssX. B. 2 Bc-Wy-I-ß-
kv X p Xcv ∏ Ww tlmtam ssZthm _encv                                                 -        -
                                                                    sfbpw {_m“-Wambn KWn-°bm¬ {KŸ-Imc≥
`utXm \rb-t⁄mf-Xn-Yn-]q-Pav (Sn. 3.70)                                                            -
                                                                    s]mXpth "{_m“tW' Fs∂-gp-Xn-bXm-Wv.
                                                                19 a\p-kvar-Xn-bn¬ "bivN ]›nam k iq{Z-h-Zv_-ln-
17 AY¿h-thZw 19/55/3,4                                              jvImcyx F∂p ]mTw. {KŸ-Im-c-s‚ ]©-alm
                                                                    b⁄-hn-[n-bnepw Cu ]mTw ImWmw.

                                                           73
     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                           kam-h¿Ø\w, hnhm-lw, Krl-ÿm-{i-a-hn[n
∂¿∞w.                                                              ""hnZzm-Mvtkm- ln tZhmx'' 20 F∂p iX-]-
    tNm:-˛ aq∂p t\cw kt‘ym-]m-k\ F¥p-                          Y-{_m-“-W-Øn-ep-≠v. hnZzm-∑m-scbmWv tZh-
sIm≠p sNbvXp-IqSm?                                             ∑m¿ F∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xv. kmwtKm-]mwKw \mep
    D:-˛ aq∂p-t\cw k‘y-bn-√m-Ø-Xp-sIm-≠p-X-                    thZ-ßfpw ]Tn-®-hsc {_“mhv F∂pw A{X-
s∂. shfn-®hpw Ccp´pw IqSn-t®-cp∂ k‘y                           tØmfw ]Tn-®n-´n-√m-Ø-hsc tZh≥ F∂pw ]d-
cmhn-tebpw sshIp-t∂-chpw am{X-ta-bp-≈q.                        bp-∂p. tZh\v hnZzm≥ F∂m-W¿∞w. Ah-sc-
Cßs\ IW-°m-°msX D®-k-a-bØp aq∂m-a-                             t∏mse hnZp-jn-I-fmb {_m“-W-kv{Xo-I-fmWv
sXmcp k‘y IW- ° m- ° p- ∂ - b mƒ ]mXn-                         tZhn-am¿. Ah-cpsS ]p{X-∑m¿, injy-∑m¿, Ah-
cmbv°pw kt‘ym-]m-k\w sNøm-Ø-sX-¥p-                             cpsS KW- ß ƒ- ˛ - t k- h - I - ∑ m¿˛ F∂n- h - c p- s S-
sIm≠v? A¿≤-cm-{Xn°p k‘ym-h-µ\w sNø-                            sb√mw ip{iq-jbv°v {im≤w AYhm X¿∏Ww
W-sa-¶n¬ bmaw-tXmdpw \mgn-I-tXmdpw hn\m-                       F∂p ]d-bp-∂p. AY Ejn-X¿∏-Wav:-˛
gn-I-tXmdpw £Ww-tXmdpw k‘y-bp-s≠-∂p- I-                            Hmw aco-Nym-Zb Ej-b-kvXr-]y-¥mav
cpXn At∏m-sg√mw k‘ym-h-µ\w sNø-Ww.                                 aco-Nym-Zyr-jn-]-Xv\y-kvXr-]y-¥mav
Aßs\ sNøm-\m{K-ln-®mepw Akm-[y-am-Wv.                              aco-Nym-Zyr-jn-kp-Xm-kvXr-]y-¥mav
a≤ym-”-Øn¬ kt‘ym-]m-k\ sNø-W-sa-∂-                                 aco-Nym-Zyr-jn-K-Wm-kvXr-]y-¥m-av.
Xn\v {]am-W-sam-∂p-an-√. c≠p-t\cw k‘ym-h-                          CXn Ejn-Xcv∏-Wav:-˛
µ- \ hpw tlmahpw sNbv X m¬ aXn. aq∂p                               {_“m- h ns‚ {]s]u- { X- \ mb aco- N n- s b-
{]mhiyw th≠. `qXw, `mhn, h¿Ø-am\w                              t∏mse hnZzm-\mbn A[ym-]\w sNøp-∂-h¿,
F∂o aq∂p Ime-t`-Z-ß-fp-≈Xv kt‘ym-]m-                           Ah¿°p kZriw hn⁄-cmbn s]¨Ip-´n-Isf
k-\sb kw_-‘n-°p-∂-X-√.                                         ]Tn-∏n-°p∂ Ah-cpsS ]Xv\n-am¿, Ah¿°p
    aq∂m- a Xv ]nXr- b - ⁄ - a m- W v . tZh- ∑ m¿              Xpeycmb Ah-cpsS ]p{X-∑m¿, injy-∑m-¿,
AYhm hnZzm-∑m¿ Ejn-Iƒ (A[y-b-\hpw                                      -
                                                               tkh-I∑m¿ F∂n-h¿°v tkh-\kXv°m-c߃    - -       -
A[ym- ] - \ hpw sNbv X p- s Im- ≠ n- c n- ° p- ∂ - h ¿)        sNøp-∂-XmWv Ejn-X¿∏-Ww. AY ]nXr-X¿∏-
A—≥,- AΩ apX-emb ]nXr-°ƒ, hr≤-∑m¿,                             W-av.
⁄m\n-Iƒ, ]c-a-tbm-Kn-Iƒ F∂n-h-¿s°√mw                               Hmw tkmakZx ]nX-c-kvXr-]y-¥m-av. A·n-
tkh\w sNøp-∂-XmWv ]nXr-b-⁄w. ]nXr-                             jzmØmx ]nXc kvXr]y-¥mav. _cvln-j-Zx- ]n-
b⁄w {im≤-sa∂pw X¿∏-W-sa∂pw c≠p                                      -                                -
                                                               X-ckvXr-]y-¥mav. tkma]mx ]nX-ckvXr-]y-¥m-
hn[-ap-≠v. "{iXv' F∂m¬ kXy-sa-∂¿∞w.                            av. lhn-cv`pPx ]nX-c-kvXr]y¥m-av. BPy]mx
""{iXv kXyw Z[m-Xn bbm {Inbbm km                               ]nX-c-kvXr-]y-¥m-av. kpIm-en\x ]nX-c-kvXr-
{i≤m, {i≤-bm- bXv {Inb-tX -X{—m≤av''                           ]y-¥mav. bam-Znt`ym \ax bam-Zow-kvXcv∏-bm-
kXyw {Kln-°p-hm≥ Ign-bp∂ {Inbsb {i≤-                                                                   -
                                                               an. ]nt{X- kz[m \ax ]nXcw Xcv∏bman. ]nXm-
sb∂pw {i≤-tbm-Sp-IqSn sNøp∂ I¿Ω-Øn\v                           a-lmb kz[m \ax ]nXm-alw Xcv∏bm-an. {]]n-  -
{im≤-sa∂pw ]d-bp-∂p. ""Xr]y-¥n -X¿∏b-¥n-                       Xm-a-lmb kz[m \ax {]]n-Xm-alw Xcv∏-bm-
tb\ ]nXro≥ XXv X¿∏Ww'' Pohn-®n-cn-°p∂                          an. amt{X kz[m \tam amXcw Xcv∏-bm-an.
amXm- ] n- X m- ° - ∑ m¿ apX- e mb ]nXr-- P - \ - ß ƒ          ]nXm-a-ssly-kz-[m -\ax ]n-Xm-alow Xcv∏-bm-
{]km-Zn-°p∂ I¿a-am-Wv X¿∏Ww. Pohn-®n-cn-                       an. kz]Xvss\y kz[m \ax kz]-Xv\nw- Xcv∏-
°p-∂-h¿°mWv X¿∏Ww; acn-®-h¿°-√. AY                             bm-an. kw_-‘n`yx kz[m \ax kw_-‘n-\-
tZh-X¿∏-Wav:-˛                                                           -
                                                               kvXcv∏bm-an. ktKmt{X`yx kz[m \ax ktKm-
    Hmw {_“m-Ztbm tZhm-kvXr-]y-¥mav                            {Xmw-kvXcv∏-bman 21
    {_“m-Zn-tZ-h-]-Xv\y-kvXr-]y-¥mav                               CXn ]nXr-X¿∏Wav:-˛
    {_“m-Zn-tZ-h-kp-Xm-kvXr-]y-¥mav                            20 iX-]Tw 3.7.3.10
                                                               21 tkma-ktZmf-·n-jzm-Øm› XYm-_cvln-jtZmf]n N
    {_“mZn tZh-K-Wm-kv-Xr-]y-¥m-av.                                tkma ]m› XYm-hn-Zzw-kvX-ssYh N lhncv`pPx
    CXn tZh Xcv∏-Wav:-˛                                            BPy-]m› XYm hXvk XYm-lyt\y kpIm-en\x
                                                                   GtX Nmt\yN ]nXcx ]qPymx kcvth ZznPm Xn`nx
                                                                                  - -
                                                                   (_r-lZv ]cm-ickvarXn 7/167-˛168)

                                                          74
               \memw kap-√mkw                                                      kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
    (tkm- a - k - Z x) ""tb tkmta PK- Z o- i ztc            am\-bXn km amXm'' `£Ww sImSpØpw
]Zm¿∞-hn-Zymbmw N koZ¥n tX tkma-kZx''                       ip{iq-jn®pw a°sf kΩm-\n-°p-∂-hƒ amXm-
]c-am-fl-⁄m-\-Ønepw ]Zm¿∞-hn-Zy-bnepw                        hv. (]n-Xm-a-lo) ""bm ]nXpcvamXm km ]nXm-
\n]p-W-∑m-cmWv tkma-k-Øp-°ƒ. (A-·n-jzm-                     alo'' A—s‚ AΩ-bmWv ]nXm-a-ln. ({]-]n-
Ømx) ""ssbc-t·-hn-ZyptXm hnZym- Kr-loXm                     Xm-a-lo) ""bm ]nXm-a-lky amXm km {]]n-
tX A·n-jzmØmx'' A·n-bpsS AXm-bXv                            Xm-aln'' ]nXm-a-ls‚ amXm-hmWv {]]n-Xm-a-
an∂¬ apX-em-b-h-bpsS ⁄m\-ap-≈-h-cmWv                        ln. Ch-tcbpw Ah\hs‚ `mcy, ktlm-Z-c≥,
A·n- j zm- Ø - ∑ m¿ (_cvln- j - Z x) ""tb                                                       - -
                                                            Nm¿®-°m¿, Iq´-°m¿, CXc Kpcp-P\߃ hr≤-
_cvlnjn DØta hyh-lmtc koZ¥n tX                              P-\-߃ F∂n-h-scbpw {i≤m-]q¿∆w `£-W-
_cv l n- j Zx'' hnZym- ` n- h r- ≤ n- b p- ≠ m- ° p∂        ]- Z m¿∞- ß ƒ, hkv { X- ß ƒ, at\m- l - c - a mb
kXv I ¿Ω- ß - f n¬ {]h¿Øn- ® n- ´ p- ≈ - h - c mWv          hml\߃ apX-em-bh sImSpØv \∂mbn
          -                     -
_¿ln-jØp-°ƒ. (tkm-a]mx) ""tb tkma-ssa-                      Xr]vXn-s∏-SpØp-I-˛-A-h-cpsS a\kv kwXr-]vXn-
iz-cy-tam-j-[o-ckw hm ]m¥n ]n_¥n hm                         tbbpw icocw Btcm-Ky-sØbpw {]m]n-°-
tX tkma]mx'' sFiz-cy-ßsf c£n-°p-∂-Xp-                       Ø° {]hr-Øn-IƒsIm-≠p {]oXn-]q¿∆w ip{iq-
sIm≠v AYhm tkma-sa∂p t]cmb alu-j-                           jn-°p-∂-Xm-Wv {im≤hpw X¿∏-W-hpw.
[nbpsS ckw IpSn-°-bm¬ tcmK-c-ln-X-cm-bn-                        \mem-a-tØXv sshiz-tZ-h-b-⁄-am-Ip-∂p.
cn-°p-Ibpw a‰p-≈-h-cpsS sFiz-cy-ßsf c£n-                    Blmcw ]mIw sNbvXp-I-gn-™m¬, D∏v, Fcn-
      -               -
°p-Itbm a‰p-≈h¿°v Huj-[n-ckw IpSn-°m≥                       hv, F∂nh Ie-cm-ØXpw a[p-c-hpw s\øpw
sImSp-°p-Itbm sNbvXv Ah-cpsS tcmK-ßsf                       tN¿∂-Xp-amb hn`hw ASp-∏n¬ \ns∂-SpØv
                           - --
lcn-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂hcmWv tkma-]∑m¿. (l-      -               thsd sh®n-´p≈ A·n-bn¬ Xmsg ]d-bp∂
hncv`p-Px) ""tb lhncvtlm-Xp-aØp -acvlw                      a{¥w sNm√n tlman®v `mKn- ° p- ∂ - X mWv
`pRvPtX t`mP-b¥n hm tX lhncv`pPx'' el-                      sshiz-tZ-h-b-⁄w. (C-Xn\p {]amWw:-˛)
cn-bp-≠m-°p-∂-hbpw lnwkm-I-c-hp-amb hkvXp-                      sshiz-tZ-hky kn≤ky Krtly f-·u- hn-
°sf h¿÷n®v thsd- b p≈ ]Zm¿∞- ß ƒ                                       -                      -
                                                            [n-]qcvhIav. B`yx- Ip-cym-t±-hXmt`ym {_m“
`£n-°p-Ibpw `£n-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂-h-                        tWm tlma-a-\z-l-av. (-a-\p. 3. 84)
cmWv lhn¿`p-°p-Iƒ. (BPy-]mx) ""b BPyw
⁄mXpw {]m]vXpw hm tbmKyw c£-¥n hm                               ASp-°-f-bn¬ ]mIw sNbvX `£-W-Øn\v
]n_-¥n X BPy]mx'' Adn-bp-hm≥ tbmKy-                         Znhy- K p- W - ß ƒ e`n- ° p- h m≥ ]mIm- · n- b n¬
amb hkvXp-°sf c£n-°p-Ibpw AYhm s\øv,                        Xmsg ]d-bp∂ a{¥-߃ sNm√n hn[n-{]-Imcw
]m¬ apX-embh `£n-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂-h-                          \nXyhpw tlman-°-Ww.
cmWv BPy-]-∑m¿. (kp-Im-en-\x) ""tim`\x                                           a{¥w
Imtem hnZytX tbjmw tX kpIm-en\x''                               Hmw A·-tb kzmlm. tkmamb kzmlm.
kpIrXw sNøp-∂-Xp-sIm≠v kpJw \nd™                            A·otjmam`ymw kzmlm. hntizt`ym
ka-b-ap-≈-h-cmWv kpIm-en-\¿. (b-ax) tb                      tZth`yx kzmlm. [\z¥ctb- k zmlm.
Zpjv S m≥ b—¥n \nKr- l v W - ¥ n tX bam                     Ipsslz-kzm-lm. A\p-a-ssXy-kzmlm. {]Pm-
\ymbm-[oim'' ZpjvS-∑msc in£n-°p-Ibpw                        ]-Xtb kzmlm. kl Zymhm-]r-Yn-ho`ymw
injvS-∑msc c£n-°p-Ibpw sNøp∂ \ymbm-                         kzmlm. kznjvS-Ir-tX- kzm-lm.
[n-]-∑m-cmWv ba-∑m¿. (]n-Xm) ""bx ]mXn k                        Cu a{¥ßtfm-tcm∂pw sNm√n \√-hÆw
]nXm'' `£Ww sImSpØpw ip{iq-jn-®pw k-                        IØn-Pz-en-°p∂ A·n-bn¬ Hmtcm BlpXn
¥m-\-ßsf c£n-°p-∂-h≥ As√-¶n¬ k¥m-                           hoXw sNø-Ww. ]n∂oSv Xfn-I-bn-tem \ne-Øp-
\-ßsf DXv]m-Zn-∏n-°p-∂-h-\mWv ]nXm-hv. (]n-                 h-®n-´p≈ Ce-bn-tem Ing°p XpS-ßnb Zn°p-
Xm-a-lx, {]]n-Xm-alx) ""]nXpx ]nXm ]nXm-                    I- f n- s e√mw Xmsg ]d- b p∂ a{¥w sNm√n
alx ]nXm-a-lky ]nXm {]]n-Xm-alx'' ]nXm-                     ÿm]n-°-Ww.
hns‚ ]nXmhv ]nXm- a - l \pw ]nXm- a - l s‚                      Hmw km\pKm-tb-{µm-b-\ax. km\p-Kmb
]nXmhv {]]n-Xm-a-l\pw BIp-∂p. (am-Xm) ""bm                  bamb \ax. km\pKmb hcp-Wm-b-\ax. km\p-

                                                       75
     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                               kam-h¿Ø\w, hnhm-lw, Krl-ÿm-{i-a-hn[n
Kmb tkmam-b-\ax. acpZvt`ym \ax AZvt`ym             Zn-I-sf-∏-‰n-bp≈ D]-tZ-i-߃ tI´v AX-\p-k-
\ax. h\-kv]Xnt`ym \ax. {iossb \ax. `{Z             cn®v Ah-\-hs‚ kz`m-hsØ kwkvI-cn-°-Ww.
Imssfy \ax. {_“-]-Xtb \ax. hmkvXp-]-               Krl-ÿ-∑m¿ cmPm-°-∑m¿ F∂n-hcpw AXn-
Xtb \ax. hntizt`ym tZtht`ym \ax. Znhm-             Yn-sb-t∏mse Nne Ah--k-c-ß-fn¬ kev°m-c-
N-tct`ym `qtXt`ym \ax. \‡©mcnt`ym                  tbm-Ky-∑m-cmWv F∂m¬:-˛
`qtXt`ym \ax. kcvhmfl `qXtb \ax. *                                     v     -
                                                       ]mj-WUn-t\m hn-Icvaÿm\vss_Um-ehr--          -
    Cßs\ XqIn-bn´v _m°n A∂sØ AXn-                  Øn-Im©-Tm\v. ssl-Xp-Im\v_I-hrØow›-
Yn-I-fp-s≠-¶n¬ Ah¿°p hnf-ºp-Itbm A·n-              hm-Mvam-t{X-Wm-]n- \mcvNtbXv (a-\p. 4.30)
bn¬ CSp-Itbm sNøWw. ]n∂oSv eh-Wm∂w                               -                    -
                                                       (]m-jWvUn) thZ-\n-µI¿, thZ-hn-cp-≤¿ (hn-
AXm-bXv ]cn-∏v, tNmdv, Idn-Iƒ, N∏mØn Ch-                 -                -
                                                   Icvaÿx) thZ-ßfn¬ \ntj-[n-®n-´p-≈h sNøp-
sb√mw Iptdsi FSpØv \neØv Bdn-SØv                   ∂-hcpw AkXyw ]d-bp-∂-hcpw (ss_-Um-e-
hoXn-®n-S-Ww. CXn\v {]amWw:-˛                      hr-Øn-Ix) Hfn-®n-cp∂v, X°w-t\m°n Fen apX-
    iq\mw N ]Xn-Xm-\mw N iz]Nmw ]m]-tcm-           emb {]mWn-IfpsS ta¬ NmSn-hoWv hb-dp-\n-d-
Kn- W ma.v hmb- k m\mw Irao- W mwN i\-             bv°p∂ ]q®-sb-t∏mse Znhkw Ign-°p-∂-h¿
ssIcv\ncvh-t]-Zv `phn (a-\p. 3.92)                 (i-Tx) Zpcm-{K-lw, Zpc-`n-am-\w, hmin apX-emb
    ""izt`ym \ax. ]Xn-tXt`ym \ax. iz]Kvt`ym        tZmj-ß-fp-≈-h¿-˛-A-h-\-h\v Adn-hn-s√-¶nepw
\ax. ]m]-tcm-Knt`ym \ax. hmb-tkt`ym \ax.           Adn-hp-≈-h¿ D]-tZ-in-®m¬ tIƒ°m-Ø-h¿
Irant`ym \ax'' F∂p sNm√n hoXn®p h®-                (ssl-Xp-Ix) ""Rm\mWv {_“w, PKØv anYy-
tijw AsX-SpØv Ah-i¿t°m hni∂p he-                   bm-Wv, thZ-im-kv{X-ßfpw Cuiz-c\pw `mh-\-
bp∂ izmhv, Im° apX-emb Pohn-Iƒt°m                  I-fmWv'' F∂n-ßs\ C°m-eØp thZm-¥n-Iƒ
sImSp-°-Ww. ChnsS \ax- i-_vZ-Øn\v A∂w              Pev]n-°p-∂-Xp-t]mse hrYm hmN-I-a-Sn-°p-∂-
F∂ A¿∞-am-Wv. izmhv, ]m]n, NWvUm-f≥,               h¿ (_-I-hr-Ønx) H‰-°m-en¬ [ym\w sNøp-
]m]-tcm-Kn, Im°, Ddpºv XpS-ßnb IoS-߃              ∂-h-s\-t∏mse \Sn®v a’y-ßsf ]nSn-®p-Xn∂v
F∂n-h-bvs°√mw `£Ww \¬I-W-sa∂p a\p-                 kzm¿∞w t\Sp∂ sIm‰ntb t]mse {]h¿Øn-
kvarXn apX-emb [¿a-im-kv{X-ß-fn¬ hn[n-             °p∂ C°m-esØ sshcm-Kn-Iƒ, a‰p Imjmb
®n´p≠v. Cu tlmaw sNøp-∂-Xp-sIm≠v ASp-              hkv{X-[m-cn-Iƒ XpS-ßnb Zpcm-{K-ln-I-sf-bpw
°-f-bn-ep≈ hmbp ]cn-ip-≤-am-Ipw. Adn-bm-sX,                             -
                                                   thZ-hn-tcm-[n-Isfbpw hm°m¬ t]mepw kev°-
ImWmsX h∂p `hn- ° m- h p∂ {]mWn- l nw-             cn- ° - cp- X v . kev ° - c n- ® m¬ Ah¿ A`n- h r≤n
kbv°v {]Xn-hn-[n-bpambn.                           {]m]n®v temI-Øn¬ A[¿aw ]c-Øpw. kzbw
    A©m-a-tØXv AXn-Yn-b-⁄-am-Ip-∂p.                A[x- ] - X n- ° p- ∂ - X n\p ]‰nb Zpjv I ¿a߃
                                                   sNøp-∂-Xn\p ]pd-ta, Ah¿°m-XnYyw \¬Ip-
    AXnYn F∂ ]Z-Øn\v XnYn \n›-b-an-√m-             ∂-h-scbpw A⁄m-\-km-K-c-Øn¬ ap°n-s°m-
ØXv F∂¿∞-am-Wv. [m¿an-I\pw ktXym-]-                √p-∂p.
tZ- i - I \pw F√m- h ¿°pw D]- I m- c m¿∞w
k¿h{X k©-cn-°p-∂-h-\pw XnI™ hnZzm-\pw                  ]©-a-lm-b-⁄m-\p-jvTm\w sIm≠p e`n-
]c-a-tbm-Kn-bp-amb Hcp kw\ymkn Krl-ÿs‚             °p∂ ^e-ß-fn-h-bmWv:-˛ {_“-b⁄w A\p-
hk-Xn-bn¬ sN∂m¬ H∂m-a-Xmbn At±-l-                                   -
                                                   jvTn-°p-∂Xp-sIm-≠v hnZy, in£-Ww, [¿aw a\x-
Øn\v ]mZyw, A¿Lyw, BN-a-\obw F∂n-                  kw-kvImcw apX-emb kZvKp-W-߃ A`n-hr-
ßs\ aq∂p-hn[w Pew sImSp-°-Ww, ]n∂oSv               ≤n-s∏-Spw. A·n-tlm-{X-Øm¬ hmbp, agsh
At±-lØn\v BZ-cthmsS DØ-am-k\w \¬In
         -         -                               ≈w, F∂nh ]cn-ip-≤-am-bn. ip≤-amb ag In´p-
lrZyamb `£-Whpw ]m\o-bhpw \¬In ip{iq-              I-bm¬ temI-sc√mw kpJ-a-\p-`-hn-°pw. ip≤-
jn®v {]km-Zn-∏n-°-Ww. ]n∂oSv At±-l-tØmSv           hm-bp-hns‚ izmk-kv]¿i-Øm¬ Btcm-Kyw,
kw`m-jWw sNbvXv, [m¿am¿∞-Im-a-tam-£-               _p≤n, _ew, ]cm-{Iaw F∂nh h¿≤n-°p-Ibpw
߃ t\Sp-hm≥ DX-Ip∂ ⁄m\-hnPv-Rm-\m-                 X∂n- a nØw [¿am¿∞- I m- a - t am- £ - ß - f psS
                                                   kºq¿W-kn≤n D≠m-hp-Ibpw sNøpw. AXn-
                                                   \m-et{X CXns\ tZh-b⁄w F∂p ]d-bp-
* a\p 3/87, 91, 92 F∂n-h-bn¬ B[m-cnXw

                                              76
             \memw kap-√mkw                                                  kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
∂Xv. ]nXr-b⁄w sIm≠v amXm-]n-Xm-°-∑m¿,                 ]d- ® n¬, If- h v , c£m- a m¿§- a m- b thZsØ
hnZzm-∑m-cmb alm-flm-°ƒ F∂n-hsc ip{iq-                 JWv U n- ° p- I , hnizm- k - h - © \ apX- e mb
jn-°p-∂-Xp-sIm≠v ⁄m\w h¿≤n-°p-Ibpw                    ZpjvI¿a-߃ sNbvXv ]c-[\w A]-l-cn®v
XZzmcm kXym-kXy \n¿W-bhpw kXysØ                       BZyw A`n-hr-≤n-s∏-Sp-∂p. ]n∂oSv [\w, sFiz-
{Kln-°p-Ibpw Ak-XysØ XyPn-°p-Ibpw                     cyw, F∂n-h-bm¬ hnin-jvSm-lm-cw, hkv{Xw,
sNbvXv kpJ-a-\p-`-hn-°m\pw Ign-bpw. A—-\-             `qj-Ww, hml-\߃, ÿm\-am-\߃, am\yX    -
Ω- a m¿, Kpcp F∂n- h ¿ k¥m- \ - ß ƒ°pw                                                 -
                                                      apX-em-bh t\Sp-∂p. A\ym-bØm¬ i{Xp-hns\
injy¿°pw sNbvX tkh-\-Øn\v {]Xyp-]-                    Pbn-°p-∂p. ]t£ s]s´∂v IS-]p-g-Inb acw
Imcw sNbvXv IrX-⁄X ImWn-°p-∂Xv ]nXr-                  t]mse A[x-]Xn®p \in-°p-Ibpw sNøpw.
b-⁄-Øns‚ DNn-X-amb as‰mcp {]tbm-P-\-                      kXy-[cvam-cy-hr-tØjp siutN ssNhm-
am-Ip-∂p. sshiz-tZh _en-bpsS ^ew apºp                 c- t a- X v - k Zm. injymw› injym- ≤ cv t aW
]d-™n-´p-≠v. t{ijvTcmb AXn-Yn-I-fn-s√-¶n¬             hmKv_m-lq-Z-c-kw-bXx (Sn. 4. 175)
temI- Ø n\v D∂Xn D≠m- I p- ∂ - X - √ . Ah¿                hnZzm≥ thtZm-‡-k-Xy-[-cv-asØ ˛ ]£-]m-
\msSm-´p°v k©-cn®v kXyw D]-tZ-in-°-bm¬                X-an-√msX kXy-{K-lWw Ak-Xy-]-cn-Xym-Kw˛
\mkvXn-I¿ hf-cp-∂n-√. k¿h-{X-bp≈ Krl-                 \ymb-amb sshZn-I-[¿ΩsØ A\p-jvTn-®p-
ÿ¿°v kl-P-ambn kXy-hn-⁄m\w e`n-°p-                    sIm≠v injy-∑msc ]Tn-∏n-°-Ww.
∂p. am\-h-k-aq-l-Øn¬ Htc [¿aw ÿnc-ambn
\ne-\n¬°p-∂p. AXn-Yn-I-fn-s√-¶n¬ kwi-b-                                 v
                                                          1. EXzn-I]p-tcm-ln-Xm-Nm-sscycvam-Xp-em-XnYn
\n-hm-cWw km[y-a-√. kwib \nhm-cWw D≠m-                kw{inssXx. _me- h r- ≤ m- X p- s sccv s sh-
bn-s√-¶n¬ ZrV\n›-b-ap-≠m-hn-√. ZrV-\n-›-              ssZycv⁄m-Xn-kw_‘n_m-‘sshx.
b-an-s√-¶n¬ kpJ-sa-hnsS?                                  2. amXm-]n-Xr-`ymw- Pm-ao-`ncv{`m{Xm ]pt{XW
   {_mt“ aplqcvtØ _pt[yX [cvamcvYu                    `mcybm. Zpln{Xm Zmk-hcvtKW hnhmZw \
Nm\p-Nn-¥-tbXv Imb-t¢-imw› X∑q-em\v                   kam-N-tc-Xv. (Sn. 4. 179, 180)
thZ-X-ØzmcvY-tah N (a-\p. 4. 92)                          1. (E-Xzn-Iv) b⁄w \S-Øp-∂-bmƒ (]p-tcm-
   cm{Xn-bpsS \mem-asØ bma-Øntem \mep-                ln-Xx) kZm-Nm-chpw k’z-`m-hhpw kZm D]-
\m-gnI shfp-∏nt\m DW¿∂v Bh-iy-Ir-Xy-߃                tZ-in-°p-∂-bmƒ (B-Nm-cyx) Kpcp (am-Xp-ex)
Ign®v [¿aw, A¿Yw, imco-cnI tcmK-\n-Zm\w               AΩm-h≥ (A-Xn-Yn) t]m°p-h-c-hn\p XobXn
F∂n- h - s b- ∏ ‰n Nn¥n- ° p- I bpw Cuiz- c s\        \n›-b-an-√m-Ø-bmƒ (kw-{in-Xmx) B{in-X¿
[ym\n-°pIbpw sNø-Ww. Hcn-°epw A[¿Ωw                   (_m-ex) _me≥ (hr-≤x) hr≤≥ (B-Xp-cx)
{]h¿Øn-°-cp-Xv. Fs¥-∂m¬:-˛                            BXp-c≥ (ssh-Zyx) Bbp¿th-Z-a-dn-bp-∂-bmƒ
   \m[cva-›-cn-tXm- temtI kZyx ^eXn                   (⁄m-Xnx) kz¥-tKm-{X-Øntem PmXn-bntem
sKucnh. iss\-cm-hcvX-am-\kvXp IcvXpcv                 P\n- ® - h ≥ (kw- _ - ‘ o) izip- c ≥˛ `mcy- b p-
aqem\n Ir¥Xn (a-\p. 4. 172)                           sStbm `¿Øm-hn-s‚-tbm A—≥˛apX-em-b-h¿
                                                      (_m-‘-hmx) _‘p-°ƒ˛
   sNbvX A[¿Ωw Hcn-°epw \njv-^-e-am-hp-
I-bn-√. A[¿Ωw sNbvX DSs\ ^ew In´p-I-                      2. (am-Xm) AΩ (]n-Xm) A—≥ (Pmao)
bn-√. AXn-\m¬ A⁄m\nIƒ A[¿ΩsØ                          ktlm-Zcn ({`m-Xm) ktlm-Z-c≥ (`mcym) `mcy
`b-s∏-Sp-I-bn-√. ]t£, A[¿Ωm-N-cWw \nß-                (Zp-ln-X) aIƒ (Zm-k-h¿Kx) the-°m¿ F∂n-
fpsS kpJsØ kaqew \in-∏n-°p-sa-∂-dn-b-                 h-tcmSv Hcn-°epw hnhm-Ztam Ie-l˛elfItfm -- - - -
Ww. Fß-s\-sb-∂m¬:-˛                                   ]mSn-√.
   A[cvta-ssW-[tX Xmh-ØtXm `{ZmWn                         AX-]m-kvXz-\-[o--bm\x {]Xn{Kl-cp-Nncv
]iyXn. XXx k]-Xv\mRvPbXn kaq-ekvXp                    ZznPx. Aw`-ky-iva-π-th-t\h kl tXss\-h-
hn\-iyXn. (a-\p. 4. 174)                              a-÷Xn ( Sn. 4.190)
   A[¿an-I-fmb a\p-jy¿ [¿a-a-cym-Z-Isf                    (B-X-]mx) {_“-N-cy-˛-k-Xy-`m-j-WmZn X]-
ewLn®v aS-ap-dn™p Pew ]c°pw hÆw I≈w                   kp-I-fn-√m-Ø-h≥ (A-\-[o-bm-\x) hnZy A`y-


                                                 77
      kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                           kam-h¿Ø\w, hnhm-lw, Krl-ÿm-{i-a-hn[n
kn-°m-Ø-h≥ ({]-Xn-{K-l-cp-Nnx) \√-Im-cy-Øn-                     Ahs\ sIm∂p ]I-ho-´p-hm≥ hmin-bp-≈h\pw           -
s\∂p \Sn®v ]ncnhp \S-Øp-∂-h≥ F∂o                                (kzmcvY km[-\-X-Xv]-cx) I≈-tam A[¿atam
aqhcpw I√p-sIm≠p ]WnX I∏-en¬ kap{Zw                             hnizm-k-h-©-\tbm sNbvXv X≥Imcyw t\Sp-
IS-°p-∂-h-sc-t∏mse XßfpsS ZpjvI¿a-ß-                            hm≥ NXp-c\pw (i-Tx) Xm≥ ]nSn® apb-en\p
fn¬ IqSn ZpxJ-km-K-c-Øn¬ apßn-t∏m-Ip-∂p.                        sImºp aqs∂∂p ]d-bp-∂-h\pw (an-Yym-hn-\o-
Ah¿ apßp-∂tXm t]mI-s´, Ah¿°p Zm\w                               X) shdpsX hn\bw A`n-\-bn-°p-∂-h\pw (_-
\¬Ip-∂-h-scbpw IqsS ap°n-°-fbp∂p.                               I-{hX Ncx) sIm‰n-sb-t∏mse \oN-\m-sW∂v
   {Xnjz-t]y-tXjp ZØw ln hn[n-\m-]ymcvPn-                              -                               -
                                                                Adn-bWw. Ch-bmWv [¿a-hn-tcm-[n-IfpsS e£-
Xw- [-\av. ZmXpcv`-h-Xy-\cvYmb ]c-{Xm-[m-Xp-                    W-߃. Ahsc Hcn-°epw hniz-kn-°cp-Xv. BZ-   -
tc-h N ( Sn. 4. 193)                                            cn®p kev°-cn-°-cp-Xv.
   [¿am-\p-krXw kºm-Zn-®-Xm-bmepw ap≥]-                            1. [cvaw iss\x k©n-\p-bmZzevao-I-anh
d™ aq∂p t]¿°pw Zm\w sNøp∂ [\w, Zm\w                                                   - -
                                                                ]pØnImx. ]c-tem-Iklm-bmcvYw kcvh`q-Xm-            -
sImSp-°p-∂-hs\ Cu P∑-Ønepw hmßp-∂-                              \y-]o-U-b\v.
hs\ ASpØ P∑-Ønepw \in-∏n-°p-∂p.                                    2. \map{X ln klm-bmcvYw ]nXm amXm
   bYm- π-th-s\u-]-te\ \na-÷-Xyp-ZtI                            N XnjvTXmx. \ ]p{X-Zmcm \ ⁄mXncv[cva-
Xc\v. XYm \na÷tXmf[kvXmZs⁄u ZmXr                                kvXn-jvTXn tIhex.
{]Xo-—Iu (Sn. 4. 194)                                              3. GIx {]Pm-bsX P¥p-tcI Gh {]eo-
   Icn-¶-√p-sIm≠p ]WnX tXmWn-bn¬ Ibdn                           btX. GtIm-\p-`pMvt‡ kpIr-X-taI Gh
IS¬ IS-°p-hm≥ ]pd-s∏-Sp-∂-h¿ apßn-®mIpw                         N ZpjvIrXav. (Sn. 4. 238-˛240)
t]mse A⁄m-\n-bmb ZmXmhpw hmßp-∂-                                   4. GIx ]m]m\n IpcptX ^ew `pMvt‡
h\pw At[m-K-Xn-sb-˛-Zpx-JsØ {]m]n-°p-∂p.                        alm-P\x. t`m‡mtcm hn{]-ap-Nyt¥- IcvØm
                                                                tZmtj-W- en-]ytX. 22
   [¿a-hn-tcm-[n-bpsS e£-W-߃                                                     -
                                                                   5. arXw ico-cap-’rPy ImjvTt-emjvTkaw
   1. [¿a-[zPo kZm ep_v[-ivOm-ZvantIm                           £nXu. hnapJm _m‘hm bm¥n [cvakvX-
temI-Zw-`Ix. ss_Um-e-{h-XntIm t⁄tbm                             a-\p-K-—Xn (a-\p. 5. 241)
lnw{kx- kcvhm-`n-k-‘Ix.                                            1. Ddpºv ]p‰p-aÆp tiJ-cn®p hevaoIw \n¿an-
   2. At[m-Zr-jSncvss\-jIr-XnIx kzmcvYkm-
                    v               v               -           °p-∂-Xp-t]mse a\p-jy¿ Pohn-Iƒs°m-∂n\pw
[-\-XXv]cx. itTm anYym-hn-\o-X› _I-{h-                          D]-{Zhw sNømsX P∑m-¥-c-kuJyw e`n-°m≥
X-Ntcm ZznPx (Sn. 4. 195, 196)                                  [¿ak©-b\w sNø-Ww.
   1. ([cva[z-Po) [¿an-jvT\s√-¶nepw AXns‚
             -                     - -                             2. Fs¥-∂m¬, A—-t\m AΩ-bvt°m ]p{X-
t]cn¬ temIsc sIm≈-b-Sn-°p-∂-h\pw (k-                            t\m `mcybvt°m _‘p-°ƒt°m ]c-tem-IØp
Zm-ep-_v[x) ]c-a-ep-_v[\pw (Om-Zvan-Iw) I]-S-                   h∂p klm-bn-°p-hm≥ km[y-a-√. AhnsS
kz- ` m- h nbpw (tem- I - Z w- ` - I x) kzbw alm≥               [¿aw am{Xta klm-b-ap-≈q.
Na™v hoº-Sn®p \S-°p-∂-h\pw (lnw-{kx)                               3. t\m°q! Poh≥ H‰bv°p P\n-°p-∂p.
Pohn-Isf sIm√p-Ibpw A\y-tcmSv sshcw                             H‰bv°p acn-°p-∂p. [¿a-Øns‚ ^e-amb kpJ-
]pe¿Øp-Ibpw sNøp-∂-h\pw (kcvhm-`n-k-‘-                          tØbpw A[¿a-Øns‚ ^e-amb ZpxJ-tØbpw
Ix) \√-h-tcmSpw Zpjv-S-tcmSpw kvt\lw \Sn-                       Poh≥ GIm-In-bmbn A\p-`-hn-°p-∂p.
°p-∂-h\pw Bb-hs\ (ssh-Um-e-{h-Xn-Ix)                                                         -
                                                                   4. H∂p-IqSn a\- n-em-°Ww. IpSpw-_\m-Y≥     -
]q®-sb-t∏mse \oN\pw ZpjvS-\p-ambn Icp-X-                        ]m]w sNbvXp sIm≠p hcp∂ hI, ho´p-Im-
Ww.                                                             sc√mw A\p- ` - h n- ° p- ∂ p. AX- \ p- ` - h n- ° p- ∂ -
   2. (A-t[m-Zr-jvSnx) Io¿Øn-°mbn Iogvt]m´p                     h¿s°√mw ]m]-Øn¬ ]¶m-fn-Ø-an-√. sNbvX-
t\m°n- b n- c n- ° p- ∂ - h \pw (ss\- j v I r- X n- I x)
Xt∂mSp Ipd-s®mcp sX‰p sNbvXp-t]m-bm¬
                                                                22 alm-`m-cXw DtZym. ]. 33/47


                                                           78
                \memw kap-√mkw                                                         kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
h\p am{Xta ]m]-ap-≈q.                                                               -         -
                                                                 XyPn-®v {_“-Ncyw, C{µn-bPbw apX-emb kZm-
    5. Hcp-h≥ acn-®m¬ Ahs‚ _‘p-°ƒ arX-                           Nm-c-ß-f-\p-jvTn®m¬ ]q¿Wm-bp-kv, t{ijvT-k-
i-co-csØ a¨I-´-sb-∂-hÆw XyPn®p ]n¥n-                             ¥-Xn, A£-b-[\w F∂nh e`n-°pw. Aßs\
cn-bp-∂p. Bcpw IqsS t]mIp-∂n-√. [¿aw H∂p                         [¿a-a-\p-jvTn®v ZpjvS-Xsb shSn-bp-∂-h-cpsS
am{Xw Ahs\ A\p-K-an-°p-∂p.                                       {]hr-Øn-Iƒ A\p-I-c-Wo-b-am-Wv. ImcWw:˛
    1. Xkv a m- ≤ cv a w klm- b mcv Y w \nXyw                        Zpcm-Nmtcm ln ]pcptjm temtI `hXn
k©n\pbm—ss\x. [cvtaW ln klm-tb\                                  \nµnXx. ZpxJ-`mKo N kXXw hym[n-tXmf-ev]m-
Xa-kvX-cXn ZpkvXcw.                                              bp-tc-h N (Sn. 4. 157)
    2. [cva-{]-[m\w ]pcpjw X]km lXIn-ev                              Zpcm-Nm-c-߃ sNøp-∂-h≥ \√-h¿°n-S-bn¬
_njw. ]c-temIw \b-Xymip `mkz¥w Ji-                               \nµn-X-\pw Zpx-Jn-X-\pw tcmKnbpw Aev]m-bp-
co-cnWav (Sn. 242-˛243)                                          kp-ambn `hn-°p-∂p. AXn-\m¬ sNtø-≠Xv:˛
    1. AXn-\m¬ hcpw P∑-Øn¬ kpJ-k-lm-b-                                          - -
                                                                     1. bZy-Xv]chiw Icva XØ-Zy-Xvt\\ hcvP-
߃°mbn \ntXy\ [¿a-k©b\w sNø-Ww.                                  tbXv. bZy-Zm-fl-hiw Xp kymØØXvtkth
Po-hm-flm-hn\v ZpxJ-km-K-cw IS-°p-hm≥ GI-                         X bXv\Xx.
k-lmbn [¿a-am-Wv.                                                    2. kcvhw ]c-hiw ZpxJw kcvham-fl-hiw
    2. [¿asØ {][m-\-ambn Icp-Xp-∂-Xm-tcm                         kpJav . FX- Z zn- Z ymXv k am- t k\ e£Ww
[¿am- \ p- j v T m- \ - Ø m¬ ]m]- a - I - ∂ - h - \ mtcm         kpJ-Zpx-Jtbmx. (Sn. 4. 159, 160)
Abmsf {]Im-i-kz-cq-]hpw BImiw icocw                                  1. A\ys‚ A[o-\-Øn-emb I¿a-ßsf {]b-
t]mse-bp-≈-Xp-amb AXn-ep-]cn ImWm-hp-∂-                                                           -      - -
                                                                 Xv\n®mbmepw XyPn®v kzm-[o-\I¿a-ßf\p-jvTn-
Xmbn as‰m- ∂ p- a n- √ m- Ø - X mb PK- Z o- i z- c n- ¶ -        °-Ww.
tebv°p \bn-°p-∂-Xn-\m¬                                               2. Fs¥- ∂ m¬ ]cm- [ o- \ - a m- b - s X√mw
    1. ZrV-Imco arZpcvZm¥x {Iqcm-Nm-ssc-c-kw-                                         -
                                                                 ZpxJhpw kzm[o-\am-bXv kpJ-hp-amWv. Npcp-°n-
h- k \v . Alnwt{km Za- Z m- \ m`ymw PtbXv                        ∏-d-™m¬ kpJ-Zpx-J-ß-fpsS e£Ww CXm-
kzcvKw XYm-{hXx.                                                 Wv. ImcWw ]d-bmw.
    2. hmNycv∞m \nbXmx kcvth hmMvaqem                                At\ym-\ym-{inX I¿a-߃ sNø-W-sa-¶n¬
hmKzn\nx krXmx. XmwkvXp bx kvtX-\-tb-                                                       -
                                                                 Hcp-h≥ as‰m-cp-h\v A[o-\s∏t´ Xocq. kv{Xo]p-
ZzmNw k kcvh-kvtX-b-Ir-∂cx.                                      cp-j-∑m¿ XΩn-ep≈ {]hr-Øn-I-fm-Wn-Xn-\p-Zm-
    3. BNm-cm-√`tX lymbp-cm-Nm-cm-Zo-]knXmx
                    -                             v              l- c - W w, kv { Xo ]pcp- j - t \mSpw ]pcp- j ≥
{]Pmx. BNm-cm-≤-\-a-£-ø-am-Nmtcm l¥y-e-                          kv { XotbmSpw kkv t \lw s]cp- a m- d p- I bpw
£Wav. (a-\p. 4/ 246, 256, 156)                                   At\ym\yw A\p-Iq-e-ambn h¿Øn-°p-Ibpw
    1. kZm ÿnc-Nn-Ø-\mbn {]h¿Øn-°p-I-bpw                         thWw. hy`n-Nm-chpw ]c-kv]c hntcm-[-hr-Øn-
kc-f-kz-`m-hnbpw C{µn-b-ßsf Pbn-®-h\pw                           Ifpw ]mSn-√. ]pcp-js‚ B⁄-b-\p-k-cn®v
lnwk, {Iucyw, Zpcm-Nmcw F∂nh kz`m-h-am-                          Krl-Ir-Xy-ß-sf√mw kv{Xo \S-Ø-Ww. ]pd-ta-
°nb NoØ-bm-fp-Ifn¬ \n∂p thdn-´h\pw Bb
                         -                -                      bp≈ {]hr-Øn-I-sf√mw ]pcp-j≥ \n¿∆-ln-
[¿an-jvT≥, at\m-Pbw hnZym-Zm\w F∂n-hbm¬             -            °Ww. Zpcm-Nm-c-ß-fn¬ s]´p t]mIp-∂-Xn¬
kpJw t\Sp-∂p.                                                    \n∂v ]c-kv]cw XS-b-Ww. Ch-sb√mw At\ym-
                                                                                        -             -
                                                                 \ym-{inX {]hr-Øn-Ifm-Wv. hnhm-ltØm-Sp-IqSn
    2. F√m A¿∞- ß fpw {]hr- Ø n- I fpw                           kv{Xo ]pcp-j-∑m¿ ]c-kv]cw hn‰-Xp-t]m-se-
hm°n¬ {]Xn-jvTn-X-am-Wv. kIe {]hr-Øn-                            bmbn `hn-°p-∂p. Ah-cpsS ]ckv]c tNjvS-
Ifpw hmWn \S-Øp-I-bm¬ Ah-bp-sS-sb√mw                             Iƒ `mh-߃ XpSßn k¿hhpw ]c-kv]-cm-[o-
aqe-Im-cWw hmWn Xs∂. B hmWnsb I°p-                               \-am-sW-∂¿∞w. Ccp-hcpw At\ym\yw CjvS-
∂-h≥ tamjWw apX-em-b kIe ]m]-ßfpw                                an-√mØ {]hr-Øn-I-sfm∂pw sNø-cp-Xv. hnti-
sNøp-∂-h-\-t{X.                                                  jn®pw hy`n-Nm-cw, thiym-{]m-]vXn, Pmc-{]m]vXn
    3. AXn-\m¬ I≈w XpS-ßnb A[¿a-ßsf                              apX-emb ZpjvI¿a-ßsf shSn™v `mcym-`¿Øm-

                                                            79
      kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                              kam-h¿Ø\w, hnhm-lw, Krl-ÿm-{i-a-hn[n
°-∑m¿ At\y\yw {]oXn-]q¿hw h¿Øn-°-Ww.                               X≥.
{_m“-W-cmb BWp-߃ B¨Ip-´n-I-sfbpw                                     2. kZm [¿am-\p-Iq-e-amb I¿a-ß-f-\p-jvTn-
]Tn-∏p≈ kv{XoIƒ s]¨Ip-´n-I-sfbpw ]Tn-                              °p-I, A[¿ΩsØ XyPn-°p-I, Cuiz-ct\bpw
∏n-°-Ww. hnhn[ D]-tZ-i-߃ sImSpØpw                                 thZ-ß-tfbpw kZm-Nm-c-tØbpw \nµn-°m-bvI,
        -
{]kw-K߃ sNbvXpw Ahsc hnZzm-∑mcpw hnZp-                                        -                - -
                                                                   Cuiz-cm-Zn-Ifn¬ {i≤-bp-≈h\m-bn-cn-°pI Ch-
jn-I-fp-am-°-Ww. kv{XoIƒ°p ]qP-\o-b-amb                            sb√mw ]WvUn-Xs‚ I¿Ø-hy-ß-fm-Wv.
tZh≥ ]Xnbpw ]pcp- j - ∑ m¿°p kw]qPy                                   3. ITn-\-hn-j-b-ß-sf-t∏mepw thKw a\- n-
                           -
]Xv\n-bp-am-Wv. Kpcp-Ip-eØn¬ hkn-°p∂ Ime-                                                -
                                                                   em-°p-hm≥ Ig-bp-∂h≥, hf-sc-°mew imkv{X-
a-{Xbpw A[ym]-Isc A—-\-Ω-am-sc-t∏mse                               ßsf A`y-kn-°p-I-bp-w tIƒ°p-Ibpw Nn¥n-
Icp-X-Ww. A[ym-]-I¿°v Ah-cpsS injy-∑m¿                                                 -
                                                                   °p-Ibpw sNøp-∂h≥, kz¥w Adnhp apgp-h\pw
kzk- ¥ m- \ - ß - s f- t ∏m- s e- b m- b n- c n- ° p- I bpw        ]tcm-]-Im-c-Øn-\mbn hn\n-tbm-Kn-°p-∂-h≥.
thWw. ]Tn-∏n-°p-hm-\p≈ A[ym-]Icpw A[ym-     -                      kzm¿∞w t\Sp-hm≥ am{Xw {]b-Xv\n-°m-Ø-
    -                  -           - -
]n-Iamcpw F{]-Im-cam-bn-cn-°Wsa∂p ]dbmw:˛                          h≥, kzbw Nn¥n-°m-sXtbm DNn-Xm-h-kcw
    A[ym-]-Icpw A[ym-]n-I-amcpw                                    Adn-bm-sXtbm as‰m-cp-h\v H∂pw \¬Im-Ø-
   1. Bfl-⁄m\w kam-cw-`kvXn-Xn£m [cva-
                                    -                              h≥, Ah-\t{X {]⁄m-\-sa∂ {]Y-a-e£
\n-XyXm. bacvYm \m]-Icvj¥n k ssh                                   Wbp-‡-\mb ]WvUn-X≥.
]WvUnX DNytX.                                                         4. A¿l- a - √ m- Ø - h sb C—n- ° m- Ø - h \pw
   2. \ntj-htX {]i-kvXm\n \nµn-Xm\n \                              \jvS-s∏-´-Xn-s\-∏‰n ZpxJn-°m-Ø-h\pw B]-
tkhtX. A\m- k v X nIx {i±- [ m\ FXXv                               Øn¬ ]cn-{`-an-°m-Ø-h-\p-amWv _p≤n-am-\mb
]WvUn-X-e-£-Ww.                                                    ]WvUn-X≥.
   3. £n{]w hnPm-\mXn Nncw irtWmXn                                    5. hnNn-{X-hm-‹nbpw GXp hnj-b-Ønepw
hn⁄mb NmcvYw `PtX \ ImamXv. \mkw-                                  hmZ-{]-Xn-hmZ NXp-c\pw imkv{X-hym-Jym-\-Ip-
]rjvtSm lyp ]-bpMvt‡ ]cmcvtY XXv{]-                                i-e\pw X¿°-hn-Zym-hn-N-£-W-\pw kvac-Wi-
⁄m\w {]Yaw ]WvUn-Xky.                                              ‡n-bp-≈-h-\pw A¿∞w ]dbp-hm≥ anSp-°-\p-
   4. \m {]m]y-a-`n-hm-©-¥n \jvSw t\—¥n                            amb Bfns\ ]WvUn-X-s\∂p ]d-bp-∂p.
timNnXpw. B]Xvkp N \ aply¥n \cmx                                      6. tI´ kXym¿∞-ß-f-\p-k-cn®v _p≤n-bp-
]WvUnX_p≤bx.                                                       ≈-h\pw _p≤n-bp-]-tbm-Kn®v tIƒ°p-∂-h\pw
   5. {]hr-Ø-hmIv Nn{X-IY Dul-hm≥ {]Xn-                                                    - -
                                                                   [¿anjvTcmb t{ijvTa\p-jy-cpsS acym-Zsb adn-
`m-\-hm\v. Bip {KŸky h‡m N bx k                                    I-S-°m-Ø-h-\p-amWv ]WvUn-X≥ F∂ t]cn\v
]WvUnX DNy-tX.                                                     A¿l≥.
   6. {ipXw {]⁄m-\pKw bky {]⁄m                                        Cß-s\-bp≈ kv{Xo]p-cp-j-∑m¿ A[ym-]-I-
ssNh {ipXm\pKm. Akw-`n-∂ mcyacymZx                                 cm-bn-cn-°p-∂nSØv hnZy, [¿Ωw, kZm-Nmcw
]WvUn-XmJymw et`X kx.                                              F∂nh A`n-hr-≤n-s∏-Spw. \ntXy\ kpJw s]cp-
                                                                   Ipw. ]Tn-°m≥ tbmKy-X-bn-√mØ aqV-∑m-cpsS
   Cu t«mI-߃ alm-`m-c-Xw DtZym-K-]¿hw                             e£-W-߃:˛
hnZp-c-{]-Pm-Kcw 32-˛mw A[ym-b-Øn-te-Xm-Wv.
                                                                      1. A{ip-X› kap-∂t≤m Zcn-{Z› alm-
   1. Bfl-⁄m\w kn≤n-®n-´p-≈-h≥, Hcn-                                a\mx. AcvYmw-ivNmfIcvaWm t{]]vkpcvaqV
°epw Ae-k\pw \njv{In-b-\p-ambn h¿Øn-                               CXyp-NytX _pss[x.
°m-Ø-h≥, kpJ-Zpx-J-߃, em`-\-jvS-߃,
kv X pXn- \ n- µ - I ƒ, am\m- ] - a m- \ - ß ƒ F∂nh                   2. A\m-lqXx {]hn-iXn ly]rjvtSm _lp
kt¥m-j-˛-k-¥m-]-ß-fp-≠m-°m-Ø-h≥, F√m-                              `mjtX. Ahn-izkvtX hnizknXn aqV-tNXm
bvt]mgpw ZrV-Nn-Ø-X-tbm-Sp-IqSn [¿aw A\p-                          \cm-[amx.
           -              -    - -
jvTn-°p-∂h≥, hnj-bkp-Jap-fhm-°p∂ hkvXp-
°sf Imcyam°m-Ø-h≥, Ah-\t{X ]WvUn-                                    23 A[ymbw 33. 35-˛41


                                                              80
              \memw kap-√mkw                                                      kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
   Cu t«mI-ßfpw alm-`m-cXw DtZym-K-]¿h-                  hnZym-`ymkw km[y-a-√.
Øn¬ hnZp-c-{]-Pm-K-c-Øn-te-Xm-Wv. 23                         ktXy cXm\mw kXXw Zm¥m-\m-aqcv≤z-
   1. imkv{X-ßsfm∂pw ]Tn-°p-Itbm tIƒ°p-
                 -                                       tcXkmw. {_“-Ncyw Ztl-{Zm-P\v kcvh]m]m-
Itbm sNøm-Ø-h-\pw henb Zpc-`n-am-\n-bpw                  \yp-]m-knXav. 25
Zcn-{Z-\m-sW-¶nepw AXym-{K-lnbpw {]b-Xv\n-                   kZm kXy-Øn¬ Xev]-ccpw PntX-{µn-b-cpw
°msX F√mw In´-W-sa-∂m-{K-ln-°p-∂-h-\p-                   Hcn-°epw hocyw kvJen-∏n-°m-Ø-h-cp-am-b-h-
amWv aqV-s\∂v _p≤n-am-∑m¿ ]d-bp-∂p.                      cpsS {_“-N-cy-amWv bYm¿Yw. Aß-s\-bp-≈-
   2. hnfn-°msX Fhn-sSbpw Ib-dn-s®∂v D∂-                 h-ct{X hnZzm-∑m-cm-Ip-∂-Xv.
X-ÿm-\-Øn-cn-°p-I, tNmZn-°msX Hmtcm∂p                        A[ym-]-Icpw hnZym¿∞n-Ifpw ip`-e-£-W-
X´n-aq-fn-°p-I, hniz-kn-°m≥ ]mSn-√m-Øhscbpw - -          bp-‡-cm-bn-cn-°-Ww. hnZym¿∞n-Iƒ a\km
hkvXp-°-sfbpw hniz-kn-°pI Ch sNøp-∂-                     hmNm I¿aWm kXy- a - \ p- j v T n- ° p- ∂ - h - c pw
h≥ aqV\pw a\p-jym-[-anbp-am-Wv.                          kwkvImcw PntX-{µn-bXzw kuioeyw apX-
   Cß-s\-bp-≈-h¿ A[ym-]-I-cpw D]-tZ-jvSm-                emb kXvKp-W-ß-fp-≈-hcpw ico-c-_-ehpw
°- f pw Kpcp- ° - ∑ m- c pw am\y- c p- a mb Zn°n¬        Bfl-_-ehpw kºm-Zn-®v thZm-Zn-im-kv{X-ß-
A⁄m-\w, A[¿aw, Im´m-f-Øw, Ie-lw,                         sf√mw A`y-kn®v hnZzm-∑m-cmIp-hm-\pw th≠
hntZz-jw XΩn¬Ø√v Ch-sb√mw hf-cp-Ibpw                     F√m {]b- X v \ hpw A[ym- ] - I ¿ sNø- W w.
ZpxJw h¿≤n-°p-Ibpw sNøpw.                                hnZym¿∞n-Isf Zp¿am¿Kw shSn-bm\pw Ahsc
    hnZym¿∞n-bpsS e£-W-߃                                              -                 -
                                                         ]T-t\m-’p-Icm-°m\pw A[ym-]I¿ kZm {i≤n-
                                                         °-Ww. PntX-{µn-b-cpw im¥-io-ecpw kl-]m-
   1. Bekyw aZ-tam-lu N Nm]ew tKmjvTn-                   Tn-I-fn¬ kvt\l-ap-≈-h-cpw Nn¥-I-cpw ]cn-{i-
tch N. kvX_v[Xm Nm`n-am-\nXzw XYmfXym-                   a-io-ecpw Bbn ]q¿W-hn-Zy, ]q¿Wmbp-kv,
Kn-Xz-ta-h N. GtX ssh k]vX tZmjmx kypx                   ]q¿W-[¿aw F∂nh t\Sn ]pcp-jm¿∞w kºm-
kZm hnZymcvYn\mw aXmx.                                                                      -
                                                         Zn-°p-hm≥ hnZym¿∞n-Iƒ bXv\n-°Ww. {_m“-
   2. kpJmcvYn\x IptXm hnZym IptXm- hn-                  W- h ¿W- Ø n- e p- ≈ h- c psS I¿a- ß - f m- W n- h .
Zym- c v Y n\x kpJav . kpJmcv Y o hm XytP                £{Xn-b-cpsS I¿a-߃ cmP-[¿a-Øn¬ hnh-
ZznZymw hnZymcvYo hm XytPXv kpJ-av.                      cn°mw 26 sshiy-cpsS I¿a-߃ ]dbmw:˛
   Cu t«mI-ßfpw hnZp-c-{]-Pm-K-c-Øn-te-Xm-               {_“-N-cy-]q¿∆w thZm-Zn-hn-Zy-Iƒ A`y-kn-°-
Wv 24                                                    Ww. hnhmlw sNbvX-Xn\p tijw \m\m-tZ-i-
   1. (B-e-kyw) ico-c-Øn\pw _p≤n-°p-ap≈                  ß-fn-ep≈ `mj-Iƒ ]Tn®v hnhn[ hym]m-c-co-
Ae-kX (a-Zx) elcn (tam-lx) AXym-k‡n                      Xn-Iƒ a\-kn-em°n km[-\-ß-fpsS hnebpw
(Nm-]-ew) ÿnc-X-bn-√mbva (tKm-jvTn) \pW-                 {Inb-hn-{In-b-k-{º-Zm-bhpw Adn™v A\y-cm-
]-d™pw tI´pw Imew Ign-°pI (kvX_v[Xm) -  -                Py-ß-fn¬ k©-cn®v em`w In´-Ø-°-h-Æ-ap≈
]Tn-°p-Ibpw ]Tn-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNøm-Xn-cn-°p-I,              {]hr-Øn-I-fn¬ G¿s∏-S-Ww. ]ip-]m-e-\hpw
Zpc-`n-am-\w, XymK-io-ean-√mbva F∂n-ßs\ Ggp
                       -                                 Irjnbpw ka¿∞-ambn \SØn Ahsb A`n-
tZmj-߃ hnZym¿∞n-Isf _m[n-°mw.                           hr-≤n-s∏-Sp-Ø-Ww. [\w h¿≤n-∏n®v hnZym-[¿a-
                                                         ß- f psS A`n- h r≤n°mbn hybw sNø- W w.
   2. Cu tZmj-ß-fp-≈-h¿ Hcn-°epw ]Tn-°p-
                                                                                 - -
                                                         kXy-hm-Zn-Ifpw \njvI]Scp-ambn kIe hym]m-
                               -
I-bn-√. kpJw B{K-ln-°p-∂h\v hnZy FhnsS?
                                                         c-ßfpw kXysØ ap≥\n-dpØn sNø-Ww. km[-
hnZym-`ymkw C—n-°p-∂-h\v kpJw FhnsS?
                                                         \-ß-sfm∂pw \jvS-s∏-SmsX F√m km[-\-ß-
hnj- b - k p- J m¿∞n hnZy- t bbpw hnZym¿∞n
                                                         sfbpw kwc-£n-°-Ww. sshiy-hr-Øn-I-fm-Wn-
hnj-b-kp-J-tØbpw XyPn-°-Ww. A\yYm
                                                         h. iq{Z¿ F√m ]cn-N-c-W-ß-fn-epw ]mN-I-hn-
                                                         Zy- b nepw \n]p- W - c mbn {_m“- W - £ - { Xnb
  24. A[ymbw 40.5.6
  25 "BNm-c-`m\phnepw Cu t«mIw D≤r-X-am-Wv.
     `ojva-h-N-\-Øn¬ \ns∂∂v AhnsS ]d-bp-∂p-≠v.             26 Bdmw. kap-√m-kw.


                                                    81
     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                   kam-h¿Ø\w, hnhm-lw, Krl-ÿm-{i-a-hn[n
sshiy-∑msc kkvt\lw ]cn-N-cn®v D]-Po-hn-                A£-X-tbm-\n-bmb kv{Xo°pw A£-X-ho-cy-
°-Ww. Blm-cw, hkv{Xw, ]m¿∏n-Sw, hnhm-                  \mb ]pcp-j-\pw-˛-kv{Xo-]p-cp-j-∑m¿°pw thsd
lmZn {Inb-Iƒ F∂n-h-bv°m-h-iy-am-b-sX√mw                hnhmlw sNømw. F∂m¬ {_m“W≥ £{Xn-
ZznP¿ \¬I-Ww. As√-¶n¬ ]cym-]vX-amb                     b≥, sshiy≥ F∂o h¿W-ß-fn¬ £X-tbm-
amk-i-ºfw \evI-Ww. \mep PmXn-Ifpw ]c-                  \n-bmb kv{Xo°pw £X-ho-cy-\mb ]pcp-j\pw
kv]cw {]nbw, D]-Im-cw, \∑, kpJ-Zp-xJ-ß-                ]p\¿hn-hmlw \∂√.
fnepw em`\jvSß-fnepw sFI-aXyw F∂n-h-                      tNm:˛ ]p\¿hn- h mlw sNøp- ∂ - X n¬
tbm-Sp-IqSn h¿Øn®v \mSn-s‚bpw \m´m-cp-sSbpw            F¥mWp tZmjw?
\∑bv-°mbn X\p, a\w, [\w F∂n-hsb hn\n-                                           -              - -
                                                          D:˛ H∂v:˛ kv{Xo]p-cp-j∑m¿°v ]c-kv]cap≈
tbm-Kn-°-Ww. kv{XoIfpw ]pcp-j-∑mcpw Hcp-               kv t \l- Ø n\p Ipdhp hcpw. Fs¥- ∂ m¬
\mfpw At\ym\yw th¿]n-cn™p hkn-°-cp-Xv.                 tXm∂p- t ºm- s g√mw ]pcp- j ≥ kv { Xotbbpw
Fs¥-∂m¬:˛                                              kv{Xo ]pcp-j-s\bpw Dt]-£n®v thsd kw_-
    ]m\w ZpcvP-\-kw-kcvKx ]Xym N hnc-tlmf-             ‘-am-Im-a-t√m. c≠v:˛ `mcy-bp-sStbm `¿Øm-
S\w. kz]vt\mf\y-tK-l-hm-k› \mco-k-µq-j-                hn-s‚tbm ac-W-tijw ]p\¿hn-hmlw sNøp-
Wm-\n- jSv. (a-\p. 9.13)                               hm≥ B{K-ln-°p-tºmƒ acn-®-bm-fns‚ kzØp-
                                 -
    I≈v, I©mhv apX-emb el-cn-Ifp-]tbm-Kn- -            °ƒ Pohn®n-cn-°p-∂-bmƒ ssIh-i-s∏-Sp-Øp-
             -
°p-I, ZpjvS∑m-tcmSv kl-hm-kw, `¿Ør-hn-tbm-             hm≥ bXv\n-°pw. At∏mƒ acn-®-bm-fns‚ ho´p-
Kw, h√ I≈-k-∂ym-kn-amsctbm at‰m ImWp-                  Im¿ iWvT-Iq-´pw. At\ym\yw Ielw D≠m-
hm≥ shdpsX Np‰n-b-Sn-°p-I, ]c-Kr-l-Øn¬                 Ipw. aq∂v:˛ Ducpw t]cpw tijn-°mØ hn[-
                       -
]m¿°p-Itbm InS-∂p-dßp-Itbm sNøp-I, F∂o                 Øn¬ At\Iw \√ Xd-hm-Sp-Iƒ apSn-bp-Ibpw
Bdp tZmj-߃ kv{XoIsf Zpjn-∏n-°pw. ]pcp-                kºØv \in-°p-Ibpw sNøpw. \mev:˛ ]mXn-
j-∑m-scbpw Ch Zpjn-∏n-°pw. Imcy-km-[y-Øn-              {h-Xyhpw GI-]-Xv\o-{h-Xhpw \in®p \mam-h-
\mbn tZim-S\w sNøp-I, acWw F∂o c≠p                           -                           -
                                                       ti-jam-Ipw. Cßs\ ]e tZmj-ßfp-≈Xn-\m¬  -
Imc-W-ß-fm¬ `mcym-`¿Øm-°-∑m¿ XΩn¬                      ZznP-Ip-e-ß-fn¬ ]p\¿hn-hmlhpw _lp-hn-hm-
th¿]mSp hcpw. BZysØ th¿]mSv Hgn-hm-°p-                 lhpw Hcn-°epw ]mSn√.
hm≥ Zqc- b m{X sNøp--t ºmƒ `mcy- t bbpw                   tNm:˛ k¥-Xn-bn-√mØ Xd-hmSv A\yw
               -
sIm≠p-t]m-IWw. Aßs\ sNbvXm¬ Zo¿L-                      \n∂p \in-®mtem? hy`n-Nmcw sNbvXv K¿`-
Ime hntbmKw D≠m-hp-Ibn-√.-                             On{Zw apX-emb ZpjvI¿a-߃ sNøm-\p-an-S-
    tNm:˛ kv{XoIfpw ]pcp-j-∑mcpw _lp-hn-               bm-Ipw. ]p\¿hn-hm-l-at√ CXnepw t`Zw?
hmlw sNøp-∂Xp \√tXm NoØtbm?                               D:˛ A√-√. Fs¥-∂m¬ kv{Xo]p-cp-j-∑m¿
    DØcw :˛ Htc ka-bØp \√-X-√.                         {_“-\njv-T-cm-bn-cp-∂m¬ CØcw Ipg-∏-ß-fp-
    tNm:˛ `n∂-Im-e-ß-fn¬ _lp-hn-hmlw                   ≠m-hp-I-bn-√. kzPm-Xo-b-\mb Hcp _mes\
Bh-iy-amtWm?                                           ZsØ-SpØp ]p{X-\mbn hf¿Øn-bm¬ k¥-
    D:˛ AsX. Fß-s\-sb-∂m¬:˛                            Xn-b‰p t]mhp-I-bn-√. hy`n-Nm-chpw D≠m-hp-I-
                                                       bn-√. {_“-N-cy-kw-c-£Ww km[y-a-s√-¶n¬
    bm kv{Xo Xz-£-X-tbm-\nx 27 kymZvK-X-{]-            \ntbm-K-hn-[n-{]-Imcw k¥-Xyp-ev]m-Z\w sNøm-
XymK-Xmf]n hm. s]u\cv`-th\ `cv{Xm km                   hp-∂-Xm-Wv.
]p\x kwkvIm-c-acvl-Xn.                                    tNm:˛ ]p\¿hn- h m- l - Ø n\pw \ntbm- K -
    ]mWn-{K-lWw sIm≠p am{Xw hnhm-ln-X-                 Øn\pw XΩn¬ F¥mWp hyXymkw?
cm- b - h ¿°pw kwtbmKw kw`- h n- ® n- ´ n- √ mØ           D:˛ H∂m- a sØ hyXym- k w˛ hnhmlw
                                                       Ign™v I\yI ]nXr-Krlw hn´v ]Xn-Kr-l-Øn-
27. a\p 9/176 AhnsS km tNZ-£-X-tbm\n F∂p               te°p t]mbm¬ ]ns∂ ]nXm-hn-t\mSv hnti-
    ]mTw km F∂p {XnXob ]mZ-Ønepw hcp-∂-Xn-\m¬
    bØ-tZm¿ \nXy-kw-_‘ F∂ \nb-a-{]-Imcw bm             j-_-‘-sam-∂p-an-√. \ntbm-K-hn-[n-{]-Imcw hn[-
    F∂ ]mTw bp‡-am-Wv.                                 h-Iƒ BZyw hnhmlw sNbvX `¿Øm-hns‚

                                                  82
               \memw kap-√mkw                                                        kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
Krl-Øn¬ Xs∂ hkn-°p-∂p.                                       Bh- i y- Ø n\v \ntbmKw sNbv X m¬ c≠m-
    c≠m- a - t ØXv:˛ hnhm- l - Ø n- e p- ≠ mb                asØ K¿`-[m-c-W-tØm-Sp-IqSn \ntbm-K-_‘w
a°ƒ°mWv A—s‚ kzØn-\-h-Im-iw. \ntbm-                                          -
                                                             th¿s]-Sp-ØWw. ]pcp-j≥ Xs‚ Bh-iy-Øn\v
K-hn-[n-{]-Imcw hn[-h-bn¬ P\n-°p∂ k¥m-                       \ntbmKw sNbvXmepw c≠m-asØ K¿`-tØm-
\-ßsf hocy-Zm-Xm-hns‚ k¥m-\-ß-fm-b√ acn-                     Sp-IqSn _‘w Hgn-b-Ww. \nbp-‡-bmb kv{Xo
®p-t]mb `¿Øm-hns‚ a°-fm-bmWv Icp-Xp-∂Xv                      B Ip´n-Isf ct≠m aqt∂m sIm√w hf¿Øn
hocy-Zm-Xm-hns‚ tKm{Xmw-K-Xz-tam kzØ-h-Im-                   \ntbmKw sNbvX ]pcp-js\ G¬∏n-°-Ww.
itam Ah¿°p e`n-°p-I-bn-√. Ahsc hn[-                          C{]-Imcw Hcp hn[-hbv°v Xs‚ kz¥w Bh-
hbpsS arX-`¿Øm-hns‚ k¥m-\ßfmbn KWn-     - -                  iy-Øn-\mbn c≠pw Xs∂ \ntbmKw sNøp∂
®v, B tKm{XØn¬ s]Sp-Øn, kzØ-hIm-ihpw          -              \mep ]pcp-j-∑m¿°v c≠p hoXw F´pw IqSn
\¬In, B IpSpw-_-Øn¬ Xs∂ hkn-∏n-°p-                           ]Øp Ip´n-Isf {]k-hn-°mw. AXp-t]mse
∂p.                                                          Xs∂ `mcy acn-®n-´p≈ Hcp ]pcp-j-\v, X\n-°p-
    aq∂m-a-tØXv:˛ hnhm-ln-X-cmb `mcym-`¿Øm-                  th≠n c≠pw Xs∂ \ntbmKw sNøp∂ \mep
°-∑m¿ At\ym\yw ip{iq-jn-°p-Ibpw kwc-                         hn[-h-am-cpsS Bh-iy-Øn-\mbn F´pw IqSn
£n-°p-Ibpw sNø-Ww. \nbp-‡-cmb kv{Xo]p-                       ]Øp Ip´n- I sf Dev ] m- Z n- ∏ n- ° mw. Cßs\
cp-j-∑m¿ XΩn¬ AØcw IS-∏m-sSm-∂p-an-√.                        F√mw IqSn ]Øp k¥m-\-ßsf Dev]m-Zn-∏n-
                                                             °p-hm-\p≈ hn[n thZ-Øn-ep-≠v.
    \mem-a-tØXv:˛ `mcym-`¿Ør-_‘w ac-W-
]-cy¥w \ne-\n¬°p-∂-Xm-Wv. \nbp-‡-cmb                             Camw Xzan{µ aoVzx kp]p{Xmw kp`Kmav
kv{Xo]p-cp-j-∑m-cpsS _‘w Dt±-i-]q¿Øn-                        IrWp. Zimkymw ]p{Xm-\m- t[ln ]Xn-ta-
tbmsS C√m-Xm-Ip-∂p.                                          Im-Ziw Ir[n. (E. 10.85.45)
    A©m-a-tØXv:˛ hnhmlw sNbvXv `mcym-                            tl (ao- V z, C{µ) hocy- t k- N - \ - Ø n¬
`¿Øm-°-∑m-cm-b-h¿ Ah-cpsS am{Xw Krl-                         {]m]vX\pw sFiz-cy-bp-‡-\p-amb ]pcp-j, \o
Ønse Imcy-߃ t\m°n \S-Øp-∂p. \nbp-                           Cu hnhm-ln-X-bmb kv{Xosb AYhm hn[-h-
‡-cmb kv{Xobpw ]pcp-j\pw Hmtcm-cp-Ø-cp-                      Isf k’-¥m-\-ß-fp-≈-hcpw ku`m-Ky-ap≈-
sSbpw Krl-Im-cy-߃ am{Xw t\m°p-∂p.                           h-cp-am-°n, hnhmlw sNbvXn-´p≈ `mcy-bn¬
                                                             ]Øp ]p{X-∑msc Dev]m-Zn-∏n-°p-Ibpw `mcysb
    tNm:˛ hnhm- l - Ø n- s ‚bpw \ntbm- K -                   ]Xn-s\m-∂m-a-Ø-h-fmbn ]cn-K-Wn-°p-Ibpw
Øns‚bpw \nb-a-߃ sht∆-sd-bmtWm?                              sNøp-I. A√tbm kv{Xo! \o \ns∂ th´ ]pcp-
    D:˛ c≠n-s‚bpw \nb-a-߃ XΩn¬ sX√p                         j-\n¬ \nt∂m \ntbmKw sNøp∂ ]pcp-j-\n¬
t`Zaps≠∂p apºp ]d-™p. hnhmlw sNbvX                           \nt∂m K¿`w [cn-®v ]Øp ]p{X-∑msc {]k-
kv { Xo]p- c p- j - ∑ m¿°v - ˛ - H cp ]pcp- j \pw Hcp        hn-°p-Ibpw ]Xn-s\m-∂m-a-tØ-Xmbn `¿Øm-
kv{Xo°pw IqSn ]Øp k¥m-\-ß-fp-≠m-Imw.                         hns\ KWn-°p-Ibpw sNøp-I.
\nbp- ‡ - c mb kv { Xo]p- c p- j - ∑ m¿°v ct≠m                   Cu thZ-hn-[n-{]-Imcw {_m“W £{Xnb
\mtem k¥m-\-ß-fn-e-[nIw D≠m-Im≥ ]mSn-                        sshiy- h ¿W- ß - f n- e p≈ kv { Xo]p- c p- j - ∑ m¿
√.                                                           ]Øn-e-[n-Iw k¥m-\-ßsf Dev]m-Zn-∏n-°-cp-Xv.
    Ipam-c-∑m¿°pw I\y-I-am¿°pw XΩnte                         A[n- I - a m- b m¬ k¥m- \ - ß ƒ _e- l o- \ cpw
hnhmlw ]mSp≈q F∂p \nb-a-ap-≈-Xp-t]mse                        Aev]m-bp-kp-I-fp-am-Ipw. AXp-t]mse kv{Xo]p-
hn[- h bv ° pw hn[p- c \pw XΩn¬ am{Xta                       cp-j-∑mcpw _e-hpw Bbp pw Btcm-Kyhpw
\ntbmKw ]mSp-≈q. Ipam-cn-˛-Ip-am-c-∑m¿ XΩn¬                  £bn®v hm¿≤-Iy-Øn¬ AXn-ZpxJw A\p-`-hn-
]mSn-√.                                                      °pw.
    `mcym-`¿Øm-°-∑m¿ kZm H∂n®p ]m¿°p-                            tNm:˛ Cu \ntbmKw hy`n-Nmcw t]mse
∂- X p- t ]mse \nbp‡ kv { Xo]p- c p- j - ∑ m¿                tXm∂p-∂p.
]m¿°m-dn-√. EXp-Im-e -Ø n-e -√ msX as‰m- cn-                     D:˛ hnhm- l tam \ntbm- K tam sNømØ
°epw Ah¿ H∂n®p tNcm-dn-√. kv{Xo Xs‚                          kv{Xo]p-cp-j-∑m¿ XΩn-ep≈ _‘-amWv hy`n-


                                                        83
      kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                           kam-h¿Ø\w, hnhm-lw, Krl-ÿm-{i-a-hn[n
Nm-cw. hnhmlw sNbvX Zº-Xn-IfpsS _‘w                             Nmcw Ipd-bpw. kvt\l-Øn¬ \n∂v DØ-a-k-
hy`n- N m- c - a - √ m- Ø - X p- t ]mse hn[n- { ]- I mcw        ¥m-\-߃ D≠mbn a\p-jy¿ A`n-hr≤n {]m]n-
\ntbmKw sNøp-∂Xpw hy`n-Nm-c-a-√. Hcm-fns‚                       °pw. {`qW- l Xy Xosc C√m- X m- h p- I bpw
I\y-Isb as‰m-cm-fns‚ Ahn-hm-ln-X-]p-{X≥                         sNøpw. \oN- ] p- c p- j - ∑ m- t cmSv DØ- a - k v { Xo-
imkv{X-hn-[n-{]-Imcw hnhmlw sNbvX tijw                          Iƒ°pw thiymZn \nIrjvS kv{XoI-tfmSv \√
Ah-cpsS kam-K-a-Øn¬ hy`n-Nm-cw, ]m]w,                                     -
                                                                ]pcp-j∑m¿°pw D≠mIp∂ hy`n-Nm-csa∂ \oN-    -
e÷ F∂n-h-sbm∂pw C√m-Ø-Xp-t]mse thZ-                             Ir-Xyw, Xd-hm-´n¬ If-¶w, hwi-\m-iw, kv{Xo]p-
˛-im-kv{X-ß-fn¬ hn[n-®n-´p≈ \ntbm-K-Ønepw                       cp-j-∑m-cpsS k¥m-]w, {`qW-lXy apX-emb
hy`n-Nm-c-tam ]m]-tam e÷tbm Ds≠∂p Icp-                          Zpjv I r- X y- ß ƒ F∂n- h - s b√mw hnhmlw
X-cp-Xv.                                                        sIm≠pw \ntbmKw sIm≠pw \in-°p-∂p. AXn-
   tNm:˛ Imcyw icn Xs∂ ]t£ CXp                                  \m¬ \ntbmKw Hcp Bhiyw Xs∂-bm-Wv.
thiym-hr-Øn-bm-sW∂p tXm∂p-∂p.                                       tNm:˛ \ntbmKw Fßs\ sNøWw?
                              -     - -
   D:˛ A√; thiym-kam-KaØn¬ \n›nX ]pcp-                              D:˛ hnhmlw ]c-ky-ambn sNøp-∂Xp-t]mse   -
j-s\-∂-√, bmsXmcp \nb-ahpw C√. \ntbm-K-                         \ntbm-Khpw F√m-hcpw Adn™p sNø-Ww.
Ønse \nb-a-߃ hnhm-l-Øn-t‚-Xn\p Xpey-                           hnhm-l-Øn\v th≠-s∏-´-h-cp-sSbpw h[q-h-c-∑m-
                        -
am-Wv. I\ym-Zm-\Øn-tem hn[n-{]-Imcw hnhmlw                      cp-sSbpw kΩ-Xhpw k¥p-jvSnbpw Bh-iy-am-
sNbvX-h-cpsS kam-K-a-Øntem e÷-bp-≠m-Im-                         b-Xp-t]mse \ntbm-K-Ønepw Ah Bh-iy-am-
ØXv t]mse \ntbm-K-Ønepw D≠m-I-cp-Xm-Ø-                          Wv. kv{Xobpw ]pcp-j\pw XΩn¬ \ntbm-K-Øn-
Xm-Wv. hy-`n-N-cn-°p∂ ]pcp-jt\m kv{Xotbm                        te¿s∏-Sp-tºmƒ Ah-cn-cp-hcpw Xß-fpsS IpSpw-
hnhm-lw-sN-bvXmepw B ZpjvI¿a-Øn¬ \n∂p                           _-Ønse kv{Xo]p-cp-j-∑m-cpsS ap≥]n¬ h®v
c£-s]-Sptam?                                                    C{]-Imcw i]Yw sNøWw:˛ ""R߃ c≠p-
   tNm:˛ \ntbm- K - Ø n¬ ]m]- a p- s ≠∂p                        t]cpw k¥m-\-e-_v[n-°mbn \ntbm-K-Øn¬
R߃ hnNm-cn-°p-∂p.                                              G¿s∏-Sp-∂p. \ntbm-K-Øns‚ e£yw {]m]n-
   D:˛ \ntbm-K-Øn¬ ]m]-ap-s≠∂p hnNm-cn-                         ®m¬ ]ns∂ R߃ kw_-‘-ap-t]-£n--°pw.
°p∂ ]£w F¥p-sIm≠v hnhm-l-Ønepw                                  adn®p {]h¿Øn-°p-∂ ]£w, R߃ ]m]n-
]m]-an√? \ntbm-KsØ \ntcm-[n-°p-∂-XmWv                           Ifpw kmap-Zm-bn-Ihpw cmP-Io-b-hp-amb in£-
]m]w. hnc- ‡ n- b pw ]q¿W sshZp- j yhpw                         °¿l- c p- a m- I p- ∂ - X m- W v . amk- Ø n¬ Hcp
kn≤n® tbmKn-Iƒs°m-gn®v {]Ir-Xym-bp-≈Xpw                         {]mhiyw am{Xta R߃ K¿`m-[m\w sNøp-
Cuiz-cs‚ krjvSn-{I-a-Øn-\-\p-k-cn-®p-≈-Xp-                      I- b p- ≈ q. K¿`- a p- ≠ m- b m¬ ]ns∂ Hcp
amb {]hr-Øn-Iƒ XS-bp-hm≥ B¿°pw km[y-                            sIm√whsc R߃ th¿]n-cn™p hkn-®p-sIm-
a-√. {`qW-l-Xybpw hn[-h-I-fp-sSbpw hn[p-c-cp-                   ≈mw.''
sSbpw AXy¥ ZpxJw F∂nh ]m]- a - t √.                                 tNm:˛ kz¥w PmXn-bn¬ am{Xta \ntbmKw
bu∆\w \ne-\n¬°p-thmfw hnj-b-kp-Jhpw                             BImhq F∂pt≠m? A\y- P m- X n- b nepw
k¥m-\-e-_v[nbpw B{K-ln-°p-∂p. kmaq-ly-                          BImtam?
co-Xn, PmXn-\n-b-a-߃ F∂nh Ah-cpsS B{K-                             D:˛ kv{Xo°v Xs‚ PmXn-bntem DXvIr-jvS-
lsØ ASn-®-a¿Øp-tºmƒ cl-ky-Zp¿am¿K-                              Pm-Xn-bntem s]´ ]pcp-j-t\mSv \ntbm-K-am-Imw.
ß-fn-eqsS kzImaw ]q¿Øo-I-cn-°p-∂p. hy`n-                        sshiy-h¿W-Øn-ep≈ kv{Xo°v {_m“-W-£-
Nm-chpw Zpcm-N-m-chpw \in∏n-°m≥ \√-hgn                          {Xn- b - s sh- i y- ∑ m- t cmSp IqSnbpw £{Xn- b -
PntX-{µn-b-cm-bn-cn-°m≥ i‡n-bp-≈-h¿ hnhm-                       kv{Xo°v {_mlvW-£-{Xn-b-∑m-tcmSp IqSn-bpw
ltam \ntbm-Ktam sNøm-Xn-cn-°p-∂-Xm-Wv.                          {_m“- W - k v { Xo°v {_m“- W - t \mSp IqSn
Ah-c-ßs\ sNøp-∂Xv DNn-X-am-Wv. ]t£                              am{Xhpw \ntbm-K-am-Imw. hocyw katam DXvIr-
C{µn-b-ßsf AS-°p-hm≥ Ign-hn-√m-Ø-h¿°v                           jvStam Bb PmXn-bp-tS-X-√msX \nIr-jvS-am-
hnhm-lhpw KXy-¥-c-an-√m-Ø-t∏mƒ \ntbm-                           I- c p- s X∂p Xmev ] - c yw. kv { Xo]p- c p- j - ∑ msc
Khpw IqSntb Xocq. Aß-s\-bm-bm¬ hy-`n-                           krjvSn-®n-cn-°p-∂-Xns‚ {]tbm-P\w thZm-\p-


                                                           84
               \memw kap-√mkw                                                         kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
Iq-ehpw [¿am-\p-kr-X-hp-amb hn[-Øn¬ hnhm-                   ]Zm¿∞-߃ t\Sn? (Iptlm-jXpx) GXp
ltam \ntbm- K tam sNbv X v k¥m- \ - ß sf                    kabw Fhn-sS√mw hkn-®n-cp∂p? (tIm hmw
Dev]m-Zn-∏n-°p-I-bm-Wv.                                     ibp{Xm) \nß-fpsS ib-\-ÿm\w Fhn-sS-
   tNm:˛ ]pcp-j\v ]p\¿hn-hmlw sNøm-                         bmWv? \n߃ Bcv? GXp \m´p-Im-c-\mWv?
hp∂Xn-\m¬ \ntbmKw F¥n-\mWv?                                     `mcym- ` ¿Øm- ° - ∑ m¿ hntZ- i - b m- { X- b nepw
   D:˛ ZznP-h¿W߃°v kv{XoIƒ°pw ]pcp-                        kl-h-kn-°-W-sa∂pw hn[-h-am¿°p \ntbmKw
j-∑m¿°pw Hcn-°¬ am{Xta hnhmlw ]mSp-                         sNbvX ]Xn-tbmSv hnhmlw sNbvX `¿Øm-
≈q, c≠m-aXp ]mSn-√. F∂p thZ-im-kv{X-ß-                      hn-t\m-sS∂hÆw kwK-an®v k¥m-\-e-_v[n-bm-
fn¬ hn[n-®n-´p-s≠∂v apsºm-cn-SØp ]d-™n-                     Im-sa∂pw CXn¬\n∂p kn≤n-°p-∂p. `¿Øm-
´p-≠v. Ipam-co-Ip-am-c∑m-cpsS hnhmlw am{X-amWv
                      -                                     hn\v A\p- P ≥ Cs√- ¶ n¬ hn[h BtcmSv
icn. hn[-hsb Ipam-c-\pw I\y-Isb hn[p-c\pw                   \ntbmKw sNøpw?
hnhmlw sNøp-∂Xv A\ym-bhpw A[¿Ω-hp-                              D:˛ tZh-c-t\m-Sp-X-s∂. F∂m¬ tZh-c≥
am-Wv. hn[-hsb hnhmlw sNøp-hm≥ Hcp                          F∂-Xns‚ A¿∞w \n߃ a\- n-em-°n-bn-
]pcpj\pw B{K-ln-°m-Ø-Xp-t]mse hnhmlw                        cn- ° p- ∂ - X p- t ]m- s e- b - √ . \ncp- ‡ - Ø n¬ ]d-
sNbvXv kv{Xok-am-Kaw sNbvXn-´p≈ Hcp-hs\                     bp∂p:˛
hcn-°p-hm≥ Hcp I\y-Ibpw B{K-ln-°p-I-bn-                         tZhcx IkvamXv ZznXotbm hc DNy-tX.
√. hnhm-ln-Xs\ I\y-I-bpw hn[-hsb Ipam-                      (\ncp. 3.15.)
c\pw kzoI-cn-°-bn-s√∂p hcp-tºmƒ, \ntbm-                         hn[-h-bpsS c≠m-asØ `¿Øm-hn-s\-bmWv
K-Øns‚ Bhiyw hcp-∂p. Xpey-cpsS _‘-                          tZh-c≥ F∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xv. `¿Øm-hns‚ A\p-
amWv [¿am-\p-kr-X-am-b-Xv.                                  Pt\m tPyjvTt\m kzPm-Xo-bt\m AYhm
   tNm:˛ hnhm-l-Øn-\p-≈-Xp-t]mse \ntbm-                     D∂X PmXo- b t\m Bcm- b m- e pw hn[h
K- Ø n\pw            thZm- Z n- i m- k v{X- ß - f n¬        \ntbmKw sNøp-∂-bm-fns\ tZh-c≥ F∂p ]d-
{]amWapt≠m?                                                 bp-∂p. 2. A√tbm (\mco) hn[-th, \o (GXw
   D:˛ At\Iw {]am-W-߃ D≠v. ImWq!                           KXm-kpav) acn-®p-t]mb `¿Øm-hn-s\-∏‰n Nn¥n-
tIƒ°q!                                                      °msX (titj) tijn® ]pcp-j-∑m-cn¬\n∂v
   1. Ipl- kzn-t±mjm Ipl hkvtXm-c-izn\m                     (A`n-Po-h-temIw) Poh-\p≈ c≠mw `¿Øm-
Iplm-`n]nXzw IcXx Iptlm-jXpx. tIm hmw                       hns\ (Dss]ln) {]m]n-°p-I. (D-Zo¿jz) CXn-
ibp{Xm hn[-thh tZhcw acyw \ tbmjm                           s\-∏‰n Btem-Nn®v Cßs\ \n›-bn-°pI (l-
IrWptX k[ÿ B. (E. 10.40.2)                                  kvX-{Km-`ky Zn[n-tjmx) hn[-h-bmb \ns∂
   2. DZocv j z \mcy- ` n- Po- h - t em- I w KXm            ho≠pw ]mWn-{K-lWw sNøp∂ \nbp-‡-]-
kptaXap] tij Gln. lkvX-{Km-`ky Zn[n-                        Xn-°mWv \ntbm-K-sa-¶n¬ (C-Z-av) Cu (P-\n-
tjmkv-X-th-Zw ]XyqcvP-\n-Xz-a`n kw _-`qY.                   Xz-av) P\n-°p-∂ Ip´n (]-Xypx) B \nbp-‡-]-
(E. 10.18.8)                                                Xn-bp-tS-Xm-bn-cn-°pw. adn®v \ns‚ Bh-iy-Øn-
                                                            \m-sW-¶n¬ k¥m\w (X-h) \nt‚-Xpam-bn-
   1. A√tbm (Aizn\m) kvXo]p-cp-j-∑msc!                      cn°pw (A-`n-kw-_-`q-Y) Cßs\ \ni-vN-bn-°p-
(tZh-cw, hn[-thh) hn[-h-bmb kvXo Xs‚                        I. \nbp-‡-]p-cp-j\pw Cu \n›bw ]men-°-
tZh-c-t\bpw 28 (tbmjm-a-cyw\) hnhm-lnX                      Ww.
Xs‚ `¿Øm- h n- t \bpw (k[tÿ) kam\                                                     -
                                                                AtZ-hr-Lv\y-]XnLv\ossl[n inhm ]ip-             - -
ÿm\Øpw iø-bnepw H∂n-®p-tN¿∂v k¥m-                           `yx -kp-bam kphcvNmx. {]Pm-hXo hoc-kqcvtZ-
t\m- e v ] m- Z \w (BIr- W ptX) sNøp- ∂ - X p-              hr-Imam tkymt\aa·nw Km¿l-]Xyw k]cy.
t]mse \nß-fn-cp-hcpw (Ipl-kzn-t±mjm) cm{Xn-                 (A-Y¿hw 14.2.18) 29
bn-se-hnsS (Ipl-hkvXx) ]I-se-hnsS hkn-
®n-cp∂p? (Iplp-`n-]nXzw IcXx) Fhn-sS-\n∂v                       (A-]-Xn-Lv\yw-tZ-hr-Lv\n) 30 `¿Øm-hn\pw
  28 `¿Øm-hns‚ Cfb ktlm-Z-c≥                                tZh-c\pw ZpxJ-ap-≠m-°mØ h\n-tX, \o (C-
     F∂p cqVm¿Yw

                                                       85
     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                     kam-h¿Ø\w, hnhm-lw, Krl-ÿm-{i-a-hn[n
l) Cu Krl-ÿm-{i-a-Øn¬ (]-ip-`yx) arK-                    tfbpw \ntbm-Kn-°mw.
߃°v (in-h) awK-f-Im-cn-Wnbpw (kp-b-amx)                                 - -          -
                                                            tNm:˛ GIm-Zikw-⁄bm¬ ]Øp-]p-{X-∑m-
[¿Ω- a m¿K- N m- c n- W nbpw (kp- h cv N mx) kpµ-        sc∂pw ]Xn-s\m-∂m-aXv ]Xn-sb∂pw F¥p-
cnbpw kIe imkv{X-hn-im-c-Zbpw ({]-Pm-h-Xo)               sIm≠v FÆn-°qSm?
t{ijvT-cm-b -]p-{X-]u-{Xm-Zn-I-fp-≈-hfpw (ho-c-             D:˛ Aßs\ A¿∞w ]d- b p∂ ]£w
kqx) hoc-]p-{X-∑msc {]k-hn-®-hfpw (tZ-hr-Im-             ""hn[thh tZh- c av '' ""tZhcx Ikv a mXv
                           -
am) tZhcs\ Iman-°p-∂hfpw (tkym-\m) kpJ-                  ZznXotbm hc DNytX'' ""AtZ- h rLv \ n''
{]-Z-bp-am-bn, `¿Øm-hn-t\tbm tZh-c-t\tbm                 ""K‘¿thm hnhZ DØcx'' apX-emb thZ-{]-
(G-[n) {]m]n-®v, (C-a-av) Cu (Kmcvl]Xy-av)               am-W-߃°p hncp-≤-ambn Xocpw. Fs¥-∂m¬
Krlÿ- k w- _ - ‘ n- b mb (A- · n- a v ) tlmam-           \nß- f psS hymJym- \ - a - \ p- k - c n®v c≠mw
·nsb (k-]-cy) Pzen-∏n®p \ne-\n¿Øp-I.                     `¿Ømhv D≠m-bn-°q-S-t√m.
   Xma-t\\ hn[m-t\\ \ntPm hntµX tZhcx                       tZh-cmZzm k]n-WvUmZzm kv{Xnbm kay-
(a-\p. 9.69)                                                                                 -
                                                         Mv\n-bp-‡bm. {]tP-]vkn-Xm-[n-K¥hym k¥m-
   A£-X-tbm-\n-bmb kv{Xo hn[-h-bm-bm¬                    \ky ]cn£-tb.        32
`¿Øm-hns‚ kz¥w A\p-P\v Ahsf hnhmlw
sNømw.                                                      tPyjvtTm bho-btkm `mcymw bho-bm-\zm-
                                                         {K-P-kv{Xn-bav. ]XnsXu `htXm KXzm \nbp-
   tNm:˛ Hmtcm-cp-Ø¿°pw F{X \ntbmKw
                                                         ‡m-h-]y-\m-]Zn. 33 Huckx t£{X-P-ss›-
hoXw sNømw? hnhmlw sNbv X - h cpw
\ntbmKw sNbvX-h-cp-amb `¿Øm-°-∑m-cpsS                    h 34
kw⁄-Iƒ Gh?                                                  Cß-s\-bmWv a\p Fgp-Xn-bn-´p-≈-Xv. k]n-
   D:˛tkmax {]Ytam hnhntZ K‘cvthm                        WvU¿ AYhm `¿Øm-hns‚ Bdp Xe-ap-d-hsc
hnhnZ DØcx. XrXotbm A·njvtS ]Xn-                         AI∂ _‘p- ° - f n¬ s]´, `¿Øm- h ns‚
kvXq-co-bkvtX a\p-jyPmx (E. 10. 85.40)                   tPyjvTm-\p-P-∑m¿, kzPm-Xn-bn-ep-≈-h¿, D∂-X-
                                                         Pm- X o- b ¿, F∂n- h - t cm- S mWv hn[- h bv ° v
   A√tbm \mco! (tX) \ns‚ ({]-Y-ax) H∂mw                  \ntbmKw hnln-X-am-b-Xv. F∂m¬ \ntbmKw
hnhm-l-Ønse (]-Xnx) `¿Øm-hmbn (hn-hn-tZ)                 sNøp-∂Xv hn[p-c-\pw hn[-hbv°pw k¥m-\-e-
\ns∂ {]m]n-°p-∂-bm-fn\v (tkm-ax) kuIp-am-                _v[n°v B{K-l-ap-s≠-¶nte DNn-X-am-bn-cn-°q.
cymZn KpW-ß-fm¬ tkma≥ F∂p t]cmWv.                        A\yw \n¬°p-tºmgpw \ntbmKw Bh-iy-am-
\ntbm-K-Øm¬ (hn-hn-tZ) {]m]n-°p∂ ZznXo-                                                   -
                                                         Wv. k¥m\w AXy-¥m-t]-£n-Xam-bn-cn-°p-tºm-
b≥ (K-‘¿hx) as‰mcp kv{Xosb {]m]n-®n-cp-                  g-√msX (tPy-jvTs‚ `mcy-tbm-Sp-IqSn A\p-P-
∂-Xn-\m¬ K‘¿h≥ F∂ kw⁄-bp-≈-h-\m-                         t\m A\p-Ps‚ `mcy-tbm-Sp-IqSn tPyjvTt\m
Wv. (Xr-Xob DØ-cx) ]n∂oSv aq∂m-asØ                       \ntbmKw sNbv X p k¥m- \ - a p- ≠ m- b - X n\p
`¿Øm-hm-Ip-∂-bmƒ°v (A-·nx) AXy-[nI                       tijw) ho≠pw _‘w XpS¿∂m¬ Ccp-hcpw
k¥m- ] - a p- f - h m- ° p∂h\m- I - b m¬ A·n                    -                   -
                                                         ]Xn-Xcm-Ipw. Hcp \ntbm-KØns‚ IqSnb Imem-
F∂mWv kw⁄. (tX) \ns‚ (Xp-cn-bx) \mep                     h[n c≠m- a sØ K¿`m- [ m\w hsc- b m- W v .
apX¬ ]Xn-s\m∂p hsc-bp≈ \nbp-‡-]-Xn-                      CXn\p tijw \nbp-‡¿ XΩn¬ kam-Kaw
Iƒ°v (a- \ p- j y- P mx) a\pjy¿ F∂mWv                    ]mSn-√. kv{Xo ]pcp-j-∑m-cn-cp-h-cp-sSbpw Bh-
kw⁄.                                                     iy-am-bn-´mWv \ntbm-Ksa-¶n¬ \mem-asØ
   "Cam Xzav' 31 F∂ a{¥-a\p-kcn®v kv{Xo°v
                              -     -                    K¿`m-[m\w hsc Imem-h-[n-bm-Imw. Cßs\
]Xn- s \m∂p ]pcp- j - ∑ msc \ntbm- K n- ° m- h p-
                                                         31 t]Pv 183 ImWp-I. AhnsS {]I-c-W-h-im¬ ]Øp
∂Xpt]mse ]pcp-j\v ]Xn-s\m∂p kv{XoI-                                   - -                -   - - -
                                                            k¥m-\ßsf∂pw ChnsS \ntbm-K{]-IcWam-Ibm¬ -
                                                            ]Øp \ntbm-Khpw Hcp hnhm-l-hp-sa∂v A¿Yw ]d-
                                                            ™n-cn-°p-∂p.
29 AY¿hw 14-˛mw ImWvUw 2˛mw kq‡w 18-˛mw a{¥w             32 a\p 9. 59
30 kzc-im-kv{X-a-\p-k-cn®v A]-XnLv\o AtZ-hrLv\o          33 Sn. 9.50
   F∂p ]Zw                                               34 Sn. 9. 159

                                                    86
              \memw kap-√mkw                                                kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
ap≥]-d-™-hÆw ]Øp k¥m-\-߃ hsc-bm-                       sW-¶n¬ F´p-sIm-√hpw ]Tn-°mt\m Io¿Øn
Imw. \nbp-‡¿ ho≠pw kam-Kaw sNbvXm¬                      kºm-Zn-°p-∂-Xnt\m hntZ-i-bm-{X-bn-em-sW-
AXp hnj-bm-k‡n \nan-Ø-am-Wv. X∂n-anØw                   ¶n¬ Bdp-sIm-√-hpw ]Ww kºm-Zn-°mt\m
Ahsc ]Xn-X-cmbn KWn-°pw. hnhm-ln-X-cm-                  at‰m \mSp hn´n-cn-°p-s∂-¶n¬ aq∂p-sIm√w
bmepw ]Øp- I p- ´ n- I ƒ ]nd- ∂ - X n\p tijw            hscbpw ImØn-cp∂ tijw \ntbmKw sNbvXv
Ahsc Imam-Xp-ccpw \nµn-X-cp-ambn KWn-°pw.               k¥m-\-e_v[n t\Sm-hp-∂-Xm-Wv. `¿Ømhp
hnhm-lhpw \ntbm-Khpw k¥-Xn-°p-th≠n                      aSßn hcp-tºmƒ \nbp-‡-]-Xn-bpsS _‘w
am{X- a m- W v . arK- ß - s f- t ∏mse arKob Ima-        th¿s]-Spw.
]q¿Øn°p th≠n-b-s√∂p Xmev]-cyw.                                                -
                                                           2. Cßs\ ]pcp-j∑m-cpsS Imcy-Ønepw \nb-
   tNm:˛ `¿Ømhp acn-®-ti-j-a-√msX Pohn-                 a-ap-≠v. hnhmlw Ign™v F´p sIm√w hsc
®n-cn-°p-tºmgpw \ntbmKw \S-Ømtam?                       K¿`w [cn-°mØ h‘ysb F´m-asØ h¿j-
   D:˛ \SØmw:˛ A\y-an-—kz kp`tK ]Xnw                    hpw `mcy {]k-hn-°p∂ k¥m-\-ß-sf√mw acn-
aXv. (E. 10. 10. 10) `¿Øm-hn\v k¥m-t\m-ev]m-            ®p-t]m-Ip∂ ]£w Ahsf ]Ømw sIm√-Øn-
Z-\-km-a¿∞yw C√msX hcp-tºmƒ `mcy-tbmSv                  epw s]¨Ip-´n-Isf am{Xw {]k-hn-°p-∂-hsf
B⁄m-]n-°-Ww.:˛ ""tl (kp`-tK) ku`m-                      ]Xn-s\m∂mw h¿j-hpw A{]nbw ]d-bp-∂-hsf
KysØ C—n-°p∂ \mco! \o (a-Xv) F∂n¬                       DS-s\-X-s∂bpw ]cn-Xy-Pn®v thsdmcp kv{Xo
\n∂v (A-\yw) A\y-\mb `¿Øm-hns\ (C-—-                    tbm-Sp-IqSn \ntbmKw sNbvXv, k¥m-\-ßsf
kz) C—n-°p-I. Fs¥-∂m¬, Ct∏mƒ F∂n¬                       t\Sm-hp-∂-Xm-Wv. CXp-t]mse Xs∂ kv{Xo
\n∂v k¥m-t\m-ev]Øn D≠m-hm≥ km[y-X-                      Ifpw `¿Øm-°-∑m¿ AXncp Ihn™v D]-{Z-hn-
bn-√.'' At∏mƒ kv{Xo°v CX-c-]p-cp-j-\p-ambn              °p-∂-h-cm-sW-¶n¬ Ahsc Dt]-£n-®v, A\y-
\ntbmKw sNbvXv k¥m-t\m-ev]m-Z-\-am-Imw.                 ]p-cp-j-∑m-tcm-Sp-IqSn \ntbmKw sNbvXv k¥m-
]t£ Ahƒ kz¥w hnhm-lnX `¿Øm-hns\                         \-ßsf t\Sn Ahsc `¿Øm-hns‚, kz-Øn-\-
ip{iqjn-°-Ww. CXp-t]mse tcmKm-Zn-tZm-j-ß-               h-Im-in-I-fm-°-Ww.
fm¬ kv{Xo k¥m-t\m-ev]m-Z-\-Øn\v Ak-                        Cß- s \- b p≈ {]am- W - ß ƒ, bp‡n- I ƒ
a¿∞-bm-Ip-tºmƒ `¿Øm-hn-t\mSv A`y¿∞n-                    F∂n-h-b-\p-k-cn®v kzbw-hc coXn-bn¬ hnhm-
°Ww:˛ ""\mYm F∂n¬ \n∂v k¥m-\-e-_v[n-                    lhpw \ntbm-Khpw sNbvXv hwi-h¿≤\ sNø-
bp-≠m-Ip-sa∂ Bi shSn™v GsX-¶nepw hn[-                                 -
                                                        Ww. Huc-k]p-{X-∑m¿ (`¿Øm-hn¬ \n∂p-≠mb
hsb \ntbmKw sNbvXv, k¥m-\-`mKyw t\Sn-                   a°ƒ) ]nXm-hns‚ kzØn\v Ah-Im-in-I-fm-
bm-epw.'' ]mWvUp-alm-cm-Pm-hns‚ ]Xv\n-am-cmb
                      -                                 Ip-∂-Xp-t]mse t£{X-P-∑m-cmb (\n-tbm-K-
Ip¥n, am{Zn F∂n-h¿ C{]-Im-c-amWv sNbvX-                 Øm¬ D≠m-b) ]p{X-∑mcpw arX-]n-Xm-hns‚
Xv. Nn{Xmw-K-Z≥, hnNn-{X-ho-c≥ F∂o alm-cm-              Zmb-`m-K-Øn\v Ah-Im-in-I-fm-Ip-∂p.
      -                 -
Pm-°∑m-cpsS ac-Wtijw thZ-hym-kalmap\n,   -                        - -                          -
                                                           hocy-cPkp-Iƒ AXn-aq-ey-ap≈ hkvXp-°fm-
\ntbm-K-Øm¬ Aw_n-I-bn¬ [rX-cm-jv{S-\pw                  sW∂v kv{Xo]p-cp-j-∑m¿ a\-kn-em-°-Ww. Cu
Aw_m-en-I-bn¬ ]mWvUp-hn\pw Zmkn-bn¬                     aqey-h-kvXp-°sf ]c-kv{Xo-Iƒ, thiy-Iƒ,
hnZp-c¿°pw P∑w \¬In, CØcw CXn-lm-k-                     ZpjvS-]p-cp-j-∑m¿ F∂n-h-cpsS kwk¿K-Øm¬
߃ \ntbm-K-Øn\v sXfn-hmWv.                              Zpcp-]-tbmKw sNøp-∂-h¿ aqV¿ Xs∂. henb
   1. t{]mjntXm [cva Imcymcv∞w {]Xo-                    hnh-c-an-√mØ Irjn-°m¿ t]mepw A\y-cpsS
t£ymfjv S u \cx kamx. hnZymcv Y w jSv                   hb-en¬ hnØp hnXbv-°p-∂n-√. kz¥w hb-
btimfcvYw hm ImamcvYw {XnwkvXp h’-cm\v.                 entem tXm´-Øntem am{Xta hnX-bv°q. CXp
   2. h‘ym-jvS-taf[n-th-Zym_vtZ Zita Xp                 {]Xy£am-bn-cn-t°, AXn-{]-[m-\-amb a\p-jy-
arX-{]Pm GIm-Zti kv{Xo P\\o kZy-kvXz-                   i-co-c-Øns‚ _oPsØ A\¿l-amb t£{X-
{]n-b-hm-Zn\o (a-\pkvarXn 9.76.81)                      Øn¬ sIms≠dn-bp-∂-h≥ alm-aq-V-\m-Wv.
                                                        Fs¥-∂m¬ AXns‚ ^ew hnX-bv°p∂h\p
   1. hn[n-{]-Imcw hnhmlw sNbvX ]Xv\n°v
                                                        In´p-∂n-√. ""Bflm ssh PmbtX ]p{Xx''
Xs‚ `¿Ømhv [¿a-\n-anØw Zqc-bm-{X-bn-em-


                                                   87
    kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                  kam-h¿Ø\w, hnhm-lw, Krl-ÿm-{i-a-hn[n
F∂t{X {_m“-W-߃ ]d-bp-∂-Xv.                          ]pcp- j s‚ `mcybv ° pw {_“- N - c y- ] m- e \w
   AwKm-Zw-KmXv kw-`-hmkn lrZ-bm-Z-[n- Pm-           Akm-≤y-sa-¶n¬ a‰p kv{Xo]p-cp-j-∑m-tcmSv
btk. Bflmkn ]p{X am arYmx k Poh                       \ntbmKw sNbvXv Ah¿°v k¥m-\-e_v[n
ic-Zx- i-Xav.. 35 (CXp kma-thZ {_m“-W-h-             ssIh-cp-Ø-Ww. A√msX thiym-kw-k¿Ktam
N-\-am-Wv)                                           hy`n-Nm-ctam ]mSn-√-X-s∂.
   tl ]p{X! \o Fs‚ F√m AwK-ß-fn¬                        ssIh-i-an-√mØ hkvXp-°ƒ kºm-Zn-°p-
\n∂pw D≠mb hocy-Øn¬ \n∂pw lrZ-bØn¬     -             hm≥ {ian-°p-I, In´n-bXp c£n-°p-I, c£n-
\n∂p-amWv P\n-®Xv. \o Fs‚ Bflmhp Xs∂.
                  -                                  ®Xp h¿≤n-∏n-°p-I, h¿≤n-∏n® [\w apgp-h\pw
Rm≥ acn-°p-∂-Xn\p apºv \o acn-°-cp-Xv. \o            \mSns‚ \∑-bv°mbn sNe-h-gn-°pI F∂n-h-
\qdp h¿jw Pohn-®n-cn-°p-I. al-Øp-°fpw alm-           sb√mw Ign- h - \ p- k - c n®v sNø- W w. kz¥w
                                                     h¿Wm-{i-a-[¿ΩsØ ]q¿thm-‡-amb coXn-
i-b-∑m-cp-am-b-h-cpsS ico-c-Øn\p \nZm-\-amb
                                                     bn¬ AXn-{i-≤-tbmsS a\-kpw ]W-hpw ico-
hocyw thiymZn ZpjvS-cn¬ hnX-bv°p-∂-Xpw
                                                     chpw D]-tbm-Kn®v A\p-jvTn-°-Ww. Ah-\-h-
ZpjvS-_o-PsØ \√ ]m{X-ß-fn¬ hnX-bv°p-
                                                     s‚bpw Pohn-X-]-¶m-fnbpsSbpw amXm-]n-Xm-°-
∂Xpw A]-I-S-I-c-a-t{X.
                                                     ∑msc Atß-b‰w ip{iq-jn-°-Ww. kplr-Øp-
   tNm:˛ F¥mWv hnhmlw? IjvS-s∏-Sm\pw                 °ƒ, Ab¬]- ° - ° m¿, `c- W m- [ n- I m- c n- I ƒ,
         -
_‘-\Øn¬ AI-s∏´p ZpxJn-°m-\ptam? ]c-                  hnZzm-∑m¿, sshZy-∑m¿, kØp-°ƒ F∂n-h-tcm-
kv]c t{]a-ap-≈-h¿ Hcp-an-®n-cn-°-s´. t{]aw           sS√mw kvt\l-]q¿∆w s]cp-am-d-Ww. ZpjvScpw
C√m-Xm-bm¬ th¿]n-cn-b-s´. CXt√ icn?                  A[¿a-\n-c-X-cp-am-b-h-cpsS t\sc DZm-ko-\-cmbn
   D:˛ P¥p-°-fpsS kz`m-h-am-Wn-Xv. a\p-jy-cp-        tZzj-`mhw If™v Ahsc \∂m-°p-hm≥ {ian-
tS-X-√. hnhm-l\nbaw Cs√-¶n¬ Krl-ÿm-                  °-Ww. Ign-hp-≈{X ]Ww apS°n k¥m-\ßsf      -
{i-a-Ønse \√ {]hr-Øn-I-sf√mw \in-®p-t]m-             kvt\l-]q¿∆w ]Tn-∏n®v, Ahsc in£n-Xcpw
Ipw. hr≤-∑msc ip{iq-jn-°m-\m-fn-√m-Xm-Ipw.           ]q¿W-hn-Zzm-∑m-cp-am-°-Ww. [¿am-\p-kr-X-I¿a-
hy`n-Nmcw h¿≤n-°pw. tcmKn-Ifpw _e-lo-\-              ߃ A\p-jvTn®v tamt£m-]m-b-ßsf t\Sn-h-
cpw Aev]m-bp-kp-I-fp-ambn a\p-jy¿ thKw acn-          bv°p-Ibpw thWw. tam£-{]m-]vXn-bmbmte
°pw. Xd-hm-Sp-Iƒ apSnbpw B¿°pw Bscbpw                ]c-am-\µw A\p-`-hn-°p-hm≥ Ign-bq. C\n Fgp-
`b-an-√m-Xm-Ipw. e÷ B¿°p-ap-≠m-hn-√. kzØ-            Xp∂ Xcw t«mI-ßsf AwKo-I-cn-°-cp-Xv.
h-Im-ihpw `mKm-h-Im-ihpw C√m-Xm-Ipw hkvXp-              1. ]Xn-tXm f ]n ZznPx t{ijvtTm \ N iqt{Zm
°-fn-t∑¬ kz¥m-h-Imiw C√m-Xm-Ipw. CXn\v               PntX-{µnbx. \ncvZpKv≤m Nm]n Kux ]qPym \
DNn-X-amb ]cn-lmcw hnhmlw Xs∂.                       N ZpKv≤-hXo Jco..
   tNm:˛ hnhm-l-Øn¬ GI ]Xv\o-{h-Xhpw                    2. Aizm-ew`w Khm-ew`w kw\ymkw ]e
GI-`¿Ør-hy-h-ÿ-bp-a-t√-bp≈q? At∏mƒ                   ss]{XnIw. tZh-cm® kptXm-Xv]Ønw Ieu
kv{Xo K¿`n-Wntbm ÿnc-tcm-Kn-Wntbm Bhp-               ]© hnhcvP-tbXv..
Ibpw AYhm ]pcp-j≥ ÿnc-tcm-Kn-bm-hp-
Itbm sNbvXm¬, Ccp-hcpw buh-\-bp-‡-                      3. \jv t S artX {]{h- P ntX ¢oth N
sc-¶n¬ {_“-N-cy-kw-c-£Ww Ccp-h¿°p-a-                 ]XntX ]Xu. ]©-kzm-]’p \mcoWmw ]Xn-
km-≤y-am-Ipw. At∏mƒ Ah-sc¥p sNøWw?                   ct\ym hn[o-btX..
   D:˛ CXn-\p-Øcw \ntbm-K{]-IcWØn-ep-≠v.
                            -  - - -                    Ch ]cmics‚ t]cn¬ \n¿an® I≈ t«mI-
K¿`n- W n- b mb `mcy- t bmSv Hcm- ≠ p- I mew         ß-fm-Wv. Zpcm-Nm-cn-bmb {_m“-W≥ t{ijvT-
                                                     \pw kZm-Nm-cn-bmb iq{Z≥ \oN-\p-ambn FÆ-
kwtbmKw h¿÷n® ]pcp-j\pw tcmKn-bmb
                                                     s∏-Sp∂ ]£w AXn-tesd henb ]£-]m-X-
                                                     hpw A\ym-bhpw A[¿ahpw F¥mWv?
  35 Bflm ssh ]p{X-\m-akn F∂ iX-]-Y-h-N-\hpw
     (4.9. 4.26) \ncp‡w(3.4 ¬ D≤r-Xw) hN-\hpw           1. ""]m¬ Xcp-∂p-s≠-¶nepw Cs√-¶nepw CS-
     XΩn¬ Xmc-Xayw sNøp-I.                           b≥ ]ip-hns\ c£n-°-W-sa¶n¬ Ipi-hcpw
  36 OmtµmKyw a{¥-{_m-“Ww 1.5.17 s‚                  a‰pw Igp-Xsb F¥p-sIm≠p c£n-°-W-sa-
     ]q¿hm¿≤hpw 18s‚ DØ-cm¿≤hpw

                                                88
              \memw kap-√mkw                                                      kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
∂n√? IqSmsX Cu DZm-l-cWw Xs∂ icn-b-                      hN- \ - h p- a - √ . Fs¥- ∂ m¬ ""{_t“m- h m- N ,
√. Fs¥-∂m¬, {_m“-W\pw iq{Z\pw a\p-                       hknjv T Dhm- N , cma DhmN inh Dhm- N ,
jy-Pm-Xn-bn¬ s]Sp-∂p. ]iphpw Igp-Xbpw `n∂-               hnjvWp-cp-hm-N, tZhyp-hmN'' F∂pw a‰pw Nne¿
Pm-Xn-I-fm-Wv. Ah c≠pw arK-Pm-Xn-bn¬ s]´-                {KŸ-߃ Na-bv°p-∂Xv Ahsb temI¿ kzoI-
Xm-sW∂p ]d™v DZm-l-c-W-Øns‚ {]IrX                        cn-°p-sa∂pw X∂n-anØw [mcmfw ]Ww kºm-
sØ Hcp hn[w {]Ir-X-Øn\p tbmPn-∏n-°m-sa-                  Zn-°m-sa∂pw IcpXn am{X-am-Wv. Cßs\ A¿Y-
¶nepw Bi-b-Øn\p tN¿®-bn-√m-bvI-bm¬ Cu                    an-√mØ t«mI-ß-sf-gp-Xn-t®¿°p-∂p, Cß-s\-
t«mIw Hcn-°epw {]amWa-√.                                 Iq-´n-t®¿Ø t«mI-ß-sfm-gn-hm-°n-bm¬ thZm-
    2. Aizm-ew-`-\-sa∂p ]d™v IpXn-csb                    \p-kr-X-am-bXv a\pkvar-Xn-bm-Wv. a‰p kar-Xn-
sIm∂p tlman-°p-I, Khm-ew-`\-sa∂ t]cn¬-                   Iƒ thZm-\p-kr-X-a-√. a‰p hymP {KŸ-ßfp
˛ -]-ip-hns\ sIm∂p tlman-°p-I ˛ F∂n-                     sSbpw ÿnXn CXp Xs∂-bm-sW∂p a\- n-
hbv ° p thZ- Ø n¬ hn[n- t b- b n- √ . At∏mƒ              em-°-Ww.
Ahsb Ien-bp-K-Øn¬ \ntj-[n-°p-∂Xp thZ-                        tNm:˛ Krl-ÿm-{iaw a‰m-{i-a-ß-tf-°mƒ
        -
hn-cp-≤at√? Cu \oN-I¿a-Øn\v Ien-bp-KØn¬       -          sNdptXm heptXm?
\ntj-[-ap-s≠∂p Icp-Xp∂ ]£w t{XXmZn-                          D: AXm-Xns‚ I¿Øhy I¿a-߃ t\m°n-
bp-K-ß-fn¬ AXn\p hn[n-bp-≠m-bn-cp-s∂-∂m-                 bm¬ Hmtcm∂pw t{ijvT-am-Wv. F∂m¬:˛
Wt√m h∂p IqSp-I. AØcw ZpjvI¿a-߃
                                                             bYm \Zo-\Zmx kcvth kmKtc bm¥n
""t{ijvT-bpK''Øn¬ D≠m-Ip-∂Xv Akw-`-hy-
                                                         kwÿn-Xav. XssYhm{ianWx kcvth Krl
am-Wv. kw\ym-k-Øn\v thZm-Zn-im-kv{X-ß-fn¬
                                                         tÿ bm¥n kwÿn-Xav.. (a-\pkvarXn 6.90)
hn[n-bp-≠v. AXns\ \ntj-[n-°p-hm≥ {]am-W-
sam-∂p-an-√. amwkm-lmcw \njn-≤-am-sW-¶n¬                     bYm hmbpw kam-{inXy hcvXt¥ kcvh-
AXv F∂pw \njn≤w Xs∂-bmWv tZhc-cn¬                        P¥hx. XYm Krl-ÿ-am-{inXy hcvXt¥
\n∂v ]pt{Xm¬]m-Z\w thZm-\p-a-Xn-bp-≈-Xm                  k¿h B{iamx..
Ibm¬ t«mI-ap-≠m-°n-b-h≥ Nne-®n´p Imcy-                       bkvamXv{Xtbm f ]ym{i-antWm Zmt\-\m-
an√.                                                     t∂\ Nm\zlw. Krl-tÿ-ss\h [mcyt¥
    3. `¿Ømhp \jvS-\m-bn-cn-°p-tºmƒ-˛-hn-tZ-             Xkvam-tPy-jvTm-{itam Krlo.
i-hm-kØn-em-sW-¶n¬ `mcy as‰m-cmsf `¿Øm-
          -                                                  k k‘mcyx {]b-Xvt\\ kzcvK-a-£b
hmbn hcn-°p-Ibpw At∏mƒ hnhmlw sNbvX                      an—Xm. kpJw tNtl-—Xm \nXyw tbm f
`¿Ømhp aSßn hcn-Ibpw sNbvXm¬ Ahƒ                         [mtcym Zpcv_te{µnssbx.. (a-\pkvarXn 3.77-
BcpsS `mcy-bm-bn-cn°pw? hnhmlw sNbvX                     ˛79)
]Xn- b psS ]Xv \ n- b m- b n- c n- ° p- s a∂ DØcw            -k-ap-{Z-Øn¬ hogpwapºv Aßp-anßpw Hgp-
\ap°pw kzoImcyw Xs∂. F∂m¬ Aßs\                           Ip∂ sNdpXpw hep-Xp-amb \Zn-Iƒ kap-{Z-Øn-
Hcp hyhÿ ]cm-i-c-kvar-Xn-bn¬ ImWp-∂n-                                 -
                                                         se-Øp-∂tXm-Sp-IqSn ÿnc-Xsb t\Sp-∂p. AXp-
√. kv{XoIƒ°p-≠m-Im-hp∂ B]¬°m-e߃                -        t]mse CXc B{i-a-߃ Krl-ÿm-{i-asØ
At© Dt≈m? `¿Ømhp tcmKn-bm-hp-I, `mcym-                   B{i-bn®p ÿncX t\Sp-∂p. Krl-ÿm-{i-a-an-
`¿Øm-°-∑m¿°p XΩn¬ hntcm-[-ap-≠m-hp-I,                    s√-¶n¬ a‰m-{i-a-ß-fp-an-√.
XpS-ßnb B]-Øp-Iƒ A©n-e[n-Iat√? AXn-   -    -                 {_“-Nm-cn, hm\-{]-ÿ≥, kw\ymkn F∂o
\m¬ CØcw t«mI-ßsf {]am-W-ambn KWn-                       aq∂m- { i- a - ß - f n- e p- ≈ - h ¿°v Znh- k hpw `£-
°p-∂Xp icn-b√.                                           Whpw a‰pw \¬In \ne-\n¿Øp-∂Xv Krl-ÿ-
    tNm:˛ sIm≈m-at√m tl, \n߃ ]cm-i-c-                   \m-I-bm¬ Krl-ÿm-{iaw tPyjvTm-{i-a-am-Wv.
a-l¿jn-bpsS hm°n-\p-t]mepw hne Iev]n-                    F√m B{i-a-ß-fnepw sh®v [pc-‘-c-am-W-
°p-∂nt√?                                                 sX∂p ]d-bp-∂p. sFln-I-kp-Jhpw tam£hpw
    D:˛ BcpsS hN-\-am-bmepw thZ-hn-cp-≤-am-b-            Imw£n-°p-∂-h¿ F¥p-sNbvXpw Krl-ÿm-{i-
Xp-sIm≠v hne-sh-°p-∂n√. CXp ]cm-i-cs‚                    asØ \ne-\n¿Ø-Ww. Zp¿_-te-{µn-b¿°pw


                                                    89
    kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                  hm\-{]-ÿ -˛ -k-\ym-k-hn[n
`ocp-°ƒ°pw _e-lo-\¿°pw \ne-\n¿Øp-hm≥
km[n-°mØ Krl-ÿm-{i-asØ `wKn-bmbn
kwc-£n-°-Ww. F√m euInI hrØn-I-fp-
sSbpw B{ibw Krl-ÿm-{i-a-am-Wv. Krl-ÿm-
{i-a-an-s√-¶n¬ k¥m-\-ß-fp-≠m-hn-√. At∏mƒ
{_“-N-cyw, hm\-{]-ÿw, kw\ymkw F∂o
B{i-a-߃ Fß-s\-bp-≠mIpw? Krl-ÿm-{i-
asØ \nµn-°p∂h≥ \nµy-\pw AXns\ {]iw-
kn-°p-∂-h≥ {]iw-k-\o-b-\p-am-Wv. F∂m¬
kv{Xo]p-cp-j-∑m¿ Ccp-h¿°pw Hcp t]mse ]c-
kv]-c-t{]aw, ]Tn-∏v, ]cn-{i-a-ioew, F√m {]hr-
       -                   -
Øn-Ifnepw Adnhv F∂n-hbp-≠m-bm¬ am{Xta
Krl-ÿm-{iaw kpJ-{]-Z-am-hp-I-bp-≈q. Krl-
ÿm-{i-a-ku-Jy-Øn\p apJy-Im-c-Ww, {_“-N-
cyhpw ap≥sNm∂ kzbw-h-c-k-{º-Zm-b-Øn-ep≈
hnhm-l-hp-am-Wv.
   kam-h¿Ø-\w, hnhm-lw, Krlÿm-{iaw
F∂o hnj-b-ß-sf-∏‰n Cu kap√m-k-Øn¬
C{Xbpw Npcp-°n-∏-d-™p. ASp-Ø-Xn¬ hm\-
{]-ÿw, kw\ymkw F∂n-h-sb-∏‰n Fgp-Xmw.

  {ioa-Zv Zbm-\µ kc-kzXn kzman-I-fm¬
   hnc-Nn-X-amb kXym¿Y-{]-Im-i-Øn¬
   kam-h¿Ø-\˛hnhml˛-Kr-l-ÿm-{i-a
          -hn-[n-Iƒ {]Xn-]m-Zn-°p∂
       \memw kap-√mkw Ign-™p.




                                                90
           A©mw kap-√mkw                                                kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw




                                         5
                             A©mw kap-√mkw


                  hm\-{]-ÿ-˛-kw\ym-k-hn[n
             AY hm\-{]-ÿ-˛-kw\ym-k-hn[nw h£ymax
{_“-N-cym-{iaw kam]y Krlo-`-thXv Krlo                 2. Xs‚ Xe-apSn \c-s®∂pw Pc-h-s∂-∂pw
`qXzm h\o `th-Zz-\o-`qXzm {]{h-tPXv (i-X.         ]u{X-\p-≠m-sb∂pw I≠m¬ Krl-ÿ≥ h\-
14) {_“-N-cym-{iaw Ign®v Krl-ÿm-{iaw              Øn¬ t]mbn ]m¿°-Ww.
ssIs°m≠v ]n∂oSv hm\-{]-ÿm-{iaw kzoI-                  3. {Kmao-Wm-lm-cw, hkv{X-߃, D]-I-c-W-
cn-°p-Ibpw AXn-\p-tijw kw\ykn-°p-Ibpw             ߃ apX-emb hne-]n-Sn-∏p≈hIsf XyPn-®v,
sNøp-∂Xv F√m-h¿°pw DNn-X-am-Wv. CXmWv             ]Xv\nsb ]p{Xs‚ kwc-£-W-bn-em°n Im´n-
B{i-a-hn-[n.                                      te°p ]pd-s∏-S-Ww. `mcysb Iq´n-s°m-≠p-t]m-
   1. Ghw Krlm-{ita ÿnXzm hn[n-h-’                hp-Ibpw sNømw.
kvv\m-X-tIm-ZznPx, ht\ htkØp \nbtXm                   4. A·n-tlm-{X-Øn-\p≈ F√m D]-I-c-Wß-
bYm-hZzn-Pn-tX-{µnbx                              fp-sa-SpØv \mSp-hn´p Im´n¬t]mbn C{µnb \n{K-
   2. Krl-ÿ-kvXp bZm ]tiy-Zz-eo-]-en-X-am-        l-tØmSp IqSn AhnsS ]m¿°-Ww.
fl\x. A]-Xy-sskyh Nm]Xyw XZm-cWyw                      5. Nma apX-emb [m\y-߃, Ce-h¿K-߃,
kam-{i-tbXv.                                      Ing-ßp-Iƒ, ImbvI-\n-Iƒ, ]pjv]-߃ F∂n-
   3. kwXyPy {Kmay-am-lmcw kcvhw ssNh             h-I-fm¬ ap≥sNm∂ ]©-a-lm-b-⁄-ß-f-\p-
]cn-—Zvav, ]pt{Xjp `mcymw \nx£n]y h\w             jv T n- ° - W w. Ah- s Im- ≠ p- X s∂ AXn- Y n-
Kt—’sslh hm.                                      k¬°m-c-hpw Atlm-hr-Ønbpw Ign-°-Ww.
   4. A·n-tlm{Xw kam-Zmb Krlyw Nm·n-                  1. kzm[ymtb \nXy-bp‡x kym±mt¥m
]-cn-O-Zav, {Kmam-Z-cWyw \nx krXy \nh-tk-         ssa{Xx kam-lnXx; ZmXm \nXy-a-\m-ZmXm
∂n-b-tX-{µnbx.                                    kcvh-`q-Xm-\p-I-ºI.
   5. ap\-y-ss∂cvhn hnss[cvtass≤yx imI-               2. A{]-bXv\x kpJmcvt∞jp {_“-Nmco
       -
aqe-^te\ hm FXm-t\h alm-b⁄m-∂ncvh-  -             [cm-ibx, ic-tW-jz-a-a-ssiv-Nh hr£-aq-e-
t]-Zzn-[n-]qcvh-Iav. (a-\p. 6. 1˛5)               \n-tI-X\x (a-\p. 6.8.19)
   1. Cßs\ kv\mX-I-cmb ZznP-∑m¿˛ {_“-                 1. ]Tn-°p-∂-Xnepw ]Tn-∏n-°p-∂-Xnepw kZm-
Ncyw A\p- j v T n®p kam- h ¿Ø\w sNbv X            {i-≤m-]q¿∆w, Bfl-Pbw t\Sn, k¿h-an-{Xhpw
{_m“-W-£-{Xnb sshiy¿-˛-Kr-l-ÿm-{iaw               C{µn-b-tP-Xm-hpw, hnZym-Zm-Xmhpw Zbm-ephpw
Ign™v Bfl-\n-b-{¥Ww C{µn-b-Pbw F∂n-                A\ys‚ bmsXm∂pw kzoI-cn-°m-Ø-h-\p-ambn
h-tbmSp IqSn h\-Øn¬ hkn-°-Ww.                     hmg-Ww.


                                             91
     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                                    hm\-{]-ÿ -˛ -k-\ym-k-hn[n
   2. ico-c-kp-J-Øn-\mbn hfsc A≤zm-\n-                            D:-˛ BsW∂pw As√∂pw hcmw.
°msX {_“- N m- c n- b m- b n- ˛ - ` mcy Hcp- a n- ® p-            tNm:-˛ c≠p-hn-[-Øn¬ ]d-bp-∂-sX-ßs\?
s≠¶nepw hnj-b-kpJw A\p-`-hn-°m-sX \ne-                            D:-˛ c≠p hn[-Øn¬ ]d-™-X-√. _mey-Im-
Øp- I n- S - ∂ p- d - ß p- I bpw B{in- X - c p- t StXm        eØp hnc-‡-\mb tijw hnj-b-kp-J-ß-fn¬
kz¥tam Bb H∂nepw aa-X-bn-√msX ac-®p-                          AI-s∏-Sp-∂-h≥ alm-]m-]nbpw AI-s∏-Sm-Xn-
h-´n¬ ]m¿°p-Ibpw thWw.                                        cn-°p∂h≥ alm ]pWy-hm-\mb kXv]p-cp-j-
   X]x-{it≤ tb lyp]-h-k-¥y-ctWy                               \p-am-Wv. ""bZ-l-tch hnc-tP-Ø-Z-l-tch {]{h-
   im¥m hnZzmwtkm ss`£-Ncymw Nc¥x.                            tPXv h\m-Zzm,-Kr-lmZzm {_“-N-cym-tZh {]{h-
   kqcy-Zzm-tcW tX hncPmx {]bm¥n                              tPXv.'' 1CXp {_m“-W-h-N-\-am-Wv. hnc‡n
   b{Xmf-arXx k ]pcptjm lyhy-bm-flm.                           D≠m-Ip-tºmƒ Xs∂, Krlÿm-{i-a-Øn¬
                                                              \nt∂m, hm\-{]-ÿ-Øn¬ \nt∂m, kw\ymkw
   (ap-WvU. D. 2. 11)                                         kzoI-cn®p sIm≈-Ww. apºp ]d™ kw\ym-
                                -
   X] p sNbvXpw [¿a-a\p-jvTn®pw kXysØ                         k-{I-a-Øn¬ A`n-{]m-b-t`-Z-ap≠v:-˛hm\-{]ÿw
k{i≤w c£n®pw `n£m-∂-Øm¬ \nXy-hrØn                                          -
                                                              kzoI-cn-®Xn\p tijw kw\y-kn-°Wsa∂v Hcp-     - -
Ign®pw im¥-Nn-Øcpw hnZzm-∑m-cp-am-b-h¿ h\-                    ]£w; hm\-{]ÿw ssIs°m-f-fmsX Krl-
Øn¬ hkn®v \nXy-\pw em`-tN-X-c-ln-X-\pw                                   -
                                                              ÿm-{i-aØn¬ \n∂p-Xs∂ kw\y-kn-°m-sa∂p
]q¿W-]p-cp-j-\p-amb ]c-am-flm-hns\ \n¿a-e-cm-                  as‰mcp ]£w, ]q¿W sshZpjyw kºm-Zn-®-
bn, {]mW-\n-eqsS {]m]n-®v, ]c-am-\-µ-a-\p-`-hn-               h\pw, hnj-b-kp-J-Øn¬ CNvObn-√m-Ø-h\pw,
°p-∂-h-cmbn `hn-°p-∂p.                                        ]tcm-]-Imc Xev]-c-\p-amb ]qcq-j\v {_“-N-
   A`ym -Z-[man kan-[-at· {hX-]tX Xzbnw                       cym-{i-a-Øn¬ \n∂p-Xs∂ kw\ymkw kzoI-
{hXwN {i≤mw tNmss]- a ot‘ Xzm                                 cn- ° m- s a∂p aq∂mw ]£w. thZ- ß - f nepw
Zo£ntXmAlav (b-Pp. 20. 24)                                    ""bXbx {_m“-Wky hnPm-\Xx"" F∂p XpS-
   ""A·n-tlm{Xw sNbvXp Zo£n-X\mbn Rm≥  -                      ßnb ]Z-ßsfs°m≠v kw\ymkw hn[n-®n-´p-
{hXw kXym- N - c Ww {i≤ F∂n- h sb                             ≠v. F¶nepw:-˛
{]m]n°pw'' F∂n-ßs\ k¶-ev]n-®p-sIm≠v                               \mhn-ctXm ZpivNcn-Xm-∂m-imt¥m \mk-am-
                                  -
hm\-{]-ÿm-{iaw kzoI-cn-°Ww. hnhn-[X] p-         - - -         lnXx. \mim-¥-am-\tkm hm]n {]Pv-Rm-t\-
I-fmepw kXv-kw-Kw, tbmKm`ymkw NnØ-ip≤n                        ss\-\-am-]v\p-bm-Xv. (IT. D. 2. 33.)
F∂n-h-bmepw \n¿a-e⁄m\w kºm-Zn-°-Ww.                               Zpcm-Nm-cn-bpw im¥-kz-`m-h-an-√m-Ø-h-\pw -
kw\y-kn-°p-hm≥ C—-bp-≠m-Ip-tºmƒ `mcysb                        tbm- K - k n- ≤ n- b n- √ m- Ø - h - \ pw im¥- N n- Ø -
]p{X-∑mcpsS ASp-°-te-°-b-®n´v kw\y-kn-°-                      \√mØh\pambh≥ kw\y-kn-®mepw {]⁄m-
Ww. Npcp-°-Øn¬ CXmWv hm\-{]-ÿm-{i-a-                          \Øm¬ ]c- a m- fl m- h ns\ {]m]n- ° p- ∂ - X - √ .
hn[n.                                                         AXn-\m¬ :-˛
           AY kw\ymk-hn[nx                                        bNvtOZzm-Mva-\ko {]m⁄ kvXZyNvtOZv
   ht\jp N hnlr-ssXyhw XrXobw `mK-                            ⁄m\- B - fl \o ⁄m\- a m- fl \n alXn
am-bpjx NXpcvY-am-bptjm `mKw Xy‡zm                            \obNvtOØ-ZyNvtO NvOm¥-B-fl-\o.(-I-T.-
kwKm≥ ]cn-{h-tPXv (a-\p. 6. 33)                               D.3.13)
   Bbp-kns‚ aq∂m-asØ `mKw-˛-A-º-Xp-ap-                            _p≤n- a m- \ mb kw\ymkn hm°v , - a - \ kv
X¬ Fgp-]-Ø-©p- hb-kp-hsc ˛ hm\-{]-ÿ-                          F∂nhsb A[¿Ω-Øn¬ \n∂-I‰n ⁄m\-
\m-bn-cp∂ tijw Bbp-kns‚ \mem-asØ `mK-                         Ønepw Bflm-hnepw Dd-∏n-°Ww. ]ns∂ B
Øn¬ k¿h- k w- K - ß - t fbpw ]cn- X y- P n- ® v ,             ⁄m\-tØbpw Bflm-hn-t\bpw Cuiz-c-\n¬
kw\ym-kn-bm-I-Ww.
   tNm:-˛ Krl-ÿhpw hm\-{]-ÿhpw kzoI-                                          -              -
                                                                1 Pm_m-tem-]\n-jØv 4˛mw JWvUØn¬
cn-°msX kw\ym-km-{iaw kzoI-cn-°p-∂Xp                              ]mT-Øn\p {Ia-t`-Z-tØmsS Cu hN\w ImWmw.
                                                                * EtKzZw 8.6.18
]m]-amtWm?

                                                         92
                A©mw kap-√mkw                                                            kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
Dd- ∏ n®p \n¿Øp- I bpw B hn⁄m\sØ                                     thZm-¥-hn-⁄m-\-kp-\n-›n-XmcvYmx
im¥- k zcq- ] - a mb Bflm- h n¬ ÿnc- a mbn                            kw\ym-k-tbm-Km-ZyXbx ip≤-kXzm
{]XnjvTn°p-Ibpw sNø-Ww.                                              tX {_“-tem-tIjp ]cm-¥-Imte
    ]co-£y-temIm≥ Icva-Nn-Xm≥ {_m“                                   ]cm-arXx ]cn-ap-Ny¥n kcvth
tWm \n¿th-Z-am-bm-∂m-kvXy-IrXx IrtX\                                 (ap-WvU. D. 2.6)
XZzn⁄m-\mcvYw k Kpcp-ta-hm-`n-KNvtOXv                                thZm-¥-Øn‚˛ Cuizc {]Xn-]m-Zn-X-amb
kan-Xv]mWnx t{im{Xnbw {_“-\n-jvTav (ap.-                         thZ-a-{¥-ß-fp-sS-˛-A¿∞-⁄m\w sIm≠pw
D.1.2.12)                                                        BNmcw sIm≠pw kpZr-V-amb kw\ym-k-tbm-
    euInI kpJ- ß - s f√mw I¿aw sIm≠p                             K-Øm¬ NnØ-ip-≤n-bp-≠mb kw\ym-kn-am¿ ]c-
kºm-Zn-®-Xm-sW-∂-dn™v {_m“-W≥-˛-kw-\ym-                          am-flm-hn¬ tam£-kpJw {]m]n-®v, B\-µ-a-\p-
kn-˛-hnc-‡-\m-I-Ww. AIr-X-amb (I¿aØn¬                            `-hn-®-Xn-\p-ti-jw, tam£-kp-J-Øns‚ Ah[n
\n∂p- ≠ m- b - X - √ m- Ø ) Cuiz- c s\ I¿aw                      ]q¿W-am-Ip-tºmƒ ho≠pw kwkm-c-_-‘-
sIm≠p am{Xw {]m]n-°pI km[y-a-√. AXn-                             Øn¬ FØp-∂p. tam£w sIm≠-√msX as‰m-
\m¬ Kpcp-hn-\¿∏n-°p-hm≥ Aev]-sa-s¥-¶n-ep-                        ∂n-\mepw ZpxJw \in-°p-I-bn-√. Fs¥-∂m¬:˛
am-bn,-hn-Zym-k-º-∂-\pw -ssZ-h-⁄\p-amb Kpcp-                         \ ssh kicocky kXx {]nbm-{]n-b-tbm-
hns‚ ASpØv ⁄m\w kºmZn°phm≥ t]mI-                                 c-]-l-Xn-ckvXy icocw hmh-k¥w \ {]nbm-
Ww. AhnsSs®∂v kI-e-kw-i-b-߃°pw                                  {]ntb kv]riXx (Om-tµm-Kyw) 3
\nhrØn hcp- Ø - W w. F∂m¬ Hcp\mfpw                                   tZl-[m-cn°v kpJ-Zpx-J-ß-fn¬ \n∂p thdn-
kwk¿Kw sNø-cp-Xm-Ø-h-sc-∏‰n ]dbmw:˛                              ´n-cn-°m≥ km[y-a-√. ico-c-c-ln-X-\mb Pohm-
    1. Ahn-Zy-bm-a-¥tc hcvØ-am\mx                                flmhp tam£-Øn¬ k¿h-hym-]n-bmb k¿th-
    kzbw [ocmx ]WvUn-X-Ω-\y-am\mx                                iz-c-t\m-Sp-IqSn ip≤-\mbn hkn-°p-∂-Xn-\m¬
    PMvL-\y-am\x ]cn-b¥n aqVm                                    kmwkmcnI kpJ-Zpx-J-߃ AXns\ kv]¿in-
    At‘-ss\h \nb-am\m bYm-‘mx.                                   °p-I-bn-√. AXn-\m¬:˛
    2. Ahn-Zymbmw _lp[m hcvØam\m hbav      -
    IrXm¿Ym CXy-`n-a-\y-¥n-_memx                                     ]pss{X-j-Wm-bm› hnssØ-j-Wm-bm›
    bXvIcvantWm \ {]th-Z-b¥n cmKmXv                              temssIjWmbm› hyp∞m- b m- Y `n- £ m-
    tX\m-Xp-cmx- £o-W-tem-Im-›y-h-t¥.                            Ncyw Nc-¥n. 4 (i-X-]Yw 14)
    (-ap.D.1.2.8,9)                                                  temI- _ - l p- a m\hpw em`- h pw [\w
    1.- A - ⁄ m- \ - Ø n¬ can- ® v , - k zbw [occpw                                         -
                                                                 sIm≠p≈ kpJ-hpw am\y-Xbpw ]p{Xm-Zn-Ifn¬  -
]Wv U n- X - c p- a mbn Na- ™ v - A - ` n- a m- \ n--° p∂        tamlw CXymZn shSn™v kw\ymknam¿ `n£p-
aqV∑m¿- A- t [m- K - X nsb {]m]n- ° p- ∂ p.                      °-fmbn cm]-I¬ tam£-km-[-\-bn¬ XXv]-c-
A‘≥am¿ \bn-°p-∂ -A‘≥am-sc-t∏mse                                  cm-bn-cn-°p-∂p.
Ahsc ]n¥p-S-cp-∂-h¿ At\-I-Zpx-J-߃ A\p-                              {]mPm-]Xymw \ncq-t]yjvSow Xkymw kcv-
`-hn-°p-∂p.                                                      h-thZ kwlpXzm {_m“Wx {]{h-tPXv (b-
    2. Ahn- Z y- b n- ¬ _lp- h n- t [\ hnl- c n®v                Pp¿thZ{_m“-Ww) 5
IrXm¿∞-c m-s W∂v kzbw A`n-am-\n- ° p∂                                {]Pm-]Xymw \ncq-t]yjvSow kcvh-th-Z-k-Z-
_me-_p-≤n-Iƒ°p ⁄m\-ap-≠m-Ip-hm≥ I¿a-                             £nWmw; Bfl- \ y- · o≥k- a m- t cm- ] y- { _m-
Im-WvUm-\p-bm-bn-Ifpw cmK-Øm¬ tamln-X-cp-                        lvaWx {]{h-tPZv KrlmXv
am- b - h ¿°p km[ya- √ . AXn- \ m¬ Ah¿ 2
BXp-c-cmbn P\-\-a-c-W-Zpx-J-Øn¬ hoWp-g-ep-                       3 Omtµm D 8.12.1
∂p. AXn-\m¬:˛                                                    4 iX-]Yw 14. 6. 4.1
                                                                               -
                                                                 5 \ymb-kq-{X-ßfpsS hm’ym-b\ `mjy (4, 1˛61-˛62)-Øn¬
  2 kz¿Km-Zn-I-fn-—n®v b⁄w apX-emb                               CXv {]Pm-]-Xym-anjvSnw \ncq]y Xkymw kcvh-th-Zkw
    kIm-a-I¿am-\p-jvTm-\-ß-fn¬                                   lpXm Bflm\y \o≥K kam-tcm]y {_m“Wx {]{h-
    BXp-c-cm-b-h-sc-∂¿Yw.                                                         -
                                                                 tPXv F∂v D≤r-Xam-Wv.


                                                            93
     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                                hm\-{]-ÿ -˛ -k-\ym-k-hn[n
   tbm ZXzmkcvh-`q-tX`yx {]{h-P-Xy-`bw                    Im-c-Wav.
KrlmXv Xky tXtPm-abm temIm-`-h¥n                             7. ^ew IX-I-hr-£ky bZy]yw_q-{]-km-
{_“-hm-Zn\x (a-\p. 6.38.39)                               Z-Iav. \ \ma-{K-l-Wm-tZh Xky hmcn {]ko-
   {]Pm-]-Xn-sb˛ Cuiz-cs\ {]m]n-°p-hm≥                    Z-Xn.
b⁄-a-\p-jvTn®v B b⁄-Øn¬ ]qWq¬;                               8. {]mWm-bmam {_m“-W-ky -{X-tbmf]n
inJ apX- e mb Nn”- ß - s f√mw Dt]- £ n- ® v ,             hn[n-h-XvIrXmx. hymlrXn {]W-ssh-cyp-‡m
Bl- h - \ obw XpS- ß nb A©v A·n- I sf                     hnt⁄bw ]caw X]x.
{]mW≥, A]m-\≥, hym\≥, DZm-\≥, kam-\≥                         9. Zlyt¥ [vamb-am-\m\w [mXq\mw ln
F∂o A©v {]mW- ß - f n¬ Btcm- ] Ww                         bYm aemx. XtY-{µn-bmWmw Zlyt¥ tZmjmx
sNbvXv {_“-⁄m-\n-bmb {_m“-W≥ hoSp-                        {]mWky \n{K-lmXv.
sh-Sn™v kw\ym-kn-bm-I-Ww.
                                                             10. {]mWm-bm-ssacvZ-tl-t±m-jm≥ [mc-Wm-
   kIe {]mWn-Iƒ°pw A`bw \¬In hoSp-                        `n› Inev_njav. {]Xym-lm-tcW kwkcvKm≥
sh-Sn™v kw\y-kn-°p∂ {_“-hm-Zn-°v-˛-Cu-iz-                 [ymt\-\m-\o-iz-cm≥ KpWm≥.
c-{]-Im-in-X-amb thZ-Øn¬ ]d-™n-cn-°p∂
[¿amZn hnZy-I-fp-]-tZ-in-°p∂ kw\ym-kn-°v-˛-                  11. D®m-htNjp `qtXjp Zpcvt⁄-bm-a-Ir-
{]-Im-iabamb AXm-bXv tam£m-\µcq-]n-bmb
        - - -                          - -                Xm-fl`nx. [ym\-tbm-tK\ kw]-tiyZv KXn-a-
temIw e`n-°p-∂p.                                          kym-¥-cm-fl\x.
   tNm:˛ kw\ym-kn-bpsS [¿Ωw F¥mWv?                                       -         -
                                                             12. Alnw-ktb-{µn-bm-kMvssKcvssh-Zn-ssI-
                                                          ss›h Icva`nx. X]-k-›-c-ssW-t›m-ss{K-
   D:˛ ]£-]m-X-c-ln-X-amb \ymbm-N-c-Ww,                   km-[-b-¥o-l -XXv]Z-av.
kXy-{K-l-Ww, Ak-Xy-Xym-Kw, thtZm-‡-amb
Cuiz-cm⁄sb A\pkcn°p-I, ]tcm-]-Imcw                           13. bZm `mth\ `hXn kcv h - ` m- t hjp
sNøpI kXyw ]d-bp-I, F∂n-h-sb-√mw, CXc                     \nkv]rlx. XZm kpJ-a-hm-]vt\mXn t{]Xy
B{i-a-ß-fn-ep-≈-h¿°pw, a\p-jy¿°p s]mXp-                   tNl N imiz-Xav.
shbpw hn[n- ® n- c n- ° p- s ∂- ¶ nepw kw\ym- k n-           14. NXpcv`n-c]n ssNh-ssXcv\n-Xy-am-{i-an-
am¿°v hntij hn[n-bmb [¿a-߃ ]d-bmw.                       `ncvZznssPx. Zi-e-£-WtIm [cvax tkhn-
   1. ZpjvSn-]qXw \ytk-Xv]mZw hkv{X-]qXw                  Xhyx {]b-Xv\Xx
Pew ]nt_X.v kXy-]qXmw htZ-ZzmNw a\x-                         15. [rXnx £am Ztamf-kvtXbw iuN-an-
]q-Xw-k-am-N-tc-Xv.                                       {µn-b-\n-{Klx. [o¿hn-Zym- k-Xy-a-t{Imt[m
   2. {Ip≤y¥w \ {]Xn {Ipt[yZm {IpjvSx                     ZiIw [cva e£-W-av.
Ipiew htZXv. k]vX-Zzm-cm-h-IocvWmw N \                       16. At\\ hn[n\m kcvhmw kvXy‡zm-
hmN-a-\rXmw htZ-Xv.                                       kw- K mRv O ss\x iss\x. kcv h - Z z- µ z- h n-
   3. A[ym-fl-c-Xn-cm-kot\m \nc-t]t£m                      \ncvapt‡m {_“tWyhm-h-Xn-jvTtX (a-\p.
\ncm- a njx. Bfl- s s\h klm- t b\                          6) 6
kpJmcvYo hnN-tc-Zn-l.                                        1. kw\ymkn hgn-bn¬ IqSn \S-°p-tºmƒ
   4. ¢r]vX-tI-i-\-J-iva-{ipx ]m{Xo-ZWvUo                 Aßp-anßpw t\m°msX Xmsg t\m°n \S-
Ipkpw- ` - h m≥. hnN- t c- ∂ n- b tXm \nXyw               °-Ww. kZm ap≠p sIm≠v Acn® sh≈w IpSn-
kcvh`q-Xm\y ]oU-b≥.                                       °-Ww. kZm kXyw kwkm-cn-°-Ww. CS-hn-
   5. C{µnbm-Wmw \ntcm-t[\ cmK-tZz-j-£-                   SmsX a\-\wsNbvXv kXysØ {Kln®v Ak-
tbW N. Alnw-kbm N `qXm-\m-a-ar-X-Xzmb                     XysØ XyPn-°-Ww.
Iev]tX.                                                      2. A\y- t cmSp kwkm- c n- ° p- t ºmtgm
   6. ZqjntXmf]n Ntc≤cvaw b{X X{Xm-{ita                   A\y¿°p-]-tZiw \¬Ip-tºmtgm Bsc-¶nepw
cXx. kax kcvthjp `qtXjp \ enwKw [cva-                       6 a\p. 6˛mw A[ymbw 46, 48, 49, 52, 60, 66, 67, 70,
                                                              73, 75, 80, 91, 92, 81 F∂o-{I-a-Øn¬ t«mI-߃


                                                     94
             A©mw kap-√mkw                                                     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
tIm]n-°p-Itbm \nµn-°p-Itbm sNbvXm¬                       Hcp kw\ym-kn-bpsS ]c-a-amb X]- v.
kw\ymkn Ah-tcmSp tIm]n-°msX Ah¿°p                            9. Fs¥-∂m¬; Xobn¬ Dcp-°nb teml-
              -
t{ib- p-≠m-IØ° D]-tZiw \¬IpI am{Xta                      ß-fnse amen\yw \oßn-t∏m-Ip-∂-Xp-t]mse
sNøm-hq. hmbv, c≠p \mkm-Zzm-c-߃, c≠p                    {]mW-\n-{KlØm¬ a\-kn-sebpw a‰n-{µn-b-ß-
IÆp-Iƒ, c≠p sNhn-Iƒ F∂n-ßs\ Ggp                          fn-sebpw tZmj-߃ `kva-am-bn-t∏m-Ip-∂p.
Zzmc-ß-fn-eqsS hym]n-°p∂ hm°ns\ Hcn-                         10. AXn- \ m¬, kw\ym- k n- a m¿ Znh- t k\
°epw anYy-bm-sb-Æ-cp-Xv.                                 {]mWm-bm-a-Øm¬ Bflm-hv, A¥x-I-c-Ww,
   3. X∂nepw ]c-am-flm-hnepw ÿnc-ambn can®v               C{µn-b-߃ F∂n-h-bnse tZmj-߃, [mc-
B{K- l - ß ƒ shSn- ™ v , aZy- a mw- k m- Z n- I ƒ        W- b m¬ ]m]- ß ƒ, {]Xym- l mcw sIm≠p
h¿÷n®v Bflm-hns‚ klm-b-Øm¬ am{Xw                          kwk¿K-tZm-jw, [ym\w-sIm≠v A\o-iz-c-Kp-W-
e`n-°p∂ kpJ-Øn¬ A`n-e-jn®v [¿aw, hnZy                    ß-fmb kpJ-Zpx-J-߃, A⁄m\w XpS-ßnb
F∂n-h-bpsS A`n-hr-≤n°p tN¿∂ D]-tZ-i-                     Pohm-flm-hns‚ tZmj-ßsf `kva-am-°n-°-f-b-
߃ \¬In-s°m≠v Cu temI-Øn¬ k©-cn-                         Ww.
°-Ww.                                                                                - -       -
                                                             11. hnZzm-∑mcpw tbmKn-Ifp-a√m-Øh¿°v Ahn-
   4. \Jw apdn-®v, apWvU\w sNbvXp Ia-WvU-                t⁄-b-am-bXpw sNdpXpw hep-Xp-amb kakvX
ephpw ZWvUpw ssIøn-te-¥n, Imhn ap°nb                     hkvXp-°-fn-ep-ap≈ k¿th-iz-c-hym-]vXn-tbbpw
            -
hkv{X-ßfp-Sp-Øv, \n›n-Xm-flm-hm-bn, Hcp Pohn-             Pohm-flm-hn-s‚bpw A¥-cym-an-bmb k¿th-iz-
sbbpw ]oUn-∏n-°m-sX, kw\ymkn k¿h{X                       c-s‚bpw KXn-tbbpw [ym\w sIm≠v Adn-b-
k©-cn-°-Ww.                                              Ww.
   5. C{µn-b-ßsf A[¿a-Øn¬ \n∂-I‰n cmK-                       12. F√m Pohn- I - t fmSpw sshc- a n- √ msX
tZz-j-ß-fn-√msX kI-e-Po-hn-I-tfmSpw sshcw                h¿Øn-°p-I, C{µn-b-ßsf hnj-b-ß-fn¬ \n∂v
shSn™v h¿Øn- ® v, tam£- k - º m- Z \                                           -
                                                         AI-‰p-I, thmtZm-‡I¿ahpw AXyp{K--amb X]-
kma¿∞ysØ h¿≤n-∏n-°-Ww.                                   ›-cybpw F∂n-h-bm¬ Cu temI-Øn¬ ap≥]-
   6. GsX-¶nepw Hcp B{i-a-ÿ-\mb ]pcp-                    d™ hn[-Øn-ep≈ kw\ym-kn-am¿°p am{Xta
j≥-˛-C-hnsS kw\ym-kn-˛-B-sc-¶nepw Xs∂                    tam£- ] Zw {]m]n- ° p- h m\pw a‰p- ≈ - h ¿°v
Zpjn-°p-Itbm kvXpXn-°p-Itbm sNbvXmepw                    AXns\ kºm-Zn®p sImSp-°p-hm\pw km[n-°p-
k¿h-Po-hn-I-tfmSpw ]£-]m-X-an-√msX s]cp-                 I-bp-≈q. a‰m¿°pw km[n-°p-I-bn-√.
amdn kzbw [¿a-a-\p-jvTn®v A\y-∑msc [¿am-                     13. kw\ymkn kIe `mh-ß-fnepw \nxkv]r-
\p-jvTm-\-X¬]-c-cm-°-Ww. ZWvUv, Ia-WvU-ep,               l-\m-bn-cp∂v _mlym-`y-¥chrØn-I-sf√mw
Imjm-b-hkv{Xw apX-em-bh [cn-®-Xp-sIm≠v                             - -             -
                                                         kZv`m-h\bm¬ ]cn-ip-≤am-°p-Ibpw sNbvXm¬
[¿a-ap-≠m-hp-I-bn-s√∂pw a\p-jy¿°pw CX-c-                 am{Xta Cl-Ønepw ]c-Ønepw \nc-¥-c-kpJw
Po- h n- I ƒ°pw kXy- a p- ] - t Z- i n®pw hnZy           e`n-°q.
\¬Inbpw D∂-Xn-bp-≠m-°p-∂-XmWv kw\ym-                         14. AXp-sIm≠v {_“-Nm-cn, Krl-ÿ≥, hm\-
kn-bpsS {][m\ [¿a-sa-∂pw Adn-b-Ww.                       {]-ÿ≥, kw\ymkn F∂n-h-sc√mw XpS¿∂p
   7. tX‰m-º-c¬ s]mSn®p Ie-°-sh-≈-Øn-en-                 ]d- b p∂ Zi- e - £ - W - b p- ‡ - a mb [¿asØ
´m¬ sh≈w sXfn-bpw. ]t£ AXp s]mSn-®n-                     k{i≤w A\p-jvTn-°-Ww.
SmsX tX‰m-º-c-se∂p ]d-™-Xp-sIm-t≠m                           15. H∂m-asØ e£-Ww˛ ([r-Xnx) F√m-
tI´-Xp-sImt≠m Ie-°-sh≈w sXfn-bp-I-bn-                    bvt]mgpw ss[cyw thWw. c≠v˛ (£-am)-\n-µ,
√.                                                       kvXpXn, am\w, A]-am-\w, em`w, \jvSw XpSßn
   8. AXn-\m¬, {_m“-W≥-˛-{_-“-⁄m-\n-                     ZpxJ-ß-fn¬ t]mepw kl-\-io-ew. aq∂v˛ (Zaw)
bmb kw\ym-kn˛ HmwIm-c-tØmSpw k]vX-hym-                   a\-kns\ A[¿a-Øn¬ \n∂-I‰n kZm [¿a--
lr-Xn-I-tfmSpw IqSn hn[n-{]-Imcw bYm-i‡n                 hr-Øn-bn¬ h®v. A[¿ta-—-t]mepw C√m-Xm-
{]mWm- b maw sNø- W w. Hcn- ° epw aq∂p                   °p-I, \mev ˛ (A-kvtX-bw) I≈w, Im]-Syw,
{]mWm-bm-a-Øn¬ Ipd-b-cp-Xv. CXp Xs∂-bmWv

                                                    95
     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                                      hm\-{]-ÿ -˛ -k-\ym-k-hn[n
hnizm-k-h-©\ apX-em-b-h-bmtem thZ-hn-cp-≤-                        tNm:˛ kw\ym-k-Øn\p {_mlvaW¿°p
amb D]-tZiw sImt≠m A\ys‚ hkvXp-°sf                             am{Xta hn[n-bpt≈m? AtXm £{Xn-bm-Zn-I-
A]- l - c n- ° p- ∂ Xp Nucy- s a∂p ]d- b p- ∂ p.               fp-sSbpw [cva-amtWm?
NucysØ XyPn- ° p- ∂ - X mWv Akv t Xbw;                            D:˛ kw\ym-k-Øn\v {_m“-W\p am{Xta
A©v˛ (iu-Nw) cmK-tZz-j-߃ ]£-]mXw                              A[n- I mcw D≈q. F√m PmXn- I - f nepw
apX-emb at\m-tZm-j-ß-fn¬ \n∂-I‰n B`y-                          ]q¿WhnZzm-∑m-cpw, [m¿an-Icpw ]tcm-]-Im-c-X-
¥-c-amb ]cn-ip-≤n-bpw sh≈w, aÆv apX-em-b-                      ev]-cp-amb P\-ß-fpsS t]cmWv {_m“-W¿
                    -              -
h-bm¬ tX®p-IgpIn _mly-]cn-ip-≤nbpw kºm-                        F∂- X v . ]q¿W- s sh- Z p- j yw, [¿a- X - e v ] - c - X ,
Zn-°p-I. Bdv˛ (C-{µn-b-\n-{K-lw) C{µn-b-ßsf                    Cuiz-c-\n-jvT, hnc-‡n, F∂n-h-bn-√m-Ø-h¿
A[¿am-N-c-W-Øn¬ \n∂-I‰n [¿a-\n-c-X-am-                         kw\y-kn-°p-∂Xp sIm≠v temI-Øn\v ]d-b-
°p-I. Ggv˛ ([ox) amZ-I-{Z-hy-ßfpw _p≤n-\m-                     Ø° D]-Im-c-sam∂pw e`n-°p-I-bn-√. AXn-
i-I-amb el-cn-Ifpw ioen-°p-I, Zp¿P-\-kw-                       \m¬ {_m“-W-\-√msX a‰m¿°pw kw\ym-k-
k¿Kw, aSn, {]amZw apX- e mb tZmj- ß ƒ                          Øn\v A[n-Im-c-an-s√∂p temI¿ ]d-bm-dp-≠v.
XyPn®v t{ijv T - h - k v X p- ° - f psS D]- t bm- K w,         a\p-kvar-Xn-bn¬ AXn\v {]am-W-hm-Iy-hp-ap≠v:˛
k÷-\-kw-k¿§w tbmKm-`ymkw F∂n-h-bm¬                                Gj thmf`n-lntXm [cvtam {_m“-Wky
_p≤nsb h¿≤n-∏n-°p-I, F´v˛ (hn-Zym) ]rYnhn                      NXpcvhn[x. ]ptWym-f£-b-^ex t{]Xy cmP-
apX¬ k¿th-iz-c≥h-sc-bp≈ ]Zm¿∞-ßfpsS                -           [cvaw \nt_m-[-X. (a\p. 6. 97)
bYm¿∞-⁄m\w t\Sn B ⁄m\sØ bYm-
tbmKyw D]- t bm- K n- ° p- I bpw kXysØ                            alm-\mb a\p ]d-bp∂p:˛ ""A√tbm Ejn-
ap≥\n¿Øn {]h¿Øn-°p-Ibpw sNbvI, Bflm-                            P-\-ß-tf, {_“-N-cyw, Km¿l-ÿyw, hm\-{]-
hn-te-Xp-t]mse a\- n-epw a\- n-t√-Xp-t]mse                     ÿw, kw\ymkw F∂o \mev B{i-a-߃
hm°n-epw hm°n-te-Xp-t]mse {]hr-Øn-bnepw                        kzoI-cn-°p-∂Xv {_m“-Ws‚ [¿a-am-Wv. Cl-
sNbvI CXmWv hnZy. CXn\p hn]-co-X-sa√mw                         Øn¬ ]pWy-cq-]-am-bXpw, ]c-Øn¬ tam£-
Ahn-Zy-bm-Wv. HºXv ˛ (k-Xyw) Hcp hkvXp                         sa∂ A£-bm-\-µ-sØbpw \¬Ip-∂-XmWv
Fß- s \- b mtWm Aß- s \- X s∂ AXns\                            kw\ym-k-[¿aw. C\n Rm≥ ]d-bp∂ cmP-[¿a-
Adn-bp-Ibpw ]d-bp-Ibpw {]h¿Øn-°p-Ibpw                          sa-s¥∂v tIƒ°p-hn≥"" kw\ymkw kzoI-cn-
sNøp-I. ]Øv˛ (A-t{Im-[x) tZzjw apX-emb                         °p- h m≥ {_m“- W - \ mWv A[n- I m- c - s a∂pw
tZmj-ß-f-I‰n im¥X apX-emb KpW-ßsf                              £{Xn-bm-Zn-Iƒ°v {_“-N-cym-{i-a-Ønt\ A[n-
kzoI-cn-°p-I. Cßs\ ]Øp e£-W-ß-fp≈                              Im-c-ap-ffp F∂pw kn≤n°p∂p.
[¿asØ ]£-]m-X-an-√msX \ymb-ambn \mev                              tNm:˛ F¥n-\mWv kw\ymkw kzoI-cn-°p-
B{i- a - ß - f n- e p- ≈ - h cpw A\p- j v T n- ° - W w.        ∂Xv? 7
F∂m¬ Cu thtZm-‡-[¿asØ kzbw A\p-                                   D:˛ ico-c-Øn¬ inc-s -∂-hÆw NXp-cm-{i-
jvTn-°p-Ibpw A\ysc D]-tZ-in®v A\p-jvTn-∏n-                          -
                                                               a-ßfn¬ kw\ym-khpw AXy-¥m-t]-£n-Xam-Wv.        -
°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂Xv kw\ym-kn-am¿°p hn[n®                          kw\ym-km-{i-a-an-s√-¶n¬ hnZym, [¿aw F∂n-
hntij [¿a-am-Wv.                                               h, Hcn°epw A`n-hr-≤n-s∏-Sp-I-bn-√. a‰p aq∂m-
   16. Cßs\ Aev]m-ev]-ambn kwK-tZm-j-ß-                        {i-a-ß-fn-ep-f-f-h¿°pw hnZym-≤y-b-\w, Krl-Ir-
sf-sb√mw AI‰n l¿jw, timIw XpS-ßnb                              Xy-\n¿h-l-Ww, X]ivNcy F∂n-h-bp-f-f-Xn-
hn]-coX `mh-ßsf C√m-Xm-°nb kw\ymkn                             \m¬ hfsc Ipd®p ka-bta Hgnhp e`n-bv°p.
{_“-Øn¬ ebn-°p-∂p. Krl-ÿ¿°pw as‰-                              a‰p aq∂m- { i- a - ° m¿°pw ]£- ] m- X - a n- √ msX
√m-h¿°pw kI-e-hn[ {]hr-Øn-I-fnepw kXy-                         s]cp-am-dm≥ {]mbm-k-am-Wv. k¿hYm kzX-{¥-
\n¿Æbw hcp-Øn-s°m-Sp-Øv, Ahsc A[¿a-                            \mb kw\ym-kn°v km[n-°p-∂{X temtIm-]-
{]-hr-Øn-I-fn¬ \n∂v tamNn-∏n®v kI-e-hn[                        Imcw sNøp-hm≥ CXc B{i-a-°m¿°p Ign-
kwi- b - \ n- h m- c Ww hcpØn Ahsc kXyw                        bp-I-bn-√. kXy-hn-Zy-bm¬ ]Zm¿∞-hn-Pv-Rm\w
[¿aw F∂n- h - b v ° - \ p- k - c n® I¿a- ß - f n¬
{]h¿Øn-∏n-°p-∂Xv kw\ym-kn-bpsS {][m-\-                         7 Cu hnj-b-sØ-∏‰n \ymb-Z¿i\w 4˛1. 58-.61 s‚
amb I¿Ø-hy-am-Wv.                                                       - -
                                                                 hm’ym-b\`m-jy-Øn¬ N¿® sNbvXn-´p-≠v.

                                                          96
              A©mw kap-√mkw                                                    kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
t\Sp-hm≥ kw\ym-kn°p e`n-°p-∂{X kabw                       ∂-h-tcmSv "\obpw {_“-amWv; \ns∂ ]pWy-
CXc B{i-an-Iƒ°p e`y-a-√. {_“-N-cy-Øn¬                     ]m-]-߃ kv]¿in-°p-I-bn√; Fs¥-∂m¬
\n∂p t\cn´p kw\ymkw kzoI-cn-®-bm-fn\v                     iotXm-jvW-߃ ico-c-Øn-s‚-bpw, hni∏pw
             - -
kXy-in-£WØm¬ temI-Øn\v D≠m-°n-sIm-                        Zmlhpw {]mW-s‚-bpw, kpJ-Zpx-J߃ a\-
Sp-°p-hm≥ Ign-bp-∂-{Xbpw A`n-hr-≤nbpw D∂-                 kn-s‚-bpw [¿a-am-Wv. temIta anYy. euInI
Xnbpw Krl-ÿ-˛-hm-\-{]-ÿ-߃°p-tijw                         hrØn-I-sf√mw `mh-\bpw Ak-Xy-hp-am-I-
kw\y-kn-°p-∂-bm-fn\v t\Sn-s°m-Sp-°p-hm≥                   bm¬ AXn¬ s]´pg- e p- ∂ Xv _p≤n- b - √ .
km≤y-a-√.                                                 ]pWy-hpw ]m]hpw tZl-Øn-s‚bpw C{µn-b-
    tNm:˛ kw\ymkw kzoI-cn-°p-∂Xv Cuiz-                    ß-fp-tSbpw [¿a-amWv; Bflm-hn-t‚-X√''
tc-—bv°p hncp-≤-am-Wv. a\p-jy¿ h¿≤n-°-                    F∂p-]-tZ-in-°pw. Cß-s\-bmWv kw\ym-kn-
W-sa-∂mWv Cuiz-tc-—. Krl-ÿm-{iaw kzoI-                    am¿ ]d-bp-∂-Xv. CXn¬ \n∂p hyXym-k-ap-
cn- ° m- Ø - h \v k¥m\w D≠m- h p- I - b n- √ .            ff kw\ym-k-sØ-∏-‰n-bmWv Aßp ]d-bp-∂-
kw\ymkw apJy-am-sW∂v Icp-Xn, F√m-hcpw                     Xv. GXmWv kXyw. GXm-W-kXyw?
kw\y-kn-®m¬ a\p-jys‚ hwi-\miw h∂p-                           D:˛ Ah¿°p \√ Imcy-ß-sfm∂pw sNøp-
t]m-Ipw.                                                  hm-\n-s√t∂m? t\m°q! ""sshZn-ssIivssNh
    D:˛ icn, hnhm-ln-X-cmb At\Iw t]¿°v                    Icva`nx'' 9F∂mWp a\p-hN\w. sshZn-II¿a-
                                                                                    - -          -
k¥m-\-an-√. D≠mbn DS≥ \in-°p-∂p-ap-≠v.                    ߃-˛-[¿am-\p-kr-Xhpw kXy-hp-am-b-I¿a-߃-
AXpw Cuiz-tc-—bv°p hncp-≤-am-sW∂p hcpw.                   ˛-kw-\ym-kn-amcpw Ahiyw A\p-jvTn-°-W-sa-
""bXv t \- I rtX bZn - \ - k n- [ y- X n - t Imf{X        ∂m-Wn-Xn-\¿∞w. `£Ww hkv{Xw apX-em-bh
tZmjx"" 8 Fs∂mcp Ihn ]d- ™ n- ´ p- ≠ v ,                  Dt]-£n-°p-hm≥ Ah¿°p Ign-bptam? AXp-
A¿∞w:˛""]cn-{i-an-®n´pw Imcy-kn≤n Cs√--¶n-                t]mepw Dt]-£n-°p-hm≥ i‡-c-√mØ Ah¿
se¥p tZmjw? tZmj-an-s√-∂¿∞w"". F∂mWv                      t{ijvT-I¿a-߃ XyPn-°p-∂Xp sIm≠v ]Xn-
\n߃ ]d-bp-∂-sX-¶n¬ Rm≥ tNmZn-°-s´,                       Xcpw ]m]n-I-fp-am-hp-I-bnt√? Krl-ÿ-cn¬
Krl-ÿm-{i-an-Iƒ°v At\Iw k¥m-\-ß-ƒ                         \n∂v `£Ww hkv{Xw apX-em-bh hmßp-Ibpw
D≠m-hp-Ibpw Ah¿ ]c-kv]cw hntcm-[n®v                       Ah¿°v AXn\v {]Xyp-]-Imcw sNøm-Xn-cn-°p-
XΩn¬Ø√n acn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXm¬ F{X                           I-bp-am-sW-¶n¬ AXp alm-]m-]-at√? ImWp-
henb hn]- Ø m- W Xv ? hncp- ≤ m- ` n- { ]mbw              I-bpw tIƒ°pIbpw sNøm-Xn-cp-∂m¬ IÆpw
\nanØw hfsc bp≤- ß - f p- ≠ m- I p- ∂ p- ≠ v .            sNhnbpw sIm≠v {]tbm-P-\-an-√. AXp-t]mse
kw\ymkn sshZn-I-[¿aw am{Xw D]-tZ-in®v ]c-                 ktXym-]t-Ziw \¬Ip-Ibpw thZm-Zn-im-kv{X-
kv]c kvt\lw hf¿Øn-bm¬ e£-°-W-°n-                          ß-fpsS a\-\hpw {]Nm-chpw \S-Øp-Ibpw
\m-fp-Iƒ c£-s]-Spw. Bbncw Krl-ÿ-sc-                       sNøm-Xn-cp-∂m¬ kw\ym-kn-am¿ temI-Øn\v
t∏mse a\p-jysc h¿≤n-∏n-°pw. hnj-b-kp-Jm-                  `mc-am-hp-Itb Df-fq. Ahn-Zy-bpsS kzcq-]-amb
k- ‡ nsb XyPn®v F√m a\p- j y¿°pw                          {]]-©-sØ-∏‰n Nn¥n®p Xe-]p-I-bv°p-∂-sX-
kw\ymkw kzoI-cn-°m≥ Hcn-°epw km[y-a-                      ¥n-s\∂v Fgp-Xp-Ibpw ]d-bp-Ibpw a‰pw sNøp-
√. kw\ym-kn-amcpsS D]-tZiw sIm≠v [m¿an-                   ∂-h-cmWv anYybpw ]m]n-I-fpw. imco-cnI I¿a-
I-cmb a\p-jy-sc√mw kw\ym-kn-bpsS ]p{X-                    ß-sf√mw Xs∂ Bflm-hns‚ I¿a-ß-fm-Wv.
∑mcmsW∂p hnNm-cn-°-Ww.                                    Bflm-hmWv Ah-bpsS ^ew A\p-`-hn-°p-∂-
    tNm:˛ ""R߃°p I¿Ø-hy-sam∂pw C√.                       Xv. Pohm-flmhv {_“-am-sW∂p ]d-bp-∂-h¿
`£-Whpw hkv{Xhpw `n£ hmßn B\-µ-                           Ahn-Zy-bn¬ \n{Z-sIm-f-fp-∂p. Poh≥ Aev]\pw
ambn Ign-bWw A{X-X-s∂. Ahn-Zym-cq-]n-                     Aev]-⁄-\p-am-bn-cns° {_“w k¿h-hym-
bmb kwkm-c-Øn¬ apßn Xe-th-Z-\-sb-¥n-                      ]nbpw k¿h-⁄-\p-am-Wv. {_“w \nXy ip≤-
\p-≠m-°Ww? "Rm≥ {_“-amWv' F∂p hnNm-                       _p-≤-ap‡ kz`m-hn-bm-sW-¶n¬ Pohm-flmhv,
cn®v k¥p-jvS\mbn Ign-bWw. D]-tZiw tXSp-
                 -       -                                Nnet∏mƒ ap‡\pw Nne-t∏mƒ _≤\pw BIp-
                                                          ∂p. k¿h-hym-]nbpw k¿h-⁄-\p-amb {_“-
  8 ]©-X{¥w an{X-t`Zw IY 4 t«mIw 217                      9 a\p, 6/75


                                                     97
     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                                  hm\-{]-ÿ -˛ -k-\ym-k-hn[n
Øn\v Hcn-°epw sXt‰m Ahn-Zytbm D≠m-hp-                        ߃ h¿≤n-°p-Ibpw sNøpw. F∂m¬ Hcn-SØp
I-bn-√. Poh\v ⁄m\hpw APv-Rm-\hpw amdn                        Xma-kn-°p-∂Xp sIm≠v hnhn[ D]-Im-c-߃
amdn D≠m-Ip-∂p. {_“-Øn\v P\-\-a-c-W-ZpxJw                    D≠m-Ip-sa-¶n¬ Aßs\ sNø-Ww. P\-I-a-lm-
Hcn-°epw D≠m-Ip-∂n-√. Poh\v AXp-≠m-Ip-                       cm-Pm-hns‚bSpØv ]©-in-J-chpw a‰p kw\ym-
∂p. AXn-\m¬ Poh\pw {_“hpw H∂m-sW∂                            kn-amcpw B≠n¬ \∂mep amkw hoXw hf-
D]-tZiw anYy-bm-Wv.                                          sc-°mew hkn-®n-cp-∂p. ""GI-cm{Xow htkXv
   tNm:˛ kw\ymkn k¿h-I¿a ]cn-Xym-Kn-bpw                      {Kmta''10 F∂Xv C°m-esØ I]-S-kw-\ym-kn-
A·n, temlw F∂nh sXmSp-Ibn-s√∂pw ]d-
                                -                            am-cpsS krjvSn-bm-Wv. A°q-´¿ Hcn-SØv A[n-
bp-∂Xp icntbm sXt‰m?                                         I-Imew Xma-kn-°p∂ ]£w Ah-cpsS s]m≈-
   D:˛ icn- b - √ . ""kayMv \nXy- a mkv t X                  Øcw shfn-hm-Ipw. Ah¿°-[nIw hf-cp-hm≥
bkvan≥, bZzm kayMv \yky¥n ZpxJm\n                            Akm-≤y-am-Ipw.
IcvamWn tb\ k kw\ymkx; k {]ikvtXm                                tNm:˛ ""bXo\mw Im©\w ZZym-Ømw-_qew
hnZytX bky k kw\ymkn'' ZpjvI¿a-߃                            {_“-NmcnWmw. Nucm-W-ma-`bw ZZym-’ -\-
XyPn®v k’z-`m-h-tØm-Sp-IqSn h¿Øn-°p-∂-h-                     tcm- \ - c Iw {htP- X v '' 11 kw\ym- k n- a m¿°v
\mWv kw\ym-kn. AXn-\m¬ kXvI¿a-ß-f\p-               --        kz¿Ww Zm\w sNøp-∂-h≥ \cIw {]m]n-°p-
jvTn-°p-∂-h\pw ZpjvI¿a-ßsf Zqsc XyPn-°p-                     sa-∂t√ CXn-\¿∞w?
∂-h-\p-amWv kw\ym-kn.                                            D:˛ h¿Wm-{ia-hn-tcm-[n-I-fmb k{º-Zm-bn-
   tNm:˛ A[ym-]\hpw D]-tZ-ihpw Krl-ÿm-
                     -                                                        - -     -
                                                             Ifpw kzm¿∞-°Sep-Ifmb ]ucm-Wn-Icpw IqSn
{i-a-°m¿ \S-Øp-∂p-≠v. ]ns∂ k\ym-kn-am-                       FgpXn hn´-Xm-Wn-Xv. kw\ym-kn-am¿°v ]Ww
sc-s°m≠v F¥mWp {]tbm-P\w?                                    In´n-bm¬ Xßsf FXn¿°p-hm≥ Ah¿ i‡n-
   D:˛ F√m-hcpw ktXym-]-tZiw sImSp-°p-                       am-∑m-cm-Ip-sa∂pw Ah¿ Xßsf \in-∏n-°p-
Ibpw tIƒ°p-Ibpw sNø-Ww. ]t£ k\ym-                            sa-∂pw, kw\ym-kn-am¿ X߃°-[o-\-cm-bn-cn-
kn°v D≠m-Im-hp-∂-{Xbpw ka-b-hpw, ]£-]m-                      °-bmWv \√-sX∂pw Ah¿ Icp-Xp-∂p. `n£m-
X-an-√m-bvabpw Krl-ÿ\v D≠m-hp-I-bn-√. ]pcp-                  Zn- I - s f√mw Xß- f psS A[o- \ - Ø n- e m- b m¬
j- ∑ m¿ ]pcp- j - ∑ m¿°pw kv { XoIƒ kv { Xo                  kw\ym-kn-am¿ `b-s∏-Spw. aqV¿°pw kzm¿∞n-
Iƒ°pw D]-tZ-ihpw hnZybpw \¬tI-≠Xv                            Iƒ°pw Zm\w sNøp-∂Xp \√-Xm-sW-¶n¬ ]Tn-
{_m“W-cpsS IS-a-bm-Wv. F∂m¬ Zqc-bm{X                         ∏p≈ ]tcm-]-Im-cn-I-fmb kw\ym-kn-am¿°v
\nc-¥cw sNøp-hm≥ kw\ym-kn°p In´p-∂{X                         Zm\w \¬Ip-∂-Xn¬ Hcp tZmj-hp-an-√. hnhn-
kuIcyw Krl-ÿcmb {_m“-W¿°p t]mepw
                       -                                     [m-\nN cXv\m\n hnhn-t‡-jq-]]m-Ztb-Xv. 12
                                                                                              -     -
In´p- I - b n- √ . {_m“- W ¿ thZ- h n- c p- ≤ - a mbn        F∂mWp a\p- h - N - \ w, hnhn- [ - c - X v \ - ß fpw
h√Xpw sNbvXm¬ Ahsc \nb-{¥n-t°-≠Xv                            kz¿Whpw [\hpw hnh-‡-∑m¿°v ˛kw-\ym-
kw\ym- k n- b m- W v . AXn- \ m¬ kw\ymkw                     kn-am¿°v˛ sImSp-°Ww F∂¿∞w. IqSmsX
DNnXw Xs∂.                                                   \n߃ ]d- ™ Xv A¿∞- a n- √ m- Ø - X mWp
                                                             Xm\pw. kw\ym-kn-am¿°p kz¿Ww sImSp-°p∂
   tNm:˛ ""GI-cm{Xnw htkXv {Kmta'' 10
                                                             ZmXmhv \c-I-Øn¬ t]mIp-sa-¶n¬ sh≈n,
CXymZn hN-\-Øm¬ HcnSØv Hcp cm{Xn                             apØv, h{Pw apX-em-bh sImSp-°p-∂-h≥ kz¿K-
am{Xta kw\ymkn hkn-°m-hq. IqSp-X¬                            Øn¬ t]mIptam?
]mSn-√t√m?
                                                                 tNm:˛ aptº sNm√nb t«mI-Øn¬ ]niIp
                         -
   D:˛ CXv Hs´m-cw-iØn¬ \√-Xm-Wv. Hcn-SØp
Xs∂-]m¿Øm¬ temI¿°v henb D]-Im-c-                             11 211-˛mw t]Pnse 10-˛m-asØ ASn-°p-dn∏v t\m°p-I.
sam∂pw D≠m-hp-I-bn-√. Hcp ÿe-Øn-t\mSv                        12 eLp-]-cm-i-c-kvarXn 1/51 ambn Xmc-Xayw sNøp-I.:˛
hnti-jm-`n-\n-thiw D≠m-hp-Ibpw cmK-tZz-j-                    bXtb Im©\w ZXzm- X mw- _ qew {_“- N m- c ntW
                                                             Nutct`ymf]`bw ZXzm ZmXm f]n \cIw {htP-Xv. 12
  10 \mcZ ˛ ]cn-{hm-PI D]-\n-j-Øn¬ 4/14, KuXa                a\p. 7, 6. [\m-\nXp bYm-i‡n hnt{]jp {]Xn-]m-Z-tb-
[¿a-kq{Xw 3 11, kw\ym-tkm-]-\n-jØv F∂o A{]m-am-              Xv. thZ-hn-Xvkp-hn-hn-t‡jp t{]Xy kzcvKw ka-iv\ptX
WnI {KŸ-ß-fn¬ Cu hN\w ImWmw.                                 CXp-ambn Xmc-Xayw sNøp-I.

                                                        98
             A©mw kap-√mkw                                                            kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
]‰n-t∏m-bn. ""bXn lkvtX[\w ZZymXv'' F∂-                 kn-°-cp-Xv. C{µn-b-ß-f-S-°p-hm≥ ka¿∞≥
XmWv icn. kw\ym-kn-bpsS ssIøn¬ ]Ww                      F¥p-sIm≠p kw\y-kn-®p-IqSm? hnj-bm-k‡n-                      -
sImSp-°p-∂-h≥ \c-I-Øn-te°p t]mIp-sa-                    bpsS tZmj- ß fpw hocy- k w- c - £ - W - Ø ns‚
∂¿∞w.                                                   KpWhpw Adn-bp-∂-h¿ Hcn-°epw hnj-bm-k-
   D:˛ CXpw GtXm A£-c-sshcn Fgp-Xn-h-                   ‡-∑m-cm-hp-I-bn-√. Ah-cpsS hocyw AhcpsS
®-Xm-Wv. ]Ww ssIøn¬ sImSp-Øm¬ ZmXmhv                    hnNm- c - a m- I p∂ A·n°v C‘- \ - a m- I p- ∂ p.
\c-I-Øn¬ t]mIp-sa-¶n¬ Im¬°-tem, Ingn-                   AXn¬ hn\n- t bm- K n- ° p- ∂ p. sshZy- s ‚bpw
sI-´ntbm h®p-sIm-Sp-Øm¬ kz¿K-Øn-te°p                    Huj-[-ß-fp-sSbpw Bhiyw tcmKn-Iƒ°p-≈-
t]mIm-a-t√m. Cu ]mT-t`-Z-sam∂pw icn-b-√.                {X, tcmK-an-√m-Ø-h¿°n-√. AXp-t]mse hnZy,
kw\ymkn \nXy-hr-Øn°v Bh-iy-am-b-Xn-e-                   [¿aw F∂n-h-bpsS ]ptcm-K-Xnbpw temtIm-]-
[nIw [\w ssIhiw hbv°p∂ ]£w tNmc-                             -
                                                        Im-chp-amWv Xß-fpsS Pohn-Xe£y-sa∂p Icp-  - -
`-bw, AXym-{Klw F∂n-hbp≠mIp-hm≥ km[y-
                          -                             Xp-∂-h-cmcpw hnhmlw sNø-cp-Xv. ]©-in-J≥
X- b p- ≠ v . F∂m¬ hnZzm≥ A\p- N n- X - a m- b -        apX- e mb ]pcp- j - ∑ mcpw Km¿Kn XpS- ß nb
sXm∂pw sNøp-I-bn-√. AXym-{K-l-Øn¬ s]Sp-                 kv{XoIfpw Aß-s\-bm-bn-cp-∂p. kw\ym-k-
I-bp-an-√. Fs¥-∂m¬ Ah≥ apºv {_“-N-cy-                   Øn\v A[n-Im-cn-I-f-√msX A\-[n-Im-cn-Iƒ
Øn-tem, Krl-ÿm-{i-a-Øntem h®v kpJ-ß-                    k\y- k n- ° p- ∂ - X p- N n- X - a - √ . A\- [ n- I m- c n- I ƒ
f-dn-bp-Itbm A\p-`-hn-°p-Itbm sNbvXn-´p-≠m-             kzbw A[x-]-Xn-°pw. A\y-tcbpw A[x-]-Xn-
hpw. {_“-N-cy-Øn¬ \n∂v kw\y-kn-®-h≥ Hcn-                ∏n-°pw. N{I-h¿Ønsb k{am´v (km-a-¥-cpsS
°epw H∂nepw Bk-‡-\m-ImØ ]q¿W-hn-c-                                                    -
                                                        cmPm-hv) F∂p ]d-bp-∂Xp-t]mse k\ym-knsb
‡-\m-bn-cn-°pw.                                         ]cn-{hmSv F∂p ]dbp-∂p. F∂m¬ cmPmhv
   tNm:˛ {im≤-\m-fn¬ kw\ymkn ho´n¬ hcn-                 Xs‚ \m´nepw \m´m¿°pw am{X-amWv BZ-cWo-                        -
Itbm hkn-°p-Itbm sNbvXm¬ ]nXr-°ƒ                        b≥. kw\ym-kn-sbbm-Is´ k¿h{X ]qPn-°p-∂p.
HmSn-t∏m-Ip-sa∂pw \c-I-Øn¬ hogp-sa∂pw                      hnZzØw N \r]Xzw N ss\h Xpeyw IZm-
temI¿ ]d-bp-∂p.                                         N\. kztZti ]qPytX cmPm hnZzm≥ kcvh{X
   D:˛ H∂m-a-Xv, acn-®p-t]mb ]nXr-°ƒ aSßn               ]qPy-tX. 13
hcp-∂Xpw Du´p∂ {im≤w Ah¿°p In´p-                           NmW-Iy-\o-Xn-im-kv{X-Ønse t«mI-am-Wn-Xv.
∂Xpw Akw-`-hyhpw thZ-Øn\pw bp‡n°pw                      hnZzm≥ cmPmhv F∂n-h¿ Hcn-°epw Xpey-c-√.
hncp-≤-hp-am-I-bm¬ Ak-Xy-am-Wv. hcm-Ø-h≥                ImcWw cmPm-hns\ Xs‚ cmPyØp am{Xw BZ-
HmSn-t∏m-Ip-∂-sX-ßs\? Pohm-flm-°ƒ kz¥w                   cn-°p-Ibpw kXv°-cn-°p-Ibpw sNøp-tºmƒ
]m]-]p-Wy-ß-f-\p-k-cn®v Cuiz-cob hyh-ÿ-                 hnZzm≥ k¿h{X _lp-am-\m-Z-c-߃°p ]m{X-
bm¬ ac-Wm-\¥c P--∑sa-Sp-°p-∂Xn-\m¬ Ah¿
               -      -          -                      am-Ip-∂p.
Fßs\ hcpw? CXpw DZ-c-\n-anØw _lp-Ir-                       AXn-\m¬ hnZym-`ym-kw, kpin-£n-XXzw
X-th-j-°m-cmb ]ucm-Wn-I-cp-sSbpw sshcm-Kn-              _ew F∂nh kºm-Zn-°p-∂-Xn\v {_“-N-cy-
I-fp-sSbpw sI´p-I-Y-bm-Wv. acn-®-h¿°p {im≤w             hpw, \√Xpw t{ijvT-hp-am-b-sX√mw km[n-°p-
Du´p-∂Xv thZm-Zn-im-kv{X-߃°p hncp-≤-am-I-                                      -
                                                        hm≥ Krl-ÿm-{i-ahpw, a\-\w, [ym\w hn⁄m-
bm¬ kw\ymkn sN∂m¬ A‘-hn-izm-kn-Iƒ                       \m-`n-hr≤n F∂n-hbv°pw, X]-k-\p-jvTn-°m-\p-
HmSp-sa-∂Xp icn-bm-Wv.                                                             -
                                                        ambn hm\-{]-ÿm-{i-ahpw, thZm-Zn-kXy-im-kv{X-  -
   tNm:˛ {_“-N-cy-Øn¬ \n∂v kw\ymkw                      ß-fpsS {]Nm-cw, ZpjvS-Ir-Xy-߃ XyPn®v
kzoIcn°p-∂-h\v PohnXw hnj-a-I-c-am-Ipw.                 [m¿an-I-hr-Øn-Iƒ kzoI-cn-°p-I, ktXym-]-tZ-
Ima-hm-k-\-b-S-°p∂Xpw AXn-I-Tn-\-am-Wv.                 i-Øn¬ F√m-hcpsSbpw kwi-b-\n-hrØn hcp-
AXn-\m¬ Krl-ÿm-{i-ahpw Ign™v kw\y-                                        -
                                                        ØpI F∂n-hbv°mbn kw\ym-km-{i-ahpw hn[n-
kn-°p-∂-XmWv \√-Xv.                                     ®n-cn-°p-∂p. F∂m¬ kw\ym-km-{i-a-Øns‚
   D:˛ PohnXw hnj-a-I-c-hpw, C{µn-b-߃ AS-
ßp-Ibp-an-s√-¶n¬ {_“-Ncy-Øn¬ \n∂p k\y-
        -                   -                           13 NmW-Iy-i-XIw 3


                                                   99
     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                   hm\-{]-ÿ -˛ -k-\ym-k-hn[n
apJy-[¿a-amb ktXym]-tZ-im-Zn-Iƒ sNøm-Ø-
h¿ ]Xn-Xcpw \c-I-Km-an-I-fp-am-Ipw. AXn-\m¬
kw\ym-kn-am-sc√mw kXy-ap-]-tZ-in®v kwi-b-
\n-hrØn hcp-Øn-s°m-Sp-Øv, thZm-ZnkXy-im-
kv{X-߃ ]Tn-∏n-®v, sshZn-I-[¿asØ t]mjn-
∏n®v temI-Øn-s\√mw t{ib p hcp-Ø-Ww.
   tNm:˛ kw\ym-kn-am-cn¬ \n∂p `n∂cpw
kman, sshcm-Kn, tbmKn, tKmkmbn XpS-ßnb
t]cp- I - f p- ≈ - h cpw kw\ym- k m- { i- a - Ø n¬
Dƒs∏-´-h-cmtWm?
   D:˛ A√. Ah-cn¬ kw\ym-k-Øns‚ e£-
W-sam-∂p-an-√-t√m. thZ-hn-cp-≤-ambn {]h¿Øn-
°p-Ibpw Xß-fpsS aXm-Nm-cy-∑m-cpsS hm°p-
Isf thZ- Ø n- e p- ] cn _lp- a m- \ n- ° p- I bpw
sNøp∂ Ah¿ XßfpsS aXsØ am{Xw {]iw-
                           --
kn-°p-Ibpw Ak-Xy-Pm-eØn¬ s]´v kzm¿∞w
                    -
t\Sp-hm≥ a‰p-≈hsc Xß-fpsS aX-Øn¬ AI-
s∏-Sp-Øp-Ibpw sNøp-∂p. temI-\∑ hcp-Øp-
∂Xp t]mIs´; temIsc h©n®v A[x- ] -
Xn∏n®v Ah¿ kzm¿∞w t\Sp-∂p. AXn-\m¬
Ahsc kw\ym-kn-I-fmbn KWn-°m-hp-∂-X-√.
Ah¿ henb kzm¿∞m-{i-an-I-fm-sW-∂-Xn¬
kwi-b-te-i-an-√. kzbw [¿aw A\p-jvTn®v a\p-
jy-h¿KsØ [¿a-aam¿K-Øn¬ {]h¿Øn-∏n-®v,
Cl-tem-I-Ønepw ]ctemI-Ønepw ˛ Cu P∑-
Ønepw hcpw P∑-Øn-epw˛ kz¿Kw AYhm
kpJw A\p-`-hn-°p-Ibpw A\ysc A\p-`-hn-∏n-
°p-Ibpw sNøp∂ [¿am-flm-°-fmWv kw\ym-
kn-am-cmb alm-flm-°ƒ.
   kw£n- ] v X - a mbn kw\ym- k m- { i- a - { Iaw
CXmWv . ASp- Ø - X n¬ cmP- [ ¿ahpw {]Pm-
[¿ahpw Fgp-Xmw.
 {ioa-Zv Z-bm-\-µ-kzm-an-I-fm¬ hnc-Nn-X-amb
             kXym¿Y-{]-Im-i-Øn¬
hm\-{]-ÿ-˛-kw-\ym-km-{ia {]Xn-]m-Z-I-amb
        A©mw kap-√mkw Ign-™p.




                                                 100
                                                 6
                                    Bdmw kap-√mkw

                              kXym¿Y-{]-Imiw
                                cmP-[¿aw
                            AY cmP-[cvaw {]h£ymax
                              C\n cmP-[¿aw hymJym-\n-°p-∂p.
1. cmP-[cvam\v{]h-£yman bYmhrtØm `th-                cmP-˛-{]-Pm-_-‘-sa∂ hyh-lm-c-Øn¬ ({Xo-Wn-
∂r]x. kw`-h-›- bYm Xky- kn≤n› ]cam                   k-Zmw-kn) aq∂v k`-Iƒ AXm-bXv hnZymcy
bYm..                                                k`, [¿amcyk-`, cmPm-cy-k` F∂nh \ne-
2. {_m“w {]m]vtX\ kwkvImcw £{Xn-                     hn¬h-cpØn (]p-cq-Wn) At\I {]Im-c-ß-fn¬
tbW bYm-hn[n. kcvh-kymky bYm-\ymbav                                     - -
                                                     (hn-izm-\n) {]Pm-_‘Øn¬ hcp∂ ka{K a\p-
IcvØhyw ]cn-c£Wav..(a-\pkvarXn 7. 1,2) 1
                  - -                                jymZn Poh-Pm-e-ß-sfbpw (]-cn-`q-j-Yx) kI-
                                                     e-co-Xn-bnepw hnZy, kzmX-{¥yw, [¿aw, kpin-
    \mep-h¿W-߃, \mev B{i-a-߃ F∂n-                  £-Ww, [\w apX-em-b-h-bm¬ Aew-Ir-X-cm-°-
h-bpsS BNm-cm-\p-jvTm-\-ß-sf-∏‰n ]d-™-Xn-            Ww.
\p-tijw a\p Ejn-am-tcmSv cmP-[¿a-ß-tf-h-                1. Xw k`m N kan-Xn› tk\m N.
sb∂pw cmPmhv F{]-Im-c-am-bn-cn-°-W-sa∂pw
]d-bp-∂p. Aß-s\-sbmcp cmPmhv 2 Fß-s\-                   2. k`yx k`mw ta ]mln tb N k`ymx
bp- ≠ m- I pw. ]c- a - k n≤n Fßs\ `hn°pw                k`m-kZx.. (A-Ycvhw 15.9.2.& 19.55.5)
Fs∂√mw k¿h-hn-t[-\bpw ]d-bp-∂p.(1)                      (X-av) B cmP-[¿ΩsØ (k`m N) aq∂p
    ]c-a-hn-Zzm≥ {_m“-W-\m-Ip-∂-Xp-t]m-se,                                               -
                                                     k`-Ifpw (k-an-Xn-›) {]Xn-tcm-[m-Zn-IfpsS hyh-
hnZzm\pw kpin-£n-X-\p-amb £{Xn-b≥ cmPy-              ÿ-Ifpw (tk\m N) ssk\yhpw tN¿∂v ]cn-
c-£-sb∂ I¿Øhyw \ymbm-\p-krXw bYm-                    ]m-en-°-Ww. (1)
hn[n sNtø-≠-Xm-Wv. AXns‚ coXn C{]-Im-                   tl (k-`y) k`-bn¬ AwK-am-Im≥ tbmKy-
c-am-Wv.                                             \mb apJy-k-`mw-Kta (ta) Fs‚ (k-`mw) k`-
    (aq∂p k`-Iƒ)                                     bpsS [¿a-bp-‡-amb hyh-ÿ-Isf (]m-ln)
    {XoWn cmPm\m hnZtY ]pcqWn ]cn                    ]men-°p-I, (tb N k`ymx k`m kZx) IqSmsX
                                                     k`bv°v tbmKy-cmb k`mw-K-ß-sf√mw k`-
    hnizm-\n- `q-jYx kZmwkn. (E. 3. 38. 6)           bpsS hyh-ÿ-Isf ]men-t°-≠-Xm-Wv. F∂v
    Cuiz- c ≥ D]- t Z- i n- ° p∂p:˛ (cm- P m- \ m)   cmPmhv k`mw-K-ß-tfm-Sm-⁄m-]n-°p-∂Xv cmPm-
cmPmhpw {]P-Ifpw tN¿∂v (hn-Z-tY) kpJ -               hn\pw k`mw-K-߃°pw tbmKy-am-Wv. (2)
                          -
{]m-]vXnbpw hn⁄m-\hr-≤n-bp-≠m-Ip-∂Xp-amb -                         G-Im-[n-]Xyw ]mSn-√
1 a\p-kvarXn 7.1.2.                                     Hcm-fn\v kzX-{¥-amb cmPym-[n-Imcw \evIp-
2 `c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-sb-∂¿∞w.                            hm≥ ]mSn-s√-∂mWv CXns‚ Xmev]-cyw. adn-
     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                                    cmP-[¿aw
®v, k`m-]-Xn-bmb cmPm-hv, cmPm-hn-\-[o-\-amb            Caw tZhmfAk-]{XMvkph-[zw altX
k`. k`-bv°-[o-\\mb cmPmhv {]P-Iƒ°-[o-               £{Xmb altX ssPyjvTymb altX Pm\-
\-amb cmPmhpw k`bpw cmPm-hn\pw k`bv°pw              cmPymtb{µ-tky-{µn-bmb. (b-Ppx. 9. 40)
A[o-\-cmb {]P-Iƒ F∂-X√ coXn-sb-¶n¬˛                     (tZ- h mx) hnZzm- ∑ m- t c cmPmth {]P- I tf
    ""cmjv{S-tah hniym-l¥n Xkvam-{Zmjv{So           \n߃ (C-aw) C{]-Im-c-ap≈ ]pcp-js\ (a-l-
hniw LmXpIx. hni-tah cmjv{Sm-bm-Zymw- I-            tX-£-{Xm-b) henb N{I-h¿Øn-bmbn hmgp-
tcmXn Xkvam-{Zmjv{So hni-aØn \ ]pjvSav              hm\pw (a- l - t X- s sPy- j v T ym- b ) F√m- h - t c-
]ipw a\yX CXn''.. (i-X. 13. 2.3)                    °mfpw alm-\m-bn-cn-°m\pw (a-ltX Pm\-cm-
    {]P-Ifn¬ \n∂p kzX-{¥-cmbn X∂n-jvS°m-
           -                                    -   Pym-b) alm-hn-Zzm-∑m-tcmSp IqSnb cmPysØ
cmb cmP- h ¿§w h¿Øn- ® m¬ (cm- j v { S- t ah        ]cn-]m-en-°m\pw (C-{µ-tky-{µn-bm-b) G‰hpw
hniym-l-¥n) cmPy-Øn¬ {]th-in®v {]P-Isf              sFiz-cy-ap≈ cmPy-tØbpw kº-Øn-t\bpw
\in- ∏ n- ° pw. AXn- \ m¬ GIm- [ n- ] - X n- b mb   c£n- ° p- h m- \ p- a mbn (A- k - ] {XMv k ph- [ zw)
cmPmhv Xmt¥m-∂nbpw D∑-Ø\p-ambn (cmjv{So
                              -                     kΩ-Xn-®v ]£-]m-X-c-ln-X\pw hnZym-hn-\-bm-
hniav LmXp-Ix) {]PI-fpsS LmXI-\mbn-Øo-              Zn-bp-‡\pw kIe P\-ß-fp-sSbpw kplrØpw
cpw. AXm-bXv (hn-i-tah cmjv{Sm-bm-Zymav             k`m- ] - Xn- bpw F√m- ‰ n\pw A[n- ] - Xn- bp- a mb
Itcm-Xn) B cmPmhv {]P-Isf `£n-®p-I-f-bpw-           cmPm-hmbn Ah-tcm[n®p temIw apgp-h\pw
˛-A-Xy¥w ]oUn-∏n-°pw. AXn-\m¬ Bscbpw                i{Xp-c-ln-X-cm-°n-Øo¿°p-hn≥!
                   -
tkz—m-[n-Im-cn-bm-°cp-Xv. (\ ]pjvSw ]ipw a\y-
tX) knwltam As√-¶n¬ amwk-`p-°mb a‰p                           kZm k∂-≤-amb ssk\yw
h√ arKtam XSn- ® p- s Im- g pØ ]ip- h ns\              ÿncm hx k¥zm-bp[m ]cm-Wp-tZ hofq
                -
sIm∂p-Xn-∂p-∂Xp-t]mse (cmjv{So hni-aØn)       -     DX -{]-Xn-jvIt`. bpjvam-I-akvXp Xhnjo
kzX-{¥-\mb cmPmhv {]P-Isf \in-∏n-°p-∂p.             ]\o-bko am acvXy-ky -am-bn\x.. (E. 1. 39. 2)
Xt∂-°m-f-[nIw \∂m-hm≥ a‰m-scbpw A\p-                   Cuiz-c≥ D]-tZ-in-°p∂p:˛ tl cmP-]p-cp-j-
h-Zn-°msX kº-∂-∑m-cpsS ssIh-i-ap-≈Xp                ∑mtc (hx) \nß-fpsS (B-bp-[m) Bt·bw
apgp-h\pw Ahsc sR°n-∏n-gn™pw X´n-∏dn®pw     -       apX-emb Akv{X-߃, ]oc¶n, tXm°v, hn√v,
A\ym-b-ambn ]ng-bn´pw A]-l-cn®v kzm¿∞w              Aºv, hmfv, XpS-ßnb Bbp-[-߃ i{Xp-°sf
t\Spw AXn-\m¬:˛                                     (]cm-Wp-tZ) tXmev]n-°p-hm\pw (DX {]Xn-jvI-
    Ct{µm PbmXn \ ]cm PbmXm A[n-                    t`) XSpØp \n¿Øp-hm\pw (ho-fq) sIm≈m-
cmtPm cmPkp cmP- b mssX. Ncv I rXy                  sa∂v {]iw-kn-Xhpw (ÿn-cm) Dd-∏p-≈Xpw (k-
CutUym hµy-t›m-]-ktZym \a-tkym-f`-th-               ¥p) Bbn-cn-°-s´. (bp-jvam-Iw) \nß-fpsS (X-
l.. 3                                               hn-jo) ssk\yw (]-\o-b-ko) {]iw-k-\obw
    a\p-jysc! Bcv (C-l) Cu a\p-jy-k-ap-Zm-          (A- k v X p) BI- s ´. Ah- b psS klmbw
b-Øn¬ (C-{µx) ]c-ssa-iz-cy-hm\mbn i{Xp-             sIm≠p \n߃ kZm hnP- b n- I - f m- I p- h n≥.
°sf (P-bm-Xn) Pbn-°p-hm≥ i‡-\m-Ip-∂p-               F∂m¬, (am acvXy-ky -am-bn-\x) Bcv A\ym-
thm Bsc (\- ]-cm-P-bm-ssX) FXn-cm-fn-Iƒ             bhpw \nµy-hp-amb {]hr-Øn-Iƒ sNøp-∂pthm
tXmev]n-°p-∂n-√tbm (cm-Pkp A[n-cm-Px)                                             -
                                                    Ah\v ap≥]-d™ ]Zm¿∞-ßsfm∂pw e`n-°m-
cmPm-[n-cm-P-\mbn (cm-P-bm-ssX) hnf-ßp-∂p-          Xn-cn-°-s´. a\p-jy¿ [¿an-jvT-cm-bn-cn-°p-tºmƒ
thm Bcv (NcvIr-Xy) k`m-]-Xn-bm-bn-cn-°m≥            am{Xta cmPy-Øn\v A`n-hr≤n D≠m-hq. Zpcm-
G‰hpw tbmKy-Xbp-ff-h\pw (CuUyx) {]iw-               Nm-cn-I-fpsS cmPyw \in-®p-t]m-Ip-∂p.
k-\o-b-amb KpW-I¿a-kz-`m-h-ß-tfmSp IqSn-b-             AXn-\m¬ henb hnZzm-∑msc [¿a-k-`-bpsS
h\pw (h-µyx) kev°m-c-tbm-Ky\pw (N D]-k-             A[n-Im-cn-I-fm-bpw {]iw-kn-°-Ø° [¿a-\n-
Zyx) ic-W-tbm-Ky\pw (\-a-kyx) F√m-h¿°pw             jvT-tbmSp IqSn-b-hsc cmP-k-`-bpsS kZ-ky-
am\y\pw (`-th-l) Bbn-cn-°p-∂pthm Abm-               cm-bpw Ah-cn-se-√m‰nepw h®v k¿thm-XvIr-jvS-
sf-bmWv k`m-]-Xn-bmb cmPm-hmbn Ah-tcm-              amb KpW-I¿a-kz-`m-h-ß-tfmSp IqSnb alm-]p-
[n-t°-≠-Xv.                                                           - -           -
                                                    cp-js\ B cmP-k`bpsS A[n-]Xn-bmbpw \nb-
3 AYcvhw 6.10.98.1

                                                102
                Bdmw kap-√mkw                                                      kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
an®v k¿h{X A`n-hr≤n t\Sp-I. \b-kw-_-‘-                     \mbncn°m≥ tbmKy-X-bp-≈-Xv.
amb \nb-a-߃ aq∂p-k-`-I-fp-sSbpw kΩ-X-                              b-Ym¿Y `c-Wm-[n-]≥ Bcv?
tØm-Sp-IqSn G‰hpw \∂mbn \n¿an-°p-Ibpw                        1. k cmPm ]pcptjm ZWvUx k t\Xm
P\- ß - s f√mw B \nb- a - ß ƒ A\p- k - c n®p               imknXm N kx. NXpcvWm-am-{i-amWmw N
{]h¿Øn-°p-Ibpw thWw. s]mXp-\-∑-bv°p-X-                     [cvaky {]Xn`qx kvarXx..
Ip∂ Imcy-߃ sNøm≥ Ghcpw kΩ-Xn-°-
Ww. k¿h- l n- X - I - c amb Imcy- ß - f n¬                   2. ZWvUx imkvXn {]Pmx kcvhm ZWvU
X≥Imcyw t\m°-cp-Xv. [¿a-bp-‡-amb kz¥w                      Ghm-`n-c-£Xn. ZWvUx kp]vtXjp PmKcvXn
Imcy-ß-fn¬ am{Xta kzmX{¥yw ]mSp-≈q.                        ZWvUw [cvaw hnZpcv_p[mx..
                                                             3. kao-£y k [rXx kayIvkcvhm cRvP-
            k-`m-]-Xn-bpsS KpW-߃                          bXn {]Pmx. Ak-ao£y {]Wo-XkvXp hn\m-
   cmP-k-`-bpsS A[n-]-Xn-°p-≠m-tI≠ KpW-                    i-bXn kcvhXx..
߃ Fs¥-√m-sa∂p ]d-bp∂p:˛                                     4. Zptjybpx kcvhhcvWm› `ntZy-c\v
   1. C{µm-\n-ebamcvIm-Wm-at·› hcp-Wky
                - -                  -                     kcvhtk-Xhx. kcvh-tem-I-{]-tIm-]› `th
N. N{µ-hn-tØ-itbmss›h am{Xm \ncvlr-                        ±WvUky hn{`-amXv..
Xy- im-izXox..                                               5. b{X iymtam temln-Xmt£m ZWvU-
   2. X]-Xym-Zn-Xy-hss®j N£qwjn N a\mw-
                       -                                   ›-cXn ]m]lm. {]Pm-kvX{X \ ap-ly¥n
kn N. \ ssN\w `qhn iIvt\mXn I›n-Z-]y-                      t\Xm tN’m[p ]iy-Xn..
`n-ho-£n-Xpav..                                              6. Xkymlpx kw{]-tW-Xmcw cmPm\av
   3. tkmf·n¿`- h Xn hmbp› tkmfcv I                        kXyhm-Zn-\av. kao£yImcWw {]m⁄av
tkmax k [¿a-cmSv. k Ipt_cx k hcpWx                         [cva-Im-amcvY-tIm-hn-Zav..
k atl{µx {]`m-hXx.. (a-\p. 7˛4, 6, 7)                        7. Xw cmPm {]W-b\vk-ayIv {XnhcvtK
   1. k`m-]-Xn-bmb cmPmhv C{µ-s\-t∏m-se-˛-                 Wm`n-hcv[tX. Imamflm hnjax £pt{Zm
an-∂¬t]m-se˛ AXn-th-KØn¬ sFiz-cy-ßsf
                               -                           ZWvtU-ss\h \nl-\ytX..
Df-hm-°p-∂-h\pw F√m-h¿°pw hmbp-hn-s\-                        8. ZWvtUm ln kpa-l-tØtPm Zpcv[c›m
t∏mse {]mW-{]n-b\pw F√m-h-cp-sSbpw at\m-                   IrXm-fl`nx. [cvam-Zzn-N-enXw l¥n \r]-tah
K-X-ß-f-dn-bp-∂-h-\pw \ymbm-[n-]-Xn-bmb ba-                k_m-‘-hav..
s\-t∏mse ]£-]m-X-sat\y s]cp-am-dp-∂-h-\pw                    9. tkmfklm-tb\ aqtV\ ep_vt[\m
kqcy-s\-t∏mse \ymbw hnZy [¿Ωw F∂n-                         IrX-_p-≤n\m. \ itIym \ymbtXm t\Xpw
hsb {]Im-in-∏n®v Ahn-Zy A\ym-bmZn A‘-                      kt‡\ hnj-tb-jp N..
Im- c - ß ƒ AI- ‰ p- ∂ - h - \ pw A·nsbt∏mse                 10. ipNn\m kXy-kvt‘-\ b-Ym-im-kv{Xm\p
Zpjv S - ∑ msc `kv a - a m- ° p- ∂ - h - \ pw hcp- W t\-   kmcnWm. {]mtWXpw iIytX ZWvUx kpk-
t∏mse ZpjvS-∑msc At\-I-hn-[-Øn¬ _‘n-                       lm-tb\ [oaXm.. (a-\p. 7.17-˛19, 24˛-28, 30, 31.)
°p-∂-h\pw N{µ-s\-t∏mse k÷\-߃°v
B\- µ w Df- h m- ° p- ∂ - h - \ pw ssh{i- h - W - s \-       1. ]p-cp-jkz-cq-]n-bm-bn-´p≈ ZWvUw 4 Xs∂-
                                                                -         -
t∏mse JP-\mhv \nd-bv°p-∂-h\pw Bbn-cn-°-                    bmWv cmPmhv \ymbw \S-Øp-∂Xpw F√m-h-
Ww.                                                        tcbpw imkn-°p-∂-Xpw \mep h¿Æ-ß-fp-tSbpw
   2. kqcy-Xp-ey-{]-Xm-]nbpw F√m-h-cp-sSbpw                \mem- { i- a - ß - f ps- S bpw [¿a- c - £ Ww sNøp-
_ln-c-¥-cw-K-ßsf kz¥w tXP- p-sIm≠v X-                      ∂Xpw Ah≥X-s∂-bm-Wv.
]n-∏n-°p-∂-h\pw a∂n-ep≈ a\p-jy-cn-em¿°pw                     2. B ZWvUw Xs∂-bmWp {]P-Isf imkn-
{Iqc-ZrjvSn ]Xn-∏n-°m-Ø-h\pw...                            °p-∂Xpw c£n-°p-∂Xpw; {]P-Iƒ Dd-ßp-
   3. kz{]-`m-h-Øm¬ A·n, hmbp, kqcy≥,                      tºmgpw DW¿∂n- c n- ° p- ∂ Xpw B ZWv U w
N{µ≥ F∂n-h-sc-t∏mse hnf-ßp-∂-h\pw [¿an-
jvT\pw kº-Øns\ h¿≤n-∏n-°p-∂h\pw ZpjvS-       - -           4 ZWvUw F∂ hm°n\v ZWvUn-∏n-°¬ F∂√ Chn-
∑msc _‘n-°p-∂-h\pw hf-sc- sF-iz-cy-ap-≈-                     SpsØ A¿Yw. `c-W-L-S-\-bnse \nb-a-ß-fpsS ]cn-
                                                             ]m-e-\hpw Ah ewLn-°p-∂-h¿°p≈ in£bpw IqSn-
h- \ p- a mb Bfn- \ mWv k`- b psS A≤y- £ -                   t®-cp-∂-sXt¥m AXt{X ZWvUw.

                                                       103
     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                                        cmP-[¿aw
Xs∂; AXn-\m¬ _p≤n-am-∑m¿ ZWvUsØ                              1. -ssk-\m-]Xyw 5 N cmPyw N ZWvU-t\-
[¿a-sa∂p ]dbp-∂p.                                         Xr-Xz-tah N. kcvh-temIm[n]Xyw N thZ-
    3. Ah-[m\ ]q¿∆w {]tbm-Kn-®m¬ kI-                      im-kv{X-hn-Zcvl-Xn..
e¿°pw B\-µ-Zm-b-Ihpw A\-h-[m-\-X-tbmsS                       2.- Z-im-hcm hm ]cn-jZyw [cvaw ]cn-I-ev]-
{]tbm-Kn-®m¬ cmPm-hns\ F√m hn[-Ønepw                      tbXv. {Xyhcm hm]n hrØÿm Xw [cvaw \
\in-∏n-°p-∂-Xp-amWv ZWvUw.                                hn-Nm-e-tbXv..
    4. - Z - W v U - a ns√¶n¬ kI- e cpw Zpjn®p               3. ss{Xhn-tZym -ssl-XpIkvXcvIo ss\cp
t]mIpw; cmPy-a-cym-Z-Iƒ On∂-`n-∂-am-Ipw. P\-                            -
                                                          IvtXm [cva]m-TIx. {XbivNm{ianWx ]qcvth
߃ {]£p-_v[-cm-Ipw.                                       ]cn-j-’ym±imh-cm..
    5. Idp-Øn-cp≠ ico-chpw NpI∂ IÆp-I-fp-                    4.- E-tKz-Z-hn-Zy-Ppcvhn-® -km-a-th-Z-hn-tZh
ap≈ Hcp `b-¶c ]pcp-j-s\-t∏mse ZWvUw                                            -          -
                                                          N. {Xyhcm ]cn-jt⁄bm [cvakw-ib\ncvW-    - -
]m]-ßsf \in-∏n-®p-sIm≠v k©-cn-°p-∂n-                      tb..
SsØ {]P-Iƒ ]cn-{`aw IqSmsX kpJambn                           5. GtIm]n- fth-Z-hn-≤cvaw bw hyh-tkyZv
                  -
hkn-°p-∂p. ]t£ ZWvUw {]tbm-Kn-°p-∂h≥                -
]£-]m-X-c-ln-X\pw hnZzm-\p-am-bn-cn-°-Ww.                 ZzntPm-Øax. k hn-t⁄bx ]tcm [cvt am
                                                          \m⁄m\mapZn-tXmf-bpssXx..
    6. kXy-hm-Znbpw Btem-N\m-io-e\pw _p≤n--
am\pw [¿am¿Y Ima-ßsf t\Sp-∂Xn¬ ka¿Y-          -              6. A{h-Xm-\m-a-a-{¥mWmw PmXn-am-t{Xm]
\p-amb cmPm-hn-s\-bmWv icn-bmb ZWvU-{]-                   Pohn\mw. kl-{kix kta-Xm\mw ]cn-jXzav
tbm-‡m-sh∂p hnZzm-∑m¿ ]d-bp-∂-Xv.                         \ hnZytX..
    7.- Z-WvUsØ icn-bmw-hÆw {]tbm-Kn-°p∂                     7. bw hZ¥n Xtam-`qXm aqcvJm [cva-a-X-
cmPmhv [¿am¿Y-Im-a-ß-fpsS kn≤nsb h¿≤n-                    ZznZx. XXv]m]w iX[m `qXzm XZz-‡ro\\pK-
∏n- ® p- s Im- ≠ n- c n- ° p- ∂ p. - h n- j b kpJ- Ø n¬   —Xn.. (a-\pkvarXn 12. 100, 110-˛115.)
AXym-k-‡\pw IpSne kz`m-hnbpw Cu¿jym-                         1. k¿h-ssk-\y-Øn-s‚-bpw tk\m-]-Xn-I-fp-
ephpw £p{Z-a-\-kvI\pw \oN-_p-≤n-bp-amWv                   sSbpw B[n- ] Xyw in£ \¬Ip- h m- \ p≈
\ymbm-[n-]-Xn-bmb cmPm-sh-¶n¬ ZWvU-Øm¬                    G¿∏m-Sp-I-fp-sSsb√mw tae-[n-Im-cw, F√m-h-cp-
Abmƒ \in-°p-∂p.                                           sSbpw \mb-I-Xzw, cmPy-Øns‚ A[n-Imcw
    8. tXP- n-b∂ ZWvUsØ ssIs°m-≈p-                        F∂n-ß-s\-bp≈ \mep apJym-[n-Im-c-ß-fn-epw
hm≥ sshZp-jyhpw [¿Ω\njvTbp-an-√m-Ø-                                        -           -
                                                          thZ-im-kv{X-ßfn¬ {]ho-W∑mcpw ]q¿W hnZzm-
h¿°p km[n-°p-I-bn-√.- [¿a-c-ln-X-\mb cmPm-                                   -              -
                                                          ∑mcpw PntX-{µn-b∑mcpw [¿am-flm°fpw kZvkz-
hns\ Xd-hm-tSm-Sp-IqSn AXv \in-∏n®p If-bpw.               `m-hn-I-fp-am-b-hsc \nb-an-°-Ww. 6:˛ apJy-tk-
                                                          \m-]Xn apJy-\ymbm[n]-Xn, apJy-cm-Pym-[n-Im-
    9. Fs¥- ∂ m¬, B]v X - ] p- c p- j - ∑ m- c psS        cn, {][m-\≥ (cm-Pm-hv) F∂n-h-sc√mw kIe
klmbw, hnZym-`ym-kw,- kp-in-£Ww F∂n-h-                    hnZy-I-fnepw ]q¿W-]m-WvUn-Xy-ap-≈-h-cm-bn-cn-
                       -
sbm-∂p-an-√m-Øh\pw hnj-bm-k‡\pw aqV-\p-     -             °-Ww.
am-bn-´p-≈-h∂p \ymb-amb hn[-Øn¬ ZWvUw
\SØphm\p≈ kma¿∞yw Hcn-°epw D≠m-hp-                           2. Ipd-™-]£w ]Øp hnZzm-∑m-tcm G‰hpw
I-bn-√.                                                   Ipd-™Xv aq∂p hnZzm-∑mtcm AS-ßnb k`-
                                                          bn¬ Xocp-am-\n-°p∂ hyh-ÿ-I-sf-˛-[-¿-a-hy-h-
    10. ]hn-{Xm-flmhpw kXy-\n-jvT\pw k÷\                   ÿ-I-sf˛ Bcpw D√w-Ln-°-cp-Xv.
kwk¿Kw sNøp-∂-h-\pw \oXn-im-kv{Xa-\p-k-
cn®v {]h¿Øn-°p-∂-h-\pw t{ijvT-]p-cp-j-∑m-                    3. Cu k`-bn¬ \mep thZ߃, \ymb-im-
cpsS klm-b-tØmSpIqSnbh\pw _p≤n-am-\p-                     kv{Xw, \ncp‡w, [¿a-imkv{Xw apX-em-b-h-
am-bn-´p-≈-h\p am{Xta \ymb-ambn ZWvU-{]-                  bn¬ \n]p-W-cmb hnZzm-∑m-cmWp kZ-ky-cm-tI-
tbmK kma¿Yy-ap≠mIq. AXn-\m¬:˛                             ≠-Xv. Ah¿ {_“-N-cyw, Km¿l-ÿyw, hm\-
                                                          {]ÿw F∂o aq∂m-{i-a-ß-fn-ep-≈-h-cm-bn-cn-°-
5 a\p- k v a r- X n- b n¬ "tk\m]Xyw' F∂mWv ]mTw.          Ww. k` IqSp-tºmƒ Ipd-™Xv ]Øp hnZzm-
  F∂m¬ {KŸ- I m- c s‚ EKv ` mjyw 1 32.2 1.100- ˛ 6        ∑m-cp-≠m-bn-cn-°-Ww.
                               -       -
  b÷qcv`mjyw 6.2 kwkvIm-chn[n F∂n-hbn¬ ssk\m-
  ]Xyw F∂p {]tbm-Kn-®n-cn-°p-∂p.                             4. E°v, bPq-kv, kmaw F∂o aq∂p thZ-

                                                      104
                Bdmw kap-√mkw                                                    kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
ßfpw Adn-bp∂ aq∂p kZ-ky-∑m-c-S-ßnb Hcp                   bYm-{I-aav. GXXvIjvS-Xaw hnZym-®-XpjvIav
k`-bn¬ sNøp-∂ hyh-ÿ-Isf Bcpw D√w-                        ImatP KtW..
Ln-°-cp-Xv.                                                 9. ZWvUky ]mX\w ssNh hmIv]mcp-jym
    5. kI- e - t h- Z - ⁄ - \ mb ZznP- t {i- j v T \pw   cvYZqjtW. t{Im[tPf]n KtW hnZym-XvI-
k\ym-kn-bp-amb Hcmƒ Xo¿®-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂Xv                    jvS-taX{ØnIw kZm..
k¿h-t{ijvS [¿aam-Ip-∂p. Fs¥-∂m¬, Adn-                       10. k]vX-I-kymky hcvKky kcvh-ss{X-
hn-√mØ Bbn-ctam e£tam tImSntbm t]¿                       hm-\p-jMvKnWx. ]qcvhw ]qcvhw Kpcp-Xcav
tN¿∂v sNøp∂ [¿a-hy-hÿ kzoIm-cy-ta-b-                     hnZym-Zzyk\amflhm\v..
√.                                                          11. hyk-\ky N artXym› hyk\w IjvS-
    6. {_“-N-cyw, kXy-`m-j-Ww apX-emb {hX-               ap-NytX. hyk-\yt[mft[m {hPXn kzcym-Xy-
ßfpw thZm-[y-b-\w, thZm¿Y hnNmcw F∂n-                    hy-k\o arXx (a-\p. 7. 43-˛53)
h-sbm-∂p-an-√m-Ø-hcpw P\n-®-t∏m-g-tØ-t∏mse                                    - -
                                                            1. \mep-th-Zßfn-ep-ap≈ I¿a-ImWvUw, D]m-
Ct∏mgpw iq{Z-cm-bn-cn-°p∂ At\-I-iXw t]¿                  k-\m-ImWvUw, ⁄m\-ImWvUw F∂n-h-b-dn-
IqSn-bmepw AXp k`-b-√.                                   bm-hp-∂-h-cn¬ \n∂v k\m-X-\-amb ZWvU-
    7. hnZym-`ym-k-an-√m-Ø, thZ-a-dn-bmØ aqV-            \oXn, \ymb-imkv{Xw, Bfl-hn-Zy-˛-]-c-am-flm-
∑m¿ ]d-bp∂ [¿asØ Hcn-°epw ssIs°m-                                                    - -
                                                         hns‚ KpW-I¿a-kz-`m-hßfpsS ⁄m\-am-Ip∂
≈-cp-Xv. Fs¥-∂m¬ aqV-∑m¿ Xocp-am-\n-°p-                  {_“-hnZy˛ F∂o aq∂p hnZy-I-sfbpw temI-
∂-X-\p-k-cn-°p-∂-hsc ]m]-߃ ]n∂mse                       Øn¬ \n∂p hm¿Øm-cw-`tØ-bpw-˛-eu-In-I-hy-
sN∂p ]nSn-Iq-Sp-∂p.                                      h- l m- c - ß - t f- b pw˛ A`y- k n- ® - X n\p tijw
    AXn-\m¬ aq∂p k`-I-fnepw hnZym-k-`,                   am{Xta Hcp-h\v kZ-kyt\m k`m-]-Xntbm
[¿ak`, cmP-k` F∂o aq∂p k`-Ifnepw aqV-    -               Bbn-Øo-cp-hm≥ km[n-°p-I-bp-≈q.
∑msc Hcn-°epw \nb-an-°-cp-Xv-; hnZzm-∑m-scbpw               2. F√m kZ-ky-∑mcpw k`m-]-Xn-Ifpw C{µn-
[m¿an-I-tc-bpw am{Xta \nb-an-°m-hq.                      b-ßsf Pbn®p kzm[o-\-s∏-SpØn kZm [¿a-
    1. ss{Xhn-tZy-`y-kv{Xbow hnZymw ZWvU-                am¿K- Ø n¬ h¿Øn- ° p- I bpw A[¿a- Ø n¬
\oXnw N imizXow. B\zo-£nIow Nmfl-                         \n∂p \nh¿Øn-°p-Ibpw sNtø-≠-Xm-Ip-∂p.
hnZymw hmcvXmcw`m› temIXx..                              AXn-\m¬ cm{Xnbpw ]Iepw \n›n-X-k-a-bØv
    2. C{µn-bmWmw Ptb tbmKw kam-Xn-jvtT-                 tbmKm-`ym-khpw IqSn ioen-°-Ww. C{µn-b˛
±n-hm-\n-iav. PntX-{µntbm ln iIvt\mXn hti                ßsf a\ v {]mW≥ icocw F∂o B`y-¥-c-
ÿm]-bnXpw {]Pmx..                                        {]-P-Isf ˛ P-bn-®n-´n-√mØ Bfn\v _mly-{]-
    3. Zi Ima-k-ap-∞m\n XYmsjvSu t{Im[-                  P-Isf kzm[o-\-am-°p-hm≥ km[y-ta-b-√.
Pm-\n N. hyk-\m\n Zpc-¥m\n {]b-Xv-t\\                       3. Imaw-sIm-≠p-≠m-Ip∂ ]Øpw t{Im[w
hnhcvP-tbXv..                                            sIm≠p-≠m-Ip∂ F´pw ZpxJ-kz-`m-h-ß-sf ]cn-
    4. Ima-tPjp {]k-t‡m ln hyk-t\jp                      Xy- P n- ° - W w. Ah- b n- e - I - s ∏´ Bfn\v c£-
alo-]Xnx. hnbp-PytXfcvY[-cv-am-`ymw- t{Im-[-             s∏Sm≥ hnj-a-am-sW-¶nepw!
tP-jzm-fl-ss\-h Xp..                                                     -
                                                            4. Ima-P\y-amb ]Øp Zpxkz-`m-hßfn¬ AI-   - -
    5. arKbmft£m Znhm-kz]v\x ]cn--hmZx                   s∏-Sp∂ cmPm-hns‚ cmPyw kº-Øv, [¿aw
kv{Xntbm aZx. sXucy-{XnIw hyYm-Sym N                     F∂n-hbpw t{Im[-P-\y-amb F´p Zqjy-ß-
ImatPm ZitIm KWx..                                       fn¬s∏-Sp∂ cmPm-hns‚ ico-chpw \in-°p-∂p.
    6. ss]ip\yw kmlkw t{Zml Cucvjym-                        5. Imaw-sIm-≠p-≠m-Ip∂ Zqjy-߃ Ch-bm-
kq-bmcv∞Zqj-Wav. hmKvZ-WvUPw N ]mcp                      Wv. \mbm-´v, NqXp-I-fn, ]I-ep-d-°w, Ima-IY
jyw t{Im[tPmf]n K-tWm-fjvSIx..                           As√-¶n¬ ]c-\n-µ, AXy-[n-I-amb kv{Xokw-
                                                                      -
                                                         Kw, amZ-I{Z-hy-߃,-˛- a-Zyw, Idp∏v, I©mhp apX-
    7. Zztbm-c-t]y-X-tbmcvaqew bw kcvth                  em-bh ˛io-en-°p-I, ]m´v, sIm´v, B´w F∂nh
Ihtbm hnZpx. Xw bXvt\\ Ptb-t√m`av                        tIƒ°p-Ibpw ImWp-Ibpw sNøp-I, hrYm
X÷m-th-Xm-hps-`u- K-sWu..                                Aßp- a nßpw k©- c n- ® p- s Im- ≠ n- c n- ° pI
    8. ]m\-a£mx kv{Xnbss›h arKbm N                       Cßs\ ]Øp hyk-\-߃ Imtam-ev]-∂-ß-

                                                     105
     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                                  cmP-[¿aw
fm-Ip-∂p.                                                         a-{¥n-am-cpsS tbmKy-X
    6. t{Im[w-sIm≠v Gj-Wn-Iq-´p-I, hnth-I-an-           cmP-k-`-bn-ep≈ kZ-ky-∑mcpw a{¥nbpw
√m-sXbpw _em¬°m-c-ambpw ]c-kv{Xo-I-tfmSv                              - -           - -
                                                     Fß-s\-bp-≈hcmbn-cn-°Wsa∂p ]d-bp∂p:-˛
kwK-an-°p-I, tZzjw ]tcmXv°¿jw I≠p-Iq-                   1. sauemRvOmkv{X-hnZx iqcmw√_v[-e-
Sm-bva, Akq-b-˛-Kp-W-ß-fn¬ tZmj-sØbpw                £m\vIptem-Zv`hm\v. kNn-hm\vk]vX Nmjv
tZmj-ß-fn¬ KpW-tØbpw Btcm-]n-°p-I˛                   sSu hm {]IpcvhoX ]co-£n-Xm\v..
[¿a-hn-cp-≤ß-fmb Zp-jv-{]-hr-ØnIfn¬ [\m-                2. A]n- b-’p-I-cw Icva XZ-t]y-tI\
Zn-Iƒ hrYm-hybw sNøpI, ]cp-j-hm-°p-Iƒ                ZpjvIcav. hnti-jtXmfklm-tb\ In¥p
]d-bp-I, sX‰p sNømsX ITn-\-ambn in£n-                cmPyw atlm-Z-bav..
°p-Itbm iIm-cn-°p-Itbm sNøpI CuF´p
tZmj-߃ D≠m-Ip-∂p.                                      3. ssXx kmcv[w Nn¥-tb-∂nXyw kmam\yav
                                                     k‘nhn{K-lav. ÿm\w kapZbw Kp]vXnw
    7. Ima-P-ßfpw t{Im[-P-ß-fp-amb C∏-d™             e_v[{]i-a-\m\n N.
Zqjy-ß-fp-sS-sb√mw aqe-Im-cWw tem`-am-sW-
∂t{X hnZz-P-\-߃ ]d-bp-∂-Xv. tem`w-sIm-                 4. tXjmw kzw kza-`n-{]mbap]-e`y ]rYIv
≠mWv kI-e-tZm-j-ßfpw a\p-jy\v D≠m-Ip-                ]rYIv. ka-kvXm-\mw N Imtcyjp hnZ-[ym-
∂-Xv. AXn-\m¬ tem`w XyPn-°-Ww.                       ≤n-X-am-fl\x..
    8. I≈v apX-emb elcn ]Zm¿Y-ß-sf ioen-                5. A\ym-\]n {]IpcvhoX ipNo\v{]⁄m-
°p-I, NqXp-I-fn-°p-I, Aan-X-ambn kv{XokwKw           \-hÿnXm\v. kay-KcvYkam-lcvXro -\-am-
sNøp-I, \mbm-Sp-I, F∂o \mep tZmj-߃                  Xym\vkp]co£nXm\v..
Ima-P-ßfmb Zqjy-ß-fn¬ h®v G‰hpw NoØ-                                                        -
                                                        6. \nhcvtX-Xmky bmh-Zv`n-cnXnIcvXhyXm
bm-bn-´p-≈-Xm-Wv.                                    \r`nx. XmhtXmfX{µn-Xmµ£m\v{]IpcvhoX
    9. A]-cm[w sNøm-Øhsc in£n-°p-I, ]cp-
                            -                        hnNIvjWm\v..
j- h m°p ]d- b p- I , kºØv A\ym- b - a mbn              7. tXjm-acvtY \nbp-RvPoX iqcmµ£m\v
sNehp sNøpI F∂o aq∂p-tZm-j߃ t{Im[-  -               Iptem-ZvK-Xm\v. ipNo-\mI-c-Icvamt¥ `ocq-\-
P-ß-fmb hyk-\-ß-fn¬ h®v AXy¥w ZpxJ-                  ¥cv\nth-i-t\..
{]-Z-ß-fm-Ip-∂p.                                        8. ZqXw ssNh {]IpcvhoX kcvh-imkv{X
    10. Ima-P-ßfpw t{Im[-P-ß-fp-amb Zqjy-ß-          hnim-c-Zav. CwKn-Xm-Im-c-tN-jvS⁄w ipNnav
fn¬ h®v alm-tZm-j-ß-fmbn KWn-°p∂ Gsg-                Z£w Iptem-ZvKXav..
Æ-Øn¬ hrYm hyb-tØ-°mƒ ItTm-c-h-N-                       9. A\p-c‡x ipNocvZ£x kvar-Xn-amtµi-
\hpw ItTm- c- ` m- j - W - t Ø- ° mƒ A\ym- b -       ImehnXv. h]p-jvam\zoX-`oczmKvao ZqtXm
ZWvUhpw A\ym-b-Z-WvU-tØ-°mƒ \mbm´pw                  cm⁄x {]i-kytX.. (a-\p. 7. 54-˛57; 60-˛64)
\mbm- ´ n- t \- ° mƒ Aan- X - k v { Xo- k w- K hpw                             --
                                                        1. kzcm-Py-Øn¬-˛kz-tZ-i-Øn¬ P\n-®n-´p≈
kv { Xokw- K - t Ø- ° mƒ NqXp- I - f nbpw NqXp-                            - -          -
                                                     thZmZn imkv{X-ßfdn-bp∂ ]cm-{I-aim-en-Ifpw-
Ifntb°mƒ aZym-Zn-tk-hbpw A[nIw tZmj-                         - -                  -       -
                                                     \njv^eam-ImØ Nn¥-Itfm-Sp-Iq-Sn-bhcpw \√
I-chpw Kpcp-X-chpw BIp-∂p.                           Ipe-Øn¬ ]nd-∂-h-cpw th≠pw hÆw ]co-£n-
    11. Zpxkz-`m-h-ß-fn¬ s]Sp-∂-Xn-t\-°mƒ            °-s∏-´-hcpw ka¿Y∑m-cp-amb Gtgm Ft´m
t`Zw ac-W-amWv. Zpcm-Nmcn Zo¿L-Imew Pohn-            DØ-a-cmb {]K-¤sc kNn-h-∑m-cm-bn- ˛- a-{¥n-
®n-cp-∂m¬ A[nIw ]m]w sNbvXv At[m-K-                  am-cm-bn -˛- \n-b-an-°-Ww.
Xnsb ˛Zpx-J-sØ˛ {]m]n-°pw. kZmNmcn acn-                 2. Fs¥-∂m¬, ]c-k-lm-b-sat\y thKw
®mepw kpJsØ {]m]n-°p-∂p. AXn-\m¬ kI-                 sNøm≥ Ign-bp∂ Imcyw t]mepw GIm-In-
ecpw hnti-jn®v cmPmhv \mbm-´v, aZy-]m\w apX-         bmbn sNøp-tºmƒ ZpjvIc-am-Ip-∂p. At∏mƒ
emb Zpjv-I¿a-ßfn¬ Hcn-°epw s]´p-t]m-                 GIm-In-bmbn al-Ømb cmP-Imcyw \S-Øp-
ImsX Ah-bn¬ \n∂v AI∂p \n∂v [¿a-bp-                   hm≥ Fßs\ km[n°pw? AXn-\m¬ Hcm-fns\
‡-ß-fmb KpW-I¿akz-`m-h-ß-tfmSp IqSn                  cmPm-hmbn \nb-an®v cmPy-`mcw apgp-h\pw Gev]n-
kXvI¿a-߃ A\p-jvTn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°-Ww.                °p-∂Xv A\m-im-ky-am-Ip-∂p.
                                                        3. AX-n-\m¬ k`m-]-Xn-bmb cmPmhv cmPy-
                                                 106
                  Bdmw kap-√mkw                                                        kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
            -                -
Im-cy-ßfn¬ Ipi-e∑mcpw hnZzm-∑m-cp-amb a{¥n-                     kwl-Xm\v. ZqX-kvXXvIpcptX Icva- `n-Zyt¥
am- t cm- S p- I qSn (k- ‘ n) ssa{Xn (hn- { K- l w)             tb\ am\hmx..
i{XpX (ÿm-\w) ka-b-a-dn™v kzcm-PysØ                                3. _p≤zm kcvhw XtØz\ ]c-cm-P-Nn-
c£n®v DZm-ko-\-\mbn ÿnXn-sN-øp-I. (k-ap-                        Iocvjn-Xav. XYm {]b-Xv\am-Xn-jvTvZy-Ym-ffflm
                                                                                             -            -
Zbw) kz¥-_ew h¿≤n-°p-tºmƒ ZpjvS-i-{Xp-                          \w \ ]oUn-tbXv..
°sf B{I-an-°pI, (Kp-]vXn) ssk\yw, JP-                              4. [\zZpcvKw alo-ZpcvK-a-_vZpcvKw hmcv£-
\mhv apX-em-bh c£n-°pI, (e-_v[-{]-i-a-\w)                       ta-h hm. \rZpcvKw Kncn-ZpcvKw hm kam-{inXy
Iog-S-°nb \mSp-I-fn¬ kam-[m\w ]pe¿ØpI                           htkXv]pcav..
F∂o Bdp hnj-b-߃ \nXyhpw \nco-£n-°-
Ww.                                                                5. GIx iXw tbm[-bXn {]mIm-ctÿm
                                                                [\pcv[cx. iXw Zikl-{kmWn XkvamZv
    4. kZ-ky-cn¬ Hmtcm-cp-Ø-cp-sSbpw A`n-{]m-                   ZpcvKw hn[o-btX..
b-ßfpw hnNm-c-ßfpw tNmZn-®-dn™v `qcn-]-£-
{]-Imcw kz¥hpw A\y-cp-sSbpw t{ib- n-\p-                            6. X’ym-Zm-bp-[-k-º∂w [\-[m-t\y\
X-Ip∂ {]hr-Øn-Iƒ kpNn-¥n-X-ambn sNbvXp-                         hmlss\x. {_m“ssWx inev]n-`n-cy-ss{¥cy-
Xp-S-ß-Ww.                                                      h-tk-t\mZtI\ N..
    5. ]cn-ip-≤m-flm-°-fpw _p≤n-am-∑mcpw ÿnc-                       7. Xky at[y kp]-cym]vXw Imc-tbZv Krl-
Nn-Ø-∑m-cpw ]Zm¿∞ kw{K-l-N-Xp-ccpw Bb-                          am-fl\x. Kp]vXw kcvhcvXpIw ip{`w Pe-hr-
hsc \√-hÆw ]co-£n-®p-t\m°n a{¥n-am-cmbn                         £-k-a-\zn-Xav..
\nb-an-t°-≠-Xm-Wv.                                                 8. XZ-[ymtkymZztl-Zv`mcymw khcvWmw
    6. \m´p-Im-cy-\-S-Øn-∏n-\m-h-iy-ap-≈{X D’m-                 e£Wm\znXmav. Ipte- a-lXn kw`q-Xmw -
l-io-ecpw _e-hm-∑mcpw hnZ-Kv≤-cp-amb A[n-                       lrZymw cq]KpWm-\zn-Xmav..
Im-cn-Isf tPmen°p \nb-an-t°-≠XmWv.                                 9. ]ptcm-lnXw N IpcvhoX hrWp-bm-tZh
    7. AhcpsS Iogn¬ iqc-cpw _e-hm-∑m-cpw                        Ncv X zn- P av . tXfky KrlymWn Icv a mWn
Xd-hm-Sn-Ifpw ]cn-ip-≤-cp-amb `rXy-∑msc \nb-                    Ipcypcvssh-Xm-\nIm\n N..
an®v Kuc-h-ta-dnb Imcy-߃°v \ntbm-Kn-°-                            (a-\p. 7. 65; 66; 68; 70; 74˛-78)
Ww. `ocp-°-fm-b-hsc B¥-cnI {]hr-ØnItf                              1. ZWvU-\m-[n-Imcw apgp-h\pw a{¥n°p
Gev]n-°m-hq.                                                    sImSp-t°-≠-Xm-Wv. hn\-b-{Inb (A-\ym-b-ambn
    8. D∂-X-Ip-e-Pm-X-\pw ka¿Y-\pw ]hn-{X-N-                    ZWv U w D]- t bm- K n- ° m- X n- c n- ° m≥ th≠Xp
cn-X\pw A\y-lr-Z-b-hpw `m-hnbpw I≠dn-bp-                        sNøp- I ) F∂Xp ZWv U - \ m- [ n- I m- c - Ø n¬
hm≥ Ign-hp-≈-h-\pw kI-e-im-kv{X-\n-]p-W\pw                      Dƒs∏-Sp-∂p. `WvUmcw kq£n-∏v, cmjv{So-b-Im-
Imcy-\n¿∆-lW Ipi-e\pw Bb Bfns\ ZqX-                             cy-߃ F∂nh cmPm-hns‚ A[o-\-Ønepw
\mbn \nb-an-°-Ww.                                               cmPy- k w- _ - ‘ n- b mb Imcy- ß ƒ k`- b psS
    9. cmPyIm-cy-ß-fn¬ AXy¥w D’mlw                              Iognepw A\y-cm-Py-ß-tfmSp ssa{Xo hntcm-[-
{]oXn F∂n-h-bp≈ Im]-Sy-c-ln-X-\pw ka¿Y-                         Im-cy-߃ ZqXs‚ A[n-Im-c-Ønepw Bbn-cn-°-
\pw ]cn-ip≤ lrZ-b\pw ]≠p \S-∂Xv ad-°m-                          Ww.
Ø-h-\pw tZi-Im-e-߃°-\p-k-cn®p {]h¿Øn-                             2. i{Xp-°sf an{X-ß-fm-°p-I-bpw an{X-sa∂p
°p-∂-h\pw kpµ-c-\pw [oc-\pw henb hm‹n-                          `mhn-°p∂ ZpjvSsc AI-‰p-Ibpw sNøp-∂-h-
bp- a m- b n- ´ p- ≈ - h - \ t{X cmP- Z q- X - \ m- I p- h m≥   \t{X ZqX≥. i{Xp-°sf AI‰n \n¿Øp∂
tbmKy≥.                                                         {]hr-Øn-bmWv ZqX≥ sNtø-≠-Xv.
                   B¿°v F¥-[nImcw                                  3. k`m-]-Xn, kZ-ky-∑m¿, ZqX-∑m¿, apX-em-
            sImSp-°-W-sa∂p ]d-bp∂p:                             b-h¿ hntcm-[n-I-fmb A\y-cm-Pm-°-∑m-cp-sSbpw
    1. AamtXy ZWvU BbtØm ZWvtU                                  cmPy-Øn-s‚bpw bYm¿Y A`n-{]m-b-a-dn-™v,
ssh\-bnIo {Inbm. \r]Xu tImi-cm-jvt{S                            tZmjw hcm-Ø-hÆw th≠Xp sNø-Ww.
N ZqtX k‘n hn]-cysbu..                                             4. kpµ-c-amb h\-ß-fp-≈Xpw [\-[m-\y-k-
    2. ZqX Gh ln kw[tØ `n\-tØy-h N                              º-∂-hp-amb {]tZ-iØv ([-\pcvZpcvKw) hn√m-


                                                            107
    kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                                      cmP-[¿aw
fn-Iƒ D]-tcm-[n-°p-∂Xpw (a-lo-ZpcvKw) aÆp-          2. A[y-£m\znhn-[m\vIpcymØ{X X{X
sIm≠p sI´n-btXm (A-_vZpcvKw) Np‰pw sh≈-         hn]-›nXx. tXfky kcvhmWytht£-c∂r
ap-≈tXm (hmcv£w) Np‰pw ImSp-≈tXm (\r-           Wmw ImcymWn Ipcvh-Xmav..
ZpcvKw) \mep `mKØpw ssk\yw Imh-ep-                  3.Bhr- Ø m\mw Kpcp- I p- e m- Z zn- { ]mWmav
≈tXm (Kn-cn-ZpcvKw) \mep ]pdØpw ae-I-fp-        ]qPtIm `thXv. \r]m-Wm-a-£tbm tlyj
≈tXm Bb ÿm\Øv tIm´ ]Wn- b n®v                   \n[ncv{_mt“mf`n[o-btX..
AXns‚ a≤y-Øn¬ \Kcw \n¿an-°-Ww.                      4. ktam- Ø - a m- [ ssa cmPm XzmlqXx
    5. \K-c-Øns‚ \mep-Np‰pw sImØ-f-ap≈          ]meb\v{]Pmx. \ \nhcvtXX kw{Km-amXv£m
                  -
aXn¬ ]Wn-bn-°Ww. AXn¬ \n∂p-sIm≠v Hcp            {Xw [cva-a-\p-kva-c\v..
hn√m-fn-ho-c\v \qdp i{Xp-°-sfbpw \qdp hn√m-         5. Bl-thjp antYmft\ym\yw PnLmwk
fn-Iƒ°v ]Xn-\m-bncw i{Xp°-sfbpw t\cn-Sm≥        t¥m alo£nXx. bp[y-am-\mx ]cw i‡ym
Ign-bpw. AXn-\m¬ tIm´-sIm-Ø-f-߃ AXym-          kzcvKw bm¥y-]-cm-MvapJmx..
h-iy-am-Wv.
                                                    6. \ N- l-\ym-’vY-em-cqVw \ ¢o_w \
    6. B tIm´, ikv{Xm-kv{X-߃, [\-[m-\y-        Ir-Xm-RvP-enav. \ ap-‡-tIiw \mko\w \X-
߃, hml-\-߃, ]Tn-∏n-°p-Ibpw D]-tZ-in-          hm-kvaoXn hmZn-\av..
°p-Ibpw sNøp∂ {_m“-W¿, sXmgn-em-fn-Iƒ,
\m\m-Xcw b{¥-߃, I∂p-Im-en-Iƒ°p Xn∂p-               7. \ kp]vXw \ hn-k-∂mlw \ \·w \ \n-
hm-\p≈ ]p√v, sh≈w apX-em-b-h-bm¬ kar-           cm-bp-[-av. \mbp[y-am\w ]iy¥w \ ]tcW
≤-am-bn-cn-°-Ww.                                kam-K-Xav..
    7. B tIm´-bpsS \Sp-hn¬ cmPm-hn\p th≠n           8. \mbp-[-hy-k\{]m]vXw \mcvXw \mXn-]-
sh≈w, hr£-߃, ]pjv]߃, F∂n-htbmSp
                           -             -      cn-£-Xav. \ `oXw \ ]-cm-hrØw kXmw [cva-
IqSn-bXpw k¿hYm kpc-£n-Xhpw F√m EXp-            a-\p-kva-c\v..
°-fnepw kpJ-{]-Zhpw shfpØ \nd-Øn-ep-≈-              9. bkvXp- `oXx ]cm-hrØx kw{Kmta l\y-
Xp-amb sIm´mcw ]Wn-bn-°-Ww. Cu sIm´mcw          tX- ]sscx. `cvXp-cy-Zv Zp-jvIrXw In©n-ØXv
\m´p-Im-cy-߃ apgp-h≥ \S-Øp-hm≥ ]cym-]vX-       kcvhw {]Xn-]-ZytX..
am-bn-cn-°-Ww.                                      10. b®mky -kp-IrXw In©n-Z-aq-{XmcvYap
    8. {_“-N-cy-{h-X-tØm-Sp-IqSn hnZy-I-sf√mw   ]mcvPn-X-av. `cvXm -X-’cvh-am-ZtØ ]cm-hr-Ø-
A`y-kn®v hnhmlw hcp-∂Xp hsc cmPy-Im-            l-Xky Xp..
cy߃ \S-Ø-Ww. AXn-\p-tijw kpµ-cn-bpw                11. cYmizw lkvXn\w O{Xw [\-w [m\yw
klr-Z-b-bpw D∂-Xhpw DØ-a-hp-amb £{Xn-           ]-iq\vkv{Xnbx. kcvh{Z-hym-Wn- Ip]yw 6 N
         -   -        - - -      -
b-Ip-ePm-Xbpw ip`-e£Wbp-‡bpw A`y-kvX-           tbm b÷-bXn Xky- XXv.
hn-Zy-bpw KpW-I¿a-kz-`m-h-ß-fn¬ X\n-°-\p-cq-
]- b p- a mb I\y- I sb thƒ°Ww. as‰√m                12. cm⁄› ZZyp-cp-≤m-c-an-tXyjm sshZn-
kv{XoI-sfbpw AK-ay-I-fmbn KWn®v ZrjvSn          Io- {ipXnx. cm⁄m N kcvh-tbmt[t`ym ZmX-
]Xn-∏n-°p-I-t]mepw sNøm-Xn-cn-°-Ww.             hya-]r-Y-KvPn-Xav..
    9. cmP-sIm-´m-c-Øn¬ sNtø-≠-Xmb A·n-             (a\p. 7.80-˛82, 87, 89,91-˛97)
tlm-{Xw, ]t£jvSn apX-emb I¿a-߃ sNøp-               1. hm¿jn-I-\n-IpXn B]vX-]p-cp-j-∑m-cpsS
∂-Xn\v ]ptcm-ln-X-∑m-scbpw EXzn-°p-I-sfbpw      klm-b-tØm-Sp-IqSn ]ncn-s®-Sp-t°-≠-Xm-Wv.
\ntbm-Kn-°-Ww. cmPmhv Ft∏mgpw cmPy-Im-cy-       k`-bpsS A[n-]-Xn-bmb cmPmhpw {][m-\-∑m-
Øn¬ am{Xw _≤-{i-≤-\m-bn-cn-°-Ww. kZm            cmb cmP-]p-cp-j-∑mcpw AS-ßnb k` thZ-hn-
cm-Py-Im-cy-߃ t\m°n Du\w hcmsX \S-Øp-          [n-{]-Imcw P\-ß-tfm-Sv ]nXr-Xpeyw s]cp-am-d-
∂Xp Xs∂-bmWv cmPm-hns‚ kt‘ym-]m-k-              Ww.
\mZn I¿a-߃.
    1. kmwh-’-cn-I-am-]v-ssX› cmjv{SmZmlm-      6 kv{XoIƒ hn[-h-I-tfm ]p{X-\-jvS-tam ]nXr-\-jvStam
c-tb-Zv_-en-av. kym®m-av\m-b-]tcm temtIm          h∂p AK-Xn-Itfm Bbm¬ AhcpsS kwc-£-W-®p-a-
                                                  Xe Pbn- ° p- ∂ - b m- f n- \ m- W v . hnj- b m- k - ‡ n- t bmsS
hcvtXX ]nXr-h-∂r-jq..                             Ahsc ImW-cp-sX∂v t\csØ ]d-™p.

                                            108
             Bdmw kap-√mkw                                             kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
    2. \m´p-Imcyw \S-Øp-hm≥ hnhn-[-h-Ip-∏-≤y-                -       - -         - -
                                                   8. Bbp-[{]-lcta‰p ]pf-bp-∂ht\-bpw ZpxJn-
£-∑msc k` \nb-an-°-Ww. a‰p-tZym-K-ÿ-∑m¿         X-t\-bpw h≥]-cnt°-‰-h-t\-bpw kw`o-X-t\-bpw
\nb-a-{]-Imcw icn-bmbn {]h¿Øn-°p-∂pt≠m          t]Sn- t ®m- S p- ∂ - h - t \bpw k÷- \ - ß - f psS
F∂p-t\m-°p-Ibpw \nb-am-\p-krXw \S-°p-∂-         [¿atam¿Øv Hcn-°epw sIm√-cp-Xv. Aß-s\-
hsc _lp-am-\n-°p-Ibpw \nb-a-hn-cp-≤-ambn        bp-≈-hsc ]nSn-®v, ]cn-°n-√m-Ø-hsc XS-hn-
{]h¿Øn-°p-∂hsc bYm-bp‡w in£n-°p-                em°n Ah¿°p `£Ww hkv{X-߃ apX-em-
Ibpw sNøp-∂Xv B A≤y-£-∑m-cpsS Npa-X-            bXp sImSp-°-Ww. apdn-hp-≈-hsc NnIn-’n-°-
e-bm-Wv.                                        Ww. Ahsc tIm]n-∏n-°p-Itbm ZpxJn-∏n-°p-
    3. cmPm-°-∑m-cpsS A£-b-`-WvUm-c-amWv        Itbm Acp-Xv. bYm-tbm-Ky-amb {]hr-Øn-Iƒ
thZ-{]-Nm-cw. AXn-\m¬, thZ-ßsf {]N-cn-∏n-       Ah-sc-s°m≠p sNøn-°-Ww. kv{XoIƒ, Ip´n-
°p-∂-Xn\v {_“-Ncym-\p-jvTm-\-tØm-sS, thZm-      Iƒ, hr≤-∑m¿, BXp-c-∑m¿, ZpxJn-X-∑m¿ F∂n-
Zn-im-kv{X-ß-f-`y-kn-®v, Kpcp-Ip-e-Øn¬ \n∂v     h-cpsS t\sc Hcn-°epw Bbp[w {]tbm-Kn-°-
aSßn hcp-∂-hsc cmPmhpw cmP-k-`bpw BZ-           cp-Xv. Ah-cpsS a°sf kzk-¥m-\-ß-sf-sb-∂-
cn-°-Ww, AXp-t]mse P\-ßsf ]Tn-∏n®p              t]mse c£n-°-Ww. AXp-t]mse kv{XoI-
hnZzm-∑m-cm-°p∂ ]WvUn-X-∑m-scbpw BZ-cn-°-       sfbpw c£n-°-Ww. Ahsc ktlm-Z-cn-amsc
Ww.                                             t]msebpw ]p{Xn-am-sc-t∏m-sebpw hnNm-cn-°-
    4. Cßs\ sNbvXm¬ cmPyØn¬ hnZym-`n-           Ww. hnj-bm-k-‡n-tbm-Sp-IqSn Ahsc t\m°p-
hr-≤nbpw XZzmcm A`yp-Zbhpw D≠m-Ipw. Xs∂-
                          -                     I-t]mepw sNø-cp-Xv. cmPy-Øn¬ kam-[m\w Dd-
°mƒ _e-lo-\t\m X\n°p Xpeyt\m A[n-               ®-Xn\p tijw ]n∂oSv FXn¿°p-sa∂v kwi-
I-_-e-hmt\m Bb i{Xp t]mcn\p hnfn-®m¬,           b-an-√m-Ø-hsc k¬°m-c-]q¿∆w hn´-b-bv°
{]Pm-]-cn-]m-e\w sNøp∂ cmPmhv £{Xnb             Ww. ]n∂oSv FXn¿°p-sa∂p kwi-b-ap-≈-hsc
[¿asØ kvacn- ® p- s Im≠v ]n¥n- c n™p            F∂pw Imcm-Kr-l-Øn¬ Xs∂ ]m¿∏n-°-Ww.
t]mImsX X\n°p hnPbw e`n-°-Ø-°-hÆw                  9. t]mcn¬ \n∂p ]n¥n-cn-bp-Itbm t]Sn-
]mS-h-tØm-Sp-IqSn t]mcm-S-Ww.                   t®m-Sp-Itbm sNøp∂ `rXys\ i{Xp-°ƒ h[n-
    5. t]m¿°-f-Øn-en-dßn At\ym\yw \n{K-ln-      ®m¬ Ah≥ sNbvX ZpjvIr-Xy-Øn\v ac-W-ti-
∏m≥ B{K- l n- ° p∂ cmPm- ° - ∑ m¿, kzkm-        jhpw in£m¿l≥ Xs∂.
a¿∞y-a-\p-k-cn-®v, t]Sn-°m-sXbpw ]n¥n-cn-bm-       10. Ah≥ Cl- t em- I - Ø nepw ]c- t em- I -
sXbpw t]mcm-Sn-bm¬ am{Xta Pbn-°q. AXn-          Ønepw kpJ-ap-f-hm-°p∂ kpIrXw h√Xpw
\m¬ bp≤-Øn¬ Hcn-°epw hnap-J-\m-I-cp-Xv.         sNbvXn-´p-s≠-¶n¬ AXns\ Ahs‚ bPam-\≥
F∂m¬ i{Xp-°sf tXmev]n-°p-∂-Xn\v Nne-            C√mbva sNøp-∂p. `b-s∏t´mSth h[n-°-s∏-
t∏mƒ ]n≥am-dp-∂-Xn¬ A\u-Nn-Xy-an-√. Fs¥-        Sp-∂-h\p bmsXmcp kpJhpw D≠m-Ip-∂n-√.
∂m¬, FXn-cm-fn-Isf tXmev]n-°p-hm≥ F{]-          Ahs‚ ]pWy-^ew apgp-h\pw \in-®p-t]m-Ip-
Imcw km[n-°ptam A{]-Imcw sNø-Ww. ISpw-                                     - - -
                                                ∂p. Ahs‚ kpIr-X^eam-Is´ [¿am-\p-krXw
tIm]w ]q≠v t\cn-t´m-Sn-h-cp∂ knwlw £W-          bp≤w sNøp-∂-h\p In´p-∂p.
t\-cw- sIm≠v ikv{Xm-·n-bn¬ `kva-am-bn-Øo-          11. tXcv, IpXn-c, B\, IpS, s\√v, ]Ww,
cp-∂-Xp-t]mse hnUvVnØw sIm≠v A]-I-S-            I∂p-Im-en-Iƒ, kv{XoIƒ, 7 a‰p≈ hkvXp-
                     -      -
Øn¬ s]´p \mam-hti-j\m-Ip-∂Xv _p≤n-b√.      -    °-sf√mw s\øv, FÆ, apX-emb Ip]y-߃
    6. bp≤w sNøp-tºmƒ shdp-tX- \n¬°p-∂-         F∂o ]Zm¿∞- ß - f n¬ h®v GtX- s X√mw
h-t\bpw \]pw-k-I-Øn-t\bpw ssIIq-∏p-∂-h-         GtXXp ]S-bm-fnbpw ]S-\m-b-I\pw Iogvs]-Sp-
t\bpw Xe-apSn Agn-®n-´-h-t\bpw Ccn-°p-∂-h-      Øntbm AsX√mw Ahch¿°v Ah-Im-i-s∏-´-
s\bpw "Rm≥ Aßsb icWw {]m]n-®n-cn-               Xm-Wv. C∏-d™ \nb-asØ Bcpw Hcn-°epw
°p∂p' F∂p ]d-bp-∂-h-t\-bpw ˛                    ewLn-°-cp-Xv.
    7. Dd-ßn-°n-S-°p-∂-h-t\bpw tamlm-e-ky-s∏-      12. ssk\y-Øn-ep≈ `S-∑m¿ Hmtcm-cp-Øcpw
´-h-t\bpw \·-t\bpw Bbp-[-c-ln-X-t\-bpw
bp≤w sNøp-∂Xp t\m°n-\n-ev°p-∂-h-t\-bpw          7 Cu «mI-Øns‚ A¿Yw c≠m-a-Xmbn Fgp-Xn-bn-´p-≠v.
                                                  t«mIw ]I¿Øn Fgp-Xnb Bƒ hn´-Xm-hmw.
i{Xp-hns‚ Iq´p-Im-c-t\-bpw ˛

                                            109
     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                                    cmP-[¿aw
A[o- \ am- ° nb ]Zm¿∞- ß - f psS ]Xn- \ m- d n-          7. btYmZv[cXn \ncvZmXm IIvjw [ym\av
semcp `mKw cmPm- h n\pw F√m- h cpw IqSn-             N cIvjXn. XYm cIvtj∂rt]m cmjv{Sav
t®¿∂p ]nSn-®-S-°n-bn-´p≈ [\-Øns‚ ]Xn-                l\ym® ]cn-]-Ÿn\x..
\m- d n- s emcwiw cmPmhv Xs‚ `S- ∑ m¿°pw                 8. tamlm-{ZmPm kzcmjv{Sw bx Icvj-b-
sImSp-°-Ww. bp≤-Øn¬ acn-®p-t]mb `Ss‚                 Xy-\-thIvjbm. tkmfNn-cmZv {`iytX cmPym-
]¶v Ahs‚ `mcybvt°m a°ƒt°m sImSp-                     ÷o-hn-Xm® k_m-‘hx..
°-Ww. acn-®-hs‚ `mcy-tbbpw {]m]vXn-bm-                   9. i-co-c-Icvj-WmXv{]mWmx Ivjobt¥
ImØ k¥m\-ß-sfbpw c£n-°p-Ibpw a°ƒ                     {]mWn\mw bYm. XYm cmPvRma]n {]mWmx
Imcy-{]m-]vXn-t\-Sp-tºmƒ tbmKy-Xm-\p-k-cWw           Ivjobt¥ cmjv{SIcvj-Wm-Xv..
tPmen sImSp-°p-Ibpw thWw. cmPy-Øns‚
A`n-hr-≤n, kpJ-k-ar-≤n, hnP-bw, ÿnc-{]-                  10. cmjv{Sky kw{Ktl \nXyw hn[m-\-an-Z-
XnjvT F∂n-h-sb√mw B{K-ln-°p∂-h≥ Cu                   amN-tcXv. kpkw-Kr-lo-X-cmjvt{Sm ln ]mcvYn
\nb-asØ Hcn-°epw ewLn-°-cp-Xv.                       hx kpJ-ta-[tX..
    1. A-e_v[w ssNh en]vtkX e_v[w                        11. Zztbmkv{XbmWmw ]©m\mw at[y
ct£Xv {]b-Xv\Xx. c£nXw hcv[tb-ss®h                                                    -
                                                     Kpevaa-[njvTnXw. XYm {Kma-iXm\mw N Ipcym-
hr≤w ]mt{Xjp \nx£n-t]Xv..                            {Zmjv{Sky kw{K-l-av..
    (G-X®Xpcvhn[w hnZymXv]pcp-jm¿Y-{]-tbm-
            - -                                          12. {Kma-kym-[n-]Xow IpcymZvZi-{Km-a-]Xnw
P-\av. Aky- \n-Xy-a-\p-jvTm\w kayIvIpcym-            XYm. hnwi-Xoiw itXiw N kl-{k-]-Xn-
Z-X-{µn-Xx..) *7)                                    tah N..
                                                         13. {KmatZmjm\v k apXv ] ∂m\v { KmanIx
    2. Ae-_v[-an-t—-±-WvtU\ e_v[w ct£-               i\ssIx kzbw. iwtkZv {Kma-Z-ti-imb
                          -
Zth£bm. c£nXw hcv[tbZv hr≤ym hr≤av                   Ztitim hnwiXoint\..
Zmt\\ \nx£n-t]Xv..
    3. Aam-b-ssbh hcvtXX \ IY-w-N\                       14. hnwi-Xo-ikvXp X’cvhw itX-imb
ambbm. _pt≤y-Xmcn{]bp‡mw N ambmav-                   \nth-Z-tbXv. iwtkZv {Kma-i-tXikvXp kl-
\nXyw kzkw-hrXx..                                    {k-]-Xtb kzbav..
    4. \mky- On{Zw ]tcm hnZymZznZym—n{Zw ]-              15. tXjmw {Kmaym-Wn- Im-cymWn ]rY-°m-
c-kyXp Xp. KqtlXvIqcva Chm-MvKm\n ct£-               cym-Wn -ssNh ln. cmt⁄m f \yx kNnhx
Zzn-hcamfl\x..                                        kv\nKv[kvXm\n ]tiy-Z-X-{µnXx.
    5. _I-h®n-¥tb-ZcvYm\vknwl-h® ]cm-{I-
                - -                                      16. \Ktc \Ktc ssNIw Ipcym-’cvhmcvY
taXv. hrI-h-®m-h-ep-tºX ii-h® hn\n-jv]-              Nn¥Iw. Dss®x ÿm\w tLmc-cq]w \£-
tX-Xv..                                              {XmWmanh- {K-lav..
    6. Ghw hnP-b-am-\ky tbfky kypx ]cn-                  17. k Xm-\-\p-]-cn-{Imta-’cvhm-t\h kZm-
]-Ÿn\x. Xm\m-\tb-Zziw kcv∆m\vkmam-Zn-`ncp-
                    -                                kzbw. tXjmw hrØw ]cn- W - t b- ’ ay
]-{Issax..                                           {Kmjvt{Sjp X®sscx..
    (bZn tX Xp \ Xnjv t T- b p- c p- ] mssbx             18. cmt⁄m ln c£m-[n-IrXmx ]c-kzm-
{]Yssakv{Xn`nx. ZWvtUss\h {]kssly                    Zm- b n\x iTmx. `rXym `h¥n {]mtbW
                                                     tXt`ym ct£-Znamx {]Pmx..
XmwivO\ssIcvh-i-am-\-tbXv..) 8
                                                         19. tb Im-cyn-tI-t`ym f cvYta-h Kr-lvWobpx
                                                                                    -    -
*7 -6-˛mw ivtfmI-Øn-\p-ti-jhpw CXp-t]mse hn´-Xmhmw   ]m]-tN-Xkx. tXjmw kcvh-kz-am-Zmb cmPm
8 t]Pv 236-˛¬ 11-˛mw t«mI-Øns‚ A¿Y-Øn¬ I]yw F∂p      IpcymXv{]hm-k-\av..
   ImWp-∂Xv hymJm-\n-®n-´n-√. kz¿Æw sh≈n CXc          (a-\pkvarXn. 7.99,101,104-˛107,110,117,120-˛124)
   teml-߃ apX-em-b-h-sb√mw I]y-ß-fm-Wv. IuSn-
   eys‚ A¿Y-im-kv{X-Øn¬ Ht´sd hkvXp-°ƒ I]y-                                -               -
                                                         1. cmPmhpw cmP-k`bpw kzm[o-\Øn-e√mØ     -
   Øn¬ FÆn-bn-´p-≠v. (2.17) ae-bm-f-Ønse "Ip∏n'      hkv X p- ° sf kºm- Z n- ° m≥ {ian- ° - W w.
   t]mse hSs° C¥y-bnse ]e kwkm-c-`m-j-Ifnepw         ssIhiw In´nb hkvXp-°sf c£n-°-Ww.
                                         -
   "Ip∏m' F∂Xv s\√pw FÆbpw kw`-cn-®p-h®n-cn-°p∂
   ]m{X-am-Wv. {KŸ-Im-c≥ "Ip∏m' I]y-Øns‚ A]-{`w-i-   c£n- ® - X ns\ h¿≤n- ∏ n- ° - W w, h¿≤n- ∏ n®
                       -
   am-sW∂p Icp-Xn-bXm-hmw.
                                                 110
                 Bdmw kap-√mkw                                                    kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
[\sØ thZ- h n- Z y, [¿aw F∂n- h - b psS                     cmPm-hv, Xs‚ cmPy-tØmSpw _‘p-P-\-ß-
{]NmcWØn\pw hnZym¿Yn-Iƒ, thZam¿K-ap-                        tfmSpw IqSn AIm-e-Øp-Xs∂ \in-°p-∂p.
]- t Z- i n--° p- ∂ - h ¿, AwK- ` w- K - ° m¿, A\m- Y ¿         9. icocw £oWn-∏n-®m¬ {]mW-£bw hcp-
F∂n-h-cpsS c-£bv-°mbpw hn\n-tbm-Kn-°-Ww,                    tºmse P\-ßsf Ai-‡-cm-°p-∂-Xp-sIm≠v
(]p-cp-j-{]-b-Xv\-Øns‚ {]tbm-P\w Cßs\                       cmPm-°-∑m-cpsS {]mW-\mb tk\m-_-e-hpw
\mep hn[-Øn-em-sW∂p a\- n-em-°-Ww. Ae-                      a‰pw _‘p-P\ klnXw \in-°p-∂p.
kX shSn™v Chsb F∂pw `wKn-bmbn A\p-                              10. AXn-\m¬ cmPmhpw cmP-k-`bpw \m´p-
jvTn-°-Ww.)                                                 Im-cy-߃ `wKn-bmbn \S-Øp-hm≥ ]cn-{i-an-°-
    2. A{]m-]vX-am-b-Xns\ ZWvUw sIm≠p                       Ww. {]Pm-]-cn-]m-e-\-Øn¬ F√m-hn-[-Ønepw
t\Sp-Ibpw t\Sn-b-Xns\ \nXyw t\m°n c£n-                      PmK-cq-I-\m-bn-cn-°p∂ cmPm-hn\v kpJw h¿≤n-
°p-Ibpw c£n-®-Xns\ ]eni hmßnbpw a‰pw                        ®p-sIm-t≠-bn-cn-°pw.
h¿≤n-∏n-°p-I-bpw h¿≤n-∏n® [\sØ ap≥]d-                           11. ct≠m aqt∂m At©m \qtdm {Kma-
™-{]-Imcw sNe-h-gn-°p-Ibpw thWw.                            ߃°v Hcp cmPy-Im-cym-ebw ÿm]n-®v, AXn¬
    3. BtcmSpw Hcn-°epw Im]Syw ImWn-°-                      Bh-iy-Øn\v DtZym-K-ÿ-∑msc \nb-an®p \m´p-
cpXv, Znh-kw-tXmdpw kzc£ sNøp-Ibpw i{Xp-                    Im-cy-߃ \S-tØ-≠-Xm-Wv.
°-fpsS NXn-{]-tbm-K-ß-f-dn™v Ahbv°v ]cn-                        12. Hmtcm {Kma-Ønepw Hmtcmtcm {][m-\nsb
lm-c-ap-≠m-°p-Ibpw thWw.                                    \nb-an-°-Ww. ]Øp {Kma-ß-fpsS ta¬t°m-bva-
    4. kz¥w _e-lo-\X i{Xp-°-f-dn-bm-Ø-                      bv°mbn Hcmƒ, Ccp-]Xp {Kma-ß-fpsS tae-[n-
hÆw ad-bv°p-Ibpw i{Xp-°-fpsS Zu¿_eyw                        Im-cn-bmbn thsdm-cmƒ, \qdp {Kma-ßfpsS tae-
Adn-™p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-Ibpw sNøWw. Ba                          t\z-j-W-Øn\v Hcmƒ, Bbncw {Kma-ß-fpsS
Xs‚ AwK-ßsf ad®p hbv°p∂Xp-t]mse                             A[n-]-Xn-bmbn thsdm-cmƒ Cßs\ A[n-Im-
i{Xp- ° ƒ {]th- i n- ° m- h p∂ Zzmc- ß sf                                     -
                                                            cn-Isf \nb-an-°Ww. Hmtcm {Kma-Ønepw Hmtcm
tKm]\w sNbvXp hbv°-W-w.                                     {]h¿Øym-sc-bpw ]Øp {]hr-Øn-Iƒ Iq´n-
    5. sIm°v [ym\-Øn-ep-d-®n-cp∂v a’y-ßsf                   t®¿∂v Hcp A[n-Im-cn-sbbpw c≠p A[n-Im-cn-
]nSn-°p-hm≥ Xcw t\m°p-∂-Xp-t]mse hnØ                        Iƒ°v Hcp tae-[n-Im-cn-sbbpw A©p-ta-e-[n-
          - -
kºm-Z\Øn-\p≈ Btem-N\Iƒ sNbvXp-sIm-   - -                    Im-cn-Iƒ°v Hcp Xl-io¬Zm-scbpw ]Øp Xl-
≠n-cn-°-Ww. [\m-Zn-Iƒ kw`-cn-®v, _ew h¿≤n-                  io-en\v Hcp Pn√-tbbpw \n›-bn-®n-´p-≈Xv a\p-
∏n-®v, i{Xp-°sf Pbn-°p-∂-Xn¬ knwl-tØ-                       kvarXn apX-emb [¿a imkv{X-ß-fn¬ ]d-™n-
t∏mse ]cm-{Iaw {]Z¿in-∏n-°-Ww. ]pen-sb-                     ´p≈ cmPy `c- W - c oXn A\p- k - c n- ® m- s W-
t∏mse Hfn-®n-cp∂v FXn-cm-fn-Isf ]nSn-°-Ww.                  ∂¿∞w.
Xs∂-°mƒ i‡n-tb-dnb i{Xp-°ƒ hcp-tºmƒ                             13. C{]- I mcw \nb- a n- ® n- ´ v, Hmtcm
apb- e n- t \- t ∏mse HmSn- b - I - ∂ p- t ]m- I p- I bpw   {]h¿Øymcpw Xs‚ {Kma-Øn¬ Znh-kt¥mdpw
]n∂oSv Ahsc NXn®p ]nSn-°p-Ibpw thWw.                        kw`- h n- ° p∂ Imcy- ß ƒ AXmXpZnhkw
    6. C{]-Imcw hnP-bn-®p-hm-gp∂ k`m-]-Xn-                  Xs∂ KqV-ambn A[n-Imcnsb Adn-bn-°-W-
bpsS cmPy-Ønse ]cn-]-Ÿn-Isf (I-≈-∑m-                        sa∂pw A[n-Imcn Xs‚ Iogn-ep≈ ]Øp {Kma-
scbpw Ih¿®-°m-sc-bpw) (km-a) CW-°nbpw                       ß-fp-sSbpw h¿Ø-am\w Znh-tk\ tae-[n-Im-
(Zm- \ ) h√Xpw- s Im- S pØpw (t`- Z ) XΩn¬                  cnsb Adn-bn-°-W-sa∂pw hyhÿ sNø-Ww.
Ø√n®pw hi-Øm-°-Ww. (A-ßs\ hi-Øm-                                                              -
                                                                14. tae-[n-Imcn Xs‚ A[n-Im-cØn-ep≈ Ccp-
Im-Ø-h-cp-s≠¶n¬ Ahsc AXn-I-Tn-\-amb                         ]Xp {Kma-ß-fnse h¿Ø-am\w Xl-io¬Zmsc
in£-sIm≠v {ItaW hi-s∏SpØ-Ww)                                Znh-kw-tXmdpw Adn-bn-°-Ww. AXp-t]mse
    7. hnf-sh-Sp-°p-∂-h≥ ]Xncp If™v [m\yw                   Xl-io¬Zm¿ Xs‚ Iogn-ep≈ \qdp {Kma-ß-
am{Xw FSp-°p-∂-Xp-t]mse cmPmhv I≈-∑-m-                      fnse kw`-h-ß-sf√mw Pn√m -A[n-Im-cnsb Znh-
scbpw Ih¿®-°m-scbpw sIm∂v cmPysØ                            khpw Adn-bn-°-Ww, Pn√m-[n-Im-cn-Iƒ Zi-Pn-
c£n-t°-≠-Xm-Wv.                                                                                      - -
                                                            √m-[n-Im-cn-tbbpw Zi-Pn-√m-[n-Im-cn, Zi-kl{km-
    8. Adn- h n- √ m- b v a - s Im≠pw t\m´- ° p- d - h p-         -              - -        -
                                                            [n-]Xn-sb-bpw Zi-kl{km-[n-]Xn-Iƒ e£-{Km-
sIm≠pw Xs‚ cmPysØ Zp¿∫-e-am-°p∂                             am-[n-]-Xn-sb-bpw e£-{Km-am-[n-]Xn cmP-k-`-sb-

                                                        111
     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                                cmP-[¿aw
bpw h¿Ø-am-\-߃ {]Xn-Zn\w Adn-bn-t°-≠-             h¿ Agn-aXn XpS-ßp-I-bn-√. F∂m¬ \oXn-
                     -
Xm-Wv. Aß-s\-Xs∂, F√m cmP-k`Ifpw alm-   - -        \ymbw \S-Øp∂ B cmP-`r-Xy-∑-m-cpsS t£a-
    - -
cm-Pk`bv°v km¿h-`ua\mb N{I-h¿Øn-bpsS               Po-hn-X-Øn\pw [\-k-ºm-Z-\-Øn\pw Bh-iy-am-
k`-bn-te-°v-˛-`q-tKm-f-Øn-ep≈ kIe hrØm-            b{X [\tam `qkztØm cmPy-Øn¬ \n∂p
¥-ßfpw Adn-bn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°-Ww.                          - - -               - -
                                                   amk-iºftam hm¿jn-Im-i\amtbm As√-¶n¬
   15. ]Xn-\m-bncw {Kma-ß-f-S-ßnb Hmtcm hn`m-      H∂m- b n´p Xs∂tbm sImSp- t °- ≠ - X m- W v .
K-Øn\pw {]tXyIw Cu c≠p k`m-]-Xn-Isf                hm¿≤-Iy-Øn¬ Ah-cpsS thX-\Øn¬ ]IpXn-
\nb-an-°Ww. Ah-cn-sem-cmƒ cmP-k`bn-en-cp∂v
          -                               - -      hoXw sImSp- ° - W w. F∂m¬ Ah¿°p
Xs‚ A[n-Im-cØn-ep≈ kwÿm-\sØ kw_-
                   -                               \evIp∂ ASp-Øq¨ Pohn-®n-cn-°p-t∂-StØmf-
‘n® Imcy-߃ \S-Ø-Ww. at‰-bmƒ aSn-Iq-               a-√msX ac-W-tijw XpS-c-cp-Xv. F∂m¬, Ah-
SmsX \mSp-tXmdpw k©-cn-®p-sIm≠v \ymbm-                           -
                                                   cpsS k¥m-\߃°v tbmKy-Xm-\p-kcWw BZ-   -
[n-]Xn apX-emb cmP-`r-Xy-∑m-cpsS {]hr-Øn-          chpw DtZym-Khpw \¬Ip-∂Xv Bhiyw Xs∂-
Isf kZm ]cn-tim-[n-®p- sIm-≠n-cn-°-Ww.             bm-Wv. {]m]vXn-bm-ImØ Ip´n-I-fp-s≠-¶n¬
   16. Hmtcm henb ]´-W-Ønepw Imcymtem-             Ah¿°pw `mcy Pohn-®n-cn-∏p-s≠-¶n¬ Ah¿
N-\-k` IqSp-hm-\mbn at\m-l-chpw AXyp-∂-            °pw Ah- ÿ - b v s °m- Ø - h Æw \nXy- h rØn
X-hpw hnim-e-hpw N{µ-s\-t∏mse [h-f-h¿W-            \n¿h-ln-°p-∂-Xn-\p≈ [\w `WvUm-c-Øn¬
ap≈ Hmtcm aµncw \n¿an-t°-≠-Xm-Wv. hnZym-           \n∂p Xs∂ \¬I-Ww. F∂m¬ Ah¿ Zpcm-
hr-≤-∑m¿ B k`m-a-µn-c-ß-fn-en-cp∂p cmPy-Im-        Nm-cn-I-fm-sW-¶n¬ H∂pw sImSp-°-cp-Xv. Cu
cy-ßsf kw_-‘n-®p≈ Btem-N-\-Iƒ \S-                  \bsØ cmPmhv icn-bmbn c£n-t°-≠-Xm-Wv.
Øn-s°m-≠n-cn-°-Ww.                                                   Icw ]ncn-hv
   17. KqV-k-©mcw sNøp∂ Nmc-∑m-sc-√m-                 1. bYm ^te\ bqtPyX cmPm IcvØm N
hcpw tZiw-tXmdpw k©-cn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p∂            Icva-Wm-av. XYmfth£y \rt]m cmjv{Sw
k`m- ≤ y- £ s‚ Iogn- e m- b n- c n- ° - W w. Ah¿   Iev]tb-’-XXw Icm\v..
£{Xn-btcm A√m-Ø-htcm BImw. {]P-I-fp-                  2. bYmev]m f ev]a-Z¥ym ff Zyw hmtcym-
sSbpw cmPy-`r-Xy-∑m-cp-sSbpw kI-e-Kp-W-tZm-        tIm-h’jSv]Zmx. XYm- f ev]m f evt]m {Klo-
j- ß - t fbpw Nm- c - ∑ m- c n¬ \n∂v KqV- a mbn    X-thym cmjv{Sm-{Zm⁄m_vZnIx Icx..
Adn™v A]-cm-[n-Isf in£n-°p-Ibpw KpW-                  3. t\m—n-Zym-Zm-flt\m aqew ]tcjmw NmXn-
hm-∑msc _lp-am-\n-°p-Ibpw sNtø-≠-Xm-Ip-                     -
                                                   Xr-jvWbm. D—n-µ≥lym-flt\m aqe-am-flm\w
∂p.                                                Xmw› ]oU-tbXv..
   18. [m¿an-I-cpw hnZzm-∑m-cpw Ipeo-\-cpw kp]-       4. Xo£vW-ss›h arZp› kymXvImcyw
co-£n-Xcpw Bb-h¿°p am{Xta {]Pm kwc-                ho£y alo- ] Xnx. Xo£v W ss›h arZp-
£-Wm[n-Imcw cmPmhv \¬Im-hq. Ah-cpsS                ss›h cmPm `hXn kwaXx.
Iogn-ep-≈-h¿ km[m-c-W-bmbn iT-∑mcpw ]c-               5. Ghw kcvhw hn[m-tbZ-anXnIcvØhy
              -        - -
{Zhyw A]-lcn-°p-∂hcp-am-bn-cn-°pw. cmP-`r-Xy-      amfl\x. bp‡-ss›-hm-{]-a-Ø› ]cn-c-t£-
∑m-cmbn Ah-scbpw \nb-an®v Zpjv-{]-hr-Øn-I-         Znamx {]Pmx..
fn¬ \n∂p ]n≥am‰m≥ {ian-°-Ww. Ah-cpsS
tae-[n-Im-cn-I-fmbn hnZzm-∑msc \nb-an®v Ah-           6. hnt{Im-it¥ym bky cmjv{SmZv{[nbt¥
cpsS D]-{Z-h-ß-fn¬ \n∂v {]P-Isf c£n-°-             Zkyp`nx {]Pmx. kw]-iyXx k`rXyky arXx
Ww.                                                k \ Xp PohXn..
   19. hmZn-bp-sS-bpw {]Xn-bp-sSbpw ssIøn¬            7. £{Xn-bky ]tcm [cvax {]Pm-\m-tah
\n∂v ssI°qen hmßn, \oXn-\ymbw \S-Øp-               ]me-\-av. \ncvZn-jvS-^-e-t`m‡m ln cmPm
∂-Xn¬ ]£-]mXw ImWn-°p∂ cmP-`r-Xys‚                 [cvtaW bqPytX..
kzØp apgp-h\pw I≠p-sI´n X°-in-£bpw                    (a-\pkvarXn. 7.128,129,139,140,142-˛144)
                - - -
\¬In \mSp-ISØWw. Aßs\ in£ \¬Im-                       1. cmPm-hv, cmP-`r-Xy-∑m¿, {]P-Iƒ, sXmgn-
Xn-cp-∂m¬ Abmsf A\p-I-cn®v a‰p-≈-hcpw              em-fn-Iƒ F∂n-h¿s°√mw kpJ-ap-≠m-I-Ø-°-
Agn-aXn XpS-ßpw. in£n-°p∂ ]£w a‰p-≈-               hÆw cmPmhpw cmP-k-`bpw IqSn Btem-Nn®p

                                               112
               Bdmw kap-√mkw                                              kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
\m´n¬ \nIpXn \n›-bn-t°-≠-Xm-Wv.                      KvP\mx k Ir’v\mw ]rYn-how-tX tImi-lo-
    2. ]ip-°p-´n, h≠v F∂nh `£WsØ                     t\m]n ]m¿Ynhx (a\p. 7˛145-˛148)
Aev ] m- e v ] - a mbn Dƒs°m- ≈ p- ∂ - X p- t ]mse      cmPmhp cm{Xn-bpsS A¥y-bm-am-cw-`-Øn¬
cmPmhv \m´p-Im-cn¬ \n∂v B≠p-tXmdpw AXy-              DW¿s∂-gp-t∂-‰v, ico-c-ip≤n hcp-Øn, Cuiz-
ev]-amb \nIpXn am{Xta ]ncn-s®-Sp-°m-hq.              c-[ym-\-hpw, A·n-tlm-{Xhpw sNbvXv [m¿an-I-
    3. AXym-{Klw \nanØw Ah-\-h-s‚bpw                 ∑m-cmb hnZzm-∑msc kevI-cn-®-Xns‚ tijw
A\y-cp-sSbpw kpJ-Øns‚ aqe-Im-c-WsØ                   `£Ww Ign®v Ac-a-\-bn-ep≈ cmP-k-`-bn¬
Hcn-°epw thtcmSp IqSn apdn®p If™v \in-               {]th-in-°-Ww.
       -                         -  -
∏n-°cp-Xv. Fs¥-∂m¬ ]pcp-j{]-bXv\tØbpw     -             2. AhnsS h∂v \n¬°p∂ P\-ßsf _lp-
kpJ-tØbpw D∑-q-e\w sNøp-∂-h≥ Ah-\-h-                 am-\n®v XncnsI Ab-®-Xn\p tijw {][m-\-a-
s\-Ø-s∂bpw A\y-∑m-tcbpw ZpxJn-∏n-°p-I-               {¥n-tbm-Sp-IqSn cmPy-Im-cy-hn-Nmcw sNø-Ww.
bmWv sNøp-∂-Xv.                                         3. ]n∂oSv a{¥n-tbmSp IqSn \S-°m≥ t]mI-
    4. cmPmhv kabw t\m°n Xo£vW kz`m-                 Ww. ae-ap-I-fn-tem, GIm-¥-Kr-l-Øntem ap≈n-
hntbm arZp kz`m-hntbm BI-Ww. ZpjvS-tcmSv             √mØ CS-Xq¿∂ ImSp-I-fn-tem, GIm-¥-ÿ-
{Iqc-ambpw \√-h-tcmSp kuay-ambpw s]cp-am-                                      - -
                                                     etØm sN∂n-cp∂v \njv]£\mbn IqSn-bm-tem-
dp∂ cmPmhv _lp-am-\y-\m-Ip-∂p.                       Nn-°-Ww.
    5. cmPmhv C{]-Imcw \m´p-Im-cy-߃ \S-Øp-             4. a‰p-≈-h¿ F{X {ian-®mepw KqV-Im-cy-
hm-\p-≈ G¿∏m-Sp-I-sf√mw sNbvXv, kZm {]am-            ߃ Adn-bm≥ km[n-°m-Ø, K≠o-cy-hpw, ]cn-
Z-c-ln-X-\mbn k{i≤w {]P-Isf ]cn-]m-en-t°-            ip-≤-hpw, ]tcm-]-Im-cm¿Y-hp-amb Kp]vX-hn-Nm-
≠-Xm-Wv.                                             c-ß-fp≈ cmPmhv [\-lo-\-\m-sW-¶nepw `qa-
    6. cmPmhpw cmP-`r-Xy-∑mcpw t\m°n-bn-cns°         WvUew AS-°n-hm-gp-hm≥ ka¿Y-\m-bn-cn-°pw.
B¿Ø-cmb P\-ßfpsS {]mW[-\m-Zn-Iƒ A]-
                       -                             AXn-\m¬ cmPmhv k`mw-K-ß-f-\p-h-Zn-°p-∂-
l-cn®v sIm≠p-t]m-Ip∂ ]£w B cmPmhv                    Xn\p apºpv bmsXm∂pw btYjvSw sNø-cp-Xv.
a{¥n-am-tcmSp IqSn \in-®p-t]m-b-Xmbn´mWv a\-
 n-em-t°-≠-Xv, Pohn-®n-cn-°p-∂p-s≠-∂-√. B                       k-‘n-˛-bp≤w apX-em-b-h
                           - - -
alm-cm-Pmhv alm-Zpx-Ja\p-`hn-°m-sX-bn-cn-°n-√.          1. Bk\w ssNh bm\w N k‘nw hn{Kl-
    7. cmPm-°-∑m-cpsS ]c-a-amb [¿aw {]Pm-]-          ta-hN Imcyw ho£y {]bp-⁄oX ssZz[w
cn-]m-e\w Xs∂-bm-Wv. a\p-kvar-Xn-bn¬ Ggm-            kw{i-b-ta-hN.
         -
a-[ym-bØn¬ ]d-™n-´p≈ \nIp-Xn-]n-cnhp \nb-               2. k‘nw Xp Zznhn[w hnZym-{ZmPm hn{K-l-
a-tØbpw k`m-ÿm-]\ \nb-a-tØbpw A\p-                   ta- h N Dt` bm\m- k t\ ssNh Zznhn[x
k-cn®v {]h¿Øn-°p∂ cmPmhp [¿a-tØmSp                   kw{ibx kvarXx.
IqSn-b-h\pw kpJ-a-\p-`-hn-°p-∂-h\pw BIpw.
AXn\p hn]-co-X-ambn {]h¿Øn®m¬ ZpxJn-°p-                 3. kam-\-bm-\-I¿am N hn]-co-X-kvX-ssY-
Ibpw sNøpw.                                          hN      XYm        XzmbXn      kwbp‡x
                                                     k‘n¿t⁄tbm Zzne-£Wx
                       Zn-\-N-cy
                                                        4. kzbw IrX› ImcycvY-a-Imte Ime
    1. D∞mb ]›nta bmta IrX-iuNx kam-                 Gh hm an{Xky ssNhm-]-IrtX Zznhnt[m
lnXx lpXm-·n¿{_m-“-Wmw-›m¿®y {]hn-                   hn{Klx kvarXx.
ti’ ip`mw k`mav
                                                        5. GIm-In-\-›m-Xy-bntI Imtcy {]m]vtX
    2. X{X ÿnXmx {]Pmx k¿∆mx {]Xn-\µy                bZr-—bm kwl-Xky N ant{XW Zznhn[w
hnk¿P tbXv hnkrPy N {]Pmx k¿hm a{¥-                  bm\-ap-Ny-tX.
tb-’l a{¥n`nx
                                                        6. £oWky ssNh {Iatim ssZhmXv
    3. Kncn-]rjvTw kamcply {]kmZw hm                 ]q¿h- I r- t X\hm. an{Xky Nm\p- t cm- t [\
ctlm-KXx ActWy \nxi-emtI hm a{¥-tb-                  Zznhn[w kvarXamk-\av.
Z-hn-`m-hnXx
                                                        7. _eky kzman- \ - s s›h ÿnXnx
    4. bky a{¥w \ Pm\¥n kam-Kay ]rY-                 Imcym¿∞ kn≤tb. Zznhn[w Io¿XytX
                                                 113
    kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                              cmP-[¿aw
ssZz[w jmUvKpWyKpW-th-Zn`nx                    4. hn{Klw :˛ kz¥w Imcy-kn-≤n°v HuNn-
   8. A¿Y-k-ºm-Z-\m¿Yw N ]oUy-am\x k        Xyhpw A\u-Nn-Xyhpw t\m°msX sNøp∂
i{Xp`nx. km[pjp hy]-tZ-imcvYw Zznhn[x       bp≤w, an{X-Øn-t\mSv A]-cm[w sNøp∂ i{Xp-
kw{i-bx-karXx. bZm-hKt—-Zm-bXym-am-[nIyw
              -       - -      -            hn-t\m-Sp≈ t]mcm´w F∂n-ßs\ c≠p hn[-
{[ph-am-fl\x XZmtXz Nmev]nImw ]oUmw          Øn-emWv hn{K-lw.
XZm-k‘nw kam-{i-tbXv.                          5. bm\w:˛ Fs¥-¶nepw Imcyw km[n-°p-
   10. bZm {]lr„m at\yX kcvhmkvXp           ∂-Xn\v GIm-In-bmbn s]s´∂p i{Xp-hns‚
{]Ir-Xo¿`r-iav AXyp-{—nXw XYm-flm-\w-XZm     t\sc t]mcn\p ]pd-s∏-SpI; _‘p-°-tfmSp
IpcvhoX hn{K-lav.                           IqSn i{Xp-hns\ B{I-an-°m≥ Hcp-ßn-∏p-d-s∏-
   11. bZm at\yX `mth\ lrjvSw ]rjvSw        SpI F∂n-ßs\ bm\w c≠p-hn-[-Øn-ep-≠v.
_ew kzIav. ]cky hn]-coXw N XZm bmbm-           6. Bk\w:˛ GsX-¶nepw Imc-W-h-im¬
{Zn]pw {]Xn.                                {ItaW Zp¿_-e-\m-hp-I, an{X-߃ XS-™p-
   12. bZm Xp kymXv]-cn-£otWm hml-t\\       \n¿Øp-I-bm¬ kzÿm-\Øp Xs∂ \nev°pI
_te\ N XZm-koX {]b-Xvt\\ i\ssIx             F∂n-h-bmWv Zznhn-[m-k-\-߃.
kmwXz-b-∂-co≥.                                 7. ssZz[o-`mhw:˛ Imcyw t\Sp-hm≥ tk\m-
   13. at\y-Xmcnw bZm cmPm kcvh-Ym-_-e-h-   ]-Xn-I-tfbpw ssk\y-tØbpw c≠mbn hn`-
Øcw XZm Zzn[m _ew IrXzm km[-tb-XvIm-        Pn®p hnPbw t\Sp-∂t{X c≠p-Xcw ssZz[w.
cy-am-fl\x.                                     8. kw{ibw:˛ Imcy-kn-≤n°v _e-hm-\mb
   14. bZm ]c-_-em\mw Xp Ka-\o-b-Xtam       cmPm-hns\ B{i-bn-°p-I. AYhm alm-flm-
`thXv XZm Xp kw{i-tbXv £n{]w [mcvanIw       hns\ icWw {]m]n-°pI F∂nh sNbvXv
_en\w \r]av.                                i{Xp-]o-U-bn¬ \ns∂m-gn-bp-∂-Xns\ c≠p-hn-[-
                                            Øn-ep≈ kw{i-bw-˛-B-{ibw ˛F∂p ]d-bp-∂p.
   15. \n{Klw {]Ir-Xo-\mwN IpcymtZmfcn_-
eky N D]- t k- h X Xw \nXyw k¿h- b -           9. X¬°mew bp≤w sNbv X m¬ Ipd®p
Xvss\cvKpcpw bYm.                           \jvSw kw`-hn-°p-sa∂pw bp≤w \o´n-h-®m¬
                                                     -
                                            \n›-bambpw hnP-bhpw A`n-hr-≤nbpw D≠mIp-
   16. bZn X{Xm]n kw]-tiy-t±mjw kw{i-b-     sa∂pw ImWp- t ºmƒ i{Xphnt\mSv k‘n-
Im-cn-Xav. kpbp-≤-tah X{Xm]n \ncvhn-iwIx.   sNbvXv DNn-X-amb Ah-kcw ]m¿Øv ss[cy-
kam-N-tc-Xv.                                am-bn-cn-°-Ww.
            -                        -
   1. (B-k\w) ÿncX (bm-\w) i{Xp-°tfmSp         10. Xs‚ cmPy-Øn-ep≈ kIe P\-ßfpw
bp≤w sNbvhm≥ t]mhpI (k-‘nx) Ah-tcmSv        ssk\yhpw k¥p-jvScpw ]ptcm-Kat\m∑p-Jcpw     -
k‘n sNøpI (hn-{K-lx) ZpjvS-i-{Xp-°-tfmSp    t{ijvT-cp-am-sW∂pw Xm\pw A{]-Im-c-ap-≈-h-
bp≤w sNøpI (ssZz-[w) ssk\ysØ c≠mbn          \m-sW∂p tXm∂p-Ibpw sNøp-tºmƒ am{Xta
hn`-Pn®v hnPbw t\SpI (kw-{i-bw) _e-lm\n     i{Xp-hn-t\mSv bp≤-Øn\p ]pd-s∏-Sm-hq.
hcp-tºmƒ {]_-e-\mb thsdmcp cmPm-hns\
B{i-bn-°pI F∂n-ßs\ Bdp hn[-Øn-ep≈              11. Xs‚ ssk\yw k¥p-jvSnbpw ]pjvSnbpw
I¿Ω-ß-tfbpw bYm-tbmKyw Imcy-hn-Nmcw         {]k- ∂ - X - b p- ≈ - X m- b n- c n- ° bpw adn®v i{Xp-
sNbvXv bp‡-am-bXp kzoI-cn-°-Ww.                                   -
                                            ssk\yw Zp¿_-eam-sW∂p ImWp-Ibpw sNøp-
                                            tºmƒ i{Xp-hn-t\mSv bp≤-Øn\p ]pd-s∏-S-Ww.
   2. k‘n, hn{K- l w, bm\w, Bk- \ w,
ssZz[o-`mhw kw{ibw F∂nh Cuc≠p Xc-              12. Xs‚ ssk\yhpw hml-\-ßfpw £oW-
Øn-ep-≠v. Ah-tb-sX∂v cmPmhp \∂mbn Adn-      Z-isb {]m]n-°p-tºmƒ i{Xp-°sf aµw aµw
b-Ww.                                       km¥z-\w-sNbvXv bp≤w \n¿Øn ]n≥hm-ßWw.              -
   3. k‘n:˛ i{Xp-°-tfmSp IqSn kvt\l-am-        13. i{Xp A[nIw _e-hm-\m-sW∂v Adn-bp-
bn-cn-°p-I, AYhm XZzn-]-co-X-ambn {]h¿Øn-   tºmƒ cmPmhp Xs‚ ssk\ysØ c≠mbn hn`-
°p-I, h¿Ø-am-\-Im-e-Ønepw `mhn-Im-eØpw      Pn®v Xs‚ Imcyw km[n-°Ww.
sNtø-≠Xp \n¿hnLv\w sNbvXp-sIm-≠n-cn-°-         14. _e-hm-\mb i{Xp Xmakw IqSmsX
Ww. CXmWv c≠p-Xcw k‘n-Iƒ.                   B{I-an-°p-sa∂v Adnhp In´n-bm-ep-Ss\ [m¿an-

                                        114
               Bdmw kap-√mkw                                                  kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
I\pw _e-hm-\p-amb as‰mcp cmPm-hns\ AXn-                               bp-≤-Øn-s\m-cp-°w
thKw B{i-bn-°-Ww.                                          1. IrXzm-hn-[m\w aqte Xp bm{XnIw N
   15. Xm≥ B{i-bn® cmPmhv ssk\y-_ew                     bYm-hn[n. D]-Kr-lym-kv]Zw ssNh Nmcm≥
sIm≠p i{Xp-ssk-\ysØ Xpc-Øp-hm≥ i‡-                      kay-Kzn-[mb N.
\m-sW-¶n¬ At±-lsØ Kpcp-Xp-ey-\mbn KWn-                     2. kwtim[y {Xnhn[w amcvKw jSvhn[w N
®v, \nXyhpw Ign-bpw-hÆw tkhn-°-Ww.                      _ew kzI-av. kmw]-cm-bn-I-I-evt]\ bmbm-Z-
   16. B{i- b n- ® - b m- f ns‚ {]hr- Ø n- I - f n¬     cn-]pcw iss\x.
tZmjw I≠m¬ Abm-tfmSpw \n¿hn-i¶w bp≤w                       3. i{Xp-tk-hn\n ant{XN KqtV bpIX
sNøp-I-Xs∂ thWw Hcn-°epw [m¿an-I-\mb                    Xtcm-`-thXv KX-{]-Xym-KtX ssNh kln-I-
cmPm-hns\ FXn¿°-cp-Xv. Ft∏mgpw aa-X-bn-em-              jvS-X-tcm-cn]px.
bn-cn-°-Ww.                                                          (hn-hn[ hyql-߃)
   1. kcvthm-]m-ssb-kvXYm Ipcym-∂o-Xn⁄x                    4. ZWvU-hyq-tl\ X≥amcv§w bmbmØp
]rYn- h o- ] Xnx bYm- k ym- ` y- [ nIm \kyp¿            iI-tS\ hm. hcm-l-a-I-cm`ymw hm kqNym
ant{Xm-Zm-ko-\-i-{Xhx.                                  hm Kcp-tU\ hm.
   2. BbXnw kcv∆-Im-cymWmw XZmXzw \                        5.bX› `b-am-iw-tI-ØtXm hnkvXmc
hnNm-c-tb-Xv. AXo-Xm\mw N kcvthjmw                      tbXv _e-av. ]tfl\ ssNh hyqtl\ \nhn-
KpW-tZmju N XØzXx.                                      i-tb-XkZm kzb-av.
   3. BbXymw KpW-tZm-j⁄ kvXZmtXz                           6. tk\m-]Xn _em-≤yIvtj, kcvh Zn£p
£n{]-\n-›bx AXotX Imcy tij⁄x                            \nth-i-tb-Xv, bX› `b-am-i-t¶Xv {]mNow
i{Xp-`ncv∂m-`n-`q-b-tX.                                 Xmw Iev]-tb-±o-i-av.
   4. bssY\w \m`n-kw-Z-[ypcvan-t{Xm-Zm-ko\                 7. Kpevamw› ÿm]-tb-Zm-]vXm≥ IrX
i{Xhx XYm kcv∆w kwhn-Z-[ym-tZj kmam-                    kw⁄m≥ ka-¥Xx ÿmt\ bpt≤ N Ipi-
kntIm \bx                                               em-\-`ocq-\hn-Im-cn-Wx.
   1. \oXn-⁄-\mb cmPm-hv, i{Xp-°ƒ, a≤y-                    8. kwl- Xm≥ tbm[- t b- Z - e v ] m≥ Imaw
ÿ-∑m¿, an{X-߃ F∂n-h¿ Xt∂-°m-f-[nIw                     hnkv X mc tbZv _lq≥ kqNym ht{PW
_e-hm-\m-Im-Xn-cn-∏m\p≈ D]m-b-ß-sf√mw                   ssNssh Xm≥ hyqtl\ hqly tbm[-tbXv
sNbvXp-sIm-≈-Ww.
                                                           9. kyµ-\mssizx kta bpt≤y Z\qt]
   2. ]≠v sNbvX-Xpw, Ct∏mƒ sNøp-∂-Xpw,                  s\uZzn- s s]- k v X Ym hr£- K p- e v a m- h rtX
C\n sNtø≠Xp-amb F√m Imcy-ß-fp-sSbpw                     Nmss]-c-kn-Ncvam-bpss[x ÿte.
KpW-tZm-j-ß-sf-∏‰n bYm¿Y-ambn Nn¥n-°-
Ww.                                                        10. {]l¿j- t b- Z v _ ew hyql Xmw›
                                                        kayIv ]co-£-tbZv. tNjvSm-ss›h hnPm-
   3. ]n∂oSv tZmj-]-cn-lm-c-Øn\pw KpW-߃                \o-bm-Z-co≥ tbm[-b-Xm-a]n.
ÿmbn-bm-°m\pw bXv\ n-°-W w. `mhn- bn¬
sNøm≥ t]mIp∂ Imcy-ß-fpsS KpW-tZm-j-                        11. D]-cp[ym-cn-am-koX cmjv{Sw Nmtkym]
߃ {i≤n-°p-∂-h\pw Ct∏mƒ sNtø-≠Xv DS-                    ]oU-tbXv Zqjtb®mky kXXw bh-km-
\Sn sNøp- ∂ - h \pw sNbv X p- I - g n- ™ - X ns‚        t∂m-Z-tI-‘-\av.
_m°n F¥p-sN-ø-W-sa-∂-dn-bp-∂-h-\p-amb                      12. `n≥Zym-ss®h XUm-Km\n {]mIm-c-]cn
cmPmhv Hcn-°epw tXm¬°p-I-bn-√.                          JmkvXYm. ka-h-kvI-µ-tb-ss®\w cm{Xu
   4. an{Xw, \njv]-£≥, i{Xp F∂n-h-cmcpw                 hn{Xm-k-tb-ØYm.
cmPm-hn-t\tbm {]P-I-tf-tbm his∏-Sp-Øm-sX-                       (]-cm-Pn-X-t\m-Sp≈ s]cp-am-‰w)
bn-cn-°m≥ cmP-`r-Xy-∑mcpw hninjy k`m-]-Xn-                 13. {]am-Wm\n N Ip¿hoX tXjmw [cvam
bmb cmPmhpw k¿h-{]-Im-tc-Wbpw {]h¿Øn-                   \ytYm-Zn-Xm≥. cXvss\› ]qP-tb-tZ\w {][m-
t°- ≠ - X m- W v . CXp- X - s ∂- b t{X cmPy- X - { ¥-   \-]p-cpssjx kl.
Øns‚ Npcp-°w.                                                         - -    -
                                                           14. BZm-\a{]n-bIcw Zm\© {]nb-Im-cIav      -


                                                    115
     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                                cmP-[¿aw
A`o-]vknXm-\m-acvYm\mw Imte bp‡w {]i-                  5. B{I-aW `ojWn \ne-\n-ev°p-∂n-SØv
kytX.                                              ssk\ysØ \n¿Ø-Ww. cmPmhv ]S-\m-b-I-
   (a-\p. 7. 184-˛192;194˛196; 203;204)            ∑msc \mep ]pdØpw \n¿Øn ]fl-hyqlw
   1. bp≤-Øn\p ]pd-s∏-Sp-tºmƒ cmPy-c-£-            \n¿an-®v˛ Xma-c-∏q-hns‚ B-Ir-Xn-bn¬ ssk\y-
bv°p-th-≠-sX√mw sNbvXv ssk\yw, bm\-                sØ- ® p‰pw \n¿Øn ˛ AXns‚ a≤y- Ø n¬
߃, hml-\-߃, ikv{X-߃, Akv{X-߃                   \nev°-Ww.
apX-emb kma-{Kn-Isf√mw kw`-cn®v \mep-]mSpw
                       -                               6. ssk\ym-[n-]-∑m-scbpw hoc-∑m-cmb `S-
Nmc-∑msc KqV-ambn Ab-®-Xn\p tijw ]pd-              ∑m-scbpw F´p Zn°p-I-fnepw \n¿Ø-Ww. GXp
s∏-S-Ww.                                           `mKØp bp≤w D≠m-Iptam B `mK-tØ°v A`n-
   2. aq∂p-am¿§-߃˛ AXm-bXv ÿew-˛-I-c,             ap-J-ambn ssk\ysØ Xncn®p \n¿Ø-Ww.
Pew˛ kap{Zw \Zn apX-em-b-h, BImiw F∂n-             a‰p≈ `mK-ß-fnepw c£m-k-∂m-l-߃ D≠m-
h-bnse am¿K-߃ sXfn-bn®v Ic-bn¬ tX¿,               bn-cn-°-Ww. Fs¥-∂m¬ GXp `mKØp \n∂pw
IpXn- c , B\ F∂n- h - b nepw sh≈- Ø n¬             i{Xp-hns‚ B{I-aWw D≠m-Imw.
tXmWn I∏¬ XpS-ßn-bhbnepw BIm-iØn¬
                               - -          -          7. bp≤-hn-Zy-bn¬ kpin-£n-Xcpw [m¿an-I-
hnam-\-Ønepw Ib-dn-t∏m-I-Ww. B\ IpXn-c,            cpw, B{I- a - W Ønepw {]Xn- t cm- [ - Ø nepw
tX¿ Imemƒ F∂o NXp-cw-K-∏S Akv{X-i-                 ka¿Ycpw \n¿`-bcpw AN-©-e-a-\-kv°-cpw,
kv{Xm-Zn-Iƒ, `£-W-t]-b-߃ F∂n-h-tbmSp              kvXw`w t]mse Ipep-°-a-‰-h-cp-amb ssk\n-
IqSn Fs¥-¶nepw ImcWw ]d-™p-sIm-≠v                  Isc ssk\y-Øns‚ \mep `mKØpw \n¿Ø-
i{Xp-\KcØns‚ kao-]tØ°v aµw aµw \oß-
       - - -                                       Ww.
Ww.                                                    8. FÆ-Øn¬ Ipd-hm-b-h¿ FÆ-Øn¬ IqSn-
   3. Hfn-hmbn i{Xp-]-£-Øn¬ tN¿∂-h\pw              b-h-tcmSv bp≤w sNtø≠n hcptºmƒ kwLw
]pdta ssa{Xn-]p-e¿Øp-∂-h\pw Xs‚ \o°-               tN¿∂v bp≤w sNtø-≠-Xm-Wv. Xcw In´p-sa-
ßsf KqV-ambn i{Xp-hns\ Adn-bn-t®-°m-               ¶n¬ B Ipd®p ]S- b m- f n- I sf thK- Ø n¬
sa∂p kwi-bn-°m-hp-∂Xp-amb Bfns‚ k©m-
                             -                     AI‰n A[nIw ÿeØp \n¿Ø-Ww. ]´-W-
c-Ønepw Ah-t\mSp kw`m-jWw sNøp-∂-                  Øntem tIm´-bntem i{Xp-ssk-\y-Øntem IS-
Xnepw {i≤n-°-Ww. AIta i{Xphpw ]pdta                ∂p-sN∂p bp≤w sNtø-≠n-h-cp-tºmƒ kqNn-
an{Xhpw Bb-h-\t{X alm-i-{Xp.                       hyqlw sImt≠m h{P-hyqlw sImt≠m Ccp-
   4. cmPmhv kIe cmP-`r-Xy-∑m-scbpw bp≤-           ]p-dhpw aq¿®-bpff ISp-Øn-e-sIm≠v CSØpw
hnZy A`y-kn-∏n-°-Ww. Xm\pw A`y-kn-°-Ww,            heØpw sh´n-°-bdn bp≤w sNø-Ww. {]th-
{]P-I-tfbpw ]Tn-∏n-°-Ww. ]q¿h-in-£n-X-cmb          in- ® p- I - g n™pw ]e- X cw hyql- ß ƒ Na®v
`S-∑m¿°p am{Xta \√-hÆw bp≤w sNøm\pw                bp≤w sNø-Ww. FXn¿`m-K-Øp-\n∂pw ]oc-¶n-
sNøn-°m\pw Ign-bq. A`y-kn-∏n--°p-tºmƒ (Z-          sImt≠m tXm°p-sImt≠m B{I-an-°p-∂p-s≠-
WvU-hyq-l) ZWvUm-Ir-Xn-bn¬ hyqlw Na-                                           --
                                                   ¶n¬ k¿]-hyqlw sIm≠v˛k¿]w t]mse \ne-
bv°pI (i-I-S) iI-Sm-Ir-Xn-bn¬ tk\ hn\y-            Øn-g™p \oßn-s°m-≠v˛ FXn¿Øp Ib-dWw.       -
kn-°pI (h-cm-l-hyq-l) ]∂n-Iƒ H∂ns‚                 ]oc-¶n-bpsS ASp-Øp-sN-∂m¬ Ahn-sS-bp-≈-
]n∂mse as‰m- ∂ mbn HmSp- I bpw CS- b v ° n-        hsc sIm√p-I-tbm, _‘n-°p-Itbm sNbvXv
bbv°v H∂n-®p-tN¿∂v Iq´-ambn \n¬°p-Ibpw             ]oc¶n i{Xp-°-fpsS t\sc Xncn-®v, i{Xp-ssk-
sNøp-∂-Xp-t]mse ssk\ysØ \S-Øp-Ibpw                 \ysØ sIms∂m-Sp-°-Ww. As√-¶n¬ hr≤-P-
\n¿Øp-Ibpw sNøp-I. (a-I-c-hyq-l) apXe              \-ßsf IpXn-c-∏p-dØp Ib‰n ]oc-¶n-bpsS
sh≈- Ø n¬ \o¥n- t ∏m- I p- ∂ - X p- t ]mse         t\sc HmSn®p sIm√n-°-Ww. 9 CS-bv°v iqc-
ssk\ysØ \S-Øp-I. (kq-Nn-hyq-l) kqNn-               ∑m-cmb Aizm-cq-V-∑msc \n¿Ø-Ww. Aßs\
bpsS ap\ hÆw Ipd™pw Ipg \q¬ Ib-cp-                 HmSn®v i{Xp ssk\ysØ Nn∂n-®n-X-dn-∏n®v
hm≥ X°-hÆw IqSnbpw Ccn-°p-∂-Xp-t]mse               Ahsc _‘n-°p-Itbm HmSn-®p-I-f-bp-Itbm
hn\y-kn-°p-I. F∂n-ßs\ hyql-ß-sf√mw
A`y- k n- ∏ n- ® v , Kcp- U - s \- t ∏mse Db¿∂pw   9 tZi-c-£bv°v AXym-h-iy-ambn hcp-tºmƒ Nmth¿∏-
                                                     S-sb-t∏mse c‡-km-£nXzw hcn-°m≥ Xbm-dp-≈-h¿
XmWpw kwl-cn-°m≥ ]Tn-∏n-°-Ww.                        Cßs\ sNøp-∂p.

                                               116
                Bdmw kap-√mkw                                                    kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
sNø-Ww.                                                               -
                                                           cXv\m-Zn-Ifmb hne-tb-dnb hkvXp-°ƒsIm≠p
    9. ka-`q-an-bn¬ tX¿ IpXnc Imemƒ∏S F∂n-                              -           -     - -
                                                           k¬°-cn-°Ww. Poh-k‘m-cWØn\p ap´p-≠m-
h-sIm≠pw kap-{Z-Øn-em-sW-¶n¬ I∏-en¬ Ib-                    Ipw-hÆw H∂pw sNø-cp-Xv. Imcm-Kr-l-Øn¬
dnbpw Bgw Ipd™nSØv B\-∏p-d-Øp-I-b-dn-                      _‘n-®mepw Ahsc bYm-tbmKyw _lp-am-
bpw, ac-ßfpw s]m¥-I-fp-ap≈ ÿeØv Aºp-                       \n- ° bpw tXm¬hn- b n¬ ZpxJn- ° m- Ø - h Æw
sIm-≠pw, ]qgn-∏-c-∏n¬ hmƒ ]cnN F∂n-h-                      k¥p-jvS-Nn-Ø-cm-°p-Ibpw thWw.
sIm≠pw bp≤w sNøp-Ibpw sNøn-°p-Ibpw                             14. temI-Øn¬ A\ys‚ hkvXp-°ƒ A]-
thWw.                                                      l-cn-°p-∂Xv Ah-cpsS A{]o-Xn°pw sImSp-°p-
    10. bp≤w \S- ° p- t ºmƒ tbm≤m°sf                       ∂Xv {]oXn°pw Imc-W-am-Ip-∂p. ka-tbm-Nn-X-
t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°p-Ibpw kt¥m-jn-∏n-°p-Ibpw                    ambn s]cpam-dp-∂-Xpw, Iog-S-ßn-b-h\v CjvS-h-
sNø-Ww. bp≤w \n¿Øn-sh-®n-´p≈ Ah-k-c-                       kvXp-°ƒ \evIp-Ibpw sNøp-∂Xv AXyp-Zm-c-
ß-fn¬ iucyhpw D’m-lhpw D≠m-I-Ø-°-h-                        amb {]hr-Øn-bm-Wv. Ahs\ tIm]n-∏n-°p-
Æ-ap≈ {]kw-K-ß-sf-s°m-≠v kI-e-ssk-\n-                      Itbm apjn-∏n-°p-Itbm ]cn-l-kn-°p-Itbm
I-scbpw BÀm-Zn-∏n-°-Ww. A∂-]m-\yZym-lm-                    sNø-cp-Xv. "'Rm≥ \ns∂ tXmev]n-®p-I-f-™p.''
c-߃ Akv{X-i-kv{Xm-Zym-bp-[-߃ Huj-[-                      F∂n-ßs\ Ahs‚ apºn¬ h®p ]d-b-cp-Xv.
߃ apX- e m- b - h - s Im- S pØv Ah- s c- s b√mw           ""\n߃ Fs‚ ktlm-Z-c-\mWv'' F∂pw a‰pw
kt¥m-jn-∏n-°-Ww. hyqlw \n¿Ωn-°msX Hcn-                     ]d™v F√m-bvt]mgpw _lp-am-\n-°-Ww.
°epw bp≤w sNøp-Itbm sNøn-°ptbm Acp-                                       an{Xhpw i{Xphpw
Xv. bp≤w \S-°p-tºmƒ `S-∑m-cpsS \o°-߃                          1. lnc-Wy-`q-an-kw-{]m]vXym ]m¿Ynthm \
{i≤n-°p-Ibpw \∂mbn ]b-‰p-∂pt≠m F∂pw                        XssY-[tX. bYm an{Xw {[phw e_v[zm Iri-
XSn-X-∏m≥ {ian-°p-∂pt≠m F∂pw \nco-£n-                      a-]ym-Xn-£-a-av.
°-Ww.                                                          2. [¿a⁄wN IrX⁄w N XpjvS{]-IrXn       -
                -
    11. DNn-Xam-sW∂p tXm∂p-∂p-s≠-¶n¬ Nne                   tah N. A\p-c‡w ÿncm-cw`w eLp an{Xw
ka-bØp i{Xp-°sf \mep `mKØpw hf-™p-                         {]i-kytX.
\n∂v B{I-an-°-Ww. i{Xp-hns‚ cmPy-Øn-ep-                        3. {]m⁄w Ipeo\w iqcw N Z£w ZmXmc
≈-hsc am¿K-\n-tcm[w sNbvXp _p≤n-ap-´p-                     tah N. IrX⁄w [rXna¥© IjvS amlp-
Ibpw Ah-cpsS A[o-\-Øn-ep≈ `£-W-]-                          ccnw _p[mx.
Zm¿∞-߃, sh≈w, hnd-Iv, I∂p-Im-en- Xo‰-
Iƒ, F∂n-h-sb√mw \in-∏n-°p-Ibpw Zpjn-∏n-                        4. BcyXm ]pcp-j-⁄m\w iucyw IcpW
°p-Ibpw sNøWw.                                             thZnXm. sÿue-e£yw N kX-X-aqZmko\-
                                                           Kp-tWm-Zbx.         (a-\p. 7. 208-˛211)
    12. i{Xp-\-K-c-Øn-ep≈ Ipf-߃, tIm´-a-Xn-
ep-Iƒ, InS-ßp-Iƒ F∂n-h-sb√mw \in-∏n-®p-                                     an{X-e-£Ww
I-fbWw. cm{Xn-k-a-bØv i{Xp-hns\ `b-s∏-Sp-                      1. ÿnc-ambn kvt\l-ap-≈-h\pw `mhn I≠-
Øp- I bpw Pbw t\Sp- h m- \ p≈ D]m- b - ß ƒ                 dn-bm≥ Ign-bp-∂-h\pw Imcyw t\Sm≥ Ign-hp-
t\m°p-Ibpw sNø-Ww.                                         ≈-h-\p-amb ka¿∞ an{X-tØtbm As√-¶n¬
    13. Pbn®p Iog-S-°nb tijw i{Xp-°-sf-                    Zp¿_e an{X-tØtbm e`n-®m¬ D≠m-Ip-∂Xn-
s°m≠p DS-º-Sn-Ifpw {]Xn-⁄-Ifpw Fgp-Xn-                     e-[nIw A`n-hr≤n Ipsd kz¿Wtam `qantbm
®p-hm-ß-Ww. DNn-X-sa-¶n¬ i{Xp-hns‚ hwi-                    In´p-∂-Xp-sIm-≠v D≠m-Ip-∂-X-√.
P\pw [m¿an-I\p-amb Hcp-hs\ cmPm-hmbn \nb-
                    -                                          2. [¿a-⁄-\pw, IrX-⁄\pw D]-Im-c-kva-c-
an-®v, ""Fs‚ B⁄-b-\p-k-cn®pw ˛[¿am-\p-kr-                  W-bp-≈-h\pw {]k-∂-kz-`m-hn-bpw, kvt\l-ap-
X-amb cmP-\o-Xn-b-\p-k-cn-®pw˛ \oXn-tbm-Sp-IqSn                                                 -
                                                           ≈-h\pw XpS-ßn-h® Imcyw apgp-h\m°p-∂Xn¬      -
{]Pm- ] - c n- ] m- e \w \S- t Ø- ≠ - X m- W v . '' F∂n-   ÿnc-X-bp-≈-h-\p-amb an{XsØ kºm-Zn-°p∂
ßs\ DS-ºSn sNø-Ww. C{]-Imcw DS-ºSn                         cmPmhv {]iw-k\ob-\m-Wv.
sNbvX-Xn-\p-tijw X\n-s°-Xnsc Xncn-bm-Ø-                        3. _p≤n-am-\pw, Ipeo-\-\pw, iqc-\pw, hoc\pw
hÆw kz¥w Bfp-Isf AhnsS \n¿Ø-Ww.                                                                - - - -
                                                           ka¿∞\pw Zm\-io-e\pw D]-Im-ckvacWbp-≈-
tXm‰ cmPm-hn-s\bpw {][m-\-tk-h-I-scbpw                     h\pw ss[cy- h m- \ p- a mb Bfns‚ i{XpXzw

                                                       117
    kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                               cmP-[¿aw
kºm-Zn-°m-Xn-cn-°m≥ Ft∏mgpw {i≤n-°-Ww.          am{Xw \nIpXn ]ncn-s®-Sp-°-Ww.
AØcw i{XpX Zpcn-X-ß-fp-≠m-°n-h-bv°pw.              P\-߃ [\m-Vycpw Btcm-Ky-ap-≈-hcpw
    4. DZm-ko-\s‚ e£Ww:˛ {]iw-k-\o-b-amb        A∂-]m-\m-Zn-]-Zm¿Y-ß-fm¬ kar-≤-cp-am-bm¬
KpW-ß-fp-≈-h-\pw, k÷-\-ß-sfbpw Zp¿÷-            cmPm- h n\pw henb A`n- h r- ≤ n- b p- ≠ m- I pw.
\-ß-sfbpw th¿Xn-cn-®-dn-bp-∂-h\pw ]cm-{I-a-     cmPmhp P\-ßsf Xs‚ a°-sf-t∏mse IcpXn
im-enbpw Zbm-ephpw kYqe-e-£y\pw s]m≈-           kuJyw \evI-Ww. P\-߃ cmPm--hn-s\bpw
hm-°p-Iƒ ]d-bp-∂-h\pw Bb-h-\t{X DZm-ko-         cmP-`r-Xy-∑m-scbpw ]nXr-Xpeyw KWn°-Ww.
\≥.                                             Irjn-°mcpw sXmgn-em-fnIfpw cmPm-°-∑m-cp-
    Ghw kcvh -a nZw cmPm kl kwa{¥y              tSbpw cmPm-°-∑m-cmWv F∂ sNm√v hfsc
a{¥n`nx hymbm-aym-πpXy a[ymt” t`m‡p-            icn-bm-Wv. cmPmhv Ah-cpsS c£-I≥ am{X-am-
a¥x]pcw hntiXv (a-\p. A. 7 t«m. 216)            Wv. P\-ß-fns√-¶n¬ BcmWv cmPmhv? cmPm-
    apºp ]d™-{]-Imcw AXn-cm-hnse Fgp-t∂-        hn-s√-¶n¬ Bcp-tS-XmWv P\w? Ccp-Iq-´cpw
‰v, ico-c-ip≤n hcp-Øn, k‘ym-h-µ\w A·n-          kz¥w I¿Ø-hy-I¿a-ß-fn¬ kzX-{¥-cpw, Ccp-
tlm{Xw apX-e -b h sNøp-Itbm sNøn- ° p-          Iq-´cpw tN¿∂v ]c-kv]-c-{]o-Xn-]q¿∆w sNtø-
Itbm sNbvXv k`-bn¬ lmP-cmbn a{¥n-am-tcm-                    -         -
                                                ≠-Im-cy-ßfn¬ ]c-X{¥cpw Bbn-cn-°Ww. P\--
sS√mw Imcy-hn-Nmcw sNbvXv ]S-\m-b-I-∑m-cpsS     ß-fpsS s]mXp-hmb A`n-{]m-b-Øn\p hncp-≤-
ASp-°-te°v sN∂v Ahsc kt¥m-jn-∏n-°p-             ambn cmPmhpw cmP-`r-Xy-∑mcpw {]h¿Øn-°-cp-
Ibpw ]S-bm-fn-Isf hnhn[ hyql-c-N-\m-co-Xn-      Xv. cmP-`r-Xy-∑mcpw {]P-Ifpw cmPm-⁄bv°p
Iƒ ]Tn-∏n-°bpw B\-∏-¥n, IpXn-cm-e-bw,           hn]-co-X-ambpw \S-°-cp-Xv. cmPm-hns‚ cmjv{So-
tKmim-e, Bbp-[-im-e, sshZy-im-e, `WvUmcw        b-am-b-˛-s]m-fn-‰n-°¬ F∂p ]d-bp∂ ˛I¿Ø-
apX-em-b-h-sb√mw ]cn-tim-[n®v Ah-bn¬ h√         hyI¿a-߃ kwt£-]-ambn ChnsS hnh-cn-®p.
\yq\-X-Ifpw Ds≠-¶n¬ AXp apgp-h≥ Xo¿°p-          IqSp-X¬ hnh-cWw th≠-h¿ \mep thZ-߃,
Ibpw thWw. ]n∂oSv hymbm-aim-ebn¬ sN∂p
                                  - -           a\p-kvar-Xn, ip{I-\o-Xn, alm-`m-cXw apX-emb
                             - - -
hymbmaw sNbvXn´p D®-`£WØn-\mbn A¥x-                                           -
                                                {KŸßƒ t\m°n a\- nem-°Ww. {]P-IfpsS         -
]p-cn-bn-te-°v-˛-]-Xv\n-amcpw a‰pw Xma-kn-°p∂   CS-bn¬ \oXn-\ymbw \S-Øp-∂Xp a\p-kvar-Xn-
ÿe-tØ-°v˛ t]mI-Ww. k{i≤w ]cn-tim-               bn¬ F´pw HºXpw A≤ym-b-ß-fn¬ ]d-™n-
[n®p ]mIw sNbvXXpw _p≤n, _ew, ]cm-{Iaw          cn-°p-∂-hÆw thWw. AXpw Npcp°n ]d-bmw.
F∂n-hsb h¿≤n-∏n-°p-∂Xpw tcmK-\n-hm-c-                         18. hnhm-Z-ÿm-\-߃
Ihpw hnhn-[-X-c-Ønep-≈Xpw a[p-cmZn hnhn-           1. {]Xy-lw-tZ-i-Zr-jvssS-›- im-kv{X-Z-r-
    - -                    -    -
[-ckbp-‡hpw kpK-‘ap-≈Xpw, DØ-ahp-amb    -       jvssS› tlXp`nx AjvSm-Z-ikp amcvtKjp
A∂ hyRvP-\-]m-\-ß-fmWv `£n-t°-≠-Xv.             \n_≤m\n ]rYIv ]rYIv.
F¶nte kZm kpJ-bp-‡-\m-bn-cn-°q. cmPy-Im-           2. tXjmamZy-ar-Wm-Zm\mw \nt£t]mf
cy-ß-sf√mw Cßs\ A`n-hr-≤n-s∏-Sp-Ø-Ww.           kzman hn{Ibx. kt`qbN kap-∞m\w ZØ
                                                kym\-]-IcvaN.
              Icw-]n-cnhv                          3. thX-\-ssky-h-Nm-Zm\mw kwhn-Z-›hy
   ]©m-i-Zv`mK BtZtbm cm⁄ ]ip-lnc               Xn{Iax. {Ib-hn-{I-bm-\p-itbm hnhmZx kzman-
Wytbmx [m\ym-\m-a-jvStam `mKx -jjvtTm           ]m-etbmx
ZzmZi Gh hm. (a-\p. 7. 130)                        4. koam-hn-hm-Z-[cva› ]mcptjy ZWvU
   I®-h-S-°m¿°pw ssIsØm-gn¬°m¿°pw               hmNntI. kv t Xbw N kml- k w- s sNh
kz¿W-ambpw sh≈n-bmbpw In´p∂ em`-Øn¬             kv{Xok-Mv{K-l-W-ta-hN.
Aº-Xn-semcp `mK-hpw, s\√p apX-emb [m\y-            5. kv{Xo]pw [cvtam-hn-`m-K› ZypX-am-lzb
ß-fn¬ Bdn-semt∂m F´n-semt∂m As√-¶n¬             GhN ]Zm-\yjvSm-Z-ssi-Xm\n hyhlmc-ÿn-
]{¥-≠n-semt∂m `mKhpw ]ncn-s®-Sp-°-Ww.           Xm-hnl.
Irjn-°m¿°pw sXmgn-em-fn-Iƒ°pw `£-W-                6. Gjp- ÿ m- t \jp `qbnjv T w hnhmZw
Ønt\m ]W-Ønt\m _p≤n-ap´p hcm-Ø-hÆw              NcXmw\r- W mav . [¿aw imiz- X - a m- { inXy


                                            118
               Bdmw kap-√mkw                                                   kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
IpcymXv Imcyhn\n¿W-ba.v                                            - -         -
                                                         3. 6 (th-X\ssky-hNm-Zm-\w) thX\w sImSp-
    7. [cvtam hn≤-kvXz-[cvtaW k`mw-b-t{Xm-                          -
                                                      °m-Xn-cn-°p-Itbm, Ipd-®p-sIm-Sp-°p-Itbm sNøp-
]XnjvTtX. ieyw Nmky \Ir-¥¥n hn≤m                      I. 7 (kw- h n- Z › hyXn- { I- a x) {]Xn- ⁄ ,
kvX{X k`m-kZx.                                        ewL\w sNøp-I. 8 ({I-b-hn-{I-bm-\p-i-bx)
    8. k`mwhm \ {]th-jvShym h‡hyw hm-                 hnev°p-Itbm hmßp-Itbm sNbvX hkvXp-°-
k-a-RvP-k-av. A{_p-h-\zn-{_p-h-\zm]n \tcm-            sf-∏‰n D≠m-Ip∂ X¿°w. 9 (kzman ]me-
`-h-Xn-In¬_jo.                                        tbm¿hn-hm-Zx) ]ip-°-fpsS DS-a-ÿ\pw ]ip-
                                                      ]m-e-I\pw XΩn-ep-≠m-Ip∂ X¿°w.
    9. b{X-[cvtam-ly-[cvta-W-kXyw b{Xm
\rtX-\-N. l\ytX t{]£-am-Wm\mw lXm-                       4. 10 (ko-am-hn-hm-Z-[¿ax) AXn¿Øn-X¿°w
kvX-{X-k-`m-kZx.                                      11 (Z-WvU-]m-cp-jyw) AXn-I-Tn-\-amb in£
                                                      hn[n-°pI 12 (hmIv ]mcp-jyw) ]cp-j-hm-°p-
    10. [¿a Gh ltXm l¥n [cvtam c£Xn                   Iƒ ]d- b pI 13 (kv t Xbw) tamj- W hpw
c£nXx. Xkvam-≤cvtam \ l¥-thym-amt\m                   Ih¿®bpw sNøpI 14 (km-l-kw) ssItø‰w
[cvtam ltXmfh[oXv.                                    sNøpI 15 (kv{Xo-kw-{K-l-Ww) kvXotbm ]pcp-
    11. hrtjmln `K- h m≥[¿a kv X kybx                 jt\m hy`n-Nmcw sNøp-I.
IpcptX lye-av. hrjew Xw hnZpcvtZ-hmkvX                   5. (kv { Xo- ] pw- [ ¿Ωw) kv { Xo]p- c p- j - ∑ m¿
kvam≤¿aw \ tem]-tbXv.                                 kz[¿aw ewLn-°pI 17 (hn-`m-K) `mK-h-g°v 18
    12. GI Gh kplr-≤cvtam \n[-t\-]y-\p-               (ZqX-am-\y-b›) Poh\n-√m-Øh ]Wbw h®p
bmXnbx. ico- t cW kz∂miw kcv h - a -                  \S-Øp∂ NqXp-I-fn-bpw. (Zyp-X) Pohn-Isf
\y≤nK—Xn                                              ]Wbw h®p≈ NqXp-Ifn (B-lzbw) C∏-
    13. ]mtZmf[cv a - k y- I cv Ø mcw ]mZx- k m-      d™ ]Xn-s\´pw hnhm-Zm-kv]-Z-ß-fm-Wv.
£nW ar—- X n. ]mZx k`m- k Zx kcv h m≥                    6. Cu hyh-lm-c-hnjbßsf kw_-‘n-®p-
]mtZm cmPm-\-ar-—Xn.                                  ≠m- I p∂ X¿°- ß - f n¬ P\- ß - t fmSv \oXn-
    14. cmPm-`-h-Xy-t\-\m-kvXp-ap-Nyt¥ N k`m-         \ymbw \S- Ø p∂Xp k\m- X - \ - [ ¿ΩsØ
kZ. Gt\m K—-Xn-IcvØmcw \nµmcvtlm b{X                  Bkv]-Z-am-°n-th-Ww. Hcn-°epw ]£-]mXw
\nµytX                                                ImWn-°-cpXv F∂v A¿∞w.
    (a-\p. 8. 3˛8; 12-˛19)                               7. GXp k`-bnemtWm A[¿Ωw apdn-s∏-Sp-
    1. cmPm-hv, cmP-k-`mw-K-߃, cmPy-`r-Xy-∑m¿        Ønb [¿aw h¿Øn-°p-∂Xv A[¿a-Øns‚
apX-em-b-h¿ \m´p-\-S∏pw imkv{X-{]-am-W-hp-a-          Aºp-ap\ [¿a-Øn¬ \n∂p ]dn-®p-I-f-bm-Xn-cn-
\p-k-cn-®v, hnhm-Zm-kv]-Z-am-tb-°m-hp-∂Xpw C\n        °p-∂-Xv, A[¿asØ \in-∏n-°msX Ccn-°p-
]d--b p- ∂ - X p- a mb ]Xn- s \´p hnj- b - ß - f n¬   ∂Xv AXm-bXv [¿a-Øn\v am\hpw A[¿a-
hnhmZw hcp∂ Imcy-ß-fn¬ Xocp-am-\-sa-Sp-°-             Øn\v in£bpw \evIm-Xn-cn-°p-∂Xv B k`-
Ww. imkvt{Xm-‡-amb \nb-a-an-s√-¶n¬ Bh-                                 -            - -
                                                      bnse AwK-ßsf√mw apdn-th-‰hcm-sW∂p Icp-
iy-am-sW∂p tXm∂p∂ \na-߃ cmPm-hn\pw                   X-Ww.
P\- ß ƒ°pw ]ptcm- K Xn hc- Ø - ° - h Æw                  8. [m¿an-I-\mb a\p-jy≥ k`.-bn¬ {]th-
Btem-Nn®v D≠m-°-Ww.                                   in-°m-Ø-XmWv DØ-aw. {]th-in-°p∂ ]£w
    2. ]Xn-s\´p hyh-lm-c-߃ Ch-bmWv:˛ 1.              kXyta ]d-bm-hq. k`-bn¬ A\ymbw {]h¿Øn-
(E-Wzm-Zm-\w) ISw sImSp-°p-Itbm ISw hmßp-             °p-∂Xp I≠n´pw au\w `Pn-°p∂ t\cn\pw
Itbm sNøp-∂-Xn-ep-≠m-Ip∂ X¿°w. 2. (\n-                \ymb-Øn\pw FXn-cmbn ]d-bp-∂-h≥ alm-]m-
t£-]x) kq£n-°p-∂-Xn\v Gev]n-®Xv DS-a-                 ]n-bm-Ip-∂p.
ÿ≥ tNmZn-°p-tºmƒ Xncn-®psImSp°m-sX-h-                    9. kZ-ky-∑m-sc√mw I≠n-cns° A[¿a-
cp-tºmƒ D≠mIp∂ X¿°w. 3. (A-kzm-an-hn-                 Øm¬ [¿ahpw Ak-Xy-Øm¬ kXyhpw l\n-
{I-bw) A\ys‚ hI FSpØp hn¬°pI 4.                       °-s∏-Sp∂ k`-bn-ep-≈-h-sc-√m-hcpw arX-{]m-b-
(kw-`q-bN kap-∞m-\w) ]e¿ tN¿∂v Hcp-h-                 cm-Wv. Ah-cn-sem-cp-h\pw Pohn-®n-cn-°p-∂n√
t\mSv A{Iaw Im´p-I. 5. (ZØ-kym-\-]-Icva)              F∂-dn-b-Ww.
sImSp-ØXv sImSp-°m-Xn-cn-°pI                             10. [¿asØ l\n-°p-∂-hs\ [¿ahpw \in-

                                                  119
    kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                                  cmP-[¿aw
∏n-°p-∂p. [¿asØ c£n-°p-∂-hs\ [¿aw               XvIrjvSm≥ Kp-W-ssZzt[ ZzntPm-Ø-am≥
c£n-°p-∂p. AXn-\m¬ [¿asØ l\n-°-cpXv.                         -    -
                                                  5. ka-£Zcvi\m-’m£yw {ihWm ss®h
l\n® [¿aw \sΩ \in-∏n-°-cp-sX∂p Icp-Xn-          kn[yXn X{X kXyw {_ph≥ km£o
s°m-≈-Ww.                                       [cvamcvYm`ymw \ lobtX.
   11. F√m sFiz-cy-ßfpw \evIp∂ kpJ-ß-             6. km£o-Zr-jvS-{ip-Xm-Z-\y-Zzn-{_p-h-∂mcy
sf√mw \evIp∂ [¿a-Øn\p tem]w hcp-Øp-             kwkZn. Ahm- M v\- c - I - a - t `yXn t{]Xy
∂-hs\ Adn-hp-≈-h¿ hrj-e-s\∂p iq{Z≥              kzcvKm® lobtX.
AYhm \oN≥ F∂v˛ Adn-bp-∂p. AXn-\m¬                 7. kz`m-th-ss\h bZv{_q-bp-kvXZv {Kmlyw
[¿atem]w hcp-Øp-∂Xv B¿°pw DNn-X-a-√.            hymh-lm-cn-Iav AtXm bZ-\yZzn {_qbpcv
   12. Cutem- I - Ø n¬ [¿aw H∂p- a m- { Xta     [cvamcvYw XZ-]mcvY-Iav.
_‘phmbn´pffq. ac-W-ti-jhpw AXv a\p-               8. k`m¥x km£nWx {]m]v X m- \ cv Y n
jys\ A\p-K-an-°p-∂p. a‰p-≈-sX-√mw, _‘p-         {]Xycv Y n k∂n[u {]mUzn- h mtImf\pbp-
°-f-S°w icocw injn-°p-∂-tXm-Sp-IqSn C√m-        ⁄oX hn[n\mft\\ km¥z-b≥.
Xm- I p- ∂ p. F√m _‘hpw hn´p- t ]m- I p- ∂ p.
F∂m¬ [¿a- Ø ns‚ _‘w am{Xw Hcp                     9. bZvZztbmc\-tbmcvth∞ Imtcyfkvan≥
ImeØpw th¿s]-Sp-∂-X√ F∂¿Yw.                     tN„nXw anYx. XZv {_qX kcvhw ktXy\
                                                bpjvamIw ly{X km£nXm.
   13. cmP- k - ` - b n¬ ]£- ] mXw \nanØw
A\ymbw {]h¿Øn- ° p- t ºm- f p- ≠ m- I p∂          10. kXyw kmt£y {_qh≥km£o
A[¿aw \mep `mK-ß-fmbn ]ncn™v Hcp `mKw           temIm\m]vt\mXn ]pjvI-em≥. Cl Nm\p-
A[¿aw {]h¿Øn-®-h-t\bpw c≠mw `mKw                Øamw IocvØnw hmtKjw {_“-]q-PnXm.
km£n-tbbpw as‰m∂v kZ-ky-tcbpw \mem-               11. ktXy\ ]qbtX km£o [¿ax ktXy\
asØ `mKw [¿a-hn-cp-≤-ambn {]h¿Øn® k`-           hcv[-tX. Xkvam-’Xyw ln h‡hyw kcvh-
bpsS A≤y-£-\mb cmPm-hn-s\bpw {]m]n-°p-          hcvtWjp km£n`nx.
∂p.                                               12. Bssflh lymfl\x km£o KXn
   14. \nµn-t°-≠-hsc \nµn-°p-Ibpw {]iw-         cmflm XYm-∑\x amh-awÿmx kzmamflm\w
km¿lsc {]iw-kn-°p-Ibpw in£m¿lsc                 \rWmw km£n-W-ap-Ø-aav.
in£n-°p-Ibpw am\ysc _lp-am-\n-°p-Ibpw             13. bky-hn-Zzm≥ ln hZXx t£{Xt⁄m
sNøp∂ k`-bnse cmPmhpw k`mw-K-ßfpw               \m`n-i-¶-tX. Xkvam∂ tZhmx t{ibmwkw
]m]-c-ln-Xcpw ]cnip≤-cp-ambn `hn-°p-∂p.         temtIf\yw ]pcpjw hnZpx.
]m]w sNøp-∂-h-\p am{Xta AXns‚ tZmjw               14. GtIm- l - a - k v a o- X ym- fl m\w bXzw
D≠m-Ip-∂p-≈q.                                   IeymW a- \ ytk. \nXyw ÿnXkvtX
               C\n km£n-Iƒ                      lrtZyj ]pWy-]m-t]-£nXm ap\nx.
      Fß-s\-bp-≈-h-cm-bn-cn-°-W-sa∂p
                     ]d-bp∂p                                          -
                                                  (a-\p. 8. 63; 68; 72-- ˛ 75; 78-˛81; 83; 84; 86; 91)
   1. B]vXmx kcvthjp hcvtWjp Imcymx               1. F√m h¿W-ß-fn-epw, [m¿an-I-cpw, hnZzm-
Imtcyjp km£nWx. kcv h - [ cv a - h ntZm         ∑m-cpw, kXy-k-‘cpw kI-e-[¿a-ß-tfbpw
ep_v[m hn]-co-XmwkvXp hcvP-tbXv.                         -                     -
                                                Adn-bp-∂hcpw AXym-{K-lan-√m-Øhcpw kXyw  -
                                                ]d-bp-∂-h-cp-am-bn-cn-°-Ww \ymb-hy-h-ÿ-bn¬
   2. kv{XoWmw km£yw kv{Xobx Iqcvøqcv           km£n ]d-tb-≠-Xv. A√m-Ø-hsc km£n-bm-
ZznPm\mw kZrim ZznPmx. iq{Zmt› k¥x              °-cp-Xv.
iq{Zm-Wm-a-¥ym-\m-a-¥y-tbm-\bx.
                                                  2. kv{XoIƒ°p kv{XoI-fpw, {_m“-W¿°p
   3. kml-tkjp N kcvthjp kvtXb-k-               {_m“-Wcpw, iq{Z¿°p iq{Zcpw, XmW-h¿°v
                         -
Mv{KltWjpN. hmKvZWvUtbm› ]mcptjy                XmW-hcpw km£n ]d-b-Ww.
\ ]co-t£X km£nWx.
                                                                    -               - -
                                                  3. _em-Xv°m-cambn sNøp-∂hbv°pw, tamj-
   4. _lpXzw ]cn- K r- l v W o- b v ’ m£n       Ww. hy`n-Nm-cw, ]cp-j-`m-j-Ww, hSn-sIm≠v
ssZzt[ \cm- [ n]x. ktajp Xp KptWm               ASn-°pI apX-emb Ip‰-߃°pw km£n-hn-
                                                kvXmcw Bh-iy-an-√. C∏-d-™-sX√mw KpV-
                                            120
                Bdmw kap-√mkw                                                 kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
ambn \S-°p-∂-Xn-\m-emWv km£n th≠m-Ø-                        12. Bflm-hns‚ km£n Bflm-hp-X-s∂-bm-
Xv.                                                      Wv. Bflm-hn-\p≈ KXnbpw Bflm-hp-X-s∂.
    4. c≠p ]£-Ønepw km£n-Ifps≠¶n¬                        CX-dn™v tl km£o! Aßv a\p-jy-cpsS kI-
`qcn-]-£-{]-Im-chpw km£n-Iƒ Xpey-cm-bn-cp-                          -                 -
                                                         e-km-£n-Ifnepwsh®v DØ-akm-£n-bmbn Ah-
∂m¬ D¬Ir-jvSKp-Whm-∑m-cmb km£n-IfpsS
                         -     -                 -       \-hs‚ Bflm-hns\ A]-am-\n-°m-Xn-cn-°p-I.
samgn- b - \ p- k - c n- ® pw, c≠p ]£- Ø n- e p- a p≈    Ah-\-hs‚ Bflm-hv, a\- v, hm°v F∂n-h-bn-
km£n-Iƒ KptWm¬°¿jw sIm≠pw kwJy-                          ep-≈-Xns\ AXp-t]mse ]d-bp-∂-Xp-X-s∂-
sIm≠pw Xpey-cm-bn-cp-∂m¬ {_m“-W-t{i-jvT-                 bmWv kXy-`m-j-Ww. AXn∂p hn]-co-X-am-bn-
∑m¿ al¿jn-am¿ k\ym-kn-h-cy-∑m¿ F∂n-h-                    ´p-≈-sX√mw anYym-`m-j-W-amWv F∂¿Yw.
                    -        -
cpsS km£y-a\p-kcn®pw \ymb-\n¿Wbw sNø-                       13. kwkm- c n- ° p- t ºmƒ t£{X- ⁄ - \ mb
Ww.                                                      Bflmhv AIta i¶n-°p-∂n-s√-¶n¬ Ah-t\-
    5. c≠p-Xcw km£n-Ifp-≠v. ZrIvkm-£n-Ifpw
                                 -                       °mƒ t{ijvT-\mb as‰m-cp-h-\p-≈-Xmbn hnZzm-
tI´- d n- ™ - h - c pw. k`- b n¬ kXyw ]d- b p∂           ∑m¿°v Adn-hn-√.
km£n-Iƒ [¿a-lo-\tcm in£m¿ltcm A√.                           14. t{ib- m-{K-ln-°p∂ a\pjym ""Rm≥ Hcp-
I≈-km-£n-Isf Ip‰-Øn-s\mØv in£n-°Ww.                  -   h≥ am{Xta D≈q'' F∂p [cn®v \o Bflm-
    6. cmP-k`bntem a‰p t{ijvTk`bntem h®v
                - -                 - - -                hns‚ Adn-thm-Sp-IqSn AkXyw ]d-bp-∂Xv icn-
I≠Xn\pw tI´-Xn\pw hn]-co-X-ambn km£n                     b-√. \ns‚ lrZ-bm-¥¿`m-K-Øn¬ A¥-cym-an-
]d-bp-∂-h≥ AhmMv \cIw F∂-\-c-I-Øn¬                       bmbn h¿Øn-°p∂ k¿th-iz-c≥ ]pWy-]m-]-
(\mhp apdn®p If-bp-∂-Xp-sIm≠v D≠m-Ip∂                    ßsf {]Xy-£-ambn I≠p-sIm≠v ap\n-bmbn
ZpxJ-Øns‚ \c-I-Øn¬) InS∂p IjvS-s∏-Sp-                    (au-\-a-h-ew-_n-®v) ÿnXn-sN-øp-∂p-≠v. B ]c-
Ibpw ac-W-tijw t]mepw kpJ-lo-\-cmbn-cn-                  am-flm-hns\ `b-s∏´v kXyw ]d-bp-I.
°p-Ibpw sNøpw.                                                      (I-≈-km-£n°v in£)
    7. X¿°-Øn¬ km£n ]d-bp-tºmƒ ]c-t{]-                      1. tem`m-t∑m-lm-ZvZ-bm-ss∑-{XmXv ImamXv
cW IqSmsX ]d-bp∂ samgn kzoI-cn-°-Ww.                     t{Im[m- Ø - s sY- h - N .         A⁄m- \ mZv
                           -
]Tn-∏n®p ]d-bp-∂sX√mw I≈-am-sW∂v \ymbm-                  _me`mhm® km£yw hnX-Y-ap-NytX.
[n-]Xn Adn-b-Ww.                                            2. Gjm-a-\y-Xta ÿmt\ bx km£y-a-
                                      -
    8. k`-bn¬ h∂n-´p≈ km£n-Itfm-Sv, A\ym-                \rXw htZXv. Xky ZWvU-hn-ti-jmwkvXp
b-°m-c≥ {]Xn F∂n-h-cpsS km∂n-≤y-Øn¬                      {]h-£ym-ay-\p-]qcv∆ix
\ymbm-[n-]-Xnbpw h°o-e-∑mcpw im¥-ambn                                        -
                                                            3. tem`m-Xvkl{kw ZWvUykvXp tamlmXv
Cßs\ tNmZn-°Ww:˛                                         ]qcv ∆ ¥p kml- k av . `bmZv Z zu a[yau
    9. km£n-Isf! C°m-cy-Øn¬ km£n-Ifmb              -     ZWvUyu ssa{XmXv ]qcvhw NXpcvKpWw
\n߃ Ccp-h-cp-sSbpw ]c-kv]-c-{]-hr-Øn-I-sf-                 4. Imam- ± - i - K pWw ]qcv h w t{Im[mØp
∏‰n Adn-bm-hp-∂Xv kXy-k-‘-ambn ]d-bp-I.                  {XnKpWw ]cav. A⁄m-\m-±zu-itX ]qcvtW
    10. kXyw ]d-bp∂ km£n P∑m-¥-c-Øn¬                     _men-iym-—-X-tah Xp.
t{ijvT-amb Pohn-X-tØbpw B\-µ-a-b-tem-I-                     5. D]-ÿ-ap-Zcw Pnlzm lkvXu ]mZu N
ß-sfbpw {]m]n®v kpJ-a-\p-`-hn-°p-Ibpw Cu                 ]©-a-av. N£pcv∂mkm N IcvWu N [\w
P∑-Øn-se-∂-t]mse Xs∂ P∑m-¥-c-Ønepw                       tZl-kvX-ssYh N.
\√ b»- ns\ {]m]n-°p-Ibpw sNøpw. Fs¥-
∂m¬, hm°p-X-s∂-bmWv kev°m-c-Øn∂pw                           6. A\p-_‘w ]cn-⁄mb tZi-Imeu N
Xnc-kv°m-c-Øn∂pw Imc-W-sa∂v thZ-ß-fn¬                    XØzXx kmcmf]cms[u NmtemIy ZWvUw
]d-bp-∂p. kXy-hmZn _lp-am-\-Øn\pw anYym-                 ZWvtUyjp ]mX-tbXv.
hmZn \nµbv°pw ]m{Xo-`-hn-°p-∂p.                             7. A[¿a ZWvU\w temtI btimLv\w
    11. kXyw ]d-bp-∂-Xp-sIm-≠p-X-s∂-bmWv                 Io¿Øn \mi-\-av. Akz¿Ky© ]c-{Xm]n
[¿aw h¿≤n-°p-∂-Xv. AXn-\m¬ km£n-I-                       XkvamØXv ]cn-h¿P-tbXv.
sf√mw kXyw Xs∂ ]d-b-Ww.                                                             -
                                                            8. AZ-WvUym≥ ZWvUb≥ cmPm ZWvUymw


                                                     121
     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                                   cmP-[¿aw
ss›hm]y ZWv U - b ≥. Abtim alZm                    Kuc-h-em-L-h-߃ F∂n-h-b-\p-k-cn®p in£-
]vt\mXn \cIw ssNh K—Xn.                            \-evtI-≠-XmWv F∂¿Yw.
   9. hmKvZWvUw {]Yaw Ipcym-≤n-KvZWvUw                  7. Cu temI-Øn¬ A\ym-b-ambn in£
XZ-\¥cav XrXobw [\-ZWvUw Xp h[ ZWvU-
      - -                                          \evIn-bm¬ AXv Cu P∑-Ønepw Ign™ P∑-
aXx ]c-av.                                         Ønepw hcpw P∑-Øn-ep-ap≈ Io¿Ønsb \in-
   (a-\p. 7. 113-˛121; 125˛129)                    ∏n®p If-bpw. `mhn-P-∑-Øn¬ IqSn ZpxJ-{]-Z-am-
                                                   bn-Øo-cp-∂p. AXn-\m¬ Btcbpw A\ym-b-
   1. tem`w, tamlw, `bw, kvt\lw, Imaw,             ambn in£n-°-cp-Xv.
t{Im[w, A⁄m-\w, F∂n-h-tbm-Sp-Iq-Sntbm
_mey-Im-etØm ]d-bp∂ km£yw-˛-km-£n-                      8. in£m¿lsc in£n-°m-Xn-cn-°p-Ibpw
sam-gn˛ apgp-h\pw Ak-Xy-am-sW∂v Adn-bp-I.          A√m-Ø-hsc in£n-°p-Ibpw sNøp∂ cmPmhv
                                                   Pohn-®n-cn-°p-tºmƒ henb A]-Io¿Øn°v
   2. Ch-b n¬ GsX-¶ nepw H∂p \nanØw                                         -
                                                   ]m{X-am-Ip-Ibpw ac-Wtijw ITn-\ZpxJw A\p-      -
I≈km£n ]dbp-∂-bm-fn\v C\n ]d-bp∂                   `-hn-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂p. AXn-\m¬ A]-cm[w
in£-Iƒ \¬I-Ww.                                     sNøp-∂-hsc F√m-bvt]mgpw in£n-t°-≠-Xm-
   3. tem`w \nanØw I≈-km£n ]d-bp-∂-                Wv. \nc-]-cm-[n-Isf Hcn-°epw in£n-°-cp-Xv.
h\v (1000 ss]k) 10 ]Xn-\©p cq] ]Ø-                      9. BZyw Ip‰w sNøp-tºmƒ-˛-hm-°p-sIm-
W-bpw, taml-Øm¬ I≈-km£n ]d-bp-∂-h\v                ≠p≈ ZWvUw {]tbm-Kn-°-Ww. \nµn-°-W-sa-
aq∂p cq] c≠-W-bpw, `b-s∏´v I≈-km£n                 ∂¿Yw. c≠m-aXp [n°m-c-am-Ip∂ ZWvUw.
]d-bp-∂-h\v Btd-Im¬ cq]-bpw, kvt\lw                ""Zpjv S ≥ \o F¥p- s Im≠p Zpjv { ]- h rØn
sIm≠p≈ I≈-samgn sImSp-°p-∂-h\v ]{¥-                sNbvXp?'' F∂v Xm°oXp sNø-Ww. aq∂m-a-
≠ cq]bpw ]ng \n›-bn-t°-≠-Xm-Wv.                    tØXp [\-ZWvUw AYma ]ng-bn-Sp-I. \mem-
   4. Imaw sIm≠p I≈-km£n ]d-bp-∂-h\v               a- t ØXp h[- Z - W v U w- ˛ - A - ] - c m- [ nsb Nqc¬
       - -
Ccp-]Ø©p-cq-]bpw t{Im[w aqew I≈-km£n               sImt≠m NΩ´n sImt≠m (Nm-´-sIm-t≠m)
]d-bp-∂-h\p \mev]-Ømdp cq] ]Xn-∂m-e-W-             ASn-°pI As√-¶n¬ A]-cm-[n-bpsS Xe sh´p-
bpw, A⁄m\w \nanØw I≈- k m£n                        I.
]dbp∂-h\v Bdp-dp-∏n-I-bpw, _meyw \nanØw                               a‰p-in-£-Iƒ
I≈-km£n ]d-bp-∂-h\v Hcp-dp-∏nI Hº-X-                    1. tb\-tb\ bYm-MvtK\ kvtXt\m-\r-jp-
Wbpw ]ng-bn-S-Ww.                                  hn-tN-jvStX XØ-tZh ltc-Zky {]Xym-tZ-
   5. D]-tÿ-{µn-bw, hb-dv, \mhv, ssIIƒ,            imb ]m¿Ynhx.
Imep-Iƒ, IÆp-Iƒ, aq°v, sNhn-Iƒ, [\w,                    2. ]nXm-Nmcyx kplr≥am-XmNm `mcym-]p{Xx
tZlw F∂n- ß s\ ZWvU- ÿ m- \ - ß ƒ                  ]ptcm- l nX. \mZWv t Uym \ma- c m- P v t Rm-
in£bv°p hnt[-b-am-°m-hp-∂h ]sØ-Æ-am-               kvXnbx kz[cvta-\-Xn-jvTXnx
Wv. CXn-te-sX-¶nepw H∂n-emWp in£ \S-∏m-                 3. Imcvjm-]Ww `th-±-WvtUym-b-{Xm\yx
°p-∂-Xv.                                                                          -
                                                   {]mIr-tXm-P\;X{X-cm-Pm-`th-±WvUyx kl-{k-
   6. tem`w \nanØw I≈-km£n ]d-bp-∂h\p    -         an-Xn-[m-c-Wm.
]Xn-\-©p-dp-∏nI ]ØW ]ng-bn-S-W-sa∂p ]d-
™n- ´ p- ≠ v . CXp- t ]mse ]e hn[- Ø n- e p≈            4. AjvS-]m-Zy¥p iq{Zky kvtXtb-`hXn
in£-Iƒ ]n∂oSv ]d-bp-∂-Xm-Wv. F∂m¬                  Inev_n-jav tjmU-ssi-h-Xp-ssh-iy-ky-Zzm-
\n¿≤-\s‚ ]°¬ \n∂pw Ipd®pw [\n-Is‚                  {Xnw-iXv £{X-b-kyN.
]°¬ \n∂v ct≠m aqt∂m \mtem Cc´n                          5. {_m“-Wky NXp-jjvSnx ]q¿Æw hm]n-
A[nIhpw ]ng ]ncn-s®-Sp-t°-≠-Xm-Wv. tZi-Im-         iXw `th-Xv. ZznKpWm hm NXp-j-jvSnx. -kvX-
e-߃, Ip‰-°m-cs‚ i‡n, A]-cm-[-Øns‚                 t±m-j-KpWhn≤n kx.
                                                        6. sF{µw ÿm\-a-`n-t{]-]vkp-cy-i-›m-£-
10 kl-{k-i-_vZ-Øn\v 1000 ss]k F∂¿∞w. ]gb           b-a-hy-bav. t\mt]-t£X £-W-a]n cmPm-km-
   IW-°-\p-k-cn®v cq]bv°v 64 ss]k-bm-Wp-≈-Xv. Cu   l-knIw \cav.
   Hcp ss]kbv°v C∂sØ 15625 ss]k-bpsS aqey-ap-                             -    -
                                                        7. hmKvZp-jvSm-ØkvIcm-ss®h ZWvtU-ss\-
   ≠v. HcW C∂sØ 6.25 ss]kbm-Wv.

                                               122
              Bdmw kap-√mkw                                               kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
h- N - l nw- k Xx kml- k - k y- \ - c x- I ¿Øm    km[m-c-W-°m-c≥ htc-bp-ff cmP-]p-cp-j-∑m-
hnt⁄bx ]m]-Ir-Øax.                                cn¬ Bsc-¶nepw Ip‰w sNbvXm¬ Ah¿°p
   8. kml-tk-hcvØ-am-\-¥ptbm acvj-bXn             sImSp-°p∂ in£ P\-߃°p-f-f-Xn-t\-°mƒ
]m¿Ynhx khn-\miw {hP-Xymip hntZzjw                A[n-I-am-bn-cn°Ww.
Nm[n-K-—-Xn.                                          4. CXp-t]m-se-X-s∂, `hn-jy-Ø-dn-bp∂ Hcp-
   9. \an{X Imc-Wm-{ZmPm hn]p-emZzm [\m-          h≥ tamjvSn-®m¬ iq{Z-∂v, tamj-W°p-‰Øn∂p -       -
K-amXv kapXv krtPXv kml-kn-Im≥kcvh-               km[m- c - W - b mbn hn[n- ° p- ∂ - X ns‚ F´n- c ´n
`q-X-`-bm-h-lm≥.                                  iq{Z\pw ]Xm-\m-dn-c´n sshiy\pw ap∏-Øn-c≠p
   10. Kpcpwhm _me-hr-≤uhm {_m“-Wwhm              aSßv £{Xn-b\pw ]ng-bn-S-Ww.
_lp-{ip-Xav BX-Xm-bn-\-am-bm¥w l\ym-tZ-               5. KpW-tZmj ⁄m\-tØm-Sp-IqSn tamjWw
hm-hn-Nm-c-b≥.                                    sNøp∂ {_m“-W\v km[m-c-W-tb-°mƒ Adp-
   11. \mX-Xmbn ht[-tZmtjm l¥pcv`-h-Xn-           ]-Øn-\m-en-c-´n, As√-¶n¬ \qdn-c´n, As√-¶n¬
Iiv N \ {]Imiwhmf {]Imiw hm a\yp-                 \q‰n-cp-]-sØ-´n-c´n in£ \¬I-Ww. A]-cm[w
kvX\va\yp-arNvOXn.                                sNøp-∂-hs‚ ⁄m\m-[n-Iy-Øn\pw D¬Ir-jvS-
                                                  ÿn-Xn°pw X°-hÆw A[n-I-in£ \evI-Ww.
   12. bkykvtX\x ]ptc \mkvXn
\m\ykv{XotKm\ ZpjvS-hm-Iv. \ klm-kn-I-                6. [¿ahpw sFiz-cyhpw h¿≤n-°-W-sa-∂m-
ZWvULv\u k cmPm i{I-temI `mIv.                    {K-ln-°p-∂ cmPmhpw cmP-]p-cp-j-∑m-cpw, Itø-
                                                  ‰- ° m¿°pw A{I- a n- I ƒ°pw I≈- ∑ m¿°pw
   (a-\p. 8. 334-˛338; 344˛347; 350˛351; 386)     in£- \ ¬Ip∂ Imcy- Ø n¬ £W- t \cw
            -
   1. If-f∑m¿ GXv Ah-bhw sIm≠v Fßs\               t]mepw sshI-cp-Xv.
A{Iaw sNøp- ∂ pthm AXm- X - h - b - h - ß sf          7. kml- k n- I s‚ e£Ww ]d- b p∂p:- ˛
AtX hn[-Øn¬ cmPmhp tOZn-®p-Iftb-≠Xm- - -      -   sIm≈n-hm°p ]d-bp-I, tamjvSn-°p-I, sX‰p-sN-
Wv. P\-߃°v KpW-]m-T-Øn-\m-Wn-Xv.                 ømsX in£n-°p-I, F∂nh sNøp-∂htc-°mƒ         - -
   2. ]nXmhv BNm-cy≥, kv\ln-X≥, kvXoIƒ,           _em-evIm-c-ambn {]hr-Øn-Iƒ sNøp-∂-h≥
]p{X≥, ]ptcm-ln-X≥ F∂n-h-cn¬ Bcm-bn-cp-           hfsc A[nIw ZpjvS\pw ]m]n-bp-am-Ip-∂p.
∂mepw icn, Ah-\-hs‚ [¿aw hn´v A[¿aw                   8. kml- k w- { ]- h ¿Øn- ° p- ∂ - h \p in£
          - -
sNøp-∂hcn¬ cmPm-hn∂v in£n-°m≥ høm-Ø-              \evImsX £an-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p∂ cmPmhv
Xmbn Bcp- a n- √ . \ymbm- k - \ - Ø n¬ Ccp∂v      AXn-thKw \in-°p-Ibpw P\-tcm-jØn\v ]m{X-  -
cmPmhp \oXn-\ymbw \S-Øp-tºmƒ BcpsS                am-hp-Ibpw sNøpw.
t\scbpw ]£-]mXw {]Z¿in-∏n-°-cpXv; F√m-
h¿°pw btYm-NnXw in£ \evIWw F∂¿Yw.                     9. kI-e¿°pw ZpxJ-ap-≠m-°p∂ kml-kn-
                                                  I-s\, kulm¿±tam [\-tam-ltam \nanØw
   3. km[m-cW ]uc\v Hcp cq] ]ng hn[n-             cmPmhv _‘- \ - ÿ - \ m- ° p- I tbm inc- t —Zw
°p∂ Ip‰w cmPmhp sNbvXm¬ Bbncw cq]                 sNøm-Xn-cn-°-cp-Xv.
]ng-bn-S-Ww. km[m-c-W-°m-c-t‚-Xn¬ Bbncw
aSßv A[n-Iw Bbn-cn-°Ww cmPm-hn-\p-ff                  10. BNm-cy-\m-I-s´, ]p{Xm-Zn-I-fmb _me-∑m-
in£ F∂¿Yw. {][m\ kNn-h\v km[m-cW                  cm-I-s´, ]nXmhv apX-emb hr≤-P-\-ß-fm-Is´
in£-bpsS FÆq-dn-c-´nbpw. AXn¬ Xmgv∂               At\Iw imkv{X-߃ ]Tn-®n-´p≈ {_m“-W-
a{¥n°v Fgp-∂q-dn-c-´nbpw AXn\pw Xmsg-bp-ff        \m-I-s´, Bcm-bn-cp-∂mepw [¿aw shSn™v
cmPy-`r-Xy\v Adp-\q-dn-c-´nbpw Bbn-cn-°-Ww.       A[¿aw {]h¿Øn-°p-Ibpw \nc-]-cm-[n-Isf
Cßns\ cmPy- ` r- X y- ∑ m- c n¬sh®v F‰hpw         sIm√p-Ibpw sNøp-∂-hsc Btem-Nn-°p-I-
sNdnb in]m-bn-°p-t]m-epw, F´n-c-´n-bn¬ Ipd-       t]mepw sNømsX sIm∂p-I-f-tb-≠-Xm-Wv.
bmØ in£ \ev t I- ≠ - X m- W v . cmPy- ` r- X y-   sIm∂p-I-f-™-Xn\p tijta Bcm-sW-∂p-
∑m¿°v P\-ß-tf-°mƒ A[nIw in£ sImSp-                ≈Xv Btem-Nn-°m-hq.
°m-Xn-cp-∂m¬ Ah¿ P\-ßsf apSn-®p-I-f-bpw.              11. Hfn-hmtbm shfn-hmtbm ZpjvSsc sIm√p-
Hcp tImemSv Aev]-amb ZWvUw-sIm≠v CW-              ∂-Xp-sIm≠v sIm√p-∂-h\v bmsXmcp ]m]hpw
ßp-∂p. knwl-am-Is´ A[n-I- ZWvUw sImt≠             D≠m-Ip-∂n-√. ISpw-tIm]w ]q≠p-h-cp-∂-hs\
CW-ßp-∂p-f-fq. AXn-\m¬ cmPmhp apX¬                t{Im[w-sIm≠v sIm∂p-I-f-bp-∂Xv t{Im[hpw

                                              123
    kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw                                                  cmP-[¿aw
tIm]hpw XΩn-ep≈ t]mc-´-am-sW-∂mWv [cn-           °Ww?
t°-≠-Xv.                                            DØcw:-˛ cmPmhpw ]pWym-flmhpw `mKy-hm-
   12. I≈∑mcpw, ]c-kv{Xo-kwKw sNøp-∂-h-          \p-amb a\p-jy≥ Xs∂-bm-Wv. cmPm-hn\v in£
cpw, NoØ-hm-°p-Iƒ ]d-bp-∂-hcpw Itø-‰-°m-         \¬Ip-Itbm in£ kzoI-cn-°p-Itbm sNøm-
cpw-sIm-≈-°mcpw cmPm-hns‚ Iev]\ A\p-k-           Xn-cp-∂m¬ a‰p-≈-h¿ F¥n\p in£ kzoI-cn-
cn-°m-Ø-hcpw C√mØ cmPy-Øns‚ cmPmhv               °Ww? am{X-a-√, P\-ßfpw {][m\ cmP-]p-cp-
AXn-t{i-jvT-\m-Wv.                               j-∑mcpw cmP-k-`bpw IqSn [¿am-\p-k-cWw
              hy`n-Nm-c-Øn\p in£                 cmPm-hns\ in£n-°m≥ B{K-ln-°p∂ ]£w
   1. `cvØmcw ewL-tbZym kv{Xo kz⁄mXn             cmPmhv H‰bv°v F¥-sN-øm-\mWv? Cß-s\-
KpW- Z cv - ] nXm Xmw iz`nx JmZ- t b- { ZmPm     sbmcp hyhÿ Cs√-¶n¬ cmPmhpw {][m-\n-
kwÿmt\ _lp-kw-ÿntX.                              I-fmb cmP-]p-cp-j-∑mcpw ka¿Y-∑m-cmb a‰p≈
                                                 A[n-Ir-Xcpw A\ym-b-hn-t[-b-cmbn \ymb-[¿a-
   2. ]pamwkw Zml-tbXv]m]w ibt\ X]vX             ßsf XI¿Øv P\-ß-sf-sb√mw \mi-Øn-
Bb- t k. A`ym- Z - [ yp› Imjv T m\n X{X          te°p \bn-°p-Ibpw kzbw \in-°p-Ibpw
ZtlyX ]m]-IrXv.                                  sNøpw. ""\ymbm-\p-kr-X-amb in£-bv°mWv
   3. ZocvLm-[z\n bYm-tZiw bYm-Imew Xtcm         cmPmhv F∂pw [¿a-sa∂pw ]d-bp-∂-Xv.'' F∂p
`th-Xv. \Zo-Xn-tcjp XZzn-Zym-’-apt{Z \mkvXn      apºp ]d-™n-´p≈ t«mIm¿Yw kvacn-°p-I. B
e£-Wav.                                          ZWvU-[¿a-Xn-Xn\p tem]w hcp-Øp-∂-h-t\-
   4. Al-\y-l\y-tht£yX Icvam-¥m-\zml
                 -                               °mƒ \oN-\m-cmWv?
\m\nN. Ab-hysbu N \ob-Xmhm Icm≥                     tNmZyw:-˛ CØcw ITn-\-amb in£ DNn-X-
tImj-ta-hN                                       a-√. Fs¥-∂m¬ tOZn® AwK-ßsf ho≠pw
   5. Ghw kcv∆m-\n-am≥ cmPm hyh-lm-cm≥           D≠m-°p-hm\pw acn-®-h\v Dbn¿ \evIp-hm\pw
kam-]-b≥. hyt]mly Inev_njw kcvhw                 a\p-jy\v km≤y-a-√-t√m. AXn-\m¬ CØcw
{]m]vt\mXn ]camw KXnav.                          in£ \evIp-hm≥ ]mSn-√.
   (a-\p. A. 8 t«mIw. 371; 372; 406; 419; 420)      DØcw:-˛ Cu in£ ITn-\-sa∂v hnNm-cn-°p-
   1. B`n-Pm-Xyw, KpW-߃ F∂n-h-bn¬ A`n-          ∂-h¿ cmP-\n-Xn-⁄∑mc-√. Fs¥-∂m¬ Hcp
am-\n®v K¿∆n-jvT-bmbn `¿Øm-hns\ Dt]-£n®v         a\p-jys\ C{]-Imcw in£n-°p-tºmƒ a‰p-≈-
hy`n-Nmcw sNøp-∂hsf Poh-t\m-Sp-Iq-Sn-Øs∂
                     -                           h-sc√mw ZpjvIr-Xy-߃ sNøp-∂-Xn¬ \n∂p
cmPmhp _lp-P-\-k-a£w \n¿Øn \mbv°-tf-             ]n¥n-cnbpw. Zpcm-Nm-c-ßsf ]cn-Xy-Pn®v [¿a-
s°m≠v ISn-∏n®p sImt√-≠-Xm-Wv.                    am¿§-Øn¬ h¿Øn-°pw. hmkvX-h-Øn¬ Cu
                                                 in£ kIe P\-߃°p-ambn hn`-Pn-®m¬
   2. AXp-t]m-se-X-s∂, kz¥w ]Xv\nsb ]cn-         Hmtcm-cp-Øs‚ ]¶pw ISp-In-s\m∏w hcn-√.
Xy-Pn®v ]c-kv{Xo-kwKw sNøp-Itbm thiym-           in£ eLp-hm-bn-cp-∂m¬ Zpjv{]-hr-Øn-Iƒ
kv{Xo-I-tfm-Sp-IqSn kwK-an-°p-Itbm sNøp∂         hfsc A[nIw Xg®p hf-cpw. AXn-\m¬ eLp-
]m]n-bmb ]pcp-js\ P\-ß-fpsS apºn¬sh®v            sh∂v \n߃°v tXm∂p∂ in£- b mWv
Np´p-]-gp-∏n® Ccpºp I´n-en¬ InSØn `kva-          Bbncw aSßp ITn-\w. AkwJyw P\-߃
am-°n-°-f-b-Ww.                                  ZpjvIrXyw sNbvXm¬ Ah¿s°√mw {]tXyIw
   tNmZyw:-˛ cmPmthm cm⁄ntbm As√-                Aev]m-ev]-sa-¶nepw in£ \evtI≠n hcpw.
¶n¬ \ymbm-[n-]-Xntbm Abm-fpsS `mcytbm            AXns‚ BsI-ØpI CXn-t\-°mƒ Xptew
hy`n-Nm-cmZn Zpjv°¿a-߃ sNbvXm¬ Bc-              A[n-I-am-bn-cn-°pw. AXp-sIm≠v AXv ITn-\-
h¿°v in£-\¬Ipw?                                  hp-am-Wv.
   DØcw:-˛ cmP-k` Xs∂. F∂p-am-{X-a√                 3. Zo¿L-am¿K-ß-fnepw IS-en-Sp-°p-I-fnepw
Ah¿°p \¬Ip∂ in£ km[m-cW {]P-                     \Zn- I - f nepw henb Pe- ∏ - c - ∏ p- I - f nepw tZi-
Iƒ°p-≈-Xn-t\-°mƒ A[nIw Bbn-cn-t°-≠-              ssZ¿Lyhpw Ime-hp-a-\p-k-cn®p Icw˛ IS-Øp-
Xm-Wv.                                           Iq-en˛ \n›-bn-°-Ww. alm-k-ap-{Z-Øn¬ ¢n]vX-
   tNmZyw:-˛ cmPmhpw \ymbm-[n-]-Xnbpw a‰pw                         -
                                                 amb Icw ˛ Xpd-∏Ww˛ \n›-bn-°p-∂Xp km≤y-
cmP-k` sImSp-°p∂ in£-sb-¥n-\w-Ko-I-cn-           a-√. cmPm-hn\pw IS-en¬ henb I∏-ep-Iƒ
                                             124
                 Bdmw kap-√mkw                                                     kXym¿Y-{]-Im-iw
sIm≠p-t]m-Ip-∂-h¿°pw em`w D≠mI-Ø-°-                           kn≤n-°m-Ø-Xp-sIm-≠v, Imtem-Nn-X-amb cmPy-
hÆw hyhÿ sNø-Ww. A\y-cm-Py-ß-fn-                              ]-cn-]m-e\w Hcn-°epw km≤ym-am-hp-I-bn-√.
                    - - -
te°pw Zzo]m-¥cßfn-te°pw I∏¬ Ib-dn-t∏m-                        cmPy-`-c-W-Øn\v DNn-X-hy-hÿ sNbvXn-s√-
Ip∂ Xs‚ P\- ß sf k¿h{X c£n®v                                  ¶n¬ \m´p-Im¿ apgp-h\pw ]c-kv]cw Ie-ln®pw
bmsXmcp ZpxJhpw t\cn- S p- h m- \ nS hcmsX                    XΩn¬ X√nbpw bp≤w sNbvXpw \in-®p-t]m-
ImØp-sIm-≈-Ww.                                                Ipw. AXn-\m¬ ico-c-_-ehpw Bfl-_-ehpw
                       -
   4. cmPmhv Znh-khpw tPmen Xocp-tºmƒ B\,                     Hcp-t]mse F∂pw h¿≤n-∏n-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°Ww.   -
IpXnc apX-emb hml-\-߃, cXv\w apX-emb                         hy`n-Nm-cw, hnj-b-kp-J-Øn-ep≈ AXym-k‡n
Ipgn-s®-Sp-°∂ J\n-Iƒ, `WvUmcw F∂n-h-                          F∂n-h-sb-t∏mse _p≤n-tbbpw _e-tØbpw
bnse hc-hp-sN-ehp IW-°p-Iƒ apX-emh ]cn-                       \in-∏n-°p-∂-Xmb {]hrØn thsd-sbm-∂p-an-√.
tim-[n-°-Ww.                                                  £{Xn-b¿ hnti-jn®pw ZrV-Im-b-∑mcpw _e-
   5. cmPmhv Cßs\ kIe hyh-lm-c-ßfpw                           hm-∑mcpw Bbn-cn-°WwXm\pw. Fs¥-∂m¬
bYm- h n[n \S- Ø p- I bpw \S- Ø n- ° p- I bpw                 Ah¿ Xs∂ hnj-bm-k-‡-cm-bvØo¿∂m¬
sNbvXv kIe ]m]-ß-tfbpw Zqco-I-cn®v ]c-a-                      cmP[¿aw apgp-h\pw \in®p t]mIp-a-t√m. bYm
amb tam£-kp-JsØ {]m]n-°p-∂p.                                  cmPm XYm {]Pmx F∆-Æ-a-c-N≥ sNbvhq
                                                              amtem-I-cp-a-tX-hn[w F∂Xpw kvac-Wo-b-am-
   tNmZyw:-˛ kwkvIrX `mj-bn-ep≈ cmP-\oXn                      Wv. AXn-\m¬ cmPmhpw cmP-]p-cp-j-∑mcpw
]q¿Wtam A]q¿Wtam?                                             Zpjv{]-hr-Øn-IƒsN-øm-Xn-cn-°p-Ibpw k¿h-Ym-
   DØcw:-˛ ]q¿W-am-Wv. `qtem-I-Øn¬ {]Nm-                      \ym-b-tØmSpw [¿Ω-tØmSpw IqSn h¿Øn-®v,
c-Øn-ep-≠m-bn-cp-∂-hbpw {]Nm-c-Øn¬ hcm-hp-                    kIe P\- ß ƒ°pw A`yp- Z - b - a p- ≠ m- I -
∂-h-bp-amb kIe cmPy-X-{¥hpw kwk-Ir-X-                         Ø°hÆw, BZ¿i-amb PohnXw \bn-°p-∂-
Øn¬ \n∂v FSp-Ø-Xm-Wv. AXn¬ kv]-jvS-                           XmWv DNn-Xw.
ambn ]d-bmØ hnj-b-ßsf kw_-‘n-®v˛                                                            -
                                                                  cmP-[¿Ω-Øns‚ Npcp-°Øn-ep≈ hnh-cWw
{]Xylw temI- Z r- j v s sS› imkv { X- Z r-                                                -
                                                              ChnsS Fgp-Xn. thZ-߃,-a\p-kvar-Xn-bnse Ggv
jvssS› tlXp`nx (a-\p. 8.3) GsX√mw \nb-                        F´v HºXv F∂o A≤ym-b-߃,ip-{I-\o-Xn,-hn-
a-߃ cmPm-hn\pw {]P-Iƒ°pw kpJ-{]-Zßfpw              -         Zq-c-{]-Pm-K-c-]¿∆w, alm-`m-c-X-Ønse im¥n-
[¿am- \ p- k r- X - ß - f p- a mbn tXm∂p- ∂ pthm              ]¿∆-Øn-e-S-ßnb cmP-[¿aw B]-≤¿aw apX-
AsX√mw sshZpjyw XnI™ hnZz÷-\-ß-f-                             emb {KŸ-߃ t\m°n Ah-bnse hnkvXrX
S-ßnb. cmP-k-`-bn¬ \n¿Ωn-t°-≠-Xm-Ip-∂p.                       hnh-c-W-Øn¬ \n∂p cmP-\o-Xn-bn¬ ]q¿W-
F∂m¬, C∏-d-bp∂ hnj-b-ß-fn¬ F∂pw                               amb ⁄m\w kºm-Zn®v aWvU-te-iz-c-t‚tbm
{]tXyIw {i≤-sh-bvt°-≠-XmWv:-˛ Ign-bp-∂n-                      km¿∆-s`ua\mb N{I-h¿Øn-bp-tStbm ]Z-
S-tØmfw _mey-hn-hm-lsØ A\p-h-Zn-°m-Xn-                        hnsb {]m]n-°-Ww. hbw {]Pm-]tXx {]Pm
cn-°-Ww. bu∆-\-Ønepw h[q-h-c-∑m-cpsS ]c-                      A`p-a. (bPpx 18 29) bPp¿th-Z-Øn-ep-≈-XmWv
kv ] c {]oXn- t bmSpIqSnb- √ msX hnhmlw                       Cu hN-\w. \mw {]Pm-]XnbpsS,-A-Xm-bXv
sNøp-Itbm sNøn-°p-Itbm Acp-Xv. {_“-Ncyw                       k¿th-iz-c-s‚, {]P-Iƒ BIp∂p F∂v, Adn-
th≠-hÆw A\p-jvTn-°p-Ibpw A\p-jvTn-∏n-°p-                      ™n-cn-°-Ww. ]c-amflmhv \ΩpsS cmPmhpw
Ibpw sNø-Ww. hy`n-Nm-chpw _lp-hn-hm-lhpw                      \mw Ahn-SptØ {]P-I-fp-am-Wv. Ahn-Sp∂v Xncp-
\n¿Ø- e m- ° - W w,. A{]- I mcw sNbv X m¬                     hp≈w I\n-™v, \sΩ Ahn-SpsØ krjvSn-bm-
am{Xta ico-c-Øn\pw Bflm-hn\pw ]q¿W-amb                         Ip∂ cmPy-Øn¬ A[n-Im-cn-I-fmbn \nb-an-®v,
_ew kZm D≠m-hp-I-bp-≈q. Bfl-_-esØ                              kXyw \ymbw F∂o kz[¿asØ \ΩpsS
am{Xw ˛ AXm-bXp hnZy ⁄m\w F∂n-hsb                             ssIsIm≠p {]h¿Øn-∏n-°p-am-dm-I-s´.
am{Xw˛ h¿≤n-∏n-°p-I-bpw-˛-i-co-c-_ew h¿≤n-
∏n-°m-Xn-cn-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂-Xm-bmepw _e-hm-                        ASpØ kap-√m-k-Øn¬ Cuiz-c≥, thZ-
\mb Hcp ]pcp-j≥ ⁄m\n-Ifpw hnZzm-∑m-cp-                        ߃ F∂nh \ncq-]Ww sNøp-∂-Xm-Wv.
amb At\-Im-bncw P\-ßsf Pbn-°p-hm≥                                   {ioa-±-bm-\-µ-k-c-kz-Xo-kzm-an-I-fm¬
i‡- \ m- b n- c n- ° pw. t\sc- a - d n- ® v , ico- c - _ ew         hnc-Nn-X-amb kXym¿Y-{]-Im-i-Øn¬
am{Xw h¿≤n-∏n-°p-Ibpw Bfl-_ew h¿≤n-∏n-                                   cmP-[¿a-ßsf hnh-cn-°p∂
°m-Xn-cn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXm¬ hnZym-`ymkw                                    Bdmw kap-√mkw Ign-™p.

                                                          125
kXym¿∞-{]-Im-iw         Cuiz-c≥ thZw




                  126
              Ggmw kap-√mkw                                            kXym¿∞-{]-Im-iw




                                              7
                                   Ggmw kap-√mkw

                             kXym¿Y-{]-Imiw
                              Cuiz-c≥ thZw
                   AY Cuizc thZ-hn-jb {]h£ymax
              C\n Cuiz-c≥, thZw F∂o hnj-b-߃ hymJm-\n-°p-∂p.
          Cu-iz-cs‚ KpW-h¿W-\                                            - -
                                                    amb KpW-I¿a kz`m-hßsf-√m-ap-≈Xpw kIe
                                                    hnZzm-∑mcpw `qan kqcy≥ apX-emb kIe temI-
   1. EtNm A£tc ]ctathyma-\y-kvan\v
                                                    ßfpw {]Xn-jvTn-°-s∏-´-Xpw. BImiw t]mse
tZhm A[n hntiz-\n-tjZpx; bkvX∂thZ
                                                    Fßpw \nd™p h¿Øn-°p-∂-Xpw, tZh-∑m-cp-
InarNm Icn-jy-Xn-bCØ-Zzn-ZpkvX Cta kam-
                                                    sSbpw tZh-\mb B k¿th-iz-cs\ Bcm-™-
k-tX.(E 1.164. 39)
                                                    dn-bp-Ibpw Bcm-[n-°p-I-bpw, [ym\n-°p-Ibpw
   2. Cuim hmky-anZMv kcvhw bXvIn©                  sNømØ a\p-jy¿ \mkvXn-Icpw aµ-_p-≤n-Ifpw
PKXymw PKXv; tX\ Xyt‡\ `pRvPo-Ymam                  ZpxJ-km-K-c-Øn¬ ]Xn®p InS-°p-∂-h-cp-a-t{X.
Kr[x- I-ky-kzn-≤-\-av. (bPp.40.1)                   B k¿th-iz-cs\ Adn-bp-∂-Xp-sIm-≠p-am{Xta
   3.-A-lw-`phw hkp\x ]qcvh-kv]-Xn-clw              a\p-jy\v kZm kpJw e`n-°q.
[\m-\n kw Pbman iizXx: amw lh¥]nXc                      th-Z-Øn¬ At\Iw Cuiz-c-∑mtcm?
\ P-¥thmflw. Zmiptj- hn-`-Pm-an-t`m-P-\-av.
                                                       tNmZyw:-˛ thZ-Øn¬ At\Iw Cuiz-c∑m¿  -
   4.-A-l-ant{µm \ ]cm-PnKy C≤\w \ arXy-
                                                    D≠v . CXv \n߃ AwKo- I - c n- ° p- ∂ pthm
th-hX tÿI-Zm-N\: tkma-an≥am kp\zt¥m
                                                    C√tbm?
bmNXm hkq\-ta. ]qchx kcp-tb-cn-jm-Y\
(E. 10.48.1.5)                                         DØcw:-˛ AwKo-I-cn-°p-∂n-√. Fs¥-∂m¬
                                                    \mep-th-Z-ß-fn-sem-cn-SØpw Aßs\ ]d-™n-
   5. AlwZmw KrWtX ]qcvhyw hkzlw
                                                    ´n√ F∂p-am-{X-a√ Hcp Cuizct\ Ds≈∂v ]d-
{_“-Ir-Whw alyw hcv[-\-av. Alw-`phw
                                                    ™n-´p-ap-≠v.
bP-am-\ky tNmZnXmfbPz\x km£n hnizm-
kvan≥ `tc.(E 10. 49.1) 1                              tNmZyw:-˛ thZ-ß-fn¬ At\-I-tZ-h-X-I-sf-
                                                    ∏‰n ]d-™n-´p-≈-Xns‚ Xmev]-cy-sa-¥mWv?
   1 EtNm A£tc F∂ a{¥-Øns‚ A¿Yw:-
˛ {_“-Ncym-{i-a-in-£-bn¬ 2 ]d™p Ign-                   DØcw:-˛ ]rYnhn apX-em-b-hbv°v Znhy-Kp-W-
™p. Chn-sSbpw `mjm-t`Z-tØmsS Ah Znhy-               ß-fp-≈-Xp-sIm-≠mWv tZh-X-I-sf∂p ]d-bp-∂-
                                                    Xv. F∂m¬ Ch Cuiz-c-\m-sW-t∂m, D]m-k-
1. t]Pv 118.                                        \m-tbm-Ky-am-sWt∂m AwKo-I-cn-®n-´n-√. Cu
2. Cu a{¥w kXym¿Y-{]-Imiw aqe-Øn-en-√. A¿Yw
   sImSp-Øn-´p-≈-Xp-sIm≠v ChnsS a{¥hpw tN¿Ø-Xm-                                -
                                                    a{¥-Øn¬ Xs∂ ""GsXm-cp-h\n¬ kIe tZh-
   Wv.

                                                  127
     kXym¿∞-{]-Im-iw                                              Cuiz-c≥ thZw
X-Ifpw ÿnXn-sN-øp-∂pthm Ah-s\-bt{X                 ambn B{K- l n- ° m- X n- c n- ° p- I . A\ymbw
Adn-tb≠Xpw D]m-kn-t°-≠-Xpw.'' F∂p ]d-                                  -
                                                   shSn™v \ymbm-NcWam-Ip∂ [¿a-tØm-Sp-IqSn
™n-´p-≈Xp t\m°p-I. tZh≥ F∂p tI´m¬                  Ah-\-hs‚ Bflm-hn¬ can®v B\-µ-a-\p-`-hn-
Cuiz-c≥ F∂p {Kln-°p-∂Xp sX‰m-Wv. tZh-              ®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-I.
   -                       -
∑-mcp-tSbpwIqSn tZh-\m-bXp-sIm-≠mWv k¿th-              3. Cuiz-c≥ F√m-h-scbpw D]t-Z-in-°p∂p:-
iz-cs\ alm-tZ-h-s\∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xv. kIe               ˛ am\-htc! Rm≥ Cuiz-c\pw as‰-√m-h-tc-
temI-ß-fp-sSbpw krjvSn-ÿn-Xn-kw-lm-c-߃            °mfpw hep-∏-ap-≈-h-\pw, kI-e-P-K-Øn-s‚bpw
\S-Øp-∂-h\pw \ymbm-[o-i\pw A[n-]-Xnbpw                      -
                                                   A[n-]Xnbpw BIp-∂p. PK-Øns‚ aqe-Im-cWw
At±lw Xs∂. ""{Xb-kv{Xnwi-{Xn-i-Xm''˛               Rm\m-Ip-∂p. k¿h-k-º-Øp-I-tfbpw Pbn®p
CXymZn {]amWw thZ-ß-fn-teXp Xs∂-bmWv               kzm[o-\-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂Xpw Zm\w \¬Ip-∂Xpw
iX-]Y {_m“-WØn¬ CXns‚ hymJym\w                     Rm≥ Xs∂-bm-Wv. kIe Poh-Pm-e-ßfpw
t\m°p-I. ""ap∏-Øn-aq∂p tZh--X-Iƒ Cu IW-            Fs∂ ]p{X- ∑ m¿ ]nXm- h n- s \- s b- ∂ - t ]mse
°-\p-k-cn-®m-Wv-˛-]r-Yn-hn, Pew, A·n, hmbp,        Xs∂ hnNm- c n®p hnfn- ° - s ´. F√m- h ¿°pw
BIm- i w, N{µ≥, kqcy≥, \£- { X- ß ƒ                kuJyw \¬Ip∂ PK-Øn-\p-th-≠n, \m\m-Xcw
F∂nh krjvSn-bpsS hmk-ÿm-\-am-I-bm¬                 Blm-c-ßsf hn`-Pn®v ]cn-]m-e-\-Øn-\mbn
F´p hkp- ° - f m- W v . {]mW≥, A]m- \ ≥,           Rm≥ \¬In-bn-cn-°p-∂p.
hym\≥, DZm-\≥, kam-\≥, \mK≥, Iq¿Ω≥,                    4. ]c-ssa-iz-cy-hm-\mb Rm≥ kqcy-Xpeyw
                -                -
IrI-e≥, tZh-ZØ≥, [\-RvPb≥, Pohm-flm-                kI-e-tem-I-ß-tfbpw {]Im-in-∏n-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-
hv, F∂o ]Xn-s\m∂p cp{Z-∑mcpw ico-csØ               °p-∂-h-\m-Wv. Rm≥ Hcn-°epw ]cm-P-b-s∏-Sp-
XyPn®p t]mIp-tºmƒ tcmZ\w sNøn-°p-∂-h-              I-bn-√. acn-°p-Ibpw C√. temI-am-Ip∂ [\-
cm-Wv. AXn-\m¬ cp{Z-∑m-sc∂p ]d-bp-∂p. kwh-         Øns‚ krjvSmhv Rm≥ Xs∂. kIe PK-Øn-
’- c - Ø nse ]{¥≠p amk- ß ƒ F√m- h - c p-          s‚bpw {kjvSn-I¿Ømhpw Rm≥ Xs∂ F∂-
sSbpw Bbp- ns\ A]-l-cn-°p-∂-Xp-sIm≠v               dn-bp-I. am\-htc! sFizcye_v[n-°mbn {]b-
ZzmZ-im-Zn-Xy-∑m¿ F∂p ]d-bp-∂p. ]c-a-amb           Xv \ n- ° p∂ \nß- s f- √ m- h cpw hn⁄m- \ mZn
sFiz- c y- Ø n\p ImcWw an∂- e m- I - b m¬          [\sØ Ft∂m-Sp-Xs∂ At]-£n®p hmßp-
AXns\ C{µ≥ F∂p ]d-bp-∂p. hmbp, ag,                 hn≥. Fs‚ ssa{Xnsb \n߃ Hcn- ° epw
sh≈w, Huj-[n-Iƒ F∂n-hsb ip≤o-I-cn-°p-              ssIsh-Sn-b-cp-Xv.
∂- X n- \ mepw hnZz- ÷ - \ - ß fpsS kXv I mcw
At\I hn[- Ø n- e p≈ inev ] - h n- Z y- I - f psS       5. kXy-ambn kvXpXn-°p∂ a\p-jy\v Rm≥
{]Nmcw F∂n-h-bmepw {]P-Isf ]men-°p--∂-             k\m-X-\-amb hn⁄m-\-k-ºØp \¬Ip-∂p.
Xp-sIm≠pw b⁄-Øn\pw {]Pm-]Xn F∂v ]d-                {_“-sa∂p IqSn t]cp≈ thZsØ shfn-hm-
bp-∂p. C∏-d™ ap∏-Øn-aq∂pw ap≥]-d-™                 °n-b-h≥ Rm≥ Xs∂. B thZ-߃ hgn-bmw-
KpW-ß-fp-≈-Xn-\m¬ tZh-X-I-fm-Wv. Ch-bp-sS-         hÆw shfn-hm-°p∂ s]mcpfpw Rm≥ Xs∂.
sb√mw A[n-]-Xnbpw F√m-‰n-t\-°mfpw _rl-             thZ-Øn-eqsS F√m-h-cp-sSbpw ⁄m\sØ
Øp- a mb k¿th- i z- c ≥ ap∏- Ø n- \ m- e m- a sØ   h¿≤n-∏n-°p-∂Xpw Rm≥ Xs∂-bm-Wv. k÷-
tZh\pw F√m-h¿°pw D]m-ky-\p-am-Wv. F∂p              \-ßsf {]h¿Øn-∏n-°p∂pw b⁄-߃ sNøp-
iX-]-Y-{_m-“-W-Øn¬ ]Xn-\memw ImWvU-                ∂-h¿°p ^ew \¬Ip-∂Xpw Rm\m-Ip-∂p. Cu
Øn¬ kv]jvS-ambn ]d-™n-´p≠v. C∏-d™                                -                -
                                                   hniz-Øn-ep-≈sX√mw Imcy-hkvXp-°sf-sb√mw -
imkv{X- ß ƒ t\m°n- b m¬ thZ- ß - f n¬              krjvSn®v [mcWw sNøp-∂Xpw Rm≥ Xs∂.
At\Iw Cuiz-c-∑m-sc-∏‰n ]d-™n-´p-s≠∂                AXn-\m¬ \n߃ Fs∂ hn´v as‰m-∂n-t\bpw
sX‰ns‚ he-bn¬ IpSp-ßm-Xn-cn-°mw.                   F\n°p ]Icw ]qPn-°-cp-Xv, am\n-°-cp-Xv, Adn-
                                                   b-cp-Xv.
   2. A√tbm a\pjym Cu krjv S n- b n¬
ImWp∂ kIe Ncm-Ncßfnepw hym]n-®n-cp∂v
                        - - -                          lnc-Wy-Kcv`x ka-hcvØ-Xmt{K `qXky
k¿h-\n-b-¥m-hmbn hnf-ßp-∂-h-\mWv Cuiz-             PmXx]Xn-tcI BkoX;v kZm[mc ]rYnhow
c≥. At±-lsØ `b∂v \o ]c-[\w A\ym-b-                 Zymap-tXamw Ikvssa-tZ-hmb lhnjm hnt[a
                                                   (b-Pp. 13.4)

                                               128
              Ggmw kap-√mkw                                               kXym¿∞-{]-Im-iw
   bPp¿th-Z-Øn-ep≈ a{¥-am-WnXv:-˛ A√tbm          Pn-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNøp-tºmƒ As√-¶n¬ a\ pw
a\p-jytc! krjvSn-°p-apºv tXtPm-a-b-ß-fmb                -
                                                 C{µn-bßfpw tamjWw apX-emb Zpjv{]-hr-Øn-
kqcymZn kIe temI-ß-fp-sSbpw Dev∏-Øn-             I-tfm ]tcm-]-Imcw XpS-ßnb kXvIr-Xy-ßtfm
                  -          -
ÿm-\hpw B[m-chp-am-bn-cp-∂Xpw, CXn-\p-apºp                                 -
                                                 sNøp-hm≥ Bcw-`n-°p-tºmƒ-˛Po-hm-flm-hn-ep≈
D≠m-bn-´p-≈Xpw Ct∏mƒ DffXpw C\n-ta¬              C— ⁄m\w apX-emb KpW-߃ B A`n-e-
D≠m-Ip-∂-Xp-amb kIe ]Zm¿∞-ß-fp-sSbpw             jnX hnj-b-Øn-te°p sN√p-∂p. AtX £W-
bPam-\-\m-bXpw, BIp-∂Xpw GsXm-cp-ht\m            Øn¬ Xs∂ Bflm-hns‚ A¥¿`m-K-Øn¬
Ah≥ `qtemIw apX¬ kqcy-temIw hsc-bp≈              NoØ sNøp- ∂ - X n¬ `bw, kwibw, e÷
krjvSn-ap-gp-h\pw \n¿Ωn®p c£n®p h¿Øn-°p-         F∂n-hbpw kXvIrXyw sNøp-∂Xn¬ ss[cyw
∂p. B\-µ-kz-cq-]-\mb B ]c-am-flm-hn¬              kwi-b-cm-ln-Xyw. kt¥m-jw, D’m-lw, F∂n-
Rß-sf-t∏mse \nßfpw `‡n-bp-f-f-h-cm-Ip-I.         hbpw D≠m-Ip-∂p. CXp Pohm-flm-hn¬ \n∂-
   tNmZyw:-˛ "Cuiz-c≥' "Cuiz-c≥' F∂n-                                           -
                                                 √. ]c-am-flm-hn¬ \n∂m-Wp-≠m-Ip-∂X.v IqSmsX
ßs\ \n߃ ]d-bp-∂p-≠-t√m. F∂m¬                    Pohm-flmhp ]cn-ip-≤-ambn ]c-am-flm-hns\
Cuiz- c - \ p- s ≠∂p sXfn- b n- ° p- h m≥ Ign-   [ym\n-°p-tºmƒ AXn\p Pohm-flmhpw ]c-am-
bptam?                                           flmhpw {]Xy-£-am-Ip-∂p. {]Xy-£-am-Ip-s∂-
    DØcw:-˛ {]Xy-£m-Zn-bmb F√m {]am-W-           ¶n¬ A\p-am-\m-Zn-IƒsIm≠v Cuiz-c-⁄m\w
ß-sf-s°m≠pw sXfn-bn-°mw.                         D≠m-Ip-sa-∂-Xn¬ kwi-b-sa-¥mWv? Imcyw
                                                 I≠n-´m-Wt√m Imc-WsØ A\p-am-\n-°p-∂-Xv.
   tNmZyw:-˛ Cuiz-c-\p-s≠-∂p-≈-Xn\v {]Xy-
£mZn {]am-W-ß-sfm∂pw Hcn-°epw sXfn-                        Cu-iz-cs‚ hym]-I-Xzw
hm-Ip-∂n-√t√m?                                       tNmZyw:-˛ Cuiz-c≥ Fßpw hym]n-®n-cn-°p-
   DØcw:-˛ C{µn-bmcvY k∂n-I¿tjm-Xv]∂w            ∂pthm Hcn-SØp hkn-°p-∂pthm?
⁄m\ ahy-]-tZ-iyahy`nNmcn hyh-km-bm-                  DØcw:-˛ Fßpw hym]n-®n-cn-°p-∂p. Hcn-SØp-  -
flIw {]Xy-£av (\ym-bw. 1.4)                       am{Xw ÿnXn-sN-øp-∂p-sh-¶n¬ k¿hm-¥-bm-
   KuX-a-a-l¿jn-bpsS \ymb-Z¿i-\-Ønse             an- b pw, k¿∆- ⁄ - \ pw, k¿h- \ n- b - ¥ mhpw ,
Hcp kq{X-am-Wn-Xv. sNhn, aq°v, Xz°v, IÆv,        {kjv S m- h pw, kwc- £ - I - \ pw, kwlm- c - I \pw
\m°v, a\ v F∂n-hbv°v i_vZw, kv]¿iw,                                              - -
                                                 Bbn-cn-°p-hm≥ km[n-°p-∂X√. I¿Øm-hns‚
K‘w, cq]w, ckw, kpJZpx- J - ß ƒ F∂o              km∂n≤yw C√m-Ø-bn-SØv {Inb-bp-an-√.
kXym-k-Xy-hn-j-bßtfmSv kw_‘w sIm≠p-                        Z-bm-ephpw \ymb-Im-cn-bpw
≠m-Ip∂ ⁄m\-tØ-bmWv {]Xy£w F∂p                       tNmZyw:-˛ Cuiz-c≥ Zbm-ephpw \ymb-Im-
]d-bp-∂-Xv. F∂m¬ AXp sX‰m-bn-cn-°-cp-Xv.         cn-bpamtWm?
ChnsS Ipd-s®m∂p Nn¥n-t°-≠-Xp-≠v:-˛ C{µn-
b-߃ a\-t m-Sp-IqSn tNcp-tºmƒ KpW-߃                DØcw:-˛ AtX.
am{Xta {]Xy-£-am-Ip-∂p-≈q. KpWn {]Xy-£-             tNmZyw:-˛ C∏-d™ c≠p KpW-ßfpw ]c-
am-Ip-∂n-√. Xz°v, IÆv, \m°v, aq°v F∂o C{µn-      kv ] - c - h n- c p- ≤ - ß - f m- W v . \ymbw \S- Ø p∂
b-ß-sf-s°m-≠pw kv]¿iw, cq]w, ckw, K‘w            ]£w Zbbpw Zb ImWn- ° p∂ ]£w
F∂o \mep KpW-ß-fpsS ⁄m\-amWv D≠m-                \ymbhpw Dt]-£n-t°≠n hcpw. \ymb-sa∂p
Ip-∂-Xv. AXp-hgn KpWn-bmb ]rYhn Bflm-             ]d-bp-∂Xp I¿Ω-ß-f-\p-k-cn®v G‰-°p-d-hp-
hn-t\m-Sp-IqSn kwbp-‡-am-bn-´p≈ a\- n¬           Iƒ IqSmsX kpJ-Zpx-J-ßsf \¬Ip-I-bm-Ip-
{]Xy-£o-`-hn-°p-∂p. AXp-t]mse C°m-Wp∂            ∂p. Ip‰w sNbvX-hs\ in£n-°msX hn´-b-
krjvSn-bpsS cN-\m-hn-ti-jmZn ⁄m\m-{i-b-          bv°p-∂-Xn-s\-bmWp Zb F∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xv.
ß-fmb KpW-߃ {]Xy-£-am-Ip-tºmƒ PK-Zo-                                  \ym-bhpw Zb-bpw
iz-c\pw {]Xy£o-`-hn-°p-∂p. Bflmhp a\-
 ns\ t{]cn-∏n-°p-Ibpw a\ v C{µn-b-ßsf               DØcw:-˛ \ymbw. Zb F∂n-hbv°p XΩn¬
GsX-¶nepw Hcp hnj-b-tØmSp IqSn kwtbm-            \ma-am-{X-t`-Z-ta-bp-≈q. \ymbw sIm≠p kn≤n-
                                                 °p∂ {]tbm-P\w Xs∂-bmWp Zb-sIm≠pw

                                             129
    kXym¿∞-{]-Im-iw                                             Cuiz-c≥ thZw
           -                      -
e`n-°p-∂Xv. a\p-jy¿ Ip‰w sNøp-∂Xn¬ \n∂p         \ymb-^-esØ {]Xy-£-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂p. \ymbw,
                      - -
]n≥h-en-bp-Ibpw ZpxJ-a\p-`hn-°m-Xn-cn-°p-Ibpw   Zb Ch c≠n\pw XΩn-ep≈ t`Zw C{X-am-{X-
sNøp-∂-Xn-\mWv in£ \¬Ip-∂-Xv. a‰p-≈-h-          am-Wv. F√m-h¿°pw kpJ-ap-≠m-IWsa∂pw
cpsS ZpxJ-ßsf Zqco-I-cn-°p-∂-Xn-s\-bmWv Zb-     ZpxJ-߃ \oß-W-sa∂pw C—-P-\n-°p-Ibpw
sb∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xv. Zb, \ymbw F∂n-hbv°v            AXn-\-\p-k-cn®p {]h¿Øn-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂-
\n߃ ]d™ A¿∞w icn-b-√. Fs¥-∂m¬                  Xns\ Zb-sb∂pw _mly-tN-jvS-I-sf-˛-_-‘\w
GXp Zpjv I ¿Ωw Hcp- h ≥ F{X- t Ømfw             h[w apX-emb in£-I-sf-˛-\ymbw F∂pw ]d-
sNbvXpthm Ah\v AXn\p X°-hÆw in£                 bp-∂p. F√m-h-scbpw ]m]-Øn¬ \n∂pw ZpxJ-
\evI-Ww. AXmWv \ymbw. Ip‰w sNbvX-h\p            ß-fn¬ \n∂pw th¿s]-Sp-ØpI F∂-Xp-X-s∂-
in£ \¬Ip-∂n-s√-¶n¬ Zb-bn-√m-Xm-hpw, Ip‰-        bmWv c≠n-s‚bpw {]tbm-P-\w.
°m-c-\mb I≈s\ in£n-°msX hn´m¬ AXv                       \ncm-Im-ct\m kmImc-t\m
                          -             -
At\-Im-bncw kXv]p-cp-j∑m¿°v D]-{Z-ham-Ipw.
Hcp-hs\ in£n-°msX hn´-b-°p-∂-Xp-sIm≠v              {]iv\w:-˛ Cuiz-c≥ kmImct\m \ncm-Im-
At\-Im-bncw P\-߃°p ZpxJw t\cn-Sp-sa-           cmt\m ?
¶n¬ AsX-ßs\ Zb-bmIpw? B I≈s\ XS-                   DØcw:-˛ \ncm-Im-c≥. kmImc-\m-sW-¶n¬
hn-en´p ]m]-I¿a-ßfn¬ \n∂pw AI‰n \n¿Øp-
                  -                             hym]-I-\m-hp-I-bn-√. hym]-I-\-s√-¶n¬ k¿h-
∂- X p- s Im≠v I≈s‚ t\tcbpw Ahs\                                    -
                                                ⁄Xzw apX-ehmb KpW-߃ Cuiz-c\p tNcp-
sIm∂p-I-f-bp-∂-Xp-sIm≠v a‰p≈ At\-Im-            I-bn-√. ]cn-anX hkvXp-hn-ep≈ KpW-I¿a-kz-
bncw Bfp-I-fpsS t\scbpw Zb ImWn-°p-∂p.          `m-h-ßfpw ]cn-an-X-am-bn-cn-°p-a-t√m. IqSmsX
   tNmZyw:-˛ ]ns∂-sb-¥n\v \ymbw, Zb F∂o         Cuiz-c≥ kmIm-c-\m-sW-¶n¬ iotXm-jvW-
c≠p hm°p-Iƒ D≠mbn? B c≠p hm°p-                  ߃ hni∏pw Zml-hpw, tcmK-߃, tZmj-߃,
I-fp-sSbpw A¿Yw H∂p-X-s∂-bm-sW-¶n¬              tOZ-\w, t`Z\w apX-emb {Inb-Iƒ F∂n-h-
c≠p hm°p-Iƒ shdp-sX-bm-W-t√m. Hcp ]Zw           sbm∂pw G¬°m-Ø-h-\m-bn-cn-°p-I-bn-√. AXn-
am{Xw D≠m-bn-cn-°p-∂-XmWp \√-Xv. Aß-            \m¬ Cuiz-c≥ \ncm-Im-c≥ Xs∂-bm-Wv. Cuiz-
s\b√m-Ø-Xn-\m¬ Zb-bp-sSbpw \ymb-Øn-                             -
                                                c≥ kmIm-c\m-sW-¶n¬ Cuiz-cs‚ IÆv, aq°v,
s‚bpw {]tbm-P\w H∂-s√∂p a\- n-em-Ip-            sNhn apX-emb Ah-b-h-߃ \n¿Ωn-°p∂
∂p.                                             thsdm- c p- h ≥ D≠m- b n- c n- ° - W w. kwtbmKw
                                                sIm≠p-≠m-Ip∂ hkvXp-°sf kwtbm-Pn-∏n-°p-
   DØcw:-˛ Htc A¿YsØ t_m[n-∏n-°p∂               hm≥ kmIm- c \pw tNX- \ \pamb Hcp- h ≥
At\Iw hm°p-Ifpw Htc hm°n\p At\Iw                thWw. Cuiz-c≥ kz¥w C—-sIm≠p kzi-co-
A¿Y-ßfpw D≠m-Im-dnt√?                                                           -
                                                csØ kzbw krjvSn-°p-IbmWp sNbvXsX∂p           -
   tNmZyw:-˛ D≠v?                               ]d-™mepw ico-c-\n¿am-W-Øn\p apºp \ncm-
   DØcw:-˛ ]ns∂ F¥p-sIm-≠mWv \n߃°v             Im-c-\m-bn-cp-∂p-sh∂p kn≤n-°p-∂p. AXn-\m¬
kwi-b-ap-≠m-bXv?                                ]c-am-flmhv Hcn-°epw icocw [cn-°p-∂n-√.
   tNmZyw:-˛ temI-Øn¬ Aßs\ ]d-™p-               \ncm- I m- c - \ m- b n- c p∂v kIe PK- Ø n- t \bpw
tIƒ°p-∂-Xp-sIm-≠p-X-s∂?                         kq£va-Im-c-W-ß-fn¬ \n∂v ÿqe-cq-]sØ
   DØcw:-˛ temI-Øn¬ kXyhpw Ak-Xyhpw             {]m]n-°p-∂-tX-bp-≈q.
]d- b p- ∂ Xv Aß- s \- ] - d ™p tIƒ°mw.                                k¿h-i-‡≥
F∂m¬ Ahsb ]cn-tim-[n®p \n¿W-bn-t°-                tNmZyw:-˛ Cuiz-c≥ k¿h-i-‡-\mtWm
≠Xv Ah-\-hs‚ IS-a-bm-Ip-∂p. kIe Pohn-           A√tbm?
I-fp-sSbpw Pohn-tXm-t±iw km[n-°p-∂-Xn\v           DØcw:-˛ k¿h-i-‡-\m-Wv. F∂m¬ k¿h-
temI- Ø n- e p≈ kakv X hkv X p- ° - s fbpw      i-‡n-am≥ F∂ ]Z-Øn\p \n߃ [cn-®p-h-®n-
krjvSn®p \evIn-bn-cn-°p-∂Xv Cuizcs‚ Zb-         ´p≈ A¿Y-an-√. k¿h-i-‡n-am≥ F∂-Xns‚
bm-Wv. CXn-ep-]cn al-Ømb Zb GXmWv?              A¿Yw CXmWv:-˛ Cuiz-c\v Xs‚ I¿Ø-hy-
             -  -                     -
   G‰-°p-dhp-Itfm-Sp-Iq-Snb kpJ-Zpx-Jhy-hÿ      amb krjvSn-ÿn-Xn-kw-lm-c-߃ \n¿h-ln-°p-

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                Ggmw kap-√mkw                                                       kXym¿∞-{]-Im-iw
∂-Xn\pw kIe Pohm-flm-°-fp-sSbpw ]pWy-                        DØcw:-˛ C√.
]m-]-hy-hÿ bYm-tbmKyw \S-Øp-∂-Xn\pw                         tNmZyw:-˛ ]ns∂-¥n-\mWv kvXpXn-°p-∂Xpw
H´pw ]c-k-lmbw th≠. Af-hn-√mØ kzkm-                       {]m¿∞n-°p-∂Xpw?
a¿Yyw sIm≠p Xs∂ k¿h-I¿a-ßfpw, \n¿h-                         DØcw:-˛ AXns‚ ^ew as‰m-∂m-Wv.
ln-°p∂p F∂¿Yw.
                                                            tNmZyw:-˛ AsX-¥mWv?
  tNmZyw:-˛ Xt∂-°mƒ hep-Xmbn a‰mcpw
C√m- Ø - X p- s Im≠v Cuiz- c ≥ X∂njv S w                               kvXp-Xn-t`-Z-߃
t]mse {]h¿Øn-°p-sa∂v R߃ hnNm-cn-                            DØcw:-˛ Cuiz-c-¶-ep-≠m-Ip∂ kvt\lw
°p-∂p.                                                    Cuiz-cs‚ KpW-I¿a-kz-`m-h-ß-fn¬ \n∂v Ah-
  DØcw:-˛ Cuiz-c\v F¥n-emWv C—-bp-≈Xv?                    \-hs‚ KpW-I¿a-kz-`m-h-߃°p-≠m-Im-hp∂
F√m-‰nepw C—-bp-s≠∂pw F¥pw sNøp-hm≥                       kwkvImcw F∂n-h-bmWv kvXpXn-bpsS ^ew.
i‡- \ m- s W∂pw \n߃ ]d- b p∂ ]£w                         {]m¿Y\ sIm≠v A`n-am-\-an-√m-bva, D’m-lw,
kzbw\in-°p-hm-\pw, At\Iw Cuiz-c-∑msc                      klmbw F∂nh e`n-°p-∂p. ]c-{_-“-Øns‚
krjv S n- ° p- h m- \ pw, kzbw aqV- \ m- b n- Ø o- c p-   km£m¬°m-chpw kmbq-Py-kn-≤n-bp-amWv D]m-
hm\pw tamjWw apX-emb ]m]-I¿Ω-߃                           k-\-bpsS ^ew.
sNøm\pw ZpxJn-X-\m-Ip-hm\pw Ign-bptam? C∏-                   tNmZyw:-˛ CsXm∂v hy‡-ambn ]d-™p-X-
d™ {]-hr-Øn-I-sf√mw Cuiz-cs‚ KpW-I¿a-                     cWw?
kz-`m-h-߃°p hncp-≤-ßfmsW∂p ]d-bp-I-                         DØcw:-˛ Cuiz-c-kvXpXn CXmWv:-˛ k ]cy-
bm-sW-¶n¬, Cuiz-c\v F√m I¿a-ßfpw sNøp-                    Km-—p-{I-a-Im-b-a-{h-W-a-kv\m-hncMv ip≤-a-]m-
hm≥ km[n-°p-sa∂p \n߃ ]d-™Xpw icn-                        ]-hn-≤av Ihocva-\ojn ]cn`qx kzbw-`q-cym-Ym-
bm-hp-∂n-√. AXn-\m¬ k¿h-i-‡n-am≥ F∂                       Xy-tXmcvYm≥ hrZ-[m—mizXo`yx kam`yx (b-
]Z-Øn\p Rm≥ ]d™ A¿Yw Xs∂-bmWp                             Pp. 40. 8)
icn.
                                                             k¿h-hym-]n-bpw. io{L-Imcnbpw, A\-¥-_-
                         A-\m-Zn                          e-hm-\pw, ipkz-cq-]\pw k¿h-⁄\pw, k¿∆m¥-
   tNmZyw:-˛ Cuiz-c≥ BZn-bp-≈ht\m A\m-
                             -                            cym-anbpw k¿thm-]-cn-tim-`n-°p-∂-h\pw k\m-
Zntbm?                                                    X-\\pw kzbw-`q-hp-amb Cuiz-c≥ k\m-X\cpw
   DØcw:-˛ A\m-Zn. Imc-Whpw ]q¿h-Im-ehpw                               -                   -
                                                          A\m-Zn-Ifp-amb Pohm-flm-°fm-Ip∂ Xs‚ {]P-
C√m- Ø - X ns\ A\mZn F∂p ]d- b p- ∂ p.                    Iƒ°p k\m-X-\-amb thZ-hnZy D]-tZ-in®v
CsX√mw {]Y-tam-√m-k-Øn¬ ]d™p Ign-                         Bh-iy-amb ]Zm¿Y-⁄m\w Df-hm-°n-s°m-Sp-
™p. AsX√mw AhnsS t\m°n a\- n-em-°p-                       °p-∂p. Cuiz-cs\ Hmtcmtcm KpW-ß-tfm-Sp-
I.                                                        Iq-Sn-b-h-\mbn k¶-ev]n®v sNøp∂ kvXpXn-bm-
                                                          I-bm¬ CXv kKp-W-kvXp-Xn-bm-Wv. ]c-am-flmhv
   tNmZyw:-˛ Cuiz-cs‚ C— F¥mWv?                           Hcn-°epw P∑-sa-Sp-°p-Itbm icocw [cn-°p-
   DØcw:-˛ F√m-h¿°pw t£ahpw kpJhpw                        Itbm sNøp-∂n-√. On{Z-ß-sfm-∂p-an-√mØ
D≠m-I-W-sa-∂mWv Cuiz-c≥ C—n-°p-∂-Xv.                      Cuiz-c≥ \mUnR-c-ºp-I-fm¬ _‘n-X-\m-hp-
]m]w sNømØ Hcp-h-t\bpw Cuiz-c≥ tkz—-                      ∂n-√. Hcn-°epw ]m]-߃ sNøp-∂n-√. t¢i-
bm¬ as‰m-cp-hs‚ ASn-a-bm-°p-Ibn-√.                        ßfpw ZpxJ-ßfpw A⁄m-\hpw D≠m-Ip-∂n-
   tNmZyw:-˛ Cuiz-cs\ kvXpXn-°p-Ibpw                      √. F∂n-ßs\ cmK--tZz-jmZnI-fmb Hmtcm KpW-
{]m¿∞n- ° p- I bpw     D]m- k n- ° p- I bpw               ß-fn¬ \n∂v AI∂p \nev°p∂p F∂p k¶-
sNøtWm th≠tbm?                                            ev]n®v sNøp∂ Cuiz-c-kvXpXn \n¿Kp-W-kvXp-
   DØcw:-˛ sNø-Ww.                                        Xn-bm-Ip-∂p. Cuiz-c-\n¬ GsX√mw KpW-I¿a-
   tNmZyw:-˛ kvXpXn-°p-Ibpw a‰pw sNøp-∂-                  kz- ` m- h - ß - f p- ≈ - X mbn k¶- e v ] n- ° p- ∂ pthm
hsc Cuiz-c≥ Xs‚ \nbaw hn´v ]m]-Øn¬                        AXmXv KpW-I¿a-kz-`m-h-ßsf Ah-\-h-\n¬
\n∂p tamNn-∏n-°ptam?                                      ]I¿Øp-∂-XmWv Cu kvXpXn-bpsS {]tbm-P-


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    kXym¿∞-{]-Im-iw                                             Cuiz-c≥ thZw
\w. At±lw Fßs\ \ymb-hn-[m-Xm-hm-Ip-              Zb-hp-sNbvXv F∂nepw {]Im-isØ {]Xn-jvTn-
∂pthm Aßs\ Xm\pw \ymb-hn-[m-Xm-hm-I-             ®m-epw. Ah-Sn∂v Af-h‰ ]cm-{I-a-ap-≈-h-\m-Wv,
Ww. kvXpXn-]m-T-I-s\-t∏mse ]c-ta-iz-cs‚                                             - -
                                                 Ir]-sNbvXv F∂nepw ]cm-{I-aap-fhm-°n-bm-epw.
KpW-ßsf shdptX ]pI-gvØn-∏m-Sn-s°m-≠n-cn-         Ahn-Sp∂v Af-h‰ _e-ap-≈-h-\m-Wv. F∂nepw
°p-Ibpw kz¥w {]hr-Øn-Isf ]cn-jv°-cn-°m-          _ew ]I¿∂m- e pw. Ahn- S p∂v A\- ¥- a mb
Xn-cn-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂-hs‚ kvXpXn shdp-sX-         kma¿∞y-ap-≈-h-\m-Wv, F\n°pw ]q¿W-km-
bm-Wv.                                           a¿Yyw \¬In-bm-epw, Ahn-Sp∂v ZpjvS-I¿a-ß-
   1. bmw ta[mw tZh- K Wmw ]nX- c -              fpsSt\scbpw Zpjv S - P - \ - ß- f psS t\scbpw
t›m]mktX; Xbm ama-Zy-ta-[-bm-t·-ta-[m-           t{Im[-tØm-Sp-Iq-Sn-b-h-\m-Wv. Fs∂bpw A{]-
hn\wIpcp kzmlm. (b-Pp. 32 14)                    Im-c-ap-≈-h-\m-°n-bm-epw, Ahn-Sp-∂v \nµm-kvXp-
   2. tXtPmfkn tXmtPm-abn-t[ln; hocy-akn
                          -                      Xn- I - t fbpw Xt∂m- S p≈ A]- c m- [ ß- t fbpw
hocyw abn-t[ln; _e-akn _ew abn t[ln              £an-°p-∂-h-\m-Wv. Zbhp sNbvXv Ft∂bpw
HmtPmftkymtPm abn t[ln; a\ypckn a\ypw            A{]-Im-c-am-°-tW.
abn t[ln; ktlmfkn ktlm abn t[ln.                                            -               -
                                                     3. Zbm-\nt[! \n¥n-cp-hSn-bpsS Icp-WsIm≠v
(b-Pp. 19. 9)                                    Fs‚ a\ v Pm{K- Z - h - ÿ - b n¬ hfsc Zqc-
   3. b÷m-{KtXm Zqc-ap-ssZXn ssZhw XZp           tØ°p t]mIp- ∂ p, Znhy- K p- W - b p- ‡ - a mbn
kp]vXky XssY- s shXn Zqc- M vKaw                 ÿnXn-sN-øp-Ibpw sNøp-∂p. B a\ p Xs∂
tPymXnjmw tPymXn-tcIw Xt∑ a\x inh                Rm≥ Dd-ßp-tºmƒ kpjp-]vXnsb {]m]n-°p-
k¶-ev]-a-kvXp.                                                  - -
                                                 ∂p. kz]v\m-hÿbn¬ AtX a\ v Zqsc sN√p-
                                                 ∂-Xp-t]mse hyh-l-cn-°p-∂p. F√m {]Im-inX
   4. tb\ Icv a m- W y- ] tkm a\o- j ntWm        hkvXp-°-sfbpw {]Im-in-∏n-°p∂ Fs‚ a\ v
.bt⁄ IrWz¥n hnZ-tYjp [ocmx; bZ-                  inh-k-¶-ev]-˛-X-\n°pw a‰p-≈-h¿°pw \∑-bm-
]qcv h w b£- a ¥x {]Pm\mw Xt∑ a\x                {K-ln-°p-∂-Xv-˛-bp-‡-am-I-s´. B¿°pw lm\n
inhk¶-ev]-akvXp.                                 hc-cp-sX∂v B{K-ln-°p-∂-Xm-I-s´.
   5. bXv {]⁄m-\-apX tNtXm [rXnivN                   4. k¿hm-¥-cymao! I¿a-\n-c-X-cm-b, ss[cy-
bt÷ym-Xn-c-¥-c-arXw {]Pmkp bkvam∂                hm-∑m-cmb hnZzm-∑m¿ b⁄bp-≤m-Zn-Ifn¬ I¿a- -
EtX InwN\ Icva {InbtX Xt∑ a\x inh-               a-\p-jvTn-°p-∂-Xn\p Imc-Whpw A]q¿h-amb
k-¶-ev]-a-kvXp.                                  kma¿Yy-Øns‚ Ccn-∏n-Shpw ]qP-\o-bhpw {]P-
   6. tbt\Zw `qXw `ph\w `hn-jyXv ]cnKr           I-fpsS AIta h¿Øn-°p-∂Xpw Bb Fs‚
       -
loX-aar-tX\ kcvhav;tb\ b⁄kvXmbtX                 a\ v [¿am- N - c - W - Ø n¬ C—- b p- ≈ Xpw
k]vXtlmXmXt∑-a\x inh-k-¶ev]akvXp.                A[¿asØ k¿hYm XyPn-°p-∂-Xp-am-I-s´.
   7. bkvan-∂rN kma bPqMv job-kvan≥                              -                -
                                                     5. D¬Ir-jvS⁄m\ kzcq-]hpw, a‰p-≈h¿°v      -
{]Xn jv T nXm cY\m`mhn- h mcmx; bkv a nw-                     -        -      - -
                                                 ⁄m\-{]-Zamb \n-›bm-flIhr-Ønbpw P\-Xm-
›nØMv kcvh-tamXw {]Pm\mw Xt∑-a\x                 ¥-cw-K-Øn¬ {]Imiw sNmcn-™v \mi-c-ln-X-
inh-k¶ ev]akvXp.                                 ambn \nev°p-∂Xpw AXns‚ klm-b-sat\y
   8. kpjm-c-Yn-c-izm-\nh b∑-\p-jymt∂            B¿°pw H∂pw sNøm≥ km[n- ° m- Ø Xpw
\obtXf`oip-`ncvhm-Pn\ Ch; lrXv {]Xn-jvTw         Bb Fs‚ a\ v kZvKpW-ß-fn-—n-°p-∂Xpw
bZ-Pncw PhnjvTw Xt∑ a\x inh-k-¶-ev]-             Zp¿Kp-W-ß-fn¬ \n∂p thdn-´-Xp-am-I-s´.
akvXp (b-Pp. 34. 1. 6).                              6. PK-Zo-izcm! tbmKn-Iƒ `qX, `h-n-jy-Xv,
   1. tl At·-˛-{]-Im-i-kz-cq-]-\mb k¿th-         h¿Ø-am\ Imcy-߃ Adn-bm-\p-]tbm-Kn-°p∂  -
iz-cm˛ Ahn-Sp∂v Zbhp sNbvXv, GsXmcp              \mi-an-√mØ Pohm-flm-hns\ ]c-am-flm-hn-t\mSp
_p≤n-tb-bmtWm hnZzm-∑mcpw ⁄m\n-Ifpw                                -      -     -
                                                 tN¿Øv {XnIm-e⁄m-\ap-≈Xm-°p∂ PvRm\w
tbmKn--Ifpw D]m-kn-°p-∂-Xv, B _p≤n \evIn         I¿aw F∂n- h bv°v B{i- b - a mb A©p
Rßsf _p≤n-am-∑m-cm-°n-bmepw!                     ⁄mt\-{µn-b-߃ Bflmhv _p≤n F∂n-h-
   2. `K-h≥! Ahn-Sp-∂p-{]-Im-i-cq-]n-bm-Ip-∂p.   tbmSp tN¿∂n- c n- ° p∂ tbmK- a m- I p∂

                                             132
                Ggmw kap-√mkw                                                 kXym¿∞-{]-Im-iw
bPvRsØ h¿≤n-∏n-°p∂ Fs‚ a\ v tbmK-                        Øn¬ Rßsf \bn-®m-epw.
hn-⁄m-\-bp-‡hpw Ahn-ZymZn t¢i-ß-fn¬                          AktXm am kZv Kab; Xatkm am
\n∂v AI-∂-Xp-am-I-s´.                                    tPymXncvKab; artXmcvamf arXw Ka-tbXn
            -
   7. ]c-ahn-Zzm-\mb ]c-ta-izc! Aß-bpsS Ir]-             (i-X-]-Yw. 14. 3. 1. 30)
bm¬, cY-N-{I-Øns‚ a[y-Øn¬ \n∂v Bc-°m-                        ]ca- K p- c p- h mb k¿th- i zcm! Ahn- S p∂p
ep-Iƒ t]mse EtKz-Zw, bPp¿th-Zw, kma-th-                                          -
                                                         Rßsf Zp¿am¿§-ßfn¬ \n∂v AI‰n k∑m¿K-
Zw, AY¿h-thZw F∂o \mep thZ-ßfpw {]Xn-                    Øn-te°p \S-Øn-bm-epw. Ahn-Zy-bm-Ip∂ Iqcn-
jvTnX-amb k¿h-⁄\pw k¿∆-hym-]nbpw P\-                     cp-´ns\ am‰n hn⁄m-\-am-Ip∂ {]Im-isØ
k- © - b - Ø ns‚ km£nbpw NnØ- Ø n\v                      ImWn®p X∂m-epw. arXyp-hm-Ip∂ tcmK-Øn¬
ssNX\yw \evIp-∂-h-\p-amb ]c-am-flm-hns‚                   \n∂p tamNn-∏n®p tam£--Øn-ep≈ B\-µ-cq-]-
⁄m\-ap-Zn-°p∂ Fs‚ a\ v Ahn-Zysb \in-                     amb Aar-XsØ {]m]n-∏n-®m-epw. GtXXp
∏n®v ⁄m\-bp-‡-am-I-s´.                                   tZmj-ß-fn¬ \nt∂m Zp¿Kp-W-Øn¬ \nt∂m,
   8. k¿h-\n-b-¥m-hmb ]c-ta-izc! kmcYn                   Cuiz-c\pw Xm≥Xs∂bpw AI∂v \n¬°p-∂-
ISn-™m¨ sIm≠v IpXn-c-Isf \nb-{¥n-°p-                     Xmbn Nn¥n®v Cuiz-c-{]m¿∞\ sNøp-∂pthm
∂-Xp-t]mse a\p-jysc t\cmw-hÆw \S-Øp-                     Ah-bnse hn[nbpw \ntj-[-ßfpw B {]m¿∞-
∂Xpw lrZ-b-Øn¬ {]Xn-jvTn-Xhpw hfsc                       \sb kKp-Wtam \n¿Kp-Wtam Bb {]m¿∞-
thK-ap-≈-Xp-amb Fs‚ a\ v F√m C{µn-b-                     \-bm-°p-∂p. {]m¿∞n-°p∂ hnj-b-Øn\v A\p-
ß-sfbpw A[¿am-N-c-W-Øn¬ \n∂-I‰n kZm                      k-cn®v {]h¿Øn-°p-Ibpw thWw. A\\y
          - -   - - -
[¿a-\n-cXam-IØ°hÆw Aßv Ir]m-\p-{Klw                      km[m- c - W - a mb _p≤ni‡n In´p- h m- \ mbn
sNmcn-b-Ww.                                              Cuiz-cs\ {]m¿∞n-°p-∂-bmƒ AXn\p th≠n
   At· \b kp]Ymcmtb fAkvam≥                              Ign-bp-∂n-S-tØmfw {]b-Xv\n-°p-Ibpw thWw.
hnizm\n tZh hbp-\m\n hnZzm≥; bptbm-[y-                   Ign-bp-∂{X {]b-Xv\n-®-Xn-\p-tijw am{Xta
kva-÷qlpcmW-tat\m `qbnjvTmw tX \a f                      {]m¿∞n-°mhq F∂¿Yw.
D‡nw hnt[a. (b-Pp. 40 aw. 16)                                      Fßs\ {]m¿∞n-°-cpXv?
   kpJ-Zm-Xmhpw kz{]-Imi kzcq-]\pw k¿h-                      ""Cuizcm Ahn-Sp∂v Fs‚ i{Xp-°sf \in-
⁄- \ p- a mb ]c- t a- i zc Aßv R߃°v                     ∏n-t°-Wta. Fs∂ as‰-√m-h-sc-°mfpw hen-b-
t{ijvT-amb am¿§-Øn¬ IqSn kºq¿W-amb                                     -
                                                         h-\m-t°-Wta. F\n°p am{Xta A[n-Imcw e`n-
⁄m\-ap-f-hm-°n-bm-epw. Rß-fnse ]m]m-N-                   °m-hq. as‰-√m-hcpw Fs‚ ASn-a-I-fm-bn-Øo-c-
c-W-am-Ip∂ IpSn-e-am¿§sØ Rßfn¬\n∂v                       Ww.'' F∂n-ß-t\bpw a‰pw Hcn-°epw {]m¿∞n-
AI-‰n-°-f-™m-epw. \n¥n-cp-hSn Rßsf ]cn-                  °-cp-Xv. Cuiz-c≥ AXp ssIs°m-≈p-I-bn-√.
       -
ip-≤cm-°tW! AXn-∂mbn R߃ hfsc hn\-                       c≠p i{Xp-°fpw At\ym\yw \in-∏n-°p-∂-
b-tØm-Sp-IqSn Aßsb Df-f-gn™p {]m¿∞n-                     Xn\p {]m¿∞n-®m¬ Cuiz-c≥ Ccp-h-scbpw
°p-∂p.                                                   \in-∏n®p If-bptam? A[nIw `‡n-bp-≈-hs‚
   amt\m alm-¥-apX am t\mfAcv`Iw am\                     {]m¿∞\ k^-e-am-tI-≠-XmWv F∂p ]d-
D£¥apX am \ D£n-Xav; am t\m h[ox                                           -  -
                                                         ™m¬ `‡n- Ip-d™hs‚ i{Xp-hn\pw Aev]w-
]nXcw tamXamXcw am\x {]nbmkvXt\zm cp{Z                   kzev ] w \miw kw`- h nt°≠Xm- s W- ∂ p
cocnjx (b-Pp. 16. 15)                                    h∂pIq-Spw. Cßs\ aqV-{]m¿∞\ sNbvXv
   cp{Z! ZpjvS-∑m¿ sNøp∂ ]m]-Øn\v ZpxJ-                  ""Cuizcm Aßv tNm'dv D-≠m°n Rßsf `pPn-
^ew \evIn Ahsc tcmZ\w sNøn- ° p∂                         ∏n- ® m- e pw! Fs‚ hosSm∂v ASn- ® p- X - f n®p
Cuizc! Aßv Rß-fn¬ sNdn-b-h-tcbpw hen-                    X∂mepw! hkv { X- ß ƒ Ae- ° n- Ø - ∂ mepw!
b-h-tcbpw K¿`-ÿ-tcbpw amXm-]n-Xm-°-∑m-                   Irjn-{]-hr-Øn-IqSn \S-Øn-Ø-∂mepw'' Fs∂m-
scbpw {]nb-_-‘p-P-\-ß-sfbpw Ah-cpsS ico-                 s°bpw {]m¿∞n- t ®- ° mw. Cßs\ F√mw
c- ß - s fbpw \in- ∏ n- ° m≥ t{]cn- ∏ n- ° - c p- t X.   Cuiz-c-\n-te-ev]n®v Ae-k-cm-bn-cn-°p-∂-h¿
in£bv ° v A¿l- c m- I mØhÆ- a p≈ am¿K-                   alm-aq-V-m-cm-Wv. ]pcp-jm¿∞w sNø-W-sa∂

                                                     133
     kXym¿∞-{]-Im-iw                                                    Cuiz-c≥ thZw
Cuiz-cm⁄ ewLn®p \S-°p-∂-h¿°v Hcn-                   ns\ ]c-am-flm-hn¬ {]Im-in-∏n-®n-´p-≈-bm-fn\v
°epw kpJw D≠m-hp-I-bn-√. t\m°pI:-˛                 ]c- a m- fl - k w- k ¿§w sIm≠p- ≠ m- I p∂ B\-
   Ipcv ∆ - t ∂- t hl Icv a mWn PnPn- h n- t j-    µsØ hnh-cn-°m-\m-hp-I-bn-√. Fs¥-∂m¬ B
—XMvkamx (bPp. 40. 2)                              B\-µsØ Pohm-flmhv AXns‚ A¥x-I-cWw
   ""Cuiz-c≥ B⁄m-]n-°p-∂p˛ a\p-jy≥ \qdp            sIm≠v A\p-`-hn-°p-I-bmWp sNøp-∂-Xv. D]m-
kwh-’cw AYhm Pohn-®n-cn-°p-∂n-S-tØmfw                                   -        -
                                                   k\ F∂ i_vZØn\p kao-]ÿ\m-bn-cn-°pI    -
Imew I¿aw sNbvXp-sIm≠p Xs∂ Pohn-®n-cn-             F∂¿Y-am-Wv. AjvSmwK tbmK-Øm¬ ]c-am-
°p-hm≥ C—n-°-Ww. Hcn-°epw Ae-k-\m-I-cp-            flm-hn‚ kao-]-h¿Øn-bm-Im\pw k¿h-hym-
Xv. Cuiz-c-kr-jvSn-bn¬ tNX-\-ßfpw AtN-X-           ]nbpw k¿hm-¥-cym-an-bp-ambn km£mXv°-cn-
\- ß - f p- a mbn F{X hkv X p- ° - f pt≠m Ah-      °m\pw sNtø-≠-Xmb I¿a-ß-sf√mw sNtø-
sb√mw AXm-Xns‚ I¿a-߃ sNbvXp-sIm-≠p-               ≠-XmWv.
X-s∂-bm-Wn-cn-°p-∂-Xv. Ddpºpw a‰pw kZm {]b-            X{Xm-lnw-km-k-Xym-kvtXb {_“-Ncym ]-
Xv\n-°p-∂p. `qtKm-fmZn {Kl-߃ kZm Xncn-            cn-{Klm bamx. (tbm. Z. km ]m. 30)
™p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂p. ac-߃ apX-em-bh                     CXymZn kq{X-߃ ]mX-RvP-e-tbm-K-im-
hf¿∂p h¿≤n-°p-Ibpw £bn-®p-t]m-Ip-Ibpw              kv{X-Øn-ep-≈-Xm-Ip-∂p. D]m-k-\-bm-cw-`n-°p-∂-
sNbvXp-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂p. Cu ZrjvSm-¥-߃             bmƒ sNbvXp-Xp-S-tß-≠Xv C∏-d-bp-∂-h-bmWv:-
a\p-jy¿°p ]mT-am-I-Ww. ]cn-{i-an-°p-∂-hsc          ˛ BtcmSpw sshc-`mhw ]mSn-√. F√m-h-tcmSpw
        -                -
a‰p-≈h¿ klm-bn-°p-∂Xp-t]mse [¿am-\p-kr-            F√m-bvt∏mgpw {]oXn-tbmsS; s]cp-am-d-Ww.
X-ambn {]b-Xv\n-°p-∂-hsc Cuiz-c≥ klm-              kXyw ]d-bWw AkXyw Hcn-°epw ]d-b-cpXv;
bn-°p-∂p. ]cn-{i-a-io-e-\m-bn-´p≈ a\pjys\          tamjvSn-°-cp-Xv, kXy-hm\pw PntX-{µn-b-\p-am-bn-
am{Xta `rXy-\mbn \nb-an-°m-dp-≈q. aSn-b-\m-        cn- ° - W w. kpJm- k - ‡ t\m Zpc- ` n- a m- \ ntbm
bn-´p-≈-hs\ \nb-an-°m-dn-√. IÆp-≈-h\pw             Bbn-cn-°-cp-Xv; Al-¶mcw ]mSn-√. C∏-d™
Im◊m≥ B{K- l ap- ≈ - h - \ p- a mb a\p- j y\p      A©pba-߃ tN¿∂-XmWv D]m-k-\m-tbm-K-
am{Xta ImWn-®p-sIm-Sp-°m-dp-≈q. A‘-∑m¿°p           Øns‚ H∂m-asØ AwKw.
ImWn-®p-sIm-Sp-°pI ]Xn-hn-√. AXp-t]mse                 iuN-k-t¥m-j-X]x kzm[ym-tb-iz-c-{]Wn
Xs∂ F√m- h - c p- t Sbpw D]- I m- c - Ø n- \ mbn   [m-\m\n \nbamx (tbm Z. km. ]m. 32)
{]m¿∞\ sNøp- t ºmƒ am{Xta Cuiz- c ≥                    cmK-tZz-jm-Zn-Isf ]cn-Xy-Pn®v AI-tabpw
klm-bn-°q. lm\n-I-c-amb I¿a-ß-fn¬ klm-             Pem-Zn-I-fp-]-tbm-Kn®v ]pd-tabpw ip≤-\m-I-Ww.
bn-°p-I-bn-√. i¿°c am[q-cy-ap-≈-XmWv F∂p           [¿a-hn-t[-b-amb {]b-Xv\-Øn¬ em`-Øn¬
]d-™p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂-h\v i¿°c In´p-∂n-√.           kt¥m-jtam \jv-S-Øn¬ ZpxJtam D≠m-I-cp-
Ah≥ AXns‚ kzmZdn-bp-∂p-an-√. {]b-Xv\n-°p-          Xv. {]k-∂-X-tbm-sS, Ae-kX shSn™v kZm
∂-h\v thKtam Aev]w sshIntbm i¿°c                   ]cn-{i-an-°-Ww. Ft∏mgpw kpJ-Zpx-J-ßsf
In´pw.                                             kln®v [¿aw am{Xw sNø-Ww. A[¿aw sNø-
                    D-]m-k-\                       cp-Xv. kXy-im-kv{X-߃ ]Tn-°p-Ibpw ]Tn-∏n-
   aq∂m-a-tØXv D]m-k-\-bmWv                        °p-Ibpw sNø-Ww. k’wKw sNø-Ww. Cuiz-
   kam-[n-\ncv[q-X-a-eky tNXtkm hnt-h-             c-\m-a-amb Hmw A¿Y-hn-Nm-c-tØmsS \ntXy\
inX kymfl\n b’pJw `thXv; \ iIytX                    P]n- ° - W w. Cuiz- c m- ⁄ - b v ° - \ p- I q- e - a mbn
hcvW-boXpw Kncm XZm kzb¥ Z¥x Ic-                   Bfl-k-a¿∏Ww sNø-Ww. Cu A©p-hn[
tW\ KrlytX.                                        \nb-a-߃ tN¿∂m¬ D]m-k-\m-tbm-K-Øns‚
                                                   c≠m-asØ AwKw F∂p ]d-bp-∂p. CXn-\p-ti-
   CXv D]-\n-j-Øn-ep≈ hN-\-amWv. 3 Ahn-            j-ap≈ Bdw-K-߃ tbmK-im-kv{X-Øntem
Zym-Zn-I-fmb at\m-a-e-ß-sf√mw kam-[n-tbmKw         EtKz-ZmZn `mjy-`q-an-I 4-bntem t\m°n {Kln-
sIm≠p \in-®n-´p-≈, Bflÿ-\m-bn-cp-∂v a\-             °p-I.
   3 ssa{Xm-b-Wyp-]-\n-jØv 4.49 2)                   4 thZ-]-cy-S-\w.

                                               134
              Ggmw kap-√mkw                                                kXym¿∞-{]-Im-iw
    D]m-k-\bv°v C—-bp-≈-t∏mƒ ip≤-amb               sNøm-Ø-h≥ henb IrXLv\\pw alm-aq-V-
GIm-¥-ÿm-\Øp sN∂v Bk-\-ÿ-\mbn                      \p-am-Wv. Cu temI-Øn-ep≈ kI-e-]-Zm¿∞-
{]mWm-bmaw sNbvXv C{µn-b-ßsf _mly-hn-              ßfpw Pohm- fl m- ° - f psS kpJ- Ø n- \ mbn
j-b-ß-fn¬ \n∂p XS™v a\- ns\ s]m°nƒ                 \evInb Cuiz-cs‚ KpW-ßsf hnkvX-cn-°p-
                -             -
`mK-tØm, lrZ-bØn-tem, IWvTØn-tem, t\{X-            Ibpw Cuiz-cs‚ kØsb kzoI-cn-°m-Xn-cn-°p-
ß-fn-tem, D®n-bntem ]rjvT-`m-K-Øn¬ \s´√v           Ibpw sNøp-∂Xv IrX-Lv\-Xbpw hnUvVn-Ø-
Ah-km-\n-°p-∂n-S-tØm 5 Dd-∏n®p \n¿Øn,              hp-a-√msX as‰-¥mWv?
Bfl-]-c-am-fl hnth-N\w sNbvXv ]c-am-flm-                  tNmZyw:-˛ sNhn, IÆv apX-emb C{µn-b-
hn¬ a·-\mbn kwb-an-bm-I-Ww. Cu km[-\-              ß-sfm∂pw C√mØ Cuiz-c≥ C{µn-bßfpsS                - -
Iƒ A\p-jvTn-°p-∂-bm-fns‚ Bflmhpw A¥x-               tPmen Fßs\ sNøp∂p?
I- c - W hpw AXy¥w ]cn- i p- ≤ hpw kXy- k -            DØcw:-˛ A]m-Wn-]mtZm Pht\m {KloX
ºq¿Whpw Bbn ]cn-W-an-°p-∂p. Abmƒ                   ]iyXyN£px k irtWm- X y- I cv W x; k
Xs‚ ⁄m\- h n- ⁄ m- \ - ß sf \mƒtXmdpw              thØn hnizw \N- X-kymkvXn thØm Xam-
h¿≤n-∏n®v tam£w t\Sp-∂p. Znh-k-Øn-ep≈              lq-c{Kyw ]pcpjw ]pcm-Wav 7
F´p bma-ß-fn¬ Hcp \mgn-I-sb-¶nepw [ym\n-
°p-∂-h≥ D∂-Xnsb {]m]n-°p-∂p.                           CXv D]-\n-j-Øn-ep≈ hN-\-am-Wv. Cuiz-
                                                   c\v ssIIƒ C√. F¶nepw Xs‚ i‡n-bm-
           kKp-W-˛-\n¿KpW D]m-k\                   Ip∂ ssIsIm≠v F√m-‰n-s\bpw {Kln-°p-
   k¿h-⁄-XzmZn KpW-bp-‡≥ F∂p k¶-                   Ibpw cNn-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂p. Cuiz-c\v Imep-
ev]n®v D]m-k\ sNøp-∂Xp kKp-tWm-]m-k-               Iƒ C√. F¶nepw k¿h- h ym- ] n- b m- I - b m¬
\bpw tZzjw, cq]w, ckw, K‘w, kv]¿iw apX-            F¥n- \ p- a p- ] cn thK- a p- ≈ - h - \ m- W v . IÆn√
                -            -
emb KpW-ßsfm-∂p-an-√m-ØsX∂p k¶-ev]n®v              F¶nepw F√m-‰n-s\bpw \√-hÆw ImWp-∂p.
AXn- k q- £ v a - a mb Bflm- h n¬ AIØpw             sNhn-bn√ F¶nepw ]d-bp-∂-sX√mw tIƒ°p-
]pdØpw Fßpw \nd-™n-cn-°p∂ ]c-am-flm-                ∂p. A¥x-I-cWw C√. F¶nepw temI-Øn-
hn¬ ÿnXn sNøp-∂Xv \n¿Kp-tWm-]m-k-\bpw              ep≈ kIe Imcy-ßfpw Adn-bp∂p. Cuiz-
BIp∂p. Cu D]m-k-\-bpsS ^ew C\n ]d-                 cs‚ Fs¥-¶nepw i‡n F{X-bm-sW∂v Bcpw
bmw.:-˛ XWp-Øp-hn-d® Hcp-h\v A·n-bpsS              Adn-bp-∂n-√. Cuiz-c≥ k\m-X-\\pw k¿h-t{i-
kmao]yw sIm≠v ssiXyw ian- ° p- ∂ - X p-            jvT-\p-at{X B Fßpw \nd-™-hs\ ]pcp-j≥
t]mse Cuiz-cs‚ km∂n≤yw sIm≠v Pohm-                 F∂p ]d-bp-∂p. C{µn-b-ßsf sIm≠pw A¥x-
flm-hns‚ kI-e-tZm-j-ßfpw ZpxJ-ßfpw \in-             I-cWw sIm≠pw km[n-t°≠--sX√mw kzkm-
                               -
®p-t]m-hp-Ibpw KpW-I¿a-kz-`m-h߃ ]c-am-flm-         a¿Yy-Øm¬ \S-Øp-∂p.
hns‚ KpW-I¿a-kz-`m-h-ß-sf-t∏mse ]cn-ip-≤-              tNmZyw:-˛ At±-lsØ ]ecpw \njv{In-
ß-fm-hp-Ibpw sNøp-∂p. AXn-\m¬ Cuiz-c-hn-           b\pw \n¿Kp-W\psa∂p ]d-bp-∂Xp icntbm?
j- b - I - a mb kv X pXn, {]m¿∞- \ , D]m- k \          DØcw:- ˛ \ Xky Imcyw ImcWw N
F∂nh \n›-b-ambpw A\p-jvTn-°-Ww. D]m-               hnZytX \ X’a›m- ` y- [ n- I › ZriytX
k-\-bpsS ^ew kvXpXn {]m¿∞-\IfpsS ^e-               ]cmky i‡ncvhnhn-ss[h {iqbtX kzm`m-
Øn¬\n∂p `n∂-am-Wv. ZpxJ-߃ t\cn-Sp∂ ka-
bØv ]¿∆Xw t]mse Dd-®p-\n∂v F¥pw kln-               hnIo ⁄m\ _e-{Inbm N 8 CXpw D]-\n-
°p-hm≥ Ign-hp-≠m-hp-Ibpw Bfl-_ew Atß-               j-Zzm-Iy-am-Wv. ]c-am-flm-hn¬ \n∂p X{Zq]-
b‰w h¿≤n-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂-XmWv D]m-k-\-              Øn¬ bmsXmcp Imcyhpw D≠m-Ip-∂n-√. At±-
bpsS ^ew. CXp \n m- c - a mb Hcp                   l-Øn\p Imc-W-hpw-˛-Imcyw sNøp-hm-\p≈ D]-
ImcyamtWm? am{X-a√ Cuiz-cs\ kvXpXn-°p-             I- c - W - h - p w˛ Bhiyan- √ 9 . XØp- e yt\m
Ibpw {]m¿∞n- ° p- I bpw D]m- k n- ° p- I bpw       t{ijvTt\m Bbn Bcp-an-√. k¿t∆m-Ø-a-amb
                                                   7. tizXm-iz-X-tcm-]-\n-jØv 3.19.
              -               --
6 {Xb-kv{Xnw-i{Xn-iXm kvXph-X˛bPq 14.31            8. tiz-Xm-iz-X-tcm-]-\n-jØv 6.8
5 \m`ymw IWvtT] iocvtjN lrZn h£kn ]mcvitbmx        9. km[-I-Xaw Ic-W-av. Ajym-[ymbn 1.4.42
   kaybv°v hnim-]tX (a-lm-`m-cXw im:]300-˛39,40)

                                               135
     kXym¿∞-{]-Im-iw                                                Cuiz-c≥ thZw
i‡n Af-h‰ ⁄m\w, FXn-c‰ _ew, AXn-                              I-]n-e-a-l¿jn \nco-iz-c-hm-Zntbm?
c‰ {Inbm-i‡n F∂nh Cuiz-c-\n¬ kzm`m-                       tNmZyw:-˛ 1. Cuiz-cm-knt≤x 2. {]am-Wm-`m-
hn- I - a mbn Ds≠- ∂ t{X {ipXn. Cuiz- c ≥             hm∂ X’n≤nx 3. kw_-‘m-`m-hm-∂m-\p-am-
\njv{In-b-\m-sW-¶n¬ temI-Øns‚ krjvSn                  \av (kmw-Jy-Z¿i\w 1˛12. 10, 11) 1. Cuiz-c≥
ÿnXn kwlm-c-߃ \S-Øp-hm-\mhp-I-bn-√.                  Ds≠∂v {]Xy-£-{]-am-Ww-sIm≠v kn≤n-°p-
AXn-\m¬ hn`p-hm-sW¶nepw ˛k¿h-hym-]n-bm-               ∂n-√. 2. Cu-iz-ckn-≤n°v {]Xy-£-{]-amWw
sW-¶n-epw˛ tNX-\-am-I-bm¬ {Inbm-hm-\p-am-Wv.          Cs√-¶n¬ ]ns∂ A\p-am-\mZn {]am-W-߃
    tNmZyw:- ˛ Cuiz- c ≥ {Inbm- h m- \ m- I mw.       D≠mhm≥ Xc-an-√. 3. hym]vXn-kw-_‘w
F∂m¬ AXv Ah- k m- \ - a p- ≈ tXm C√m-                 C√m-Ø-Xp-sIm≠v A\p-am\w D≠m-hm≥ hgn-
ØtXm?                                                 bn-√. {]Xy-£hpw A\p-am-\hpw C√m-Ø-Xp-
    DØcw:-˛ F{X-tØmfw tZi-Im-e-ß-fn¬                  sIm≠v i_vZ-{]-amWw XpS-ßn-bp≈ {]am-W-
hym]n-°p∂ {Inb sNøp-∂Xv DNn-X-am-sW∂p                                        -
                                                      ßfpw tbmPn-°p-Ibn-√. AXn-\m¬ Cuiz-c≥
tXm∂p-∂pthm A{X-tØmfw tZi-Im-e-ßsf                    Ds≠∂p sXfn-bn-°m≥ Bhp-I-bn-√.
G‰-°p-dhp IqSmsX hym]n-°p∂ {Inbtb                         DØcw:-˛ Cuiz-c≥ Ds≠-∂-Xn\v {]Xy-£-
                      -
At±lw sNøp-Ibp-≈q. Fs¥-∂m¬ Cuiz-c\v                   {]-amWw Cs√∂p Xs∂-bmWv ChnsS ]d--™n-
Adn-hp-≠v.                                            ´p-≈-Xv. Cuiz-c≥ PK-Øns‚ D]m-Zm-\-Im-c-W-
    tNmZyw:-˛ Cuiz-c≥ Xs‚ A¥yw Adn-bp-                a-√Xm\pw. ]pcp-j-\n¬\n∂p hne-£-W-\mb-
∂pt≠m C√tbm?                                          Xp-sIm≠v k¿h{X ]cn-]q¿Æ-\m-I-bm¬ ]c-
    DØcw:-˛ Cuiz-c≥ kºq¿W-⁄m-\n-bm-Wv.                am-flm-hns‚ t]cv ]pcp-j≥ F∂m-Ip-∂p. ico-
D≈-hÆw Adn-bp-∂Xn-s\-bmWp PvRm\-sa∂p
                        -                             c-Øn¬ ibn-°p-∂Xv sIm≠v Pohm-flm-hns‚
]d- b p- ∂ - X v . Hcp hkv X p F{]- I m- c - a mtWm   t]cpw ]pcp-js\∂mIp-∂p. Pohm-flm-hns‚
AXns\ A{]-Imcw Adn-bp-∂-Xn-\mWv ⁄m\-                  t]cpw ]pcp-j-s\-∂m-Ip-∂p. Fs¥-∂m¬, Cu
sa∂p ]d-bp-∂Xv. Cuiz-c≥ A\-¥\m-sW-¶n¬
                    -                   -             {]I-c-W-Øn¬Xs∂ C{]-Imcw ]d-™n-´p≠v:˛
A\- ¥ - \ m- s W∂p Xs∂ Adn- b p- ∂ - X mWv                1. {][m\ i‡n-tbm-Km-t®Xv kMvKm-]Ønx
                              -
⁄m\w. AXn\p hn]-co-Xamb Adnhv A⁄m-                        2. k-Øm-am-{Xm-t®Xv kcvssh-iz-cyav.
\-am-Ip-∂p. A\-¥-am-bn-´p-≈-Xns\ A¥-ap-≈-                 3. {ipXn-c]n {][m-\-Im-cy-Xzky
                          -
Xm-sW∂pw A¥-ap-≈Xns\ A\-¥am-sW∂pw         -
Adn-bp-∂Xv "{`a'amWv F∂¿∞w. ""bYm¿Y                       (kmw-JyZ¿i\w 5 8˛9.12)
Z¿i\w ⁄m\-anXn'' 10 Hcp hkvXp-hn\v                        1. ]pcp-j\v {][m\ i‡n-tbm-Sp-IqSn tbmK-
GXp- X cw KpW- I ¿a- k z- ` m- h - ß - f pt≠m B       ap-s≠∂p h∂m¬ kwKm-]Øn h∂p-t]m-Ipw.
hkvXp-hns\ AtX-hn-[-Øn¬ Adn™v kzoI-                           - - -
                                                      kqjvaßfmb ]c-amWp°tfm-Sp-Iq-Sn-t®-cp∂Xp
cn-°p-∂-Xn-s\-bmWv ⁄m\-sa∂pw hn⁄m-\-                  \nanØw {]IrXn Imcy-cq-]n-bmbn ]cn-W-an-°p-
sa∂pw ]d-bp-∂-Xv. adn-®p-≈Xv A⁄m-\-hpw.               ∂-Xp-t]mse Cuiz-c\pw kvYqe-cq-]-bmbn ]cn-
AXn-\m¬˛                                              W-an°pw F∂¿∞w. AXn-\m¬ Cuizc≥ PK-
                                                      Øns‚ D]m-Zm\ Imc-W-a√; \nan-Ø-Im-c-W-am-
    t¢i-Icva hn]m-Im-i-ssb-c-]-cm-arjvSx
                                                      Ip-∂p.
]pcpj hntij Cuizcx (tbm Z. 24)
                                                          2. PK-Øns‚ D¤hw tNX-\-\mb ]pcp-j-
    Ahn-ZymZn t¢i-߃, Ipi-em-Ipie-߃,
                                                      \n¬ \n∂m- sW- ¶ n¬ Cuiz- c \v kI- e - h n[
Cjv S m\n- j v S - ß ƒ IqSn- ° - e ¿∂ ^e- ß ƒ
                                                                    -    -
                                                      sFiz-cy-ßfp-ap-≈Xn-\m¬ PK-Ønepw k¿ssh-
F∂nh \evIp∂ I¿Ω-ßfpw Ah-bpsS hmk-
\bpw C√m- Ø Xpw kIe Pohm- fl m- ° tf-                                       -              -
                                                      iz-cy-ßfpw D≠m-IWw. AXn-√m-ØXn-\m¬ PK-
°mfpw hnin-jvS-am-b-Xp-at{X Cuiz-c≥.                  Øns‚ D]m-Zm\ Imc-W-a-√, \nanØ Imc-W-
                                                      am-Wv.
10. XØz-⁄m-\mcvY Z¿i\w GX-Xv⁄m-\-anXn                     3. IqSmsX D]-\n-jØpw {][m-\sØ˛{]Ir-
   (`-K-h-ZvKoX 13.11)                                Xn-sb˛-bmWv PK-Øns‚ D]m-Zm-\-ambn ]d-bp-

                                                  136
              Ggmw kap-√mkw                                              kXym¿∞-{]-Im-iw
∂-Xv. t\m°pI:-˛                                    hm≥ C—m-ep-hp-amb {ioIr-jvW≥ ""Rm≥ bpKw
   APm- t aImw temlnX ip¢- I rjv W mw              tXmdpw P∑w -ssIsIm≠v injvS-P-\-ßsf ]cn-
_lzox {]Pmx krP-am\mw kzcq]mx (tiz-Xm-             ]m-en-°p-Ibpw ZpjvS-∑msc kwl-cn-°p-Ibpw
iz-X-tcm-]-\n-jXv 4. 5)                            sNøpw'' F∂n-ßs\ B{K-ln-®n-´p-≠m-bn-cn-
   CXp tizXm-iz-X-tcm-]-\n-j-Øn-ep≈ hN-\-          °mw. Aßs\ sNøp-∂-Xn¬ tZmj-sam-∂p-an-
am-Wv. DXv]-Øn-hn-lo-\hpw kXzc-P-kvX-tam-cq-       √. Fs¥-∂m¬ ""]tcm-]-Im-cmb kXmw hn`p-
]-hp-amb {]IrXn Xs∂-bmWp kzcq-]m-Ir-Xn-                           - -
                                                   Xbx'' k÷-\ßfpsS icocw a\ v [\w F∂n-
tbmSp IqSn AkwJyw {]P-I-fmbn ]cn-W-an-             h-sb√mw ]tcm-]-Im-c-Øn-\m-bn-´p-≈-Xm-W-t√m.
°p-∂-Xv. {]IrXn ]cn-Wm-an-\nbmb-Xp-sIm≠v           F∂mepw {ioIr-jvW≥ CXp-sIm≠v Cuiz-c-
cq]m-¥-c-ßsf {]m]n-°p-∂p. ]pcp-j≥ ]cn-Wm-          \m-sW∂p hcp-hm≥ Xc-an-√.
an-b-√m-Ø-Xn-\m¬ cq]m-¥-c-s∏-Sp-∂n-√. IqS-             tNmZyw:-˛ Cß-s\-bm-sW-¶n¬ temI-Øn¬
ÿ\pw \n¿hn-Im-c\p-ambn h¿Øn-°p-∂p. AXn-
                  -                                Cuiz-cs‚ Ccp-]-Øn-\mev Ah-Xm-c-ß-fp-
\m¬ I]n-em-Nm-cys\ \mkvXn-I-s\∂p ]d-™-                               -
                                                   s≠∂p ]d-bp-∂Xns\ Fßs\ kzoI-cn°mw
h-\mWp \mkvXn-I≥. I]n-em-Nm-cy-\-√.                    DØcw:-˛ thZm¿∞w Adn-bm-Ø-hcpw Hmtcm
        Cu-iz-c≥ \ymb-ssh-ti-jnI                              -                      -
                                                   k{º-Zm-b°m-cpsS he-bn¬ hogp-∂hcpw kzbw
               aoamw-k-I-fn¬                       Adn-hn-√m-Ø-hcpw A⁄m\ ]mi-Øn¬ IpSp-
                                                   ßp-∂-hcpw Cßs\ A{]-am-Wn-I-amb Imcy-
   AXp- t ]mse [¿a- Ø ns‚ B{i- b - a mb                                     -
                                                   ߃ ]d-bp-Ibpw AwKo-Icn-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂p.
                    -
[¿ansb AwKo-Icn-°p∂ aoamw-km-im-kv{X-hpw,
Cuiz- c s\ kzoI- c n- ° p∂ sshti- j n- I hpw           tNmZyw:-˛ Cuiz-c≥ Ah-X-cn-°p-∂n-s√-
Bflm-hns\ kzoI-cn-®n-´p≈ \ymb-Zcvi-\hpw             ¶n¬ Iwk≥ cmh-W≥ apX-emb ZpjvS-∑msc
\nco-iz-chm-Zn-If√. Fs¥-∂m¬, k¿h-⁄Xzw
         -      - -                                Fßs\ kwl-cn°pw?
XpS- ß nb [¿a- ß fpw ""AX- X n- k ¿∆{X                 DØcw:-˛ H∂m-a-Xv, P\n-®n-´p-≈-h-sc√mw
hym]vt\m-XoXymflm'' F∂ hyp¬∏-Øn-b-\p-               \n›-b-ambpw acn-°m-Xn-cn-°-bn-√, F∂p-am-{X-
k-cn®v Fßpw \nd-™n-cn-°p-∂-h\pw kIe                                               -
                                                   a-√, icocw ssIs°m-≠v Ah-Xcn-°msX Xs∂
Pohm-flm-°-fp-tSbpw IqSn Bflm-hp-amb ]pcp-           PK-Øns‚ krjvSnÿnXn-kw-lm-c-߃ \S-
j-s\-Øs∂bmWp aoamwk \ymbw, sshti-                  Øp∂ Cuiz-cs‚ apºn¬ Iwk≥, cmh-W≥
jnIw F∂o Z¿i-\-߃ Cuiz-c-\mbn AwKo-                apX-em-b-h¿ Hcp Iran-tbmfw t]mep-an-√. Cuiz-
I-cn-°p-∂-Xv.                                      c≥ k¿∆-hym-]n-bm-b-Xp-sIm≠p Iwk-cm-h-Wm-
                 A-h-Xmcw C√                       Zn-I-fpsS ico-c-ß-fnepw IqSn \nd-™n-cn-°p-∂p.
                                                   C—n-°p∂ £W-Øn¬ Ah-cpsS amdp ]nf¿∂v
    tNmZyw:-˛ Cuiz-c≥ Ah-Xmcw kzoI-cn-°p-                    - -
                                                   sIm∂p-Ifbp-hm≥ Ign-bpw. FÆ-a‰ KpW-I¿Ω-
∂pt≠m C√tbm?                                       kz-`m-h-ß-tfm-Sp-Iq-Snb Cuiz-c≥ Hcp £p{Z-P-
    DØcw:-˛ C√ Fs¥-∂m¬ ""AP-G-I-]mXv''             ¥p-hns\ sIm√m≥ P\-\-a-c-W-߃ kzoI-cn-
(34-˛53 ) ""k]-cy-Km-—p-{I-aIm-bav'' (40-˛8) F∂p
                            -                      °p∂p F∂p ]d-bp-∂-hs\ hnUvVn-tbm-S-
XpS-ßn-bp≈ bPq¿thZ hN-\-ß-fn¬ \n∂p                 √msX a‰m-tcm-Sp-]-an-°m≥! `‡-P-\-ßsf D≤-
Cuiz-c≥ P∑w ssIs°m-≈p-∂n-s√∂p kn≤n-                cn-°p-∂-Xn-\m-bn-´mWv Ah-X-cn-°p-∂-sX∂v ]d-
°p-∂p.                                             ™m¬ AXpw icn-b-√. Fs¥-∂m¬ Cuiz-
    tNmZyw:-˛ bZm bZm ln [cvaky •m\ncv`-           cm⁄ A\p-k-cn-°p∂ `‡-P-\-ßsf D≤-cn-
hXn `mcX, A`yp-∞m-\-a-[cvaky XZm-flm\w              °p-hm≥ Cuiz-c\v kma¿∞y-ap-≠.v `qan, kqcy≥,
krPm-aylw (KoX 4.7) [¿a-Øn\p tem]w hcp-            N{µ≥,apX- e mb kI- e - t em- I - ß - f p- s Sbpw
tºm-sg√mw Rm≥ icocw [cn-°p∂p F∂p                   krjvSn-ÿn-Xn-kw-lm-c-ß-tf-°mƒ Cuiz-c\v
{ioIr-jvW≥ ]d-bp-∂p-≠-t√m.                         Iwk-cm-h-Wm-Zn-IfpsS h[hpw tKmh¿≤-\-]v∆-
                                                   -Øns‚ D≤m-c-Whpw al-Ø-c-ß-fmb I¿Ω-ß-
    DØcw:-˛ thZ-hncp-≤-am-b-Xp-sIm≠v CXp           fmtWm? C°m-Wp∂ krjv-Sn-bn¬ Cuiz-c≥
{]am-W-a-√. [¿am-flmhpw [¿asØ c£n-°p-               sNøp∂ I¿a-ß-sf-∏‰n Nn¥n-°p∂ B¿°pw

                                               137
    kXym¿∞-{]-Im-iw                                           Cuiz-c≥ thZw
Cuiz-c\p Xpey-\mbn Bcpw D≠m-bn-´n-s√∂pw                         -
                                                 DØcw:˛ Ah-\hs‚ I¿Ø-hy-I¿Ω-ßfn¬          -
D≠m-hp-I-bn-s√∂pw a\- n-em-°mw. IqSmsX       kzX-{¥\pw Cuiz-cs‚ hyh-ÿ-bn¬ ]c-X-
Cuiz-c≥ P∑s-a-Sp-°p∂p F∂Xv bp‡n-k-l-         {¥\pw BIp- ∂ p. ""kzX{¥x I¿Øm'' 11
hp-a-√. AXn-cn-√mØ Cu BImiw K¿`-Øn¬          F∂Xp ]mWn-\n-bpsS hymI-c-W-kq-{X-amWv.
AS-ßn-sbt∂m Ic-X-e-Øn¬ HXp-ßn-sbt∂m                                    -        - -
                                             GsXm-cp-h≥ kzX-{¥≥-˛kzm-[o-\≥-˛Bbn-cn-°p-
Bcm\pw ]d-™m¬ AXp t\cm-hn-√. BImiw           ∂pthm Ah-\mWp I¿Øm-hv.
AXn-c-‰-Xm-Wv. Fßpw \nd-™-Xm-Wv. AXv             tNmZyw:˛ BcmWv kzX-{¥≥?
AI-tØ°p hcn-Itbm ]pd-tØ°p t]mIp-
Itbm sNøp-I-bn-√. AXp-t]mse Cuiz-c≥              DØcw:˛ ico-cw, {]mW≥, C{µn-b-߃,
A\-¥\pw k¿h-hym-]n-bp-am-Ibm¬ Fhn-sS-sb-
                           -                         -             - -
                                             A¥x-IcWw apX-em-bhsb√mw BcpsS kzm[o-
¶nepw Ib-dp-Itbm Cd-ßp-Itbm sNøp∂            \-Øn-emtWm Abm-fmWv kzX-{¥≥. Pohm-
{]iv\-ta-bn-√. Hcp hkvXp FhnsS C√tbm         flmhv kzX-{¥-\-s√-¶n¬ ]m]-]p-Wy-ß-fpsS
AhnsS am{Xta t]m°p-h-chp \S-°q. Cuiz-        ^ew Hcn-°epw In´p-I-bn-√. `rXy≥ bP-am-\-
c≥ Fhn-sS-\nt∂m hs∂∂p ]d-bp-hm≥, K¿`-        s‚bpw ]S- b m- f n- I ƒ ]S- \ m- b - I - s ‚bpw
Øn¬ hym]n-®n-cp-∂n-s√t∂m? ]pdØv D≠m-bn-      B⁄tbm t{]c-Wtbm A\p-k-cn®v bp≤-
cp-∂nt√? D≠m-bn-cp-∂p-sh-¶n¬ ]ns∂ Fß-        Øn¬ F{X-t]sc sIm∂mepw A]-cm-[n-I-fm-
s\-bmWp \n¿K-an®p F∂p ]d-bp-∂Xv? Adn-        Ip-∂n-√. AXp-t]m-se, Pohm-flmhp ]c-ta-iz-
hn-√m-Ø-hc√m-sX a‰m-cmWv Cuiz-c-s\∏-‰n       cs‚ t{]cW- s Im- t ≠m A[o- \ - X - s Imt≠m
Cßs\ ]d-bp-Ibpw hnNm-cn-°p-Ibpw sNøpI?       I¿aw sNøp-∂-Xm-bm¬ Pohm-flm-hn\p ]m]-]p-
Cuiz-c≥ hcn-Itbm t]mhp-Itbm P\n-°p-          Wy-ß-fpsS ^ew D≠m-hp-I-bn-√. B ^e-
Itbm acn-°p-Itbm sNøp-∂n-√. tbip apX-        Øns‚ Ah-Imin t{]c-I-\mb Cuiz-c-\m-bn-
em-b-hcpw Cuiz-cs‚ Ah-Xm-c-a-s√∂p a\- n-     cn-°pw. kz¿K-\-c-I-߃, AXm-b-Xv, kpJ-Zpx-J-
em-°n-s°m-≈p-I. Fs¥-∂m¬, cmK-tZz-j-߃        ߃ In´p-∂Xpw Cuiz-c\p Xs∂-bm-bn-cn-°pw.
hni∏pw Zml-hpw, `b-tim-I-߃ kpJ-Zpx-J-       Bsc- ¶ nepw Bbp[w sIm≠v Hcp- Ø s\
߃ P\-\-a-c-W-߃ apX-em-bh D≠m-bn-cp∂        sIm∂p-I-f-™m¬ sIme sNbvX-h-s\-bmWv
Ah¿ a\p-jy¿ Xs∂-bm-bn-cp-∂p.                 ]nSn-°p-∂Xpw in£n-°p-∂-Xpw. Bbp-[-sØ-b-
                                             √. AXp-t]m-se-Xs∂ ]c-X-{¥-\mb Pohm-flm-
   tNmZyw:˛ Cuiz-c≥ Xs‚ `‡-∑m-cpsS           hn\p ]pWy-]m-]-ß-fpsS ^ew In´p-hm≥ Xc-
]m]w £an-°ptam C√tbm?                        an-√. AXn-\m¬ Ah-\-hs‚ i‡n-sIm≠p \S-
   DØcw:˛ C√. Fs¥-∂m¬ ]m]-ßsf £an-           Øp∂ I¿a-ß-fn¬ Pohm-flmhp kzX-{¥-\m-Ip-
°p-∂-]£w Cuiz-cs‚ \ymbw \jvS-s∏-Spw.         ∂p. F∂m¬ Pohm-flmhp ]m]w sNbvXm¬
a\p-jy-sc-√m-hcpw henb ]m]n-I-fm-Ipw. £an-   Cuiz- c s‚      hyh- ÿ bv°p           Iog- S ßn
°p-sa-∂-dn-™m¬ a\p-jy¿°v ]m]w sNøp-∂-        ]m]Øns‚ ^ew A\p-`-hn-°pw. AXn-\m¬
Xn¬ `b-an-√m-bvabpw D’m-lhpw h¿≤n-°pw.       I¿Ωw sNøp-∂-Xn¬ Pohm-flmhp kzX-{¥\pw
cmPmhp Ip‰w sNbvX-h¿°p am∏p sImSp-°p-        ZpxJ-cq-]-amb ]m]-^ew A\p-`-hn-°p-∂-Xn¬
tºmƒ Ah¿ hen-b-h-enb Ip‰-߃ D’m-l-           ]c-X-{¥\pw BIp-∂p.
]q¿∆w sNøp-∂p. cmPmhp Xs‚ A]-cm-[ßsf -           tNmZyw:˛ Cuiz-c≥ ]c-am-flm-hns\ krjv-
£an-°p-sa∂pw sXmgptXm Imep-]n-Snt®m c£-                                          -
                                             Sn-°p-Ibpw Pohm-flm-hn\p i‡n-\evIp-Ibpw
s∏-´p-sIm-≈m-sa∂pw Ah¿ Xocp-am-\n-°pw.       sNbvXn-´n-√m-bn-cp-∂p-sh-¶n¬ Pohm-flm-hn\p
Ip‰w sNøm-Ø-hcpw IqSn Ip‰w sNøp-∂-Xn¬        bmsXmcp I¿ahpw sNøp-hm≥ Ign-bp-I-bn-
`b-an-√m-Ø-h-cmbn ]m]w sNbvXp XpS-ßpw.       √m-bn-cp-∂p. AXn-\m¬ Cuiz-c-t{]-c-Wbm-
AXn-\m¬ k¿h-I¿a-߃°pw AXm-Xns‚               et{X Pohm-flmhp I¿a-߃ sNøp-∂Xv!
^ew bYm-bp‡w sImSp-°p-I-X-s∂-bmWv
Cuiz-cs‚ I¿Ø-hyw. am∏p sImSp-°p-I-b-√.           DØcw:˛ Pohm-flmhv Hcn-°epw P\n-®n-´p-≈-
                                                                     -   - -
                                             X-√. PK-Øns‚ D]-Zm-\Im-cWamb {]Ir-Xnbpw
   tNmZyw:˛ Pohm-flmhv kzX-{¥t\m ]c-X-
{¥t\m?                                       11 AjvSm-[ymbn 1.4.54

                                         138
                Ggmw kap-√mkw                                                         kXym¿∞-{]-Im-iw
\nan-Ø-Im-c-W-amb Cuiz-c\pw GXp hn[-                     hn-Zy-Iƒ \S-ØpI apX-em-bXpw \∑-Xn-∑-I-fn-
Øn¬ A\m-Zn-bmtWm AtX hn[-Øn¬ Pohm-                       S-Ie¿∂-Xp-amb I¿a-߃ Pohm-flm-°-fp-tS-Xm-
flmhpw A\m-Zn-bm-Wv. Pohm-flm-hns‚ ico-chpw                Wv. \nXy-amb ⁄m\w, B\-µw, Afh‰ _ew
C{µn- b - ß fpw Cuiz- c ≥ krjv S n- ® - X m- W v .       apX-emb KpW-߃ Cuiz-c-\p-≈-Xm-Wv. Pohm-
F¶nepw Ah-sb√mw Pohm-flm-hns‚ A[o-\-                      flm-hn-\v:-˛.
Øn-em-Wv. a\-kv, hm°v, I¿aw F∂nh aptJ\                       C—m-tZz-j-{]-b-Xv\-kp-J-Zpx-J-⁄m-\m-\ym-
Pohm- fl mhv ]pWy- ] m- ] - ß ƒ sNbv X m¬                 flt\m enwK-anXn (\ym-bw) 12
AXns‚ ^ew Pohm-flm-hm-Wv, ]c-am-flm-h√
A\p-`-hn-°p-∂Xv. Hcp--Zm-l-cWw ]d-bmw. Hcp                   {]mWm- ] m- \ - \ n- t a- t jm- t ∑- j - a - t \m- K - X o-
sXmgn-emfn ae-bn¬ \n∂v Ccp-º-bncv Ipgn-s®-               {µnbm¥cvhn-Imcmx kpJ-Zpx-tJ—m tZzju
Sp-Øp. Hcp I®-h-S-°m-c≥ AXp hnebv°p                      {]bXv\m›mfl-t\m enwKm\n (ssh-ti) 13
hmßn, Ahn-sS-\n∂v AXp hmßn sIm√≥                             (C—m) ]Zm¿∞-߃ In´p-hm-\p≈ B{K-
hmƒ Xo¿Øp. sIm√s‚ ]°¬ \n∂v B hmƒ                                                     -
                                                         lw, (tZz-j) ZpxJm-Zn-Ifn-ep≈ A\njvSw As√-
Hcp tbm≤mhp hmßn. AXp-sIm-≠v Ah≥ Hcp-                                         -
                                                         ¶n¬ shdp∏v ({]-bXv\) ]pcp-j{]-bXv\w _ew-
Øs\ sh´n-s°m-∂p. ChnsS \ymbm-[n-]≥                       F∂nh (kp-J) B\µw (Zpx-J) hyk\w As√-
Ccpºp Ipgn- s ®- S p- Ø - h t\- t bm, hnebv ° p          ¶n¬ kt¥mj-an-√m-bva, (⁄m-\) hnth-Iw,
hmßn- b - h t\- t bm, hmfp- ≠ m- ° n- b - h - t \tbm     ({]m-W) {]mW-hm-bp-hns\ ]pd-tØ°p X≈n-
As√-¶n¬ hmfn-s\tbm ]nSn®p in£n-°p-∂n-                    °-f-bp-I 14 (A-]m-\) {]mW-hm-bp-hns\ D≈n-
√. hmfp-sIm≠p sh´n-s°m-∂-h-\mWv in£                      te°p hen-s®-Sp-°pI (\n-ta-j) IÆp-I-f-S-
In´p-∂Xv. AXp-t]m-se, ico-cm-Zn-Isf \n¿Ωn®               bv°pI (D-t∑-j) IÆp-Iƒ Xpd-°pI (a-\x)
Cuiz-c≥ Ah-sIm-≠p sNøp∂ I¿a-ß-fpsS                       \n›-bn-°p-I, kvacn-°p-I, A`n-am-\n-°pI (K-
^ew A\p- ` - h n- ° p- ∂ n√; Pohm- fl m- h n- s \-        Xn) Kan-°p-I, (C-{µn-b) F√m C{µn-bßsfbpw         - -
s°m≠v A\p-`-hn-∏n-°p-I-bmWp sNøp-∂-Xv.                   {]h¿Øn- ∏ n- ° pI (A- ¥ cv - h n- I m- c ) hni- ∏ v ,
Cuiz-c-\mWv I¿a-߃ sNøp-∂-sX-¶n¬ Hcp                     Zmlw, kt¥m-jw, k¶Sw apX-emb hnhn[
                              -
Pohm-flmhpw ]m]w sNøp-Ibn-√. Cuiz-c≥ ]cn-                 hnIm-c-ß-fp-≠m-hp-I, Ch-sb√mw Pohm-flm-
ip-≤\pw [m¿an-I-\p-am-b-Xp-sIm≠v GsXmcp                  hns‚ KpW-ß-fm-Wv. Cu KpW-߃ ]c-am-flm-
Pohm-flm-hn-s\bpw ]m]w sNøp-hm≥ t{]cn-∏n-                 hns‚ KpW-ß-fn¬ \n∂p `n∂-a-t{X. Cu KpW-
°p-I-bn-√. AXn-\m¬ Pohm-flmhp kzI¿aw                      ß-sf-s°m-≠p-thWw Pohm-flm-hns‚ KpW-
sNøp- ∂ - X n¬ kzX- { ¥- \ m- W v . Pohm- fl mhp          ßsf Adn-tb-≠-Xv. Fs¥-∂m¬ Pohm-flmhp
kzI¿am- \ p- j v T m- \ - Ø n¬ kzX- { ¥- \ m- b - X p-   ÿqe-a-√. Pohm-flmhp ico-c-Øn¬ ÿnXn-sN-
t]mse Xs∂ ]c-am-flmhpw kzI¿a-߃ \S-                       øp-tºmƒ am{Xta Cu KpW-߃ {]Im-in-°q.
Øp-∂-Xn¬ kzX-{¥-\m-Ip-∂p.                                Pohm-flmhp icocw hn´p-t]m--Ip-tºmƒ Cu KpW-
   tNmZyw:˛ Pohm- fl m- h n- s ‚bpw Cuiz- c -             ߃ ico-c-Øn¬ ImW-s∏-Sp-∂n-√. GsXmcp
s‚bpw kzcq-]hpw KpW-I¿a-kz-`m-h-ßfpw                     hkvXp D≠m-Ip-tºmƒ KpW-߃ D≠m-hp-
Gh?                                                      Ibpw \in-°p-tºmƒ KpW-߃ C√m-Xm-hp-
   DØcw:˛ Pohm-flmhpw Cuiz-c\pw tNX-\m-                   Ibpw sNøp-∂pthm B KpW-߃ B hkvXp-
kz-cq-]-cm-Ip-∂p. Pohm-flm-hn-s‚bpw Cuiz-c-               hn-t‚-Xm-Wv. hnft°m kqcyt\m D≈ ka-bØp
s‚bpw kz`mhw ]cn-ip-≤hpw \mi-c-ln-Xhpw                   {]Imiw D≠m-hp-Ibpw Ah c≠pw C√m-Ø-
[m¿an-IXzw XpS-ßnb KpW-ß-tfm-Sp-Iq-Sn-b-Xp-              t∏mƒ {]Imiw C√m-Xm-hp-Ibpw sNøp-∂XmWv                -
am-Ip-∂p. F∂m¬ krjvSn-bpsS DXv]-Øn-ÿn-
                                                           12 \ymb-Z¿i\w 1.1.10
Xn-{]-f-b-߃ \n¿∆-ln-°p-I, F√m-h-scbpw                     13 sshti-jnIw 3.2.4
\nb-am-\p-k-cWw \S-Øp-I. Pohm-flm-°ƒ°p                      14 {]mWm-]m-\-ß-sf-∏‰n {KŸ-I¿Øm-hns‚ A`n-{]m-
            - -
]pWy-]m-]ßfpsS ^ew sImSp-°p-I, apX-emb                     b-amWv {]mNo-\w. ssa{Xm-bWo Bc-Wy-I-Øn¬ (2.6)
[¿am-\p-krX I¿a-߃ Cuiz-c-t‚-Xpw, k¥m-                     tbmfb aqcv[zm-am{Im aytXyj hmh kx {]mWx
                                                           AYtbmfb AhmMv kw{Im-a-tXyj hmhtkmf]m\
\-ßsf DXv]m-Zn-∏n®p t]m‰n-h-f¿Øp-I, inev]-                 F∂p-]-d-bp-∂p.

                                                     139
     kXym¿∞-{]-Im-iw                                                     Cuiz-c≥ thZw
CXn- \ p- Z m- l - c - W w. C{]- I mcw Pohm- fl m- h n-   kpjp]vXn F∂o Ah-ÿIƒ P\-\acW߃  -       - - - -
s‚bpw ]c-am-flm-hn-s‚bpw ⁄m\w D≠m-Ip-                     kwtbm-Khn-tbm-K-߃ KXm-K-X-߃ F∂nh
∂Xv AXn-\p≈ KpW-ß-sf-s°m-≠m-Ip-∂p.                       Hcn-°epw D≠m-hp-I-bn-√. AXn-\m¬ Pohs‚
          Cu-iz-cs‚ {XnIm-e-⁄m-\w                                            --            -
                                                         kzcq-]w, Aev]PvRXzw, Aev]Xzw, kq£vaXzw
                                                         F∂o [¿a-ß-tfm-Sp-Iq-Sn-b-Xm-Wv. Cuiz-c≥
    tNmZyw:˛ Cuiz-c≥ {XnIm-e-⁄m-\-ap-≈-                  kq£va-ß-fn¬ kq£vahpw A\-¥-\pw, k¿h-
Xp-sIm-≠v `mhn-Im-cy-ßfpw IqSn Adn-bp-∂p.                ⁄-\pw, k¿h-hym-]n-bp-am-Wv. AXp-sIm-≠t{X
                             - -   -
At±lw Xocp-am-\n-°p-∂X\p-kcn-®mWv Pohm-                             -
                                                         Poth-iz-c∑m¿°p XΩn-ep≈ _‘w hym]y-hym-
flmhp {]h¿Øn-°p-∂-Xv. AXn-\m¬ Poh≥                        ]-I-`m-h-am-sW∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xv.
kzX-{¥-\√; Cuiz-c≥ Pohs\ in£n-°p-
∂Xv DNn-X-hp-a-√. Cuiz-cs‚ CwKn-X-a-\p-k-                   tNmZyw:˛ Hcp hkvXp D≈n-SØv as‰m-∂n\v
cn-®mWv Poh≥ {]h¿Øn-°p-∂-Xv.                             Ccn-°m-\m-hn-√. AXn-\m¬ Pothiz-c∑m¿°p      -
                                                         XΩn¬ kwtbm-K-kw-_-‘ta D≠m-hm≥ Xc-
    DØcw:˛ Cuiz- c ≥ {XnIm- e - ⁄ m- \ n- b m-           ap≈q. hym]y-hym-]-I-`m-h-kw-_‘w D≠m-
sW∂p ]d-bp-∂Xv hnUvVn-Ø-am-Wv. D≠m-bn-                   hm≥ Xc-an-√.
´v, C√m-Xn-cn-°p-∂-XmWv `qX-Im-ew. D≠m-bn-´n-
√m-ØXpw D≠m-Im-hp-∂-Xp-amWv `mhn-Im-ew.                     DØcw:˛ kam-\-amb BIr-Xn-tbmSp IqSnb
apºv D≠m-bn-´p-≈Xpw Ct∏mƒ C√m-Ø-Xp-amb                   ]Zm¿∞-߃°p XΩnte Cu \nbaw _m[-I-
Hcp ⁄m\w Cuiz-c-\pt≠m? AXp-t]mse                                                     -        - -
                                                         am-hq. Ak-am-\m-Ir-Xn-Ifn¬ _m[-Ia√. Ccpºp
Xs∂ apºv D≠m-Im-ØXpw taen¬ D≠m-Im-                       ÿqehpw A·n kq£va-hp-am-Ip-∂p. AXp
hp- ∂ - X p- a mb ⁄m\hpw Cuiz- c - \ pt≠m?               \nanØw sshZyp-X-amb A·n Ccp-ºn¬ hym]n-
⁄m\w F√m-bvt]mgpw Hcp-t]m-se-bp-≈Xpw                     ®n-cn-°pIpw c≠pw Hcn-S-Øp-Xs∂ h¿Øn-°p-
AJ-WvU-am-bn-˛-C-S-hn-Sm-sX˛ \ne-\n-ev°p-∂-Xp-           Ibpw sNøp-∂p. AXp-t]mse Poh≥ Cuiz-c-
am-Wv. `qXw `mhn F∂p≈ t`Zw Pohm-flm-                      t\-°mƒ ÿqehpw Cuiz-c≥ Poh-t\-°mƒ
°ƒ°p-≈-Xm-Wv. Pohm-flm-°-fpsS I¿asØ                                -        -
                                                         kq£vahp-am-bXp-sIm-≠v Cuiz-c≥ hym]-I\pw
At]-£n-®p≈ {XnIm-e-⁄m\w Cuiz-c-\p-                       Poh≥ hym]y-hp-am-Ip-∂p. Poth-iz-c-∑m¿°p
s≠-∂p-≈Xp icn Xs∂. F∂m¬ AXp-kz-                          XΩn¬ hym]y-hym-]I _‘-sa-∂-Xp-t]m-se-
Xx-kn-≤-a-√. kzmX-{¥y-ap-≈-Xp-sIm≠v Pohm-                Xs∂ tkhy-tk-h-I-`m-hw, B[m-cm-t[-b-`mhw
flmhv GXp-hn-[-Øn¬ {]h¿Øn-°p-∂pthm                        bP-am\`rXy-`mhw, cmP-{]-Pm-`m-hw, ]nXm-]p-{X-
AtX-hn-[-Øn¬ k¿h-⁄-Xz-ap-≈-Xp-sIm≠v                      `mhw apX-emb _‘-ß-fpw D-≠v.
Cuiz-c≥ Adn-bp-∂p. Cuiz-c≥ Fßs\ Adn-                        tNmZyw:˛ Pohm-fl-]-c-am-flm-°ƒ `n∂-ß-
bp-∂pthm AtX hn[-Øn¬ Poh≥ {]h¿Øn-                        fm-sW-¶n¬-˛-th-Zßfnep≈ Cu alm-hm-Iy-
°p-∂p. `qX-`-hn-jy-Zz¿Ø-am-\-ßsf Adn-bp-∂-               ߃°v F¥¿Y-amWv?
Xnepw I¿a-^ew sImSp-°p-∂-Xnepw Cuiz-c≥                      1. {]⁄m-\w -{_“ 2. Alw {_“mkvan
kzX-{¥-\m-Ip-∂p. Cuiz-cs‚ ⁄m\w A\m-                      3. XØz-akn 4. Ab-amflm {_“
Zn- b m- b - X p- s Im≠p I¿asØ kw_- ‘ n®                    DØcw:˛ C∏- d - ™ h thZ- h m- I y- ß - f √
⁄m\-sa-∂-Xp-t]mse Xs∂ ZWvU-Zm-\sØ                        Xs∂. {_m“-W-{K-Ÿ-ß-fn-ep≈ hN-\-ß-fm-
kw_-‘n® PvRm\hpw A\m-Zn-bm-Ip-∂p. c≠p                    Wn-h. Ch-Iƒ°p alm-hm-Iy-sa-∂p-t]¿ kXy-
⁄m\- ß fpw Cuiz- c \p kXy- a m- W v . I¿a-               im-kv{Xßfn-sem-cn-SØpw ]d-™p-Im-Wp-∂n-√.
⁄m\w kXy-am-sW∂pw ZWvU⁄m\w anYy-     -                   Ch-bpsS A¿Yw C{]-Im-c-am-Ip∂p:˛ (A-lw)
bm-sW∂pw Fßs\ hcpw? AXn-\m¬ CXn¬                         Rm≥ ({_-“) {_“-Øn-¶¬ ÿnXn-sN-øp-∂-
tZmj-an-√.                                               h≥ (A-kvan) BIp-∂p. ChnsS a©mx t{Im
                   Po-h\pw Cuiz-c-\pw                    i¥n F∂ hmIy-Øn-se-t∏mse Xm¬tÿm-
   tNmZyw:˛ Pohm-flmhv hn`pthm (k¿h-hym-                  ]m[n BIp-∂p. a©-߃-˛-Im-h¬∏p-c-Iƒ˛
]n-tbm) Hmtcm ico-c-Ønepw sht∆-sdtbm?                    i_v Z n- ° p- I - b n- √ . a©- ß ƒ°v Poh- \ n- √ .
                                                         Ahbv°p \ne-hn-fn-°p-hm≥ Ign-hp-an-√. AXn-
   DØcw:˛ hn`p-hm-sW-¶n¬ Pm{K-Øv, kz]v\w,

                                                     140
                Ggmw kap-√mkw                                                         kXym¿∞-{]-Im-iw
\m¬ a©Øn-ep≈ a\p-jy¿ \ne-hn-fn-°p∂p                          tNmZyw:˛ {_“sØ {Kln-°p-∂p.
F∂¿Yam-Wv. CXp-t]mse {]kvXp-X-hm-Iy-                         DØcw:˛ {_“- ] - Z - Ø ns‚ A\p- h rØn
Ønepw a\-   n- e m- ° n- s °m- ≈ p- I . kIe              Fhn-Sp∂p In´n?
]Zm¿∞-ßfpw {_“-Øn-emWp ÿnXn sNøp-                            tNmZyw:˛ ktZ-h-tkm-tay-Z-a{K BkotZI-
∂Xv. At∏mƒ Pohm-flm-hns\ {_“-ÿ-am-                        tahmZznXobw {_“ F∂ ]q¿h-hm-Iy-Øn¬
sW∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xn¬ F¥mWp hnti-jX?                          \n∂v.
F∂p tNmZn-®m¬ adp-]Sn CXmWv:˛ ka-kvX-
h- k v X p- ° fpw {_“- ÿ - ß ƒ Xs∂- b m- W v .               DØcw:˛ \n߃ Cu Omtµm-tKym-]\n-jØv     -
F∂m¬ Poh\v GXp hn[-Øn¬ {_“-Øns‚                          I≠n- ´ p- I q- S n- b n- √ - t √m. AXp t\m°n- b m¬
km[¿ayhpw kmao-]yhpw Dt≠m AtX hn[-                       AhnsS {_“-sa∂ ]Zta Cs√∂p ImWmw.
Øn¬ as‰m-∂n-\p-an√ IqSmsX Pohm-flm-hn\v                   shdp-tX-sb-¥n\p s]mfn-]-d-bp∂p? Omtµm-Ky-
{_“-⁄m\w D≠m-Ip-∂p. tam£w {]m]n-°p-                      Øn-em-Is´ ktZh tkmtay-Z-a{K Bko tZI-
tºmƒ Pohm- fl m- h n\p {_“- t Øm- S p- I qSn              ta- h m- Z zn- X o- b av 16 F∂mWp ]mT- a p- ≈ - X v .
km£m¬ kw_‘w D≠m-hp-Ibpw sNøp-∂p.                         AhnsS {_“-i_vZw Xs∂ C√.
At∏mƒ Poh\v {_“-Øns‚ X¬tÿym-]m[n                             tNmZyw:˛ F∂m¬ XXv F∂-Xp-sIm≠p
As√-¶n¬ X’-l-N-cn-tXm-]m[n D≠v. 15                       Xm¶ƒ {Kln-°p-∂-sX-¥mWv?
Poh≥ {_“-Øn¬ ÿnXn sNøp∂p As√-                                DØcw:˛ k b Gtjm-Wn-am. sFX-Zm-fly-
¶n¬ {_“- Ø ns‚ kl- I mcn BIp∂p                           anZMv kcvhw X’XyMv k Bflm- X-Øz-
F∂¿Yw. AXn-\m¬ Poh\pw {_“hpw H∂-                         akn tizX tItXm CXn 17 {]nb-]p-{X-\mb
√. Rm\pw Ch\pw H∂m-Wv. F∂v Bsc-¶nepw                     tizX-tItXm Bcv AXy¥ kq£va-kz-cq-]\pw
]d-bp-∂-Xm-bm¬ AXn\p R߃°p XΩn¬                          C°m-Wp-∂-k-I-e-tem-I-Øn-s‚bpw Pohm-flm-
hntcm-[-an√ F∂¿Y-am-Wv. AXp-t]m-se-Xs∂                   hn-s‚bpw IqSn Bflmhpw BtWm Ah-\t{X
kam-[n-bn-en-cn-°p∂ Pohm-flmhv ]c-ta-iz-c-                Adn-bp-hm≥ tbmKy≥. Ah-\mWp kXy-kz-cq-
\n-ep≈ t{]a-Øn¬ \na-·-\m-bn-cn-°p∂ ka-                   ]≥. Ah≥ kzb-tah kzmflm-hn-s‚bpw Bflm-
bØv Rm\pw {_“hpw H∂mWv AXm-bXv                           hm-bn-cn-°p-∂-h-\m-Wv.
Ahn-tcm-[n-Ifpw Htc ÿeØv ÿnXn-sN-øp-
                                                             XZm-fl-I-kvX-Z-¥-cymao Xza-kn. ""A¥-cym-
∂-hcpw BIp-∂p. F∂p ]d-bmw. Cuiz-cs‚
                                                         an-bmb B ]c-am-flm-hn-t\mSp IqSn-t®¿∂-h-
KpW-I¿a-kz-`mh-ßsf A\p-k-cn®v Xs‚
KpW- I ¿a- k z- ` m- h - ß sf kwkv I - c n- ° p∂         \mWv \o''. a‰p-]-\n-j-Øp-I-tfmSpw tbmPn®
Pohm-flm-hn\v am{Xta km[¿ayw \nanØw                       A¿Yw CXp Xs∂.
{_“-tØmSv sFIy-ap-≈-Xmbn ]d-bp-hm≥                           b Bfl\n Xnjv T - ∂ m- fl t\mf¥tcm- b -
]mSp-f-fq.                                               amflm \ thZ bkymflm ico-cav; Bflt\m
                                                         f¥tcm ba-bXn k X Bflm-¥-cym-ay-arXx.
                    X-Øz-a-kn
                                                             _rl-Zm-c-Wy-tIm-]-\n-j-Øn-ep≈ 18 hN-
  tNmZyw:˛ icn. Aß-s\-bm-sW-¶n¬ (X-Xv)                   \-am-Wn-Xv. bm⁄-h¬Iy-a-l¿jn Xs‚ ]Xv\n-
{_“w (Xzw) Pohm-flm-hmb \o (A-kn)                         bmb ssat{X-bn-tbmSp ]d-bp∂p:˛ ssat{Xbo!
BIp∂p; ""Pohm! \o B {_“-am-Ip-∂p.''                      GsXmcp Cuiz- c ≥ Pohm- fl mhn¬ ÿnXn
F∂¿∞-amb ""XXv Xzakn'' F∂ hmIy-                          sNøp-∂-h-s\-¶nepw Pohm-flm-hn¬ \n∂p `n∂-
Øn\v F¥¿∞-amWv?                                          \mtWm B ]c-am-flmhv F∂n¬ Fßpw hym]n-
  DØcw:˛ ""XXv '' F∂ i_v Z w- s Im≠p                     ®n-cn-°p-∂p. F∂n-ßs\ GsXm-∂ns\ aqV-
\n߃ F¥ns\ {Kln-°p∂p?                                    \mb Pohm-flm-h-dn-bp-∂n-√-tbm, GsXmcp ]c-
                                                                                             -
                                                         am-flm-hn\v Pohm-flmhv ico-cam-bn-Øo-cp-∂p-thm-
15. \ymb-Z¿i\w 2.2 61-˛¬ CXns‚ hni-Zo-I-c-W-ap-≠v.       ˛-`u-Xn-I-i-co-c-Øn¬ Pohm-flmhp IpSn-sIm-≈p-
   hSn-sIm≠p \S-°p-∂-bm-fns\ "hSn' F∂p ]d-bm-dp-         16. OmtµmKy D]-\n-jØv 6.2.1
   ≠v. hSn-°m-c-\v, hSn XXvk-l-Nm-cn-bm-b-Xn-\m¬ "hSn'   17. OmtµmKy D]-\n-jØv 6.8.7
   F∂p-t]-cp-h-cmw. CXv XXvk-l-N-cn-tXm-]m-[n-bm-Wv.     18. _r.-D. 14.6.7.32 (am-[y-µn-\-]m-Tw)

                                                     141
     kXym¿∞-{]-Im-iw                                              Cuiz-c≥ thZw
∂-Xp-t]mse Pohm-flm-hn¬ GsXm∂p hym]n-              A¿Yw Adn-bp-∂-h¿ A{]-Imcw hn]-co-X-amb
®n-cn-°p∂pthm˛ GsXm∂v Pohm-flm-°-fn¬               A¿Yw Hcn-°epw ]d-bp-I-bn-√.
\n∂p `n∂hpw Pohm-flm-°ƒ sNøp∂ ]m]-                    tNmZyw:˛ ""tkmbw tZh-ZtØm b DjvW-
          -                    --
]p-Wy-ßfpsS km£n-bp-am-bn-cp-∂psIm-≠v Ah-         Imte Imiymw ZrjvSx k CZm\ow {]mhr-Svk-
bpsS ^esØ sImSpØv Ahsc \nb-a-Øn\p                 atb aYp-cmbmw ZriytX'' th\-¬°m-e-Øp
Iog-S°n \n¿Øp-∂p-thm, \mi-an-√mØbcq-]-                                         - -
                                                  Imin-bn¬ h®v GsXmcp tZh-ZØs\-bmtWm
tØmSp IqSn. B Bflmhp Xs∂- b mWv                    Rm≥ I≠Xv B tZh-Z-Ø-s\-Øs∂ ag-°m-
\ns‚bpw A¥-cym-an-bmbn D≈n-seßpw \nd-             eØp aYp- c - b n¬h®p Rm≥ ImWp- ∂ p.
™-h-\mbn Ccn-°p-∂-Xv. B Bflm-hns\ \o               ChnsS Imin th\¬ F∂o tZi-Im-e-ß-sf,
Adn-™m-epw. C{]-Im-c-ap≈ hN-\-߃°p                ]cn-Xy-Pn®v ico-c-sa∂ e£ysØ e£-W-
thsd h√ A¿∞hpw Iev]n-°p-hm≥ B¿s°-                               -
                                                  am°n tZh-ZØs\ {Kln-°p-∂p. AXp-t]mse
¶nepw Ign-bptam? kam-[n-Z-i-bn¬ tbmKn°v           Cu `mK-Xym-K-e-£Ww sIm≠v Cuiz-cs‚
]c- a m- fl m- h ns‚ km£mXv ° mcw D≠m- I p-        ]tcm-£-tZ-i-Im-e-߃ amb F∂o D]m-[n-
tºmƒ B tbmKn ""Ab-am-flm-{_“ F∂n-¬                 I-tfbpw Pohs‚ {]Xy£ tZi-Im-e-߃
hym]n- ® n- c n- ° p∂ Cu {_“w Xs∂- b mWv          AhnZy Aev]⁄Xzw F∂o D]m-[n-I-tfbw
Fßpw \nd-™n-cn-°p-∂Xv F∂n-ßs\ ]d-                 XyPn®v tNX-\m-am-{XsØ e£y-am°n {_“-
™p-t]m-Ip-∂p. AXp-sIm≠v Poh\pw {_“hpw             am-Ip∂ Htc hkvXp-Xs∂ Poh≥ Cuiz-c≥
H∂m-sW∂p ]d-bp∂ C°m-esØ thZm-¥n-                  F∂o c≠n-epw, e£Ww sIm≠p {Kln-
Iƒ°v thZ{¥-imkv{Xw Adn-bp-I-bn√ Xs∂.              °p∂ Nne Awi-ßsf {Kln-°p-Ibpw Nne
    tNmZyw:˛ At\\ Bfl\m Poth-\m\p                  Awi-ßsf XyPn-°p-Ibpw sNøp∂ Cu `mK-
{]hniy \ma-cqt] hymI-c-hmWn (Om {]. 6             Xym-K-e-£-W-Øm¬ k¿h-⁄-Xzm-Zn-I-fpsS
J. 3 aw, 2) X’r-jvSzm XtZ-hm\p {]mhn-iXv          hmNym¿∞- a mb Cuiz- c - s \- b pw, Aev ] -
(ssX-Øncob {_“m-\µ A\p. 6.) Cuiz-                 ⁄mXzm- Z n- I - f psS hmNym¿∞- a mb Poh-
                 -
c≥ ]d-bp-IbmWv:˛ Rm≥ PK-Ønt\bpw ico-              t\bpw ]cn-Xy-Pn®p tNX-\-am-{X-am-bn-cn-°p∂
c-tØbpw krjvSn®v PK-Øn¬ k¿h-hym-]n-               e£ym¿∞sØ {Kln-®m¬ AssZzXw kn≤-
bm-bn´pw ico-c-Øn¬ Poh-\m-bn´pw {]th-in-                  -
                                                  am-Ip-at√m. \n߃°v C\n F¥p ]d-bp-hm≥
®p-sIm≠v \ma-cq-]-ßsf hymJym-\n-°p-∂p.            km[n°pw?
""Cuiz- c ≥ PK- Ø n- t \bpw ico- c - t Øbpw          DØcw:˛ Poh\pw Cuiz-c\pw \nXy-sct∂m
                                  - -
\n¿Ωn-®v, AXn¬ kzbw {]th-in-®h\m-bn´v''           A\n-Xy-sct∂m Icp-Xp-∂Xv?
F∂p XpS- ß n- b p≈ {ipXn- h - N - \ - ß - f psS         19
A¿∞w am‰n as‰m-∂m-°p-hm≥ \n߃°v                             tNmZyw:˛ c≠pw D]m- [ n- P - \ y- ß fpw
Fßs\ km[n°pw?                                     Iev]n-X-ß-fp-am-I-bm¬˛ A\n-Xy-ß-fm-Wv.
    DØcw:˛ \n߃°p ]Zhpw ]Zm¿Yhpw                     DØcw:˛ B D]m[n \nXytam A\n-Xytam?
hmIym¿Yhpw Adn-bm-sa-¶n¬ Cß-s\-bp≈                   tNmZyw:˛ Rß-fpsS A`n-{]m-b-Øn¬˛
A¿∞w ]dbpI-bn-√. Fs¥-∂m¬, ChnsS                      1. Poth- i uN hnip- ≤ m- N n- Z zn- t `Zkv X p
H∂p {]th-ihpw at‰Xv A\p-{]-th-i-hpw-˛-A-          XtbmcvZztbmx AhnZym X®n-tXmcvtømKx
Xm-bXv ]n∂oSv {]th-in-°¬˛BsW-∂t{X ]d-             jU-kvam-Ia \mZbx.
bp-∂-Xv. Cuiz-c≥ ico-c-Øn¬ {]th-in-®n-´p≈            2. Imtcym-]m-[n-cbw Pohx Imc-tWm-]m-
Pohm-flm-hn-t\m-Sp-IqSn A\p-{]-thiw sNbvXn-        [ncoizcx Imcy-Im-cWXmw lnXzm ]qcvÆ-
´v, Pohm-flm-hn\p Xpey-\mtWm F∂p tXm∂-             t_m-t[m-hinjytX.
Ø-°-hÆw ÿnX-\mbn thZw hgn \ma-cq-]m-
Zn-Ifmb kIe hnZy-Itfbpw {]Im-in-∏n-°p-∂p.
     -                 -                          19. ]q¿h-]-£-Øns‚ DØ-c-amWv ChnsS tNmZy-am-b-Xv.
                                                  20. BZysØ t«mIw kn≤m¥ tei-kw-{Klw F∂
ico-c-Øn¬ Pohs\ {]th-in-∏n-®v, Pohs‚                 ]pkvX-I-Ønse (A-Nyp-X-{K-Ÿ-am-e, Imin) 63-˛mw
A¥¿`m-K-Øn¬ Xm≥ A\p-{]-thiw sNbvXv                                            -
                                                     t]Pn¬ Sn∏-Wn-bm-Wv. c≠m-atØXv A\p-`qXn {]Imiw
Ccn- ° p∂p F∂¿Yw. A\p i_v Z - Ø ns‚                  H∂mw A[ymbw 61-˛mw t«mIw.


                                              142
               Ggmw kap-√mkw                                                kXym¿∞-{]-Im-iw
    kwt£-]-im-co-c-I-Ønepw imco-c-I-`m-jy-          ∂pthm Ahn- s S- b p≈ {_“w ⁄m\nbpw
Øn-epap≈ Imcn-I-I-fm-Wn-h. 20 thZm-¥n-I-            Bbn-cn-°pw. Aß-s\-bm-bm¬ Hcn-S-Øp≈
fmb R߃°v Poh≥, Cuiz-c≥, {_“w,                      {_“-sØbpw A\m-Znbpw ip≤-hp-amb ⁄m\-
Poth- i z- c - ∑ m¿ XΩn- e p≈ hnti- j - t `- Z w,   tØm-Sp-Iq-Sn-b-Xm-sa∂p ]d-bp-hm≥ \n߃°p
AhnZy (A-⁄m-\w) tNX-\-߃ XΩn-ep≈                    km[n-°p-I-bn-√. IqSm-sX, A⁄m-\-Øns‚
tbmKw F∂o BsdÆw A\m- Z n- I - f m- W v .            AXn¿Øn-bn-ep≈ {_“w A⁄m-\-tØbpw
F∂m¬ {_“w H∂p-am{Xw A\m-Znbpw A\-                   IqSn Adn-bp-∂-Xm-I-bm¬ A⁄m-\-Øns‚
¥-hp-am-Ip-∂p. a‰v A©pw {]m-K`mhw t]mse             AIØpw ]pdØpw D≈ {_“w c≠mbn apdn-
A\m- Z n- I fpw km¥- ß fpw BIp- ∂ p.                bpw. ""{_“w JWvU-am-bn-s°m-≈-s´. AXp-
A⁄m\w \ne-\n-ev°p-∂n-S-tØmfw Imew                   sIm-≠v {_“-Øn\v F¥p lm\n hcm≥ F∂p
am{Xta Cu A©p-ap-≈q. Cu A©n-t‚bpw                   ]d-bp-hm≥ hø'' Fs¥-∂m¬ Aß-s\-h-
BZn Adn-b-s∏-Sm-Ø-Xp-sIm-≠mWv Chsb                  ∂m¬ {_“w AJ- W v U - a - √ m- X m- b n- Ø o- c pw.
A\m-Zn-Iƒ F∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xv. ⁄m\w D≠m-                 AJ-WvU-am-sW-¶n¬ A⁄m-\n-bm-hm≥ Xc-
bm¬ ]ns∂ Ch \in-®p-t]m-Ip-∂p. AXn-                  an-√. AXn-\p-]p-d-ta, ⁄m\m-`m-h-hpw-hn-]-co-X-
\m¬ Ch km¥- ß ƒ- ˛ - \ m- i - a p- ≈ - h ˛          ⁄m-\hpw KpW-ß-fm-b-Xp-sIm≠v A⁄m\w
BsW∂pw ]d-b-s∏-Sp-∂p.                               GsX-¶nepw Hcp hkvXp-hn¬ \nXy-kw-_-‘-
    DØcw:˛ \nß-fpsS Cu c≠p t«mI-ßfpw                tØm-Sp-Iq-Sntb Ccn-°q. Aß-s\-bm-sW-¶n¬
Aip-≤-am-Wv. Fs¥-∂m¬, Ahn-Zy-bpambn                 ka-hm-b-kw-_-‘-am-b-Xp-sIm≠v Hcn-°epw
_‘n-∏n-°msX Poh\pw amb-bpsS _‘-an-                  AXv A\n- X y- a m- b n- c n- ° p- I - b n- √ , icosØ-
√msX Cuiz-c\pw \nß-fpsS kn≤m-¥-Øn¬                  ßm\pw {hW-ap-≠m-bm¬ thZ\ Fßpw hym]n-
kn≤n-°p-Ibn-√. AXn-\m¬. ""X—n-tXm-tcymKx''
            -                                       °p-∂-Xp-t]mse Hcn-SØv A⁄m-\hpw kpJ-
F∂v Bdm-aXp ]d™ ]Zm¿Yw Xs∂ C√.                      Zpx-J-ßfpw t¢i-ßfpw D≠m-Ip-tºmƒ {_“w
Fs¥- ∂ m¬ AhnZy amb F∂nh Poh≥                       apgp-h\pw ZpxJm-Zn-I-f-\p-`-hn-°p-∂Xp Imc-Ww
Cuiz-c≥ F∂n-h-bn¬ A¥¿`-hn-®-hbm-Wv.                 Imtcym-]m-[n-bp-sS-˛-A-¥x-Ic-tWm-]m-[n-bp-sS-˛-
AXp-t]mse {_“-Øn-t‚bpw amb AhnZy                    tbmKw \nanØw {_“sØ Poh-\mbn Icp-Xp-
F∂n-h-bp-sSbpw tbmKw IqSmsX Cuiz-c-kn-              ∂p-sh-¶n¬ tNmZn-°-s´˛ ""{_“w hym]-Itam
≤n-bp-an-√. ]ns∂ Cuiz-cs\ Ahn-Zy, {_“w                    --
                                                    ]cn-—n∂tam?'' {_“w hym]-Iam-Wv, F∂m¬   -
F∂n-h-bn¬ \n∂p thdn´v ]cn-K-Wn-°p-∂Xp               D]m[n ]cn-—n-∂w.˛H-cn-S-Øp-am-{X-ap-≈Xv˛
hy¿∞-am-Wv. AXp-sIm-≠v {_“w, AhnZy                  BIp∂p; Ah c≠pw `n∂-ß-fmWv; F∂p ]d-
F∂o c≠p ]Zm¿∞-߃ am{Xta \nß-fpsS                    bp-I-bm-sW-¶n¬, A¥x-Im-cWw Nen-°p-Ibpw
aX-Øn¬ kn≤n-°p-∂p-≈q. Bdp ]Zm¿∞-߃                  k©-cn-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂pthm?
kn≤n-°p-∂n-√. AXp-t]m-se-X-s∂, A\-¥hpw                  DØcw ˛ k©-cn-°p-∂p-≠v.
\nXy-ip-≤-_p-≤-ap-‡-kz-`m-hnbpw k¿h-hym-]n-             tNmZyw:-˛ A¥x-I-c-W-tØm-Sp-IqSn {_“hpw
bp-amb {_“-Øn¬ A⁄m\w kn≤-am-b-Xn-                   k©- c n- ° p- ∂ pt≠m? AtXm ÿnc- a m-
\p-ti-jta \n߃°p Imtcym-]m-[n-sIm≠pw                bncn°p∂pthm ?
Imc-tWm-]m-[n-sIm≠pw Poth-iz-c-∑m¿ kn≤n-                DØcw:˛ ÿnc-am-bn-cn-°p-∂p.
                               -
°p-∂p-≈q. {_“-Øns‚ GI-tZ-iØn¬ kzm{i-
b-ambpw kzhn-j-b-I-ambpw A⁄m\w A\m-                     tNmZyw :˛ Aßn-s\-bm-sW-¶n¬, A¥x-I-
Zn-bmbn Ds≠∂p h∂m¬ {_“w ip≤-am-bn-cn-               cWw hn´p-t]m-Ip-∂n-S-Øp≈ {_“w A⁄m-
                                                    \-c-ln-X-am-Ibpw A¥x-Im-cWw {]m]n-°p-∂n-
°p-I-bn-√. Hcn-S-Øp-am{Xw A⁄m\w D≈-
                                                    S-ßfnse ip≤-{_“w B⁄m-\n-bm-hp-Ibpw
Xmbn hnNm-cn-°p∂ ]£w AXv ]cn-—n-∂-am-I-
                                                    sNøpw. Cßs\ {_“w Hcp £W-Øn¬
bm¬ Aßp-anßpw KXm-KXw sNbvXp-sIm-≠n-
                                                    ⁄m\nbpw as‰mcp £WØn¬ A⁄m-
cn-°pw. {_“-Øns‚ GXp-`m-KØv A⁄m\w
sN√p- ∂ pthm Ahn- S sØ {_“w A⁄m-                    \nbpw Bbn-s°m-≠n-cn-°pw. AXp \nanØw
\nbpw Fhn-sS-\n∂v A⁄m\w hn´p-t]m-Ip-                _‘-tam-£-ßfpw £Wn-I-ß-fmIpw. Hcp h≥


                                                143
      kXym¿∞-{]-Im-iw                                                          Cuiz-c≥ thZw
I≠-Xns‚ kvacW as‰m-cp-h\v D≠m-Im-ØsX-                             bp-I-bm-sW-¶n¬, AXns‚ ^ew F¥m-sW∂p
ß-s\tbm AXpt]mse C∂se ImWp-Itbm                                   {Kln-°mw. ""hymhcvØIw hnti-jWw `hXn''
tIƒ°p-Itbm sNbvX hkvXp-hn-s‚tbm hnj-                              t`Z-Im-cIamWv ˛˛ t`ZsØ ˛˛ Ipdn-°p-∂-XmWv
b- Ø n- s ‚tbm ⁄m\w C∂v - D≠mImXn- c n-                           ˛˛ hnti- j Ww F∂p ]d- b p- ∂ - X p- t ]mse
°bpw sNøpw. Fs¥- ∂ m¬, Im- W p- I tbm                             ""{]h¿ØIw {]Im- i - I - a ]n hnti- j Ww
tIƒ°p-Itbm sNøp∂ tZi-Im-e-߃ H∂v;                                 `hXn'' hnti-jWw, {]h¿Ø-Ihpw {]Im-ihpw
kvacn-°p-∂ tZi-Im-e-߃ as‰m∂v F∂p hcp-                            IqSn-bm-sW∂pw [cn-°p-I. AssZzXw F∂Xp
a-t√m. -{_“w H∂m-sW∂p ]d-bp-∂p-sh-¶n¬                             {_“-Øns‚ hnti-j-W-am-sW∂p a\- n-em-
AXv k¿h-⁄-a-√m-Ø-sX¥v ? A¥x-I-cWw                                 °-Ww. Cu hnti-jWØn-ep≈ hymh¿Ø-I-
At\-I-am-sW∂pw AXp \nanØw {_“hpw                                  [¿aw CXp {_“sØ At\Iw Pohn-X-X-Øz-
At\-I-am-sW-∂p-am-sW-¶n¬ A¥x-Im-cWw                               ß-fn¬\n∂p th¿Xn-cn®p ImWn-°p∂p F∂-
PU-am-bXp sIm≠v AXn¬ ⁄m\w D≠m-                                    Xt{X. {_“w GI-am-sW∂p {]Z¿in-∏n-°p-I-
hm≥ ]mSn-s√-∂p-hcpw . " {_“vØn¬ am{X-                             bmWv hnti- j - W - Ø ns‚ {]Im- i - [ ¿aw.
am-bnt´m A¥x-I-cWØn¬ am{X-am-bnt´m                                ""Akvan≥ \Ktc AZzn-Xotbm [\mtVym
A√ ⁄m\w D≠m-Ip-∂Xv "" F∂p ]d-bp-I-                                tZh-ZØx Akymw-tk-\m-bm-a-Zzn-Xobx iqc-
bm-sW-¶nepw A¥x-I-cWw aptJ\ tNX-\-                                hotcm hn{I-a-knwlx'' "Cu \K-c-Øn¬ AZzn-
bn¬ Xs∂-bmWp ⁄m\w D≠m-Ip-∂-Xv. B                                  Xob\mb [\n- I - \ mWv tZh- Z - Ø ≥. Cu
⁄m\w Aev]-hn-j-b-Ihpw ]cn-—n-∂hpw                                 ssk\y-Øn¬ AZzn-Xo-b-\mb iqc-ho-c-\mWv
BIp-∂-sX-ßns\? AXn-\m¬ {_“-Øn\p                                   hn{I-a-knw-l≥' F∂p ]d-™m¬ tZh-Z-Ø\p
Imc- t Wm- ] m- [ n- b psS kw_‘w IqSmsX                           Xpey- \ m- s bmcp [\n- I ≥ Cu \K- c - Ø n¬
Cuiz- c - X zhpw Imtcym- ] m- [ n- b psS tN¿®                     Cs√∂pw, hn{I-a-knw-l\p Xpey-\m-sbmcp ]cm-
IqSmsX Pohn-X-Xzhpw Pohn-Xhpw D≠m-Ip-∂-                           {I-a-imen Cu ssk\y-Øn¬ Cs√∂pw, Ah-
X-√. hmkvXhØn¬, Cuiz-c≥ {_“-Øns‚                                  tc-°mƒ Ipd-™-h¿ Ds≠-∂p-amWv A¿Yw.
]cymbw Xs∂- b m- W v . {_“- Ø n¬\n∂p                              ]rYzn apX-emb PU-]-Zm¿Y-߃, ]ip apX-
`n∂hpw A\m- Z nbpw A\p- X v]- ∂ hpw                               emb {]Wn-Iƒ hr£m-Zn-h-kvXp-°ƒ F∂n-
AarXkzcq- ] - h p- a mb Bflm- h mWv Poh≥.                          hbpw \KcØneps≠- ¶ nepw Ah- b psS
Poh≥ F∂Xp NnZm-`m-k-Øns‚ t]cm-sW∂p                                \ntj[w hcp-∂n-√. AXpt]mse {_“-Øn\p
\n߃ ]d-bp-sa-¶n¬ AXpw icn-b-√. Imc-                              Xpey-amb Poht\m {]Ir-Xntbm C√. {_“-
Ww, NnZm-`mkw £W-`w-Kp-c-am-b-Xp-sIm≠v                            tØ-°mƒ \yq\-amb ]Zm¿Y-߃ D≠p-Xm-\pw.
AXp \in-°p-tºmƒ tam£kpJw A\p-`-hn-                                AXpsIm≠v kn≤n-°p-∂Xv {_“w Ft∏mgpw
      -
°p-∂Xm-cv ? AXn-\m¬ {_“w Poht\m Poh≥                              GI-am-sW∂pw Poh\pw {]Ir-Xn-XXz-ßfpw
{_“tam Hcn-°epw Bbn-cp-∂n-´n√; BIp-∂n-                            At\- I - a m- s W∂pw BIp- ∂ p. AssZzXw
√,-B-hp-I-bp-an-√.                                                AYhm AZzn- X obw F∂ hnti- j - W w,
   ""AssZz-X-Øns‚ A¿Yhpw kn≤nbpw''                                {_“sØ Poh≥ {]Ir-Xn-X-Øz-߃ F∂n-h-
   tNmZyw:˛ Aßns\bmsW-¶n¬ ""ktZh                                  bn¬ \n∂p th¿Xn-cn-®v, {_“-Øns‚ GI-
tkmtay- Z - a - { K - B - k o- t Z- I - t a- h m- Z zn- X obw''   XzsØ ÿm]n-°p-∂-Xm-Wv. Cu hnti-jWw
F∂p-≈-Om-tµm-Ky-h-N-\-Øn¬ AssZz-X-                                sIm≠v Poh-t‚-tbm, {]IrXnbptS-tbm, Imcy-
kn≤n Fßns\ D≠mIpw ? Rß-fpsS aX-                                        -
                                                                  cq-]amb PKØn-t‚tbm A`m-htam \ntj-[tam
Øn- e m- I - s ´, {_“- Ø n\p kPm- X o- b - t am,                  D≠m- I p- ∂ - t X- b n- √ . Ahsb√mw D≠v.
hnPm-Xo-b-tam, kzK-Xtam Bb t`Z-sam∂pw                             {_“Øn\p XpeyamsW∂p am{Xw. CXp-
C√mbv-I-bm¬ {_“w GI-am-sW∂p kn≤n-                                 sIm≠v AssZz-X-kn-≤ntbm ssZzX-kn-≤n°p
°pw, Poh≥ `n∂-am-sW∂p hcp-∂-]£w                                   lm\ntbm hcp-∂an-√. `b-s∏-SmsX Btem-
AssZzXw kn≤n-°p-∂Xv Fßs\?                                         Nn®p a\- n-em-°p-I.
   DØcw :˛ Cu {`a-Pm-e-Øn¬s]´v F¥n\p                                  tNmZyw :˛ {_“w k®n-Zm-\µ kzcq-]hpw
`b-s∏-Sp-∂p.? hnti-jy-hn-ti-j-W-hn-Zysb Adn-                      Poh≥ AkvXn-`m-Xn-{]mb cq]hpw BIp-∂p.-

                                                              144
                Ggmw kap-√mkw                                          kXym¿∞-{]-Im-iw
AXm-bXv kØv, ⁄m\w, B\µw F∂nh                     sshc-`mhw {]Z¿in-∏n-°p-∂, Bfn\v `bw D≠m-
{_“Øn\pw Poh\pw D≠v AXpsIm≠v                                                         -
                                                 Ip-s∂-∂t{X CXn-\¿∞w. ""Cuiz-ct\mSv F\n-
Ah H∂m- s W∂p kn≤n- ° p- ∂ - X n- \ m¬           s°mcp _‘hpw C√'' F∂ ZznXob _p≤n-
AXns\ Fßs\ JWvUn°pw ?                                                         -
                                                 bm-emWv `b-ap≠m-Ip-∂Xv. ""\ns∂ Rm≥ Iq´m-
   DØcw:˛ Aev]w km[¿ayw D≈-Xn-\m¬                °p-∂n-√. \n\-s°s∂ H∂pw sNøm≥ Ign-
H∂m-hp-I-bn-√. AtN-X-\hpw Zriyhpw Bb-Xp-         hn√'' F∂v Btcm- s S- ¶ nepw ]d- b p- I - t bm,
t]mse Pew, A·n apX-em-b-hbpw AtN-X-              B¿s°-¶nepw tZmjw sNøp-I-tbm, ZpxJw
\hpw Zriy-hp-am-Wv. AXp-sIm≠v Ah H∂m-            D≠m- ° p- I tbm sNøp- ∂- bmƒ°v A\y- c n¬
Ip-∂n-√. K‘w,- cq-£-X, ImTn\yw apX-emb           \n∂p `bw D≠m-Ip-∂-Xm-Wv. IqSm-sX, ]c-
KpW-߃ ]rYhn°pw, {Z-h-Xzw, -tIm-a-fX XpS-        kv]cw sshcp≤yw Cs√-¶n¬ Ah-sbm-∂m-
ßn-bh Pe-Øn\pw cq]w Zml-IXzw apX-em-             sW∂p ]d-bm-dp-≠v. tZh-Z-Ø\pw b⁄-Z-
bh A·n°pw D≠v. Ch t`ZsØ t_m[n-∏n-                Ø\pw hnjvWp-an-{X\pw H∂m-Wv, F∂p ]d-
°p∂ ssh[¿ay-ß-fm-Wv. ssh[¿ayw hncp-≤-            bm- d p- ≠ v . Ah¿°p XΩn¬ hntcm[w C√
[¿asØ ImWn-°p-∂p. AXn-\m¬ Ah H∂-                 F∂¿Yw. hntcm-[-an-√m-bva-sIm-≠v kpJhpw
√. a\p-jycpw ]pgp-°-fpw IÆp-sIm≠p ImWp-          hntcm[w sIm≠v ZpxJhpw D≠mIp-∂p.
∂p, hmb sIm≠p Xn∂p-∂p, Imep sIm≠p                    tNmZyw:˛ {_“hpw Poh\pw kZm sht∆sd
\S-°p-∂p. F¶nepw c≠p Imep≈ a\p-jys‚              ÿnXn-sN-øp-∂pthm AtXm Ft∏m-sg-¶nepw
BIr-Xnbpw At\Iw Imep-I-fp≈ ]pgp-hns‚             c≠pw tN¿∂v H∂m-Ip-∂pthm?
BIr-Xnbpw `n∂-am-b-Xp-sIm≠v sFI-cq-]y-an-            DØcw:˛ CXn\p Nne DØcw Ct∏mƒ ]d-
√. AXp-t]m-se, Af-h‰ ⁄m\w, B\µw,                 ™- t X- b p- ≈ q. F∂m¬, km[¿ay- Ø ns‚
{In-bm-i-‡n,- {`m-¥n-cm-ln-Xyw, hym]-IXzw apX-   A\zbw sIm≠v GI-Xzw D≠m-Ipw. PUXzw
em-b-h-bp≈ Cuiz-c≥, Aev]-⁄m-\w, -A-ev]-          Hcn-°epw th¿s]-´n-cn-°mbvI F∂o [¿a-߃
_-ew, Aev]-kz-cq-]w,- {`m-¥n-]q¿Æ-X,- ]-cn-On-   BIm-i-Øn\pw aq¿Ø-{Z-hy-߃°pw D≈-Xn-
∂Xzw XpS-ßnb KpW-ß-fp≈ Pnh-\n¬\n∂pw              \m¬ Ahbv°v GIXzw D≠v. F∂m¬ BIm-
`n∂-am-Wv. AXn-\m¬ Poh\pw Cuiz-c\pw H∂-                                         -
                                                 i-Øn\p hn`p-Xzw, kq£vaXzw, cq]-cm-ln-Xyw,
√. Cuiz-c≥ AXy-¥-kq-£vahpw Poh≥ Cuiz-            A\-¥Xzw apX-emb KpW-ßfpw aq¿Ø-{Z-hy-
c-t\-°mƒ Aev]w ÿqe cq]nbpw Bb-Xp-                ߃°v CXn\p hncp-≤-ambn ]cn-—n-∂Xzw
sIm≠v Ah-bpsS kzcq-]hpw `n∂-am-Wv.               ZriyXzw apX-emb KpW-ßfpw D≈-Xn-\m¬
         ssZzX-_p-≤n, `b-Im-c-Ww.                Ahbv°p XΩn¬ t`Zhpw D≠v. ]rYnhn apX-
   tNmZyw:˛ ""AtYm-Z-c-a-¥cw IpcptX AY           emb {Zhy-߃°v BIm-i-Øn¬ \n∂p thdn-
                                                 ´p-\n¬°p-hm≥ hø. Fs¥-∂m¬, A\zbw
Xky `bw `hXn'' 21 ""ZznXo-bm-ssZz-`bw            AYhm Hgnhv IqSmsX aq¿Ø-{Z-hy-߃°v Ccn-
`hXn'' 22 _rl-Zm-c-Wy-tIm-]-\n-j-Øn-ep≈          °m- \ n- S - a n- √ . AXn- \ m¬ A\zbw sIm≠v
hN-\-am-Wn-Xv. Poh-{_-“-߃ XΩn¬ Aev]-            Ahbv°v sFIy-ap-≠v. cq]w sIm≠p `n∂-ß-
t`-Z-sa-¶nepw Ds≠∂p Icp-Xp-∂-h\v `bw             fm-I-bm¬ hy-Xn-tcIw AYhm cq]-`n-∂-X-bm¬
D≠m-Ip-∂p. `bw D≠m-Ip-∂Xp as‰m∂n¬                Ahbv°p `n∂-X-bp-ap-≠v. AXp-t]m-se, {_“w
\n∂p am{X-am-W-t√m.                              k¿h-hym-]n-bm-b-Xn-\m¬ Poh-\pw, ]rYn-hym-
   DØcw:˛ CXns‚ A¿Yw CX- √ . Pohm-               Zn-{Z-hy-߃°pw {_“-Øn¬ \n∂p th¿s]-
flmhpw ]c-am-flmhpw Cs√∂p ]d-bp-∂ ]c-am-           ´n-cn-°p-hm≥ km[y-a-√. Ahbv°p XΩn¬ cq-
flmhv Imew sImt≠m tZiw-sImt≠m ]cn-—n-             ]-km-Zr-iy-Øm¬ sFIyw C√-Xm-\pw. hoSp-
∂-am-sW∂p Icp-Xp∂ Cuiz-cs‚ B⁄                    ]-Wn-bp-∂-Xn∂p apºv aÆpw achpw Ccpºpw
bvt°m KpW-I¿a-kz-`m-h-߃t°m hntcm-[-             a‰pw BIm- i - Ø n¬ Xs∂- b mWp ÿnXn
ambn h¿Øn-°p-∂, AYhm as‰m-cp-h-t\mSv             sNøp-∂-Xv. hoSp-]-Wn-I-gn™pw Ah BIm-
21. ssX. D. {_“m-\-µ-h√n 7.                      i- Ø n¬               Xs∂        h¿Øn- ° p- ∂ p.
22 ssX. D. {_“m-\-µ-h√n19.1.4.2


                                             145
     kXym¿∞-{]-Im-iw                                                    Cuiz-c≥ thZw
hoSps]mfn™v\-in-®v, AXns‚ `mK-߃                        W\pw cq]mZn PU-Kp-W-ßfpw tZzjmZn Poh-
Hmtcm-Øn-SØp InS-°p-tºmhpw Ah BIm-                      Kp-W-ßfpw C√m-bvI-bm¬ \nn¿Kp-W\pw BIp-
i-Øn¬Øs∂ ÿnXn-sN-øp-∂p. AXm-bXv                         ∂p.
aq∂p Ime- ß - f nepw BIm- i - Ø n¬ \n∂v                    tNmZyw:˛ \ncm-Im-cs\ \n¿Kp-W-s\∂pw
Ahbv ° v th¿s]- ´ n- c n- ° p- h m≥ km[y- a √           kmIm-cs\ kKp-W-s\∂p temIw ]d-bp-∂p.
F∂p Xmev]-cyw. cq]-t`-Z-Øm¬ `n∂-ß-fmb                                       -
                                                        Cuiz-c≥ Ah-Xcn-°m-Øt∏mƒ \n¿Kp-W\pw
Ah Hcn-°epw H∂m-bn-cp-∂n-´n√; H∂-√, H∂m-                Ah- X - c n- ° p- t ºmƒ kKp- W \pw BsW-
      -
hp-Ibn-√. C{]-Imcw Pohm-flmhpw temIX-Øn-                 ∂¿Yw.
ep≈ kIe hkvXp-°fpw A¥¿`-hn-®n-cn-°-                        DØcw:˛ Adnhpw ]Tn∏pw C√m-Ø-h-cpsS
bm¬ {_“-Øn¬ \n∂p th¿s]-´n-cn-°p-hm≥                     k¶-ev]-am-Wn-Xv. hnZy-bn-√m-Ø-h¿ arK-ß-sf-
{XnIm- e - ß - f nepw Ahbv°p km[y- a - √ .              t∏mse ]pe-ºp-∂p. k∂n-]m-X-Pz-c-ap-≈-h¿
kzcq]wsIm≠v Ah {_“-Øn¬ \n∂p `n∂-                        ]n®pw t]bpw ]d-bp-tºmse ]Tn-∏n-√m-Ø-h¿
        -                            -
ß-fm-Ibm¬ Hcn-°epw H∂m-Ip-∂Xp-an√. C°m-                 ]d-bp-Ibpw Fgp-Xp-Ibpw sNøp-∂-Xn-t\bpw
esØ thZm-¥n-I-fpsS ImgvN-∏mSv H‰-°-Æs‚                  ]cn-K-Wn-°-cp-Xv.
t\m´w t]mse A\z-b-Øns‚ t\sc t\m°n
hyXn-tc-I-`m-hsØ ImWmsX hn]-co-X-Zr-jvSn-                  tNmZyw:˛ Cuiz-c≥ cmK-ap-≈-ht\m hnc-
bmbn `hn- ° p- ∂ p.- k- K p- W - \ n¿Kp- W - X - I ƒ.   ‡t\m?
A\zb hyXn-tc-I-߃, km[¿ayssh-[¿ay-                         DØcw:˛ c≠pw A√. Fs¥-∂m¬ X∂n¬
߃, hnti- j y- h n- t i- j - W - ` mhw F∂nh                                    -    -
                                                        \n∂p `n∂-hpw, DØ-ahp-am-bXn--emWv cmK-ap-≠m-
C√mØ Hcp {Zhy-hp-an-√.                                  hp-I. Cuiz-c-\n¬ \n∂p `n∂-amtbm DØ-a-
    tNmZyw:˛ Cuiz-c≥ kKp-Wt\m? \n¿Kp-                   amtbm Hcp hkvXphpw C√. AXn-\m¬cmK-w-`-
Wt\m?                                                   hy-a-√. ssIøn¬ In´n-b-Xns\ e`n-®Xp XyPn-
                                                        °p∂h\mWp hnc-‡≥. Cuiz-c≥ k¿h-hym-
    DØcw:˛ c≠p-am-Wv.                                   ]n-bm-I-bm¬ H∂pw ]cn-Xy-Pn-°p-hm≥ km≤y-
    tNmZyw:˛ sIm≈mw! Hcp Dd-bn¬, c≠p                    a-√. AXn-\m¬ hnc-‡-\p-a-√.
hmƒ Fß-s\-bn-cn°pw? kKp-WXbpw \n¿Kp-   -                   tNmZyw:˛ Cuiz-c\v C—-bpt≠m C√tbm?
W-Xbpw H∂n¬ Fßs\ H∂n®p hcpw?
                                                           DØcw:˛ AXp-t]mse Cuiz-c\v C—-bp-an-
    DØcw:˛ PU- ] - Z m¿Yß- f n¬ AtN- X - \ -            √. (Po-hm-flm-°-fn¬ ImWpw-h-Æw) A{]m-
Øns‚ KpW-ß-fmb cq]hpw a‰pw D≠v. tNX-                    ]vXhpw DØ-ahpw e`n-®m¬ hnti-j-kpJw
\-Kp-W-ß-fmb ⁄m\hpw a‰pw C√. AXp-                       \evIp-∂-X-p-am-b-Xn-\m-emWv C—-bp≠mIp-∂-Xv.
                      - -
t]mse Xs∂ tNX-\ßfn¬ C—mZn KpW-߃                        Aß-s\-sbm-∂n¬ Cuiz-c\v C—-bp-≠m-Iptam?
D≠v. F∂m¬ AtN-X-\-ß-fmb cq]hpw a‰pw                     Cuiz-c\v Ae-`ytam t{ijvTtam Bb bmsXm-
C√ AXn-\m¬ Ah c≠pw kKp-Whpw \n¿Kp-                      ∂p-an-√. kºq¿W kpJ-bp-‡-\m-I-bm¬ kpJ-
Whpw BIp-∂p. ""bZvKpssW kl hcvØ-                        Ønepw A`n-em-j-an-√. AXn-\m¬ Cuiz-c\n¬
am\w X’-Kp-W w. KptW-t `ym-b -∂ ncv K Xw                C—-bp-≠m-hpI kw`-hy-a-√. F∂m¬ Cu£-
]rY-Iv`qXw X∂ncvKpWw'' KpW-ß-tfm-Sp-Iq-Sn-              Ww˛ AYhm k¿h-hn[ hnZy-I-fpsS Z¿i-\hpw
bXp kKp-Whpw KpW-ß-fn-√m-ØXp \n¿Kp-                     kIe krjvSn-Pm-e-ß-fpsS \n¿am-W-hpw-˛-Cu-
Whpw BWv. F√m ]Zm¿∞-ßfpw AXm-                           iz-c-¶¬ D≠v. C{]-Imcw kwt£-]n®p ]d-™-
Xns‚ kzm`nI KpW-ß-fp-≈-h-bm-I-bm¬ kKp-                  Xn¬ \n∂v k÷-\-߃ hf-sc-b-[nIw a\- n-
W-ßfpw a‰p hncp-≤-h-kvXp-°-fpsS KpW-ß-fn-               em-°n-s°m-≈pw.
√m-bvI-bm¬ \n¿Kp-W-ßfpw BIp-∂p. tIhew
kKp-Wtam \n¿Kp-Wtam Bb ]Zm¿Yw H∂p-                                 thZw Cuiz-c-{]-Im-inXw
an-√. Htc ]Zm¿∞-Øn¬ Xs∂ kKp-W-Xzhpw                     23. IXax kznXv, Gh, kx F∂v IXax kzntZ-h-kx-bpsS
\n¿Kp-W-Xzhpw kZm D≠m-bn-cn-°pw,. CXp-                     km[m-cW ]Z-]mTw al¿jn IX-ax-kznZv tZh kx F∂v
t]mse Cuiz-c\v kz¥w A\-¥-amb ⁄m\w                          A¿Yw ]d-™n-cn-°p-∂p.
_ew, apX-emb KpW-߃ D≈-Xn-\m¬ kKp-                      273.274. t]Pp-I-fnse 3 ASn-°p-dn-∏p-ƒs∏sS CXv 22˛mw
                                                           ASn-°p-dn-∏m-Wv.
                                                    146
               Ggmw kap-√mkw                                           kXym¿∞-{]-Im-iw
   Cuiz-c-s\-∏‰n Cßs\ Npcp-°n-∏-d-™-Xn-             Im-c\pw k¿h-hym-]n-bp-amb Cuiz-c≥ thZ-hn-
s\-Øp-S¿∂v thZ-hn-jbw Fgp-Xn-Øp-Sßmw:˛              Zysb kw_-‘n® D]-tZ-i-ß-sf√mw Pohm-flm-
   bkvam-ZrtNm A]m-X-£≥ bPq-cy-kvam-Z-              hn-ep≈ kzk-Ø-bm¬ Pohm-flm-°sf t_m[n-
]mIj≥; kmam\n bky-tem-am-\y-Ycvhmw-Kn-                       -          -
                                                    ∏n-°p-IbmWv sNøp-∂Xv. ]n∂oSp a\p-jy≥ B
ctkmapJw; kvIw`wXw {_qln IXax kzntZ-                D]-tZ-isØ hm sIm≠v D®-cn®v a‰p-≈-hsc
h-kx 23 (A-Y¿h-thZw 10. 23. 4. 20)                  tIƒ∏n-°p-∂p. AXn-\m¬, Cu tZmjw Cuiz-
                                                    c-\n¬ hcn-I-bn-√.
   GXv Cuiz-c-\n¬ \n∂v EtKz-Zw, bPq¿th-
Zw, kma-thZw AY¿h-thZw F∂o \mep thZ-                   tNmZyw:˛ BcpsS Bflm-hn¬, Ft∏m-gmWv
ßfpw {]Im-in-X-amtbm B tZh≥ BcmWv?                  thZ-߃ {]Im-in-X-am-b-Xv.
""Ncm-Ncßsf-sb√mw krjvSn®p c£n-®p-sIm-
         - - -                                         DØcw:˛ At·cv - E - t KztZm hmtbm- c y-
≠n-cn-°p∂ B ]c-am-flmhp Xs∂'' F∂m-                   PqcvthZx kqcym-’m-a-thZx (iX. 11. 4.2.3)
Wp-Ø-cw.                                            H∂m-asØ krjvSn-bpsS Bcw-`-Øn¬ Cuiz-
   kzbw- ` q- c ym- Y m- X Yy- t Xm¿Ym≥ hyZ- [ m-   c≥ A·n, hmbp, BZn-Xy≥, AwKn-ckv F∂o
—mizXo`yx kam`yx (b-Pq. 40. 8)                      al¿jn-am-cpsS Bflm-hn¬ Hmtcm thZsØ
                                                    {]Im-in-∏n-®p.
   kzbw-`q-hpw, k¿h-hym-]n-bpw, ip≤-\pw, k\m-
X-\-\pw, \ncm-Im-c-\p-amb Cuiz-c≥ k\m-X-               tNmZyw:˛ tbm ssh {_“mWw hnZ-[m-Xn-
\cpw Pohm- fl m- ° - f p- a mb {]P- I - f psS \∑-    ]qcv∆w tbm ssh thZmw› {]ln-
bv°mbn thZ-߃ aptJ\ kIe hnZy-I-tfbpw                tWmXnXsska (tiz-Xmiz 6. 18) CXv D]-\n-
bYm-X-Y-ambn hn[n-]q¿∆w D]-tZ-in-°p-∂p.             j-Zzm-Iy-am-Wv. {_“m-hns‚ lrZ-b-Øn-emWv
                                                    thZ-߃ D]-tZ-in-®Xv F∂m-Wt√m Cu thZ-
   tNmZyw:˛ Cuiz- c ≥ \ncm- I m- c - s \t∂m         hm-Iy-Øn¬ \n∂p a\- n-em-Ip-∂-Xv. ]ns∂
kmIm-c-s\t∂m Xm¶-fpsS aXw?                          A·n XpS-ßnb Ejn-am-cpsS Bflm-hn-em-
   DØcw:˛ \ncm-Im-c-\m-sW∂v                         sW∂p ]d-™-sX-ßs\?
   tNmZyw:˛ \ncm-Im-c-\m-sW-¶n¬ apJ-an-√m-             DØcw:˛ {_“m-hns‚ Bflm-hn¬ A·ym-
Ø-Xp-sIm≠v A£-c-߃ D®-cn-°p-hm\pw                   Zn-Iƒ aptJ-\-bmWv {]Im-in-X-am-b-Xv. a\p-
thZ- h nZy D]- t Z- i n- ° p- h m\pw Fßs\           kvarXn t\m°q. A·n hmbp chn-`ykvXp-{Xbw
                     -
km[n®p? A£-c߃ D®-cn-°p-∂Xn\v Xmep     -            {_“-k-\mX\avZp-tZml b⁄-kn-≤y¿∞-ar-
apX-emb ÿm\-ßfpw Pnlzm-{]-b-Xv\hpw                  KyPqx kma-e-£-Wav (a-\p. 1. 23)
AXy-¥m-t]-£n-X-am-Wv.                                  ]c-ta-iz-c≥ krjvSn-bpsS BZn-bn¬ a\p-
                                   -
   DØcw:˛ Cuiz-c≥ k¿h-i‡\pw k¿h-hym-                jysc krjvSn-®Xn\p-ti-jw, A·n XpS-ßnb
]n-bp-am-I-bm¬ kzhym-]vXn-aqew Pohm-flm-             \mep al¿jn-am¿ aptJ\ \mep thZ-ß-tfbpw
°ƒ°p thZ-hnZy D]-tZ-in-°p-∂-Xn\p apJ-Øn-            {_“m-hn\v {]m]vX-am-°n, B {_“mhv A·n,
t‚bpw a‰pw Bh-iy-ta-bn-√. apJw-sIm≠pw               hmbp, BZn-Xy≥, AwKn-ckv F∂n-h-cn¬ \n∂v
Pnlz-sIm≠pw h¿tWm-®m-cWw sNøp-∂Xv                   EtKz-Zw, bPq¿th-Zw, kma-th-Zw, AY¿h-thZw
as‰m-cmsf ]Tn-∏n-°p-hm-\m-Wv. kzbw a\- n-em-        F∂o \mep thZ-ßtfbpw {Kln-®p.
°m-\-√. apJw Pnlz F∂nh {]b-Xv\n-°msX                   tNmZyw:˛ B \mep t]¿°p am{Xta thZ-
At\I hnj-b-ß-tf-∏-‰n-bp≈ hnNm-c-ßfpw                ߃ {]Im-in-X-am-bp-≈q. a‰m¿°pw {]Im-in-
i_vtZm-®m-c-W-ßfpw a\- n¬ \S-∂p-sIm-≠n-             X-am-bn-√. AXn-\m¬ Cuiz-c≥ ]£-]m-Xn-
cn-°p-∂p. ssIhn-c-ep-Iƒs°m≠p sNhn AS-               bm-hp-∂nt√?
®p-]n-Sn-°p-I, apJw, Pnlz , Xmep apX-em-bh
IqSmsX Xs∂ i_vZw D≠m-Ip-∂sX-ßn-s\-bm--                 DØcw:˛ B \mept]¿ am{Xw kIe Pohm-
sW-∂p a\- n-em-Ipw. AtX-hn-[-Øn¬ Xs∂-                      -
                                                    flm-°tf-°mfpw A[nIw ]hn-{X-cm-bn-cp-∂p. a‰p-
bmWv Cuiz-c≥ A¥-cym-an-bm-bn-cp∂v Pohm-             ≈-h¿ Ah¿°p kZr-iy-c-√m-bn-cp-∂p. X∂n-
flm-°ƒ°v D]-tZiw \¬In-b-Xv. a‰p-≈hsc                 anØw ]hn-{X-amb thZ-hn-Zysb Ah-cn¬ {]Im-
]Tn-∏n-°m≥ am{X-amWv D®-cn-t°-≠-Xv. \ncm-           in-∏n-®n-√.

                                                147
      kXym¿∞-{]-Im-iw                                                      Cuiz-c≥ thZw
   tNmZyw:˛ thZ-ßsf GsX-¶nepw \m´p-`m-                     W-߃°v Ahn-cp-≤hpw ip≤m-flm-hns‚ kz`m-
j-bn¬ {]Im-in-∏n-°msX kwkvIr-X-Øn¬                         h-tØmSp hntcm-[-an-√m-ØXpw Bb {KŸw
{]Im-in-∏n-®-sX-¥p-sIm-≠mWv?                               Cuiz-cs‚ Xncp-hmbv-sam-gn-X-s∂. CXmWv thZ-
   DØcw:˛ GsX-¶nepw \m´p-`m-j-bn¬ {]Im-                    ߃. A√msX ss__nƒ, Jp¿-B≥ apX-em-
in-∏n-®m¬ Cuiz-c≥ ]£-]m-Xn-bm-Ipw. GXp                     b- h - b √ CXns‚ kv ] jv S - a mb hymJym\w
\m´p-`m-j-bn¬ {]Im-in-∏n-°p-∂pthm B \m´n-                  ss__n-fn-s\-∏-‰nbpw Jp¿-B-s\-∏-‰nbpw ]d-bp-
ep-≈-h¿°p thZw ]Tn-°m\pw ]Tn-∏n-°p-hm\pw                   ∂h ]Xn-aq∂pw ]Xn-\mepw kap-√m-k-ß-fn-ep-
Ffp-∏hpw a‰p \m´p-Im¿°p hnj-ahpw BIpw.                     ≠v.
AXp-sIm-≠mWv kwkvIr-X-Øn¬Xs∂ {]Im-                                                          -
                                                              tNmZyw:˛ thZ-߃ Cuiz-c\n¬ \n∂p-≠m-
in-∏n-®-Xv. kwkvIrXw GsX-¶n-ep-samcp tZi-                  tI≠ Bh-iy-ta-bn-√. Fs¥-∂m¬, a\p-jy¿
                         - - -
Ønse \m´p-`m-jb√Xm-\pw. IqSmsX thZ-`mj                     {ItaW ⁄m\w h¿≤n-∏n®v ]n∂oSv ]pkvX-
thsd-bp≈ kI-e-`m-j-I-fp-sSbpw aqe-am-Ip-∂p.                I-sa-gp-Xn-s°m-≈pw.
AXp-sIm-≠ mWv AXn¬Øs∂ thZ- ßsf                                DØcw:˛ Hcn-°-ep-an-√. ImcWw IqSmsX
{]I-Sn-∏n-®Xv. `qan apX-emb Cuiz-c-kr-jvSn-I-              Imcyw D≠m-Ip-∂pXv Akw-`-hy-am-Wv. Im´n¬
sf√mw F√m \m´n-ep-ap-≈-h¿°v Hcp-t]m-se-                    Xma-kn-°p∂ a\p-jy¿ {]Ir-Xn-sb-°≠v Adn-
bm-bncn°pIbpw F√m inev]-hn-Zy-Iƒ°pw                        hp-≈-h-cm-Ip-∂n-√. Bsc-¶nepw ]Tn-∏n-®m¬
Imc- W - a m- b n- c n- ° p- I bpw sNøp- ∂ - X p- t ]mse   hnZzm-∑m-cm-hp-Ibpw sNøp-∂p. C∂pw Bsc-
Cuiz-cs‚ `mjbpw s]mXp-h m-b n-cn- ° - W w.                 ¶nepw ]Tn-∏n-°msX Bcpw hnZzm-∑m-cm-Ip-∂n-
F¶nte F√m \m´p-Im¿°pw ]Tn-°p-hm\pw ]Tn-                    √. AXp-t]mse Cuiz-c≥ krjvSn-bpsS BZy-
∏n-°p-hm\pw Xpey-amb {]bXv\w th≠n-h-cq.                    Im-e-Øp-≠mb B al¿jn-am¿°p thZ-hnZy
Aßs\ Cuiz-c≥ ]£-]m-Xn-b-√m-Xm-hp-Ibpw                      D]-tZ-i-n-°p-Ibpw Ah¿ a‰p-≈-hsc ]Tn-∏n-°p-
sNøpw. kwkvIrXw a‰p kIe `mj-I-fp-sSbpw                     Ibpw sNbvXn-cp∂n-s√-¶n¬ kI-ecpw Adn-hn-
Imc-W-amb aqe-`m-j-bm-Wt√m.                                √m-Ø-h-cm-bn-cp-t∂-s\. Hcp Ip´nsb P\\w
       thZ-߃ Cuiz-c-IrXw Xs∂.                             apX¬ GIm-¥-amb ÿe-Øv, arK-ß-fp-sStbm
   tNmZyw:˛ thZ- ß ƒ Cuiz- c - c - N n- X m- W v .         ]Tn-∏n-√mØ a\p-jy-cp-sStbm Iq´-Øn¬ ]m¿∏n-
A\y-Ir-X-a√ F∂-Xn\v {]amWw F¥mWv?                          °p-∂ ]£w B Ip´n Ah-tc-t∏m-se-bm-bn-Øo-
                                                           cpw. Im´p-Pm-Xn-°m-cmb `oep-Ifpw a‰p-amWv CXn-
   DØcw:˛ Cuiz-c≥ Fßs\ ]hn-{X-\pw,                                  - -
                                                           \p-Zm-lcWw. Bcym-h¿Ø-Øn¬ \n∂v hn⁄m-
k¿h-hn-Zym-hm-\pw, ip≤Kp-W-I¿Ω-kz-`m-h-ß-                  \-k-ºØv ]pd-Øp-t]m-Im-Xn-cp∂ Ime-a-{Xbpw
tfm-Sp-Iq-Sn-b-h-\pw, \ymb-Im-cn-bpw, Zbm-ephpw            an{iw (Cu-Pn-]v‰v) bq\m≥ ({Ko-kv) bqtdm∏v apX-
              -
C{]-Im-cap≈ hnhn[ KpWß-tfm-Sp-Iq-Sn-bh\pw -                emb cmPy-ß-fn-ep≈ a\p-jy¿°v hnZym-`ymkw
BtWm Aßs\ Cuizcs‚KpW-I¿a-kz-`m-h-                          H´pta D≠m-bn-cp-∂n-√. Cw•-≠p-Im-cpw 24 a‰p-
ß-sf-sb√mw {]Xn-]m-Zn-°p∂ {KŸw Cuiz-c-
                                                           amb sImfw-_kv apX-em-b-h¿ Ata-cn-°-bn-
                         - -
IrXw Xs∂. A\y-Ir-Xa√. krjvSn-{I-aØn\pw  -                  te°p t]mIp-∂-Xn\p apºv Ahn-sS-bp-≈-h¿
{]Xy-£m-Zn-{]-am-W-߃°pw ]hn-{Xm-flm-°-                     Bbn-cw, e£w F∂√ tImSn kwh-’-c-ß-
fmb B]vX-∑m-cpsS {]hr-Øn-Iƒ°pw hncp-≤-                     fmbn aqV- c m- b n- c p- ∂ p. ]n∂oSp \√ hnZym-
ambn H∂pw Xs∂ ]d-™n-´n-√mØ {KŸtatXm                        `ymkw e`n-®-Xp-sIm≠v Ah¿ hnZzm-∑m-cmbn
AXv Cuiz-c-IrXw Xs∂-bm-Wv. Cuizcs‚                         A∆n[w a\p-jy¿°v krjvSn-bpsS BZn-bn¬
⁄m\w Fßs\ {`a-c-ln-X-amtWm Aßs\                            ]c-am-flm-hn¬ \n∂p hnZybpw in£-Whpw e`n-
{`a- c - l n- X - a mb ⁄m\sØ shfn- h m- ° p∂               ®-Xp-sIm-≠mWv ]n∂o-Sp≈ Ime-ß-fn¬ hnZzm-
{KŸw Cuiz-tcm‡w Xs∂-bm-Wv. Cuiz-c\pw
                                                           ∑m-cmbn `hn-®-Xv.
Cuiz-cs‚ krjvSn-{I-ahpw GXp-hn-[-Øn-ep-≈-
XmtWm AtX-hn-[-Øn¬ Cuiz-c-t\bpw Cuiz-
c-kr-jvSn-bpsS Imcy-Im-cWßsfbpw Pohm-flm-
                          - - -                            24. Cw•≠v ae-bm-f-Ønse "ioa-bpsS ]cym-b-am-Wv.
                                                              sImfw-_kv t]m¿Øp-Ko-kp-Im-c-\-√m-bn-cp-s∂∂v CXn-
°-tfbpw {]Xn-]m-Zn-°p-∂Xpw {]Xy-£mZn {]am-                    \¿Y-an-√.


                                                       148
                 Ggmw kap-√mkw                                                       kXym¿∞-{]-Im-iw
   k ]qcvth-jm-a]n Kpcpx Imte-\m-\-h-t—-                     cNn-®p. B {KŸ-߃ {_“-Øn-s‚˛ thZ-Øn-
ZmXv (tbm-K-Z¿i\w k. ]m. 26) C°m-esØ                         s‚˛ hymJym-\-ß-fm-b-Xp-sIm≠v Ahbv°p
A≤ym-]-I-cpsS ASp-°¬ ]Tn®p hnZzm-∑m-cm-                      {_m“Ww F∂p t]cm-bn. IqSm-sX˛ Ejtbm
Ip∂ hÆw Cuiz-c≥ krjvSn-bpsS Bcw-`-                           a{¥-Zr-jvSbx ˛ a{¥m≥k-{ºmZpx (\n-cp‡w
Øn¬ D≠mb A·n apX-emb al¿jnam-cpsS                            1. 20) GXp a{¥m¿∞-Øns‚ Z¿i\w GXv
Kpcp BIp-∂p. Fs¥-∂m¬ Pohm-flm-°ƒ                              Ejn-°p-≠mtbm GXp a{¥m¿∞sØ GXv
kpjp- ] v X ym- h - ÿ - b nepw {]f- b - I m- e Øpw           Ejn a‰mcpw I≠-dn-bp-∂-Xn\p apºmbn Bcm-
⁄m\- c - l n- X - c m- h p- ∂ - X p- t ]mse Cuiz- c ≥        ™-dn™p a‰p-≈-h-sc -t_m-[n-∏n-®pthm 25B
⁄m\-c-ln-X-\m-hp-∂n-√. Cuiz-cs‚ ⁄m\w                         a{¥-tØm-Sp-IqSn B Ejn-bpsS \ma-t[bw
\nXy-am-Ip∂p. AXn-\m¬, \nanØw IqSmsX                         Hm¿Ω- b v°mbn Ct∂- h sc FgpXn hcp-
\nan-Øm¿Yw D≠m-hp-I-bn-s√∂p \n›-bn-°-                        ∂p≠v. 26 Ejn-am-cmWv a{¥-ß-fp-≠m-°n-bXv
Ww.                                                          F∂p ]d-bp-∂-h¿ anYym-hm-Zn-I-fm-sW∂p a\-
   tNmZyw:˛ thZ߃ kwkv I r- X - ` m- j - b n-                 n-em-°-Ww. Ejn-am¿ a{¥-ß-fpsS A¿YsØ
                    -       -
emWv {]Im-in-Xam-bXv. A·n XpS-ßnb Ejn-                       {]Im-in-∏n-®n-´p-≈-h¿ am{X-am-Wv.
P-\-߃ B kwkvIr-X-`mj Adn-™n-cp-∂-                               tNmZyw:˛ GsX√mw {KŸ-߃°mWp thZ-
Xp-an-√. ]ns∂, Fßn-s\-bmWv Ah¿ thZ-                          sa∂p t]¿ D≈Xv?
ß-fpsS A¿∞w a\- n-em-°n-bXv?
                                                                 DØcw:˛ E°v, bPq- v, kmaw, AY¿h thZw    -
                      {_m“Ww                                 F∂o a{¥-kw-ln-X-Iƒ°v am{Xta D≈q; as‰m-
   DØcw:˛ Cuiz-c≥ Xs∂-bmWv Ah¿°p                             ∂n\pw C√.
a\- n-em-°n-s°m-Sp-Ø-Xv. [¿a-X-ev]-c-∑mcpw                       tNmZyw:˛ a{¥-{_m-“-W-tbm¿th-Z-\m-a-t[-
tbmKn-I-fp-amb al¿jn-am¿ GXp a{¥-Øns‚                                                       - -
                                                             bav apX-emb Im-Xym-b\Ir-Xamb {]Xn⁄m  -
A¿Yw Adn-b-W-sa-∂m-{K-ln®v kam-[n-bn-en-                     kq{X-Øn\pw a‰pw F¥¿∞-amWp ]d-bp-
cp∂p Cuiz-c-kz-cq-]-Øns‚ [ym\-Øn¬ \na-                       ∂Xv?
·-cm-Ip-tºmƒ Cuiz-c≥ B A`ojvS a{¥-
Øns‚ A¿Yw Ah¿°p shfn-hm-°n-s°m-Sp-                               DØcw:˛ t\m°q. kwlnXm ]pkvXIØns‚    - -
Øn-cp-∂p. Cßns\ At\Iw al¿jn-am-cpsS                                 -                           -
                                                             Bcw-`Ønepw A[ym-bm-hkm-\hpw thZiv_vZw
Bflm-°-fn¬ thZm¿∞w {]Im-in-®-tXm-Sp-IqSn                      ]pcm-X-\-Imew apX¬ FgpXn hcp-∂p. {_m“-
ap\n-am¿ B A¿Y-tØbpw Ejn-am-cpsS Ncn-                                 -                 -
                                                             W-{K-ŸØns‚ Bcw-`Ønepw A[ym-bØns‚         -
{X-ß-tfbpw shfn-hm-°n-s°m≠v {KŸ-߃                           Ah- k m- \ - Ø nepw Fßpw Fgp- X n- b n- ´ p- a n- √ .
                                                             IqSmsX \ncp-‡-Øn¬˛ CXy]n \nKtam `h-
25 a{¥m¿Yw I≠ Ejn-am-cn¬ c≠p-hn-`m-K-ap-≠v. H∂v,             Xn. CXn (N) {_m“Ww (5,3,4) Otµm
   Ah¿°v apºv Bcpw a{¥m¿Yw Is≠-Øn-bn-´n-√m-Ø-                {_mlvaWm\n N XZzn-j-bmWn (AjvSm 4,2,
   h¿. c≠v ]q¿h-E-jn-am¿ A¿Yw Is≠-Øn-bn-cp-s∂-               66) CXp ]mWn-\o-b-kq-{X-am-Wv.
   ¶nepw kzbw A¿Yw Is≠Øn ]Tn-∏n-®n-h¿. CXp-sIm-
   ≠mWv Nne kq‡-߃°pw a{¥-߃°pw H∂n-e-                           a{¥- ` m- K - a mWp thZ- s a∂pw {_m“Ww
   [nIw Ejn-amsc \n¿t±-in-®n-´p-≈-Xv. Nne¿ A¿Yw                         -       -
                                                             hymJym-\`m-Kam-sW∂pw CXn¬ \n∂p kv]jvS-
   Is≠-Øn-bn´pw B¿°pw A¿Y-{]-Im-i\w \S-Øn-bn-                am-W-t√m. Cu hnj-b-Øn¬ hnti-j-]-T\w
               -
   ´p-≠m-hp-Ibn√ F∂pw hcmw. tKm]Y {_m“Ww DØ-                                      -
                                                             B{K-ln-°p-∂h¿ Rm≥ cNn-®n-´p≈ ""EtKzZmZn
   cm¿≤w 6˛1¬ ""hnizm-an{Xx {]Ya a]-iyXv Ghm
   Xzman- { µ- h - { Po≥ (E.4- ˛ 19) Xm≥ hnizm- a n- t {XW                                -
                                                             `mjy-`q-anI'' (thZ]cy-S\w) t\m°p-I. At\Iw
   ZrjvSm≥ hma-tZthm f krP-Xv. '' Ghm Xzman-{µ-h-            {]am-W-߃°p hncp-≤-am-b-Xp-sIm≠p ImXym-
   {Pn≥ F∂ a{¥w hnizm-an-{X≥ BZyw Z¿in-®p. hnizm-            b\ hN\w {]am-W-am-°m≥ ]mSn√ F∂mWv
   an-{X≥ I≠-Xns\ hma-tZ-h≥ krjvSn®p (^-e-h-                                          -
                                                             AhsS ka¿Yn-®n-´p-≈Xv. CXns\ {]am-Wambn       -
   Øm°n ˛ D]-tZ-in-®p) XmWvUy-{_m-“-W-Øn¬ inip
   BMvKn-c-kns\ A[ym-]-I≥ F∂ A¿Y-Øn¬ a{¥-                    kzoI-cn-®m¬ thZ-߃ k\m-X-\-ß-f-√m-Xm-Ip-
   IrXv (a-{¥-{Z-jvSm-hv) F∂p-]-d-bp-∂p-≠v. (13.3.24)        sa- ∂ mWv Imc- W w. {_m“- W - { K- Ÿ - ß - f n¬
26 thZm\p {Ia-Wn-I-fn¬ a{¥-Øns‚ Ejn Bcm-sW∂v                 At\Iw al¿jn-am-cp-sSbpw cmPm-°-∑m-cp-
   \n¿t±-in®p t]mcp-∂p.                                      sSbpw a‰pw Ncn{Xw ImWmw. Pohn-X-Øn\p

                                                         149
     kXym¿∞-{]-Im-iw                                                    Cuiz-c≥ thZw
tij-am-Wt√m Hcp-hs‚ Ncn{Xw Fgp-Xp-∂-Xv.                                \nXym-\n-Xy-hn-Nmcw
B {KŸhpw Ahs‚ P\-\-Øn\p tij-am-                              tNmZyw:˛ thZ߃ \nXy-ßtfm A\n-Xy-
Wp≠m-hp-I. thZ-ß-fn¬ Bcp-sSbpw Ncn{Xw                     ßtfm?
C√. hnZym-t_m[w Df-hm-°p∂ i_vZ-ß-tf-                         DØcw:˛ \nXy-ß-fm-Wv. Cuiz-c≥ \nXy-\m-
htbm Ah-bmWv AXn¬ {]tbm-Kn-®n-´p-≈-Xv.                    b-Xp-sIm≠v At±-l-Øns‚ ⁄m\m-Zn-Kp-W-
GsX-¶nepw a\p-jys‚ t]tcm IYtbm IYm-                                       -           -    -
                                                          ßfpw \nXy-ßfm-Wv. \nXy-hkvXp-°fpsS KpW-
k-µ¿`tam thZ-ß-fn-en-√.                                   I¿a-kz-`m-h-߃ \nXy-ßfpw A\n-Xy-h-kvXp-
                     thZ-im-J-Iƒ                          °-fp-tSXv A\n-Xy-ßfpw BIp-∂p.
    tNmZyw-:˛ thZ-߃°v F{X imJ-I-fp≠v?                       tNmZyw:˛ Cu ]pkvX-Ihpw \nXy-amtWm?
    DØcw:˛ Bbn-cØn Hcp-\q‰n Ccp-]-tØgv                                                  -
                                                             DØcw:˛ A√. Cu ]pkvXIw, IS-em- v, ajn
    tNmZyw:˛imJ F∂p ]d-™m-se¥v?                           F∂n-h-sIm≠v D≠m-°n-b-Xm-Wv. AsX-ßs\
    DØcw:˛ imJ F∂p ]d-bp-∂Xv hymJym-                      \nXy-amIpw? i_vZm¿∞-ßfpw Ahbv°p XΩn-
\am-Wv.                                                   ep≈ _‘hpw am{Xta \nXy-am-Ip-∂p-≈q.
    tNmZyw:˛ temI-Øn¬ hnZzm-∑m¿ thZ-                         tNmZyw:˛ Cuiz-c≥ Ejn-am¿°v ⁄m\w
Øns‚ Ah-b-h-`q-X-ß-fmb hn`m-K-ßsf                         \evIn-sb∂pw Ah¿ ⁄m\-Øn¬ \n∂p
imJ-I-fmbn KWn-°m-dnt√?                                   thZ-߃ cNn-®p-sh∂pw h∂p-IqtS?
    DØcw:˛ sXs√m∂p Nn¥n-®m¬ icn-bm-Wv.                       DØcw:˛ t⁄bw IqSmsX ⁄m\-an-√.
D≈ imJ- I ƒ Biz- e m- b - \ ≥ apX- e mb                   Kmb-{XymZn Oµ- p-Iƒ, jUvPm-Xn-Ifpw DZm-
al¿jnam-cpsS t]cn¬ {]kn-≤-ß-fm-Wv. a{¥-                                      -                 -
                                                          Øm-\p-Zm-Øm-Zn-Ifp-amb kzc-߃ F∂n-hbpsS
kw-ln-X-Iƒ Cuiz-cs‚ \ma-Øn¬ {]kn-≤-ß-                     ⁄m\-tØm-Sp-IqSn Kmb-{XymZn Oµ- p-Isf
fm-Wv. \mep thZ-ßfpw Cuiz-c-Ir-X-am-sW∂p                  \n¿Ωn- ° p- ∂ - X n\pw ⁄m\- k - º q¿W- a mb
\n¿Æ-bn-°p-∂-Xp-t]mse ""Biz-em-b\n'' apX-                 imkv{X-c-N-\bv°pw k¿h⁄-\mb Cuiz-c-
emb imJ-Iƒ AXmXp al¿jn-am-cpsS cN-\-                      \-√msX a‰m¿°pw kma¿Yy-an-√. thZ-߃
I-fm-sW-∂t{X hnizm-kw. F√m imJ-I-fnepw                    A[y-b\w sNbvXp Ign™v hnZy-Isf shfn-
a{¥-ß-fpsS {]XoIw FSp-Øn´mWv hymJym-                      hm-°p-∂-Xn\v al¿jn-am¿ hymI-c-Ww, \ncp-
\n- ° p- ∂ - X v . ssXØn- c n- b - i m- J - b n¬ ""Ctj-   ‡w, Oµkv apX-em-bh cNn-®n-´p-s≠-∂p-≈Xv
tXzmcv t P- t XzXn'' apX- e mb {]Xo- I - ß ƒ              t\cm-Wv. Cuiz-c≥ thZ-ßsf {]Im-in-∏n-®n-s√-
FSpØp hymJym-\n-°p-∂Xv CXn-\p-Zm-l-c-W-                   ¶n¬ B¿°pw H∂pw \n¿Ωn-°p-hm≥ Ign-bp-I-
am-Wv. thZ-kw-ln-X-I-fn-em-I-s´, {]Xo-I-ß-                bn-√. AXn-\m¬ thZ-߃ Cuiz-tcm-‡-am-Wv.
sfm∂pw FSp- Ø n- ´ n- √ . AXn- \ m¬, Cuiz-                kI-e-P-\-ßfpw Ahsb A\p-k-cn®p \S-°p-
cIrXß-fmb \mep thZ-߃ aqe-hr-£-ßfpw                       Ibpw thWw. ""\nß-fpsS aXw F¥mWv?''
Ah-bpsS Biz-em-b-\mZn imJ-Iƒ Ejn-Ir-X-                    F∂p tNmZn-®m¬ ""Rß-fpsS aXw thZ-am-Wv,
ßfpw BIp-∂p. Ah-sbm∂pw Cuiz-c-Ir-X-a-                     thZ- Ø n¬ Fs¥√mw hn[n- ® n- ´ pt≠m
√. CtX-∏‰n hnti-j-hym-Jym\w EtKz-ZmZn                     AsX√mw R߃ kzoI-cn-°p∂p'' F∂mWv
`mjy-`q-an-I-bn-ep-≠v. amXm-]n-Xm-°-∑m¿ k¥m-              DØcw ]d-tb-≠-Xv.
\-ß-fn¬ Ir]m-Zr-jvSn-sNm-cn™v A`yp-Zbw                                         - -
                                                             C\n krjvSn-hn-jbsØ-∏‰n hymJym-\n-°mw.
Imw£n-°p-∂-Xp-t]mse Cuiz-c≥ kI-e-a-\p-                    ChnsS kw£n-]vX-ambn Cuiz-c-s\-∏-‰n-bpw,
jy-cnepw Ir]-sNm-cn™v thZ-ßsf shfn-hm-                    thZ-hn-j-b-sØ-∏-‰nbpw hymJym-\n-®p.
°n-bn-cn-°p-∂p. AXp-sIm≠v a\p-jy¿ A⁄m-
\m-‘-Im-c -am-Ip∂ taml-Pm-e -Ø n¬ \n∂p                         {ioa-±-bm-\µ kc-kzXokzm-an-I-ƒ
tamNn®v hnZym-⁄m-\-am-Ip∂ kqcys\ {]m]n-                          cNn® kXym¿Y]-Im-i-Øn¬
®v, B\-µ-Øn-em-dm-Sp-Ibpw hnZy-tbbpw kpJ-                          Cuiz-c-th-Z-hn-j-b-ßsf
tØbpw h¿≤n-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNø-s´.                                          hymJym-\n-°p∂
                                                                 Ggmw kap-√mkw Ign-™p.

                                                      150
F´mw kap-√mkw         kXym¿∞-{]-Im-iw




                151
kXym¿∞-{]-Im-iw         DXv]Øn ˛ ÿnXn ˛ {]fbw




                  152
                F´mw kap-√mkw                                                      kXym¿∞-{]-Im-iw



                                                      8
                                        F´mw kap-√mkw

                  kXym¿Y-{]-Imiw
         krjvSn-bpsS DXv]Øn ÿnXn, {]fbw
                          AY krjvSnhnjbav {]h£ymax
  C\n krjvSn-bpsS DXv]Øn ÿnXn, {]fbw F∂o hnj-b-߃ hymJym-\n-°p∂p.

   1. Cbw hnkr-jvSn-cyX B _`qh bZn hm                     I¿Øm-hmbn Icp-X-cp-Xv.
Zt[ bZn hm \x tbm Akym-[y-£x- ]-c-ta-                         2. krjvSn-°p-apºv Cu PK-sØ√mw Iqcn-cp-
thym-a≥t’m AwK thZ bZn hm \ thZ.                          ´p-sIm-≠v aqSn-bXpw cm{Xn-t]mse AZr-iyhpw
                       -
   2. Xa Bko-Øakm Kqƒl-at{K {]tIXw                        Bbn-cp-∂p. BIm-i-cq-]-amb PKØp apgp-h\pw
kenew kcvham CZw; Xpt—y-\m-`z-]n-lnXw                     Cuiz-cs\ At]-£n®v Xp—hpw ad-™p-In-S°p-              -
bZm-koØ ]k-kvX-∑-ln-\m-Pm-b-ssX-Iav.                      ∂- X p- a m- b n- c p- ∂ p. ]n∂oSv Cuiz- c ≥ Xs‚
   (E 10 129. 7.3)                                                                       - -
                                                          kma¿Yyw-sIm≠v Imc-Wcq-]Øn¬ \n∂v Imcy-
   3. lnc-Wy-Kcv`x ka-hcvØXmt{K `qXky                     cq-]-am-°n.
PmX ]XntcI BknXv; kZm-[mc ]rYnhnw                             3. A√tbm a\pjy! kqcy≥ apX-emb tXtPm-
Zymap-tXamw Ikvssa tZhm-b lhnjm hnt[-                     a-b-h-kvXp-°ƒ°v B[m-chpw CXp-hsc D≠m-
a. (-E. 10. 121.1)                                        bXpw D≠m- I p- ∂ Xpw Bb temI- Ø ns‚
   4. ]pcpj GthZMv kcvhw bZv`qXwb®                        GI\pw AZzn-Xo-b-\pw A[n-]\pamb Bb ]c-
`mhyw; DXm-ar-X-Xz-tky-imt\m bZ-t∂-\m-Xn-                 am-flmhv Cu PK-Øns‚ D¤-h-Øn\pw apºv
tcm-lXn. (b-Pq. 31.2)                                     D≠m-bn-cp-∂p. `qan apX¬ kqcy≥h-sc-bp≈ PK-
                                                          Øn-s\- kr-jvSn® B ]c-am-fl-tZ-hs\ kvt\l-
   5. btXm hm Cam\n `qXm\n Pmbt¥;
                                                          ]q¿hw `Pn-°p-hn≥.
tb\ PmX \n Poh¥n; bXv {]b-¥y`n kwhn-
i¥n; XZzn PnPvRm-kkz; XZv {_“. (ssX-                          4. F√m-Ønepw \nd-™p-ta-hp∂ ]pcp-j\pw
Øn-cn-tbm-]-\n-j-Øv. `rKp-h-√n. A\p-:1)                   \mi-c-ln-X-amb Imc-W-{]-Ir-Xn-bp-sSbpw Poh-
                                                          s‚bpw \mY\pw AtN-X-\w, tNX\w F∂n-h-
   1. tl AMvK˛ a\pjym Bcn¬ \n∂v Cu
                                                          bn¬ \n∂p `n∂\pamb ]pcp-j-\mWv `qX, `hn-
sshhn-[y-am¿∂ PKØv {]Im-in-X-amtbm Bcv
                                                          jy-Xv h¿Ø-am-\-ß-fn¬ h¿Øn-°p∂ PK-
Cu PK-Øns‚ ÿnXn kwlm-c-߃ sNøp-
                                                          Øns‚ {kjvSm-hv.
∂p-thm, Bcv Cu PK-Øns‚ A[n-]-\mtWm
Fßpw \nd-™n-cn-°p∂ Bcn¬ Cu temIw                              5. ]rYn- h ym- Z n- I - f mb kI- e - ` q- X - ß fpw
apgp-h\pw DXv]Øn, ÿnXn, {]f-bßsf {]m]n-
                  -                      -                BcpsS krjvSn-bmtWm Bcn¬ Ah-sb√mw
°p-∂pthm Ah-\t{X Cuiz-c≥. At±-lsØ                         ÿnXn- s N- ø p- I bpw {]e- b n- ° p- I bpw sNøp-
\o At\z- j n- ® - d n- b p- I . a‰m- s cbpw krjv - S n-   ∂pthm B ]c-am-flmhp Xs∂-bmWv {_“w.

                                                      153
    kXym¿∞-{]-Im-iw                                     DXv]Øn ˛ ÿnXn ˛ {]fbw
AXns\ Adn-bp-hm≥ B{K-ln-°q. P∑m-Zy-ky-         Poh-\n¬ \n∂pw Poh≥ Cuiz-c-\n¬ \n∂pw
bXx (th-Zm¥ kq. A. 1. ]m. 1. kq. 2.) Cu        `n∂hpw {]IrXn Ch-c-≠n¬ \n∂p `n∂-cq-
PK-Øns‚ krjvSn ÿnXn-e-b-߃ GXn¬                ]nbpw Ch aq∂pw A\m-Zn-Ifpw BIp-∂p.
\n∂v D≠m-Ip-∂pthm B {_“w Xs∂-bmWv                  2. (im-iz-Xo-`yx) A\m-ZnIfpw k\m-X-\-ß-
Adn-b-s∏-tS-≠-Xv.                              fp-amb Pohm-flm-°-fm-Ip∂ Xs‚ {]P-Iƒ°v
    tNmZyw:˛ Cu PKØv Cuiz-c-\n¬ \nt∂m          ]c-am-flmhv thZw hgn kIe hnZy-I-tfbpw
a‰p h√-Xn¬ \n∂ptam D≠m-bXv?                    t_m[n∏n-®n-´p-≠v.
    DØcw:˛ \nan-Ø-Im-c-W-amb Cuiz-c-\n¬            3. APm-taImw temln-X-ip-¢-IrjvWmw
\n∂mWv D¤-hn-®-Xv. F∂m¬ CXns‚ D]mZm-           _lzox {]Pmx krP am\mw kzcq]mx AtPm
\-Im-cWw {]Ir-Xn-bm-Wv.                        tlytIm Pqj-am-tWm-\p-titX PlmtXy\mw
    tNmZyw:˛ {]Ir-Xnsb krjvSn-®Xv Cuiz-                      -                     -   -
                                               `p‡-t`m-Km-atPm\yx (tiz-Xm-iz-Xtcm-]\n-jXv
c-\t√?'                                        4. 5)
    DØcw:˛A√. AXv A\m-Zn-bm-Wv.                                  --
                                                   CXv D]-\n-jØn-ep≈ hN-\-am-Ip-∂p. {]Ir-
    tNmZyw:˛ F¥mWv A\m- Z n- s b∂p ]d-         Xn, Pohm-flm-hv, ]c-am-flmhv Cu aq∂pw AP-
™m¬? A\m-Zn-bmbn F{X ]Zm¿Y-߃                  ߃˛ Hcn-°epw P\n-°m-Ø-h˛ BWv. Cu
D≠v?                                           aq∂pw kIe temI-Øn-s‚bpw Imc-W-ß-fm-
                                               Ip-∂p. Ch-bpsS Imc-W-ß-fmbn bmsXm∂pw
    DØcw:˛ BZn-Im-c-Wtam D¤-h-k-a-btam         C√. A\m-Zn-bmb Pohm-flm-hv A\m-Zn-bmb
C√m-Ø-XmWv A\m-Zn. Cuiz-c≥, Poh≥, PK-          {]Ir- X nsb A\p- ` - h n®v AXn¬ AI- s ∏´p
Øns‚ ImcWw F∂nh aq∂pw A\m-Zn-bm-Wv.            t]mIp-∂p. ]c-am-flm-hm-I-s´, AXns\ `pPn-°p-
    tNmZyw:˛ CXn\p {]amWw?                     Itbm AXn¬ AI-s∏-Sp-Itbm sNøp-∂n-√.
                               -
    DØcw:˛ 1. Zzm kp]¿Wm-kbpPm kJmbm                           {]Ir-Xn-bpsS cq]w
kam\w hr£w ]cn-j-kz-PmtX; Xtbm-c\yx                Cuiz-c-s‚bpw Poh-s‚bpw e£Ww Cuiz-
]n∏ew kzmZzØy-\-iv\-∂t\ym A`nNmI               c-kz-cq-]-hn-j-b-Øn¬ ]d-™p-I-gn-™p. C\n
ioXn. (E. 1. 164. 20)                          {]Ir-Xn-bpsS e£Ww ]dbmw:˛
    2. imiz-Xo`yx kam`yx. (b-Pp. 40. 8)            kXz-c-P-kvX-akmw kmaymhÿm {]IrXnx
    1 (Zzm) {_“w Pohm-flmhv Ch c≠pw (kp-        {]IrtXcvalm≥ al-tXm-l-¶m--tcm-l¶mcmXv
]¿Æm) tNX-\Xzw ]me-\Xzw apX-emb KpW-           ]©- X ∑m{XmWyp- ` - b - a n- { µnbw ]©- X - ∑ m-
ß-sf-s°m≠v Xpey-ßfpw (k-bp-Pm) hym]y-          t{X`yx ÿqe`qXm\n ]pcpj CXn ]©hn-i-
       - -   -             -
hym-]I`m-htØmSp IqSn-bhbpw (k-Jm-bm) ]c-       XncvKWx. (kmw-Jy-Z¿i\w 1. 61)
                          - -
kv]cw an{X-ßfpw k\m-X\ßfpw A\m-Zn-Ifpw             (k-Xzw) ip≤w (c-Px) a≤yw (X-ax) PmUyw
BIp-∂p. IqSmsX (k-am-\-av) A{]-Imcw (hr-       AYhm PUX F∂o aq∂p hkvXp-°ƒ H∂n-
£w) aqe-cq-]-amb A\mZn Imc-W-hpw, imJm-        ®p-tN¿∂ kwLm-X-Øns‚ t]cmWv {]Ir-Xn.
cq-]nbmb Imcy-bp-‡-amb hr£w˛ AXm-b-Xv,         {]Ir-Xn-bn¬ \n∂p al-ØXzw AYhm _p≤n-
ÿqe-cq-]-Øn¬ {]I-S-ambn {]f-b-Øn¬ On∂-         bpw, AXn¬ \n∂v Al-¶m-c-hpw, AXn¬ \n∂v
`n-∂-am-bn-t∏m-Ip-∂-Xv˛˛aq∂m-asØ A\m-Zn-]-     ]©-X-∑m-{X-I-fpw-˛-]-©-`q-X-ß-fpsS kq£va-cq-
Zm¿Yw BIp∂p Cu aq∂n-s‚bpw KpW-I¿a-             ]-߃-˛-]Øv C{µn-b-ßfpw ]Xn-s\m-∂m-asØ
         -             -              - -
kz-`m-hßfpw A\m-Zn-Ifm-Wv. Poh-{_-“ßfn¬        a\- pw, ]©-X-∑m-{X-I-fn¬ \n∂p ]rYn-hym-Zn-
H∂v, AXm-bXv Poh≥ hr£-cq-]-amb Cu              I-fmb ]©-`q-X-ß-fpw, Cßs\ Ccp-]-Øn-\m-
temI-Øn¬ ]pWy-]m-]-ß-fm-Ip∂ ^e-ßsf                                          -    -
                                               ep-Iq´w D≠m-Ip-∂p. Ccp-]Øn-b©m-atØ-Xmb-
(kzm-Zz-Øn) kzmtZmsS A\p-`-hn-°p-∂p. ]c-am-                               -
                                               ]pcp-j≥ Poh\pw Cuiz-c\p-am-Ip-∂p. Ch-bn¬
flm-hm-I-s´, I¿a-^-e-ßsf (A-\-iv\≥) A\p-        {]IrXn Ahn-Im-cn-Wn-bpw 1 al-ØXzw Al-
`-hn-°msX \mep-`m-K-Øpw-˛-A-IØpw ]pdØpw
                                               ¶m-cw, ]©-X-∑m-{X-Iƒ F∂nh {]Ir-Xn-bpsS
           -
k¿h-{X-˛{]-Im-in-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂p. Cuiz-c≥
                                               1. {]IrXn Imcy hkvXp-h√ F∂¿Yw

                                           154
               F´mw kap-√mkw                                                  kXym¿∞-{]-Im-iw
                              -
Imcy-ßfpw {]Ir-Xn, C{µn-b߃, a\ v, ÿqe-                (Om-tµmKyw 6. 8. 4)
`q-X-߃ F∂n-h-bpsS Imc-Whpw BIp-∂p.                       tizX-tItXm! A∂-cq-]-amb ]rYn-ho-Im-cy-
]pcp-j≥ as‰m-∂n-t‚bpw {]Ir-Xn-˛-D-]m-Zm-\-Im-          Øn¬ \n∂v Pe-cq-]-Øm¬ aqe-Im-c-WsØ \o
c- W w˛ A√; as‰m- ∂ n¬ \n∂p- ≠ m- I p- ∂               Adnbp-I. Imcy-cq-]-amb Pe-Øm¬ tXtPm-cq-
Imcyhpw A√.                                            ]-amb aqe-Im-c-W-tØ-bpw, tXtPm-cq-]-amb
    tNmZyw:˛                                                                 - -
                                                       Imcy-Øm¬ k{Zq]-Im-cWamb \nXy-amb {]Ir-
    1. ktZh tkmtay-Z-a{K BkoXv.                        Xn-tbbpw a\- n-em-°p-I. kXy-kz-cq-]-amb Cu
                           (Om-tµm-Kyw. 6. 2. 1)       {]IrXn kIe PK-Øn-s‚bpw aqe-Im-c-Whpw
    2. AkZzm CZ-a{K BkoXv.                             \nhm-k-ÿm-\-hp-am-Wv. Cu PKØp apgp-h\pw
                           (ssX. D. {_. 7)             krjvSn-°p-apºv Ak-Øn\p Xpeyw Bbn-cp-∂p.
    3. Bssfl-th-Z-a{K BkoXv.                            Pohm-flmhpw {_“hpw {]Ir-Xn-bn¬ 4ebn®v
                           (_rl 1. 4. 1.)              h¿Øn-®n-cp-∂p. H∂n-s‚bpw A`mhw C√m-bn-
    4. {_“hm CZ-a{K BkoXv.                             cp∂p. k¿∆w Jep F∂ hN\w Aºv Ipº-f-
                           (iX 11. 1. 11. 1.)          Øv, hn√p tN∏m´v Føm-\p≈ \mbcv ]¥-fØv
    Ch-sb√mw D]-\n-j-Øp-I-fn-ep≈ hmIy-                 F∂p ]d-™-Xp-t]mse tN¿®-bn-√mØXmWv.
ß-fm-Ip-∂p. tltizX-tItXm 2 krjvSn-°p-                     k¿hw JeznZw {_“ X÷em-\nXn im¥
-apºv Cu PKØv 1. kØpw 2 AkØpw 3.                       D]m- k oX (Om- t µmKy 3. 14. 1) t\l
Bflmhpw 4. {_“-kzcq-]hpw Bbn-cp-∂p.                     \m\mkvXn In©\ ( IT. D. 2. 4. 11.)
    XpS¿∂v:˛ XssZ-£X _lpx kymw {]Pm-                      ico-c-Øn-ep≈ Ah-b-h-߃ ico-c-hp-ambn
tb-tbXn tkmfIm abX _lpx kymw {]Pm-                     tN¿∂n-cn-°p-tºmƒ Imcy-£-ahpw th¿s]-Sp-
tbtbXn (ssX. D. {_. 6) B ]c-am-flmhp                    tºmƒ \njvIn-b-ß-fp-am-Ip-∂p. AXp-t]mse
Xs‚ C—- s Im- ≠ v At\Iw cq]- ß ƒ                       kµ¿`-Øn\p tbmPn® hmIy-߃ am{Xta
ssIs°m-≠p.                                                           -                    - -
                                                       A¿Y-kw-]p-jvSam-Ip-∂p-≈q. Hcp {]I-cWØn¬
    kcvhw JeznZw {_“t\l \m\mkvXn                       \ns∂-SpØv thsd h√ hmIy-hp-ambn Iq´n-
In©\ 3 CXpw D]-\n-j-Øn-ep≈ hN-\-am-                                               - -
                                                       t®¿Øm¬ Ah \nc¿∞-Ißfm-Ipw. C∏-d™
Wv. "C°m-Wp∂ PKØp apgp-h\pw {_“-am-                    hN-\-Øns‚ A¿Yw CXmWv:˛ Pohm-flm-th,
-sW-∂p-≈-Xn¬ kwi-b-an-√. AXn¬ \m\m-                    \o {_“sØ D]m-kn-°p-I. GXp {_“-Øn¬
{]-Im-c-Øn-ep≈ ]Zm¿Y-߃ bmsXm∂pw                       \n∂v PK-Øns‚ D¬∏-Øn, ÿnXn, BZn-bmb
C√. F√mw {_“w Xs∂-bm-Wv.'                              Akv X nXzw kw`- h n- ° p- ∂ pthm GsXm∂p
                                                       krjvSn®v [mcWw sNbvI-bm¬ Cu PKØv
    DØcw:˛ Cu hN-\-߃°v A\¿Yw ]d-bp-                   h¿Øn-°p-∂pthm Cu PKØv GXns‚ kl-
∂-sX-¥n\v? Fs¥-∂m¬ AtX D]-\n-j-Øp-
                                                       N-cn-X-amtWm 5 B {_“sØ hn´v as‰m-
I- f n¬- ˛ (- G - h - t ah Jep) tkmaym- t ∂\
ipMv t K- \ mt]m aqe- a - \ zn- — m- Z v ` n- t  may   ∂ns\ D]m-kn-°-cp-Xv. tNX-\m-am-{Xhpw AJ-
ipMvtK\ tXtPm-aq-ea\zn— tXPkm tkmay                    WvUhpw GI-c-khpw Bb {_“-Øn¬ a‰p
ipMvtK\ k∑q-ea\zn— k∑qemx tkmtayamx                    ]e hkvXp-°ƒ tbmPn-®n-cn-°p-∂n-√. Ah-
(kcvhmx) {]Pmx kZm-b-X\mx kXv{]-XnjvTmx                sb√mw AXm-Xns‚ kzcq-]-Øn¬ sht∆sd
                                                               -                -
                                                       Cuiz-c\m-Ip∂ GIm-[m-cØn¬ h¿Øn-°p-∂p.
    2 Cu kw-t_m-[\ BZy D≤-c-Wn-tbmSv tN¿∂-Xm-                       aq∂p Imc-W-߃
Wv. \men-s‚bpw A¿Yw H∂n®p ]d™p Ft∂-bp-≈q.                 tNmZyw:˛ PK- Ø n\v G{X Imc- W - ß ƒ
    3. CXv GsX-¶nepw {]mam-WnI D]-\n-j-Ønse hN-        D≠v?
\-a-√. AXp-sIm-≠mWv ssP\m-Nm-cy-∑m¿, Ir{Xn-ta-Wm-
]ym-K-ta\ Xsskyh {]Xn-]m-Z-\m-Xv. D‡wN k¿hw
                              v
sshJeznZw {_“ t\l \m\m-kXn-In-©\ Ir{Xn-aamb    -
BK-a-{]-am-W-Ømepw AXns\ Cßs\ {]Xn-]m-Zn-®n-cn-          4. Bivtf-jn-®v.
°p-∂-Xv. ]d-bp-I-bm-Wv. k¿hw JeznZw.... Cu {]amWw        5 {_“-Øns‚ kl-N-cn-Xw-˛-Iq-sS-bp-≈-Xv.
I≈-am-sW-∂¿Yw. (kym-Zzm-ZaRvPcn SoIm. t«mIw 13).
                          - -                            hn´p-am-dm-ØXv F∂¿Yw.

                                                   155
     kXym¿∞-{]-Im-iw                                              DXv]Øn ˛ ÿnXn ˛ {]fbw
   DØcw:˛ aq∂v. H∂m-a-tØXp \nan-Øw,                       Itbm C√.
c≠m-a-tØXv D]mZm-\w, aq∂m-a-tØXp km[m-                                     Cuiz-c≥ PK-Øns‚
                         -
c-Ww. Bcv D≠m-°p-∂Xp-sIm-≠v D≠m-hp-Ibpw                                D]m-Zm-\hpw \nan-Ø-hptam?
D≠m- ° m- X n- c p- ∂ m¬ D≠m- I m- X n- c n- ° p- I bpw       tNmZyw:˛ \ho\ thZm¥nIƒ Cuiz-cs\
sNøp-∂pthm Abm-fmWv \nan-Ø-I m- c- W w.                   PK-Øns‚ \nan-Ø-Im-c-W-ambpw D]m-Zm-\-Im-
kzbw D≠m-ImsX as‰m-∂ns\ D≠m-°p-∂Xv                        c-W-ambpw KWn-°p-∂p-≠-t√m.
F∂¿Yw. AXn-√msX H∂pw D≠m-Ip-∂n-√tbm                           btYmcvÆ-\m`n krPtX KrlvWtX N (ap-
Ah-ÿm-¥cw {]m]n®v D≠m-hp-Ibpw hnL-Sn-                     WvU. 1. 1. 7) CXv D]-\n-j-Zz-N-\-am-Wv. Nne¥n
°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂-tXtXm AXmWv D]m-Zm-\-                      ]pd-ta-\n∂p bmsXmcp ]Zm¿∞hpw FSp-°m-
Im-c-Ww. km[m-cW ImcWw F∂p ]d-bp-∂Xv                      sX, Xs‚ ico-c-Øn¬ \n∂p \n¿§-fn-°p∂
D≠m-°p-∂-Xn\v hgnbpw kmam\y e£y-hp-am-                    \q¬ sIm≠p he-bp-≠m-°n, AXn¬ kzbw
Ip-∂-Xn-s\-bm-Wv. \nan-Ø-Im-cWw c≠p hn[-                  Ifn®p sIm≠n-cn-°p-∂-Xp-t]mse {_“hpw
Øn-ep-≠v. krjvSn-bn-ep≈ ka-kvX-h-kvXp-°-                  X∂n¬ Xs∂ PK-Øns\ krjvSn®v kzbw
sfbpw D]m-Zm-\-Im-c-W-Øn¬ \n∂v D≠m-°p-                    PK-’z-cq-]-\mbn {IoUn®p sIm≠n-cn-°p-I-
Ibpw \ne- \ n¿Øp- I bpw \in- ∏ n- ° p- I bpw              bm-Wv. ""Rm≥ At\I hn[-Øn-ep-≈-h≥-˛-P-
{]h¿Øn-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNøp∂ Cuiz-c-\mWv                       K- Z m- I m- c ≥˛ Bbn- Ø ocpw'' F∂n- ß s\
G‰hpw apJy-amb BZn \nan-Ø-Im-cWw. c≠m-                    C—n®v B {_“w Xs∂ tIhew k¶-ev]w-
a-tØ-Xv, Cuiz-cs‚ krjvSn-bn-ep≈ hkvXp-                    sIm-≠p-am{Xw k¿h-P-K-’z-cq-]-\mbn ]cn-W-
°- f m¬ hnhn[ Imcym- ¥ - c - ß - f p- ≠ m- ° p∂           an-°p-I-bmWp sNbvXn-´p-≈-Xv. Fs¥-∂m¬:˛
km[mcW \nan-Ø-Im-c-W-amb Pohm-flmhmWv.                     BZm-ht¥ N b∂mkvXn h¿Ø-amt\]nfXØ-
                    -
kIe temI-ßtfbpw \n¿Ωn-°p-hm-\p≈ kma-                      Ym.2 amWvUq-Iy-Im-cn-I-bm-Wn-Xv. apºv D≠m-
{Kn- b mb {]Ir- X n- s b∂ ]c- a m- W p- ° - f mWv         Im-ØXpw HSp-hn¬ C√m-Ø-Xp-amb hkvXp
                           - -
D]mZm\ Imc-Ww. AtN-X\amb AXn\v kzbw                       h¿Ø-am-\-Ønepw C√m-Ø-Xm-Wv. krjvSn-
D≠m-Ip-hmt\m \in-°p-hmt\m Ign-hn-√. AXv                   bpsS BZnbn¬ PKØv D≠m- b n- c p- ∂ n- √ .
as‰m-cmƒ D≠m-°n-bm¬ D≠m-hp-Ibpw \in-                      {_“w D≠m-bn-cp-∂p-Xm-\pw. {]f-b-Øns‚
∏n-®m¬ \in-°p-Ibpw sNøp∂p. Nnet∏mƒ                        Ah-km-\-Øn¬ temIw \ne-\n-ev°p-I-bn-√,
PU-\n-an-Ø-Øn¬ \n∂v PU-h-kvXp D≠m-hp-                     {_“w am{Xta tijn-°p-I-bp-≈q. At∏mƒ
Ibpw C√m-Xm-hp-Ibpw sNøm-dp-≠v. Cuizc cNn-                h¿Ø- a m- \ - I m- e - Ø n¬ PKØp apgp- h \pw
X-amb hnØv aÆn¬hoWv Pew In´p-tºmƒ                         F¥p-sIm≠p {_“-a√?
apf®v ac-am-bn-Øo-cp-∂p. A·n apX-emb AtN-
X-\-h-kvXp-°ƒ \nanØw Ah \in-°p-Ibpw                           DØcw:˛ \n߃ ]d-bp-∂-{]-Imcw {_“w
sNøp-∂p. F∂m¬ Ch-bpsS \nb-a]q¿h-Iamb    -          -      PK-Øns‚ D]m-Zm-\-Im-c-W-am-sW-¶n¬, AXv
\n¿Ωm-Whpw \mihpw Cuiz-c-s‚-tbm, Poh-                                  -                   - -
                                                          ]cn-Wm-ahn-t[-bhpw Ah-ÿm-¥cap-≈Xpw, am‰--
s‚tbm A[o-\-X-bn-em-Wv. Hcp hkvXp-hns‚                    Øn\p hnt[-bhpw BsW∂p hcpw. IqSmsX
\n¿Ωm- W - Ø n¬ ⁄m\w, Z¿i- \ w, _ew                       D]m-Zm-\-Im-c-W-Øns‚ KpW-I¿a-kz-`m-h-߃
lkvXw apX-emb hnhn[ km[-\-ßfpw tZiw,                                                        -
                                                          Imcy-Ønepw h∂p-Iq-Spw. Imc-WKp-W]q¿hIx-
Imew, BImiw F∂n-hbpw km[m-cW Imc-                         Imcy-KptWm ZrjvS (ssh. Z. 2. 1. 24) D]m-Zm-
W-ß-fm-Wv. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v IpSw D≠m-°p-                    \- I m- c - W - Ø ns‚ KpW- ß ƒ°p kZr- i - a mb
tºmƒ Ipi-h≥ \nan-Ø-Im-c-W-hpw, aÆv D]m-                   KpW-߃ Imcy-Ønepw D≠m-Ipw. {_“w k®n-
Zm-\-\n-ImcWhpw, dm´v, N{Iw XpS-ßnb D]-I-                 Zm-\-µ-kz-cq-]-am-Wv. PKØp Imcy-cq-]-am-I-bm¬
c-W-߃ kmam-\y-\n-an-Øhpw tZiw, Imew,                     AkØpw PUhpw B\-µ-c-ln-Xhpw BWv.
BIm-iw, {]Imiw, IÆv, ssIøv, ⁄m\w,                                                -
                                                          {_“w P\n-°m-ØXm-Wv. PKØv D≠m-bXm-Wv.      -
{Inb F∂n-h-sb√mw km[m-cW \nan-Ø-Im-c-                     {_“w AZr- i yhpw PKØv Zriy- h p- a m- W v .
Whpw BIp- ∂ p. Cu aq∂p Imc- W - ß ƒ                       {_“w AJ-WvUhpw PKØv JWvU-hp-am-Wv.
IqSmsX bmsXm-∂pw D≠m-hp-Itbm \in-°p-                      ]rYnhn XpS-ßnb Imcy-ß-sf√mw {_“-Øn¬
                                                          \n∂v D≠m-b-Xm-sW-¶n¬ Ah-bn-ep≈ PU-

                                                      156
               F´mw kap-√mkw                                               kXym¿∞-{]-Im-iw
XzmZn KpW-߃ {_“-Ønepw D≠m-Ipw. Ah                     Nn”-ß-tfmSp IqSn-bXpw Bbn-cp-∂n-√. Bhp-
AtN-X-\- am-b n-c n-°p-∂-Xp-t ]mse {_“hpw              I-bp-an-√. h¿Ø-am-\-Im-e-Øn¬ am{Xta PK-
AtN-X-\-am-sW∂p hcpw. Cizc≥ tNX-\-am-                  Øns\ Adn-bm≥ Ign-bq. kv]jvS-amb AS-bm-
                                    -
I-bm¬ ]rYn-hym-Zn-Ifpw tNX-\am-sW-∂p hcpw.                 -
                                                       f-ßtfm-Sp-IqSn Adn-bm-dm-hp-tºmƒ am{Xta D≈-
Nne-¥n-bpsS DZm-l-cWw \nß-fpsS aXsØ                                                 -
                                                       Xp-t]mse Adn-bm≥ Ign-bp-Ibp-≈q. AXn-\m¬
km[q- I - c n- ° p- ∂ - X n\p ]I- c w, JWv U n- ° p-   ImcnIm cN-bn-Xmhv h¿Ø-am-\-Ønepw PK-
IbmWp sNøp- ∂ - X v . PU- c q- ] - a mb icocw          Øn\v A`mhw Ds≠∂p ]d-™Xv Xo¿Øpw
\qens‚ D]m-Zm\ Imc-W-am-Wv. Pohm-flmhv                  A{]mam-Wn-IamWv. kq£va-ambn Adn-bp-∂-
\nan-Ø-Im-c-Whpw AXpw Cuiz-cs‚ A¤p-X-                  bmƒ {]am-W-߃ aptJ\ Adn-bp--∂Xpw {]m]n-
I-c-amb krjvSn-bpsS al-Xz-am-Wv. as‰mcp ico-           °p-∂-Xpw Hcn-°epw hn]-coX hn[-Øn-em-Im≥
c-Øn¬ \n∂pw \qep≠m°m≥ Pohm-flm-hn\p                     hgn-bn-√.
km[n-°p-∂n-√. AXp-t]mse Xs∂, hym]-I-                          krjvSn--bpsS {]tbm-P\w
amb {_“w X∂n-ep-≈Xpw hym]y-hp-amb {]Ir-                   tNmZyw:˛ PK- Ø ns\ \n¿Ωn- ° p- ∂ - X p-
Xn, ]c-am-Wp-°ƒ F∂o Imc-W-ß-fn¬ \n∂p                   sIm≠v Cuiz-c\v F¥mWv {]tbm-P\w?
         - -
ÿqe-PKØns\ krjvSn®v _mly-ambn ÿqe-                        DØcw:˛ \n¿Ωn-°m-Xn-cn-°p-∂-Xp-sIm≠v
am-°n-bn´v kzbw km£n-bmbn AXn-seßpw                    F¥mWp {]tbm-P\w?
\nd-™p-\n∂v B\-µ-a-b-ambn h¿Øn-°p-∂p.
""Rm≥ kIe PK-Øn-t\bpw krjvSn®p {]kn-                      tNmZyw:˛ PK-Øns\ \n¿Ωn-°m-Xn-cp-∂m¬
-≤-\mIpw'' F∂n-ßs\ Cuiz-c≥ Cu£Ww                       Cuiz-c\v B\-µ-Øn¬ \na-·-\m-Imw. Pohm-
sNbvXm¬ AXm-bXv B{K-ln-°p-I-tbm, Z¿in-                 flm-°ƒ°p kpJ-Zpx-J-߃ D≠m-hp-I-bp-
°p-Itbm, hnNm-cn-°p-I-tbm, Iman-°p-Itbm                an√.
sNbvXn-´p-s≠-¶n¬ AXns‚ Xmev]cy-an-XmWv:˛
                                       -                  DØcw:˛ Ae-kcpw Zcn-{Z-cp-amb Bfp-Itf
PKØv D≠m-Ip-tºmƒ am{Xta Pohm-flm-°-                     Cßs\ ]d-bq. ]pcp-jm¿Yn-Iƒ ]d-bp-I-bn-√.-
fpsS hnNm-cw, ⁄m\w, [ym\w, D]-tZ-iw,                   {]f-bm-h-k-c-Øn¬ Pohm-flm-°ƒ°v kpJtam
{ihWw F∂n-bm¬ Cuiz-c≥ {]kn-≤-\m-hp-                    ZpxJtam? krjvSn-bnse kpJ-Zpx-J-ßsf Xmc-
Ibpw At\Iw ÿqe-]-Zm¿∞-ß-tfm-Sp-IqSn                    Xayw sNbv-Xp-t\m-°n-bm¬ kpJw ZpxJ-tØ-
h¿Øn-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂p-≈q. {]f-bm-h-ÿ-                   °mƒ F{Xtbm aSßv A[n-I-amWv F∂p
bn¬ Cuiz-c\pw ap‡-cmb Pohm-flm-°-fp-a-                  ImWmw. krjvSn-bp-f-f-t∏mƒ At\Iw ]cn--ip-
√msX a‰mcpw {_“sØ Adn-bp-∂n-√. AXn-                                                     -
                                                       ≤-cmb Pohm-flm-°ƒ tamt£m-]m-b߃ km[-
\m¬ Cu Imcn-I(-{`-a-P-\y-am-Wv. krjvSn-°p-             \-sNbvXv tam£-Øns‚ B\µw t\Sp-∂p.
apºp≈ {]f-b-Im-eØv PKØv D≠m-bn-cp-∂n√.                 sIm≈-cp-Xm-Ø-h¿ kZm Dd-ßn-°n-S-°p-∂-Xp-
krjvSn-bpsS Ah-km-\-Øn¬, AXm-bXv {]f-                  t]mse {]f-b-Øn¬ Pohm-fl-°ƒ \njv{In-b-
b-Øns‚ Bcw`w apX¬ ASpØ krjvSn                          cm-bn-cn-°p-∂p. ]q¿h-kr-jvSn-bnse Pohm-flm-
D≠m-Ip-∂-Xp-hsc PK-Øns‚ ImcWw kq£va-                   °ƒ°p ]pWy-]m-]-I¿a-ß-fpsS ^ew sImSp-
ambn A{]-kn-≤-am-bn-cn-°p-∂p.                          °p-hm≥ Cuiz-c\v Fßs\ Ignbpw? Pohm-flm-
    Xa Bko-Ø-akm Kqƒl-at{K (E. 10. 129.                °ƒ AsX- ß s\ A\p- ` - h n°pw? IÆp
3) Bko-ZnZw Xtam `qX-a{]-⁄m-Xae£Ww
                              -          - - -         sIms≠¥p {]-tbm-P\w F∂ tNmZy-Øn\v
A{]- X cv I ya hnt⁄bw {]kp- ] v X - a nh               ImgvN F∂t√ DØcw ]dbq? AXp-t]m-se,
kcvhX (a-\p. 1. 5)                                     PK-Xvkr-jvSn-°p≈ ⁄m\w, _ew, {Inbm-
                                                       i‡n F∂nh Cuiz-c-\p-≈-Xp-sIm≠v PK-
    Cu PKØp apgp-h\pw krjv-Sn°papºsØ                   Xv\n¿am-W-a-√msX as‰¥p {]tbm-P\w? thsd
{]f-b-Øn¬ A‘-Im-c-Øm¬ Bhr-X(-B-—m-                     {]tbm-P-\-ap-s≠∂p ]d-bp-hm≥ Ign-bp-I-bn-
Zn-X)-am-bn-cp-∂p. {]f-bm-cw-`-ti-jhpw Aß-s\-          √t√m? IqSmsX Cuiz-cs‚ \ymbw, Zb apX-
X-s∂-bm-bn-cn-°pw. B ka-bØv CXm-cp-sSbpw               emb KpW-߃ krjvSn-bnse km¿Y-I-am-hp-
Adn-hn-tem, `mh-\-bntem sIm≠p-h-cmt\m                                           -
                                                       I-bp-≈q. Cuiz-cs‚ A\-¥amb kma¿Yyw PK-
C{µn-b-th--Z-y-am-Imt\m X°-hÆw, kv]jvv-S-amb

                                                   157
    kXym¿∞-{]-Im-iw                                      DXv]Øn ˛ ÿnXn ˛ {]fbw
Øns‚ krjvSn ÿnXn {]f-b-ß-fpsS \n¿h-                DØcw:˛ Cuiz- c ≥ \ncm- I m- c - \ m- I p- ∂ p.
l-W-Øn-eqsS am{Xta k^-e-am-hq. IÆns‚            kmIm-c≥ AXm-bXv ico-c-ap-≈-h≥ BsW-
kzm`m-hnI KpW-amWv ImgvN. AXp-t]mse             ¶n¬ AXv Cuiz-c-\-√. Fs¥-∂m¬ ico-c-ap-
Cuiz- c s‚ kzm`m- h n- I - K pWw PK- Ø ns\      ≈-h\v i‡n-bn¬ ]cn-an-Xnbpw tZiw, Imew
krjvSn®v Pohm-flm-°ƒs°√mw AkwJyw                 F∂n-h-bn¬ ]cn-—n-∂-X-bpw, hni-∏v, Zmlw
]Zm¿Y-߃ \evIn ]tcm-]-Imcw sNøp-I-b-            tOZ\w, t`Z\w, iotXm-jvWw-Pzcw ]oU apX-
t{X.                                            em-b-hbpw D≠m-bn-cn-°pw. Aß-s\-bp-≈-Xn¬
   tNmZyw:˛ hntØm actam BZyw D≠m-bXv?           Pohs‚ KpW-ß-f-√msX Cuiz-cs‚ KpW-ß-
   DØcw:˛ hnØm-Wv. Fs¥-∂m¬ hnØv,                sfm∂pw Hcn-°epw tNcp-I-bn-√. kmIm-c-cm-b˛
tlXp, \nZm-\w, \nan-Øw, ImcWw apX-emb           AYhm ico-c-ap-≈-h-cmb \mw˛ {Xk-tcWp
]Z- ß - s f√mw Htc A¿YsØ Ipdn- ° p- ∂ p.        AWp ]c-amWp {]IrXn F∂n-hsb kzm[o-\-
hnØv F∂Xp Imc-W-Øns‚ as‰mcp ]cymbw              am-°p-hm≥ i‡-cm-Im-Ø-Xp-t]mse ÿqe-tZ-
am{Xw. AXn-\m¬ AXp Imcy-Øn\p apºp               l-ap≈ Cuiz-c\pw B kq£va-]-Zm¿∞-ß-
Xs∂ D≠m-I-Ww.                                   fn¬ \n∂v ÿqe-P-K-Øns\ krjvSn-°p-hm≥
                                                i‡- \ m- h p- I - b n- √ . `uXnI C{µn- b - ß fpw
   tNmZyw:˛ k¿h-i-‡n-am-\m-I-bm¬ Cuiz-          ssIIm-ep-Iƒ apX-emb Ah-b-h-ßfpw Cs√-
c\v Imc- W - ß - t fbpw Pohm- fl m- ° - t fbpw   ¶nepw Af-h‰ _e-]-cm-{I-a-ß-fp≈ Cu-iz-c≥
DXv]m-Zn-∏n-°p-hm≥ Ign-bpw. Ign-bp-I-bn-s√-     Ah-tb-s°m≠v Pohm-flm-hn\pw {]Ir-Xn°pw
¶n¬ k¿h-i-‡n-am-\m-bn-cn-°p-I-bn-√.             Ai-Iy-amb kIe I¿a-ßfpw sNøp-hm≥
   DØcw:˛ k¿h- i - ‡ n- a m≥ F∂- X ns‚          i‡-\m-Ip-∂p. {]Ir-Xn-tb-°mƒ kq£va-X-c-
A¿Yw apºv Fgp-Xn-bn-´p-≠v. Akw-`-h-amb          \mbn {]Ir-Xn-bn-seßpw hym]n®v h¿Øn®v
Imcy-߃ IqSn-sN-øp-∂-XmtWm k¿h-i-‡n-            {]Ir-Xnsb PK-Øns‚ BIr-Xn-bn-em-°p-I-
am≥ F∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xn\p ImcWw? ImcWw               bmWv Cuiz-c≥ sNøp-∂-Xv.
IqSmsX Imcyw \n¿an-°pI apX-emb Akw-                tNmZyw:˛ a\pjy-cp-tSbpw a‰pw A—-\-Ω-
`h IrXy-߃ \S-Øp-hm≥ Hcmƒ°p Ign-bp-             am¿ BIm-c-ap-≈-h-cm-Wv. Ah-cpsS k¥m-\-
sa-¶n¬ bmsXmcp Imc-Whpw IqSmsX as‰mcp           ßfpw kmIm-c-cm-Wv. Ah¿ \ncm-Im-c-cm-sW-
Cuiz- c s\ krjv S n- ° p- h m- t \m, Bfl- l Xy   ¶n¬ Ah-cpsS a°fpw \ncm-Im-c-cm-bn-cn-°pw.
sNøm-t\m, ZpxJn-X-\m-Ip-hmt\m A\ym-b-Im-        AXp-t]mse Cuiz-c≥ \ncm-Im-c-\m-sW-¶n¬
cnbpw A]-cn-ip-≤\pw Zpcm-N-cnbpw Bbn-Øo-        Cuiz-c≥ krjvSn® PKØpw \ncm-Im-c-am-bn-
cp-hmt\m i‡-\m-Iptam C√tbm? A·n-bpsS            cn-°-Ww.
NqSv, sh≈-Øns‚ XWp∏v apX-emb kzm`m-hn-
I-\n-b-a-ßsf am‰p-hm\pw ]rYn-hymZn PU-h-           DØcw:˛ Cu kwibw Hcp Ip™n-t‚-Xp-t]m-
kvXp-°sf hn]-co-X-Kp-W-ap-≈-h-bm-°p-hm\pw                                           -
                                                ep-≠v. Cuiz-c≥ PK-Øns‚ D]m-Zm-\Im-cWa√     - -
Cuiz-c-\p-IqSn Ign-bp-I-bn-√. Cuiz-cs‚ \nb-     \nan-Ø-Im-c-W-am-sW∂v Ct∏mƒ ]d-™-tX-bp-
a-߃ kXyhpw ]q¿W-hp-am-I-bm¬ Ah ]cn-            ≈q. ÿqe-cq-]-Øn-ep≈ {]Ir-Xnbpw ]c-am-Wp-
h¿Ø\w sNøm≥ km[y-a-√. AXn-\m¬ k¿h-              °-fp-amWv PK-Øns‚ D]m-Zm-\-Im-c-Ww. Ah
i-‡n-am≥ F∂-Xns‚ A¿Yw a‰m-cp-sSbpw              Xo¿Øpw \ncm-Im-c-ß-f-√. Ah Cuiz-c-t\-
klmbw IqSmsX kz¥w Imcy-߃ ]q¿W-                                                 -
                                                °mƒ ÿqehpw a‰p≈ Imcy-hkvXp-°tf-°mƒ     -
ambn sNøp-hm≥ i‡≥ F∂m-Wv.                       kq£va-hp-am-Wv.
       \ncm-Im-c≥˛ kmIm-c-\√                       tNmZyw:˛ ImcWw IqSmsX Imcyw krjvSn-
                                                °p-hm≥ Cuiz-c\p Ign-hnt√?
   tNmZyw:˛ Cuiz-c≥ kmIm-ct\m \ncm-Im-
ct\m? \ncm-Im-c-\m-sW-¶n¬ ssIøpw a‰v D]-           DØcw:˛ C√. Fs¥-∂m¬, A`m-h-Øns‚
I-c-W-ß-sfm∂pw C√m-Ø-Xp-sIm-≠v PKXv                               -
                                                `mhw˛ C√m-ØXv, D≠m-hpI F∂-Xv˛ Xo¿Øpw
krjvSn km[y-ta-b-√. kmIm-c-\m-sW-¶n¬            Akw-`-h-am-Wv. h‘y-bpsS ]p{X\pw thsdmcp
Cu tZmj-an-√.                                   h‘y-bpsS ]p{Xnbpw XΩn¬ hnhmlw sNøp-
                                                ∂Xp Rm≥ I≠p. Ah¿ a\p-jys‚ sImºp-

                                            158
              F´mw kap-√mkw                                              kXym¿∞-{]-Im-iw
sIm-≠p-≠m-°nb Hcp hn√p ]nSn-®n-cp-∂p. Ah¿            A{X \mkvXnIm Blpx:˛ \mkvXn-I¿ ]d-
c≠p- t ]cpw BIm- i - ] pjv ] w sIm≠p≈             bp-∂p.
ameIƒ [cn-®n-cp-∂p. Ah¿ Ccp-hcpw K‘¿h-               1. iq\yw XXzw `mthmf ]n hn\-iyXn
\-K-c-Øn¬ ]m¿°p-Ibpw Im\¬ Pe-Øn¬                  hkvXp [cva-Xzm-Zzn-\m-i-ky 7 (kmw-Jyw)
Ipfn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. B K‘¿h-\-K-c-Øn¬
taL- a n- √ msX Xs∂ agbpw aÆp- I q- S msX            2. A`m-hm-Xv`m-thm-Xv]-Øncv\m-\p-]-arZy
Xs∂ kI-e-k-ky-hn-f-Ifpw a‰pw D≠m-bn-              {]mZpcv`m-hmXv.
cp∂p'' F∂p-]-d-bp-tºm-se-tb-bp-≈q. ImcWw                                       -
                                                     3. Cuizcx ImcWw ]pcp-jIcvam^ey-Zcvi-
IqSmsX Imcyw D≠mbn F∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xpw,               \mXv.
""aa amXm-]n-Xcu \kvtXm-l-tah PmXx aa                4. A\n-an-ØtXm `mthm-Xv]Ønx I≠-I-
aptJ Pnlzm \mkv X n- h - Z man N'' F\n°v          ssX-£vWymZn Zcvi\mXv.
A—\pw AΩbpw C√. Rm≥ Cß-s\-b-ßp-                      5. kcvh-a-\n-Xy-ap-Xv]Øn hn\m-i-[-¿-a-I-
≠m-bn. F\n°p \mhn-s√-¶nepw Rm≥ kwkm-              XzmXv
cn-°p-∂p. amf-Øn¬ ]mºv C√m-bn-cp-s∂-¶nepw
                                                     6. kcvhw \nXyw ]©-`q-X-\n-Xy-Xzm-Xv.
]pdØp h∂p. Rm\pw Chcpw Hcn-SØpw D≠m-
bn-cp-∂n-√. F¶nepw Rß-fnßp h∂p. C{]-                 7. kcvhw ]rYKv `mh-e-£W ]rY-‡zmXv
Im-c-ap≈ \S-°mØ Imcy-߃ D∑-Ø-KoXw                    8. kcvh-a-`mthm `mth-jzn-X-tc-X-cm-`mh
AYhm {`m¥p ]d-b-em-Wv.                            knt≤x (\ym-b. 4. 1) 8
       Imc-W-Øn\p Imc-W-an-√.                        \mkvXn-I¿ ]d-bp∂p:˛
    tNmZyw:˛ ImcWw IqSmsX Imcyw D≠m-                 (1˛mw \mkv X n- I ≥) iq\yw Fs∂mcp
hp- I - b n- s √- ¶ n¬ Imc- W - Ø ns‚ Imcyw       ]Zm¿∞-ta-bp-≈q. krjvSn-°p-apºv iq\y-am-
F¥mWv?                                            bn-cp-∂p. krjvSn°p tijhpw iq\yta D≠m-
    DØcw:˛ tIhew Imc-W-cq]w am{X-am-bh            hq. Fs¥-∂m¬ Ct∏m-gp≈ `mhw ˛A-Yhm
as‰m-∂n-s‚bpw Imcy-am-Ip-∂n-√. H∂ns‚ Imc-         h¿Ø- a m- \ - Ø n- e p≈ hkv X p˛ C√m- X m- I p-
Whpw thsdm-∂ns‚ Imcyhpw BIp-∂h as‰m-              tºmƒ iq\y-Xtb tijn-°q.
cn-\ambn 6 Adn-bs∏-Sp-∂p. ]rYnhn Krlw apX-
     -                -                              DØcw:˛ BImiw AZr-iy-am-bn-´p-≈-Xv. Hgn-
em-b-h-bpsS Imc-Whpw Pew apX-em-b-h-bpsS          ™n-Sw, _nµp F∂n-h-bvs°√mw iq\y-sa∂p
Imcy-hp-am-Wv. F∂m¬ aqe-Im-c-W-amb {]Ir-          ]d-bp-∂p. iq\yw AtN-X-\-h-kvXp-hm-Wv. Cu
Xn°v thsd Imc-W-an-√. AXv A\m-Zn-bm-Wv.           iq\y-Øn¬ F√m ]Zm¿Y-ßfpw AZriy-am-Wv.
         aqte aqem-`m-hm-Z-aqew (kmw-Jy. 1. 67)   Hcp _nµp-hn¬ \n∂p tcJbpw ]e-tc-J-I-sf-
thcn\v thcv AXm-bXp Imc-W-Øn\p ImcWw              s°m≠v hrØm-Im-chpw D≠m-Ip-∂-Xp-t]mse
C√. AXn-\m¬ Imc-W-an-√m-ØXv F√m Imcy-                                      - -
                                                  `qan, ]¿h-Xw, apX-em-bhsb√mw Cuiz-cs‚ cN-
ß-fp-tSbpw Imc-Wam-Ip-∂p. Fs¥-∂m¬ GsX-
                        -                         \-bn¬ \n∂p-≠m-Ip-∂p. IqSmsX iq\ysØ
¶nepw Hcp Imcyw D≠m-Ip-∂Xn\p apºv AXn\p
                             -                    Adn-bp-∂-h≥ iq\y-\m-bn-cn-°p-I-bp-an-√.
aq∂p Imc-W-߃ Ahiyw thWw. hkv{Xw                     c≠mw \mkvXn- I ≥:˛ A`m- h - Ø n¬
s\øp-∂-Xn\v s\bvØp-Im-c≥, \q¬, Xdn-b-{¥-          \n∂mWv `mhw D≠m-Ip-∂-Xv. hnØns\ hnI-
߃ apX-em-bh thWw. AXp-t]mse PK-                  kn- ∏ n- ° msX apf D≠m- I p- ∂ n- √ . hnØp
Øns‚ DXv]-Øn-°p-apºv Cuiz-c≥, {]Ir-Xn,            ]nf¿∂p-t\m-°n-bm¬ AXn¬ apf ImWp-∂n-
Imew, BIm-iw, Pohm-flm-°ƒ F∂n-hsb√mw   -                                  -
                                                  √. A¶pcw ImWm-ØXp-sIm≠v A`m-hØn¬       -
A\m-Zn-bmbn Ds≠-¶nte PK-Øns‚ DXv]Øn               \n∂mWv `mhw D≠m-Ip-∂-sX∂p hcp-∂p.
             -
D≠m-hp-Ibp-≈q. Ch-bn¬ GsX-¶nepw H∂ns‚                DØcw:˛ _oPsØ hnI-kn-∏n-°p-∂tXtXm
A`m-h-Øn¬ PKØv D≠m-hp-I-bn-√.                     AXv BZyw Xs∂ _oP-Øn¬ D≠m-bn-cp-∂p.
  6 {]IrXn ˛ hnIrXn F∂¿Yw                           8. \ymb-Z¿i\w 4˛mw A[ymbw B”nIw 1.
  7 kq{Xw 1.44                                         kq{X-߃ 14, 19, 22, 25, 29, 34, 37, 39

                                              159
    kXym¿∞-{]-Im-iw                                                DXv]Øn ˛ ÿnXn ˛ {]fbw
As√-¶n¬ Hcn-°epw apf-bv°p-I-bn-√.                       t«mIw. 10 C°m-esØ thZm-¥n-Iƒ A©m-
                    I¿a-^ew                             asØ \mkvXn-Is‚ Iq´-Øn¬ s]Spw Fs¥-
                                                        ∂m¬ Ah¿ ]d-bp-∂Xv:˛ {_“w kXyhpw
   aq∂mw \mkvXn-I≥:˛ I¿aw sNøp-∂-Xp-                    PKØv anYybpw BWv. Poh\pw {_“hpw
sIm≠v ^ew Hcp-h\v In´p-∂n-√. F{Xtbm                     XΩn¬ t`Z-an-√. At\-I-tImSn {KŸ-ß-fpsS
I¿a-߃ \njv^-e-ambn ImWp-∂p≠v AXn-                      kn≤m-¥-am-Wn-sX-∂-t{X.
                - -               -
\m¬ I¿a-^e{]m]vXn Cuiz-cm-[o-\am-sW∂v
A\p- a m- \ n- ° mw. GXp I¿a- Ø ns‚ ^ew                     DØcw:˛ F√m ]Zm¿Y-ß-fp-sSbpw A\n-
sImSp-°-W-sa∂v Cuiz-c\p tXm∂p-∂pthm                     XyX \nXy-am-sW-¶n¬ F√mw A\n-Xy-am-Im≥
AXns‚ ^ew am{Xw \¬Ip- ∂ p.                              hgn-bn-√.
sImSp°m\njvS-an-√mØ I¿a-Øns‚ ^ew                            tNmZyw:˛ F√m-Øn-s‚bpw A\n-Xy-Xbpw
sImSp-°p-∂n-√. AXn-\m¬ I¿a-^ew Cuiz-                    A\n- X y- a m- W v . A·n hnd- I ns\ Fcn- ® n´v
cm-[o-\-am-Wv.                                          kzbw sI´p-t]m-Ip-∂-Xp-t]m-se. 11
   DØcw:˛ I¿a-^ew Cuiz-cm-[o-\-am-sW-                       DØcw:˛ {]Xy-£-ambn ImWm≥ In´p∂
¶n¬ I¿aw sNømsX Xs∂ Cuiz-c≥ F¥p-                        hkv X p h¿Ø- a m- \ - I m- e - Ø n¬ A\n- X y- a m-
sIm≠p ^ew \¬Ip-∂n√? AXp-sIm≠v F¥p-                      sW∂pw ]c-a-kq-£va-amb ImcWw \nXy-a-
I¿a-amtWm a\p-jy¿ sNøp-∂Xv AXns‚ ^e-                    s√∂pw Hcn-°epw ]d-™p-Iq-Sm. PK-Øns‚
amWv Cuiz-c≥ sImSp-°p-∂Xv. AXn-\m¬ kzX-
                          -                             D¬]Øn {_“-Øn¬ \n∂m-sW∂p thZm-¥n-
{¥-\mbn ˛ tkz—m-]q¿hw˛ Cuiz-c≥ I¿a-^ew                  Iƒ hniz-kn-°p∂ ]£w {_“w kXy-am-b-
sImSp-°p-∂n-√. Poh≥ sNøp∂ I¿a-߃°-                      Xp-sIm≠v AXn¬ \n∂p-≠m-Ip∂ Imcyw Hcn-
\p-k-cn®v Cuiz-c≥ ^ew \¬Ip-∂p.                          °epw anYy-bm-hp-I-bn-√. kz]v\w-t]m-sebpw
   \memw \mkvXn-I≥:˛ ImcWw IqSmsI                       Ib-dn¬ k¿∏w t]msebpw shdpw k¶-ev]-am-
]Zm¿Y߃ D≠m- I p- ∂ p. ap≈n- e hp                       sW∂p ]d-bp-∂Xpw bp‡n-°p-\n-c-°p-∂-X-√.
t]mep≈ Nne ac-߃°v BWn-t]m-ep≈                          Fs¥-∂m¬ k¶ev]w KpW-am-Wv. KpW-Øn¬
ap≈p-I-fp-≠v. 9 krjvSn-bpsS Bcw`w D≠m-                  \n∂p {Zhyw D≠m-hp-I-bn-√. KpWw {Zhy-Øn¬
                                                                        -               --
                                                        \n∂p-th-dn-Sp-Ibp-an-√. k¶-ev]Øns‚ I¿Ømhv
Ip-tºm-sg√mw ico-cm-Zn-h-kvXp-°ƒ ImcWw                  \nXy-\m-sW-¶n¬ k¶-ev]hpw \nXy-am-bn-cn-°-
IqSmsX D≠m- I p- ∂ p- s h∂v CXn¬ \n∂p                   Ww. As√-¶n¬ k¶-ev]-Øns‚ I¿Ømhpw
{Kln-°mw.                                               A\n- X y- \ m- sW∂p [cn- ° p- I . ImWp- I tbm
   DØcw:˛GXn¬ \n∂mtWm Hcp hkvXp-                        tIƒ°p-Itbm sNøm-ØXv Hcn-°epw kz]v\-
hns‚ DXv]-Øn. AXmWv AXns‚ Imc-Ww.                       Øn¬ hcn-I-bn-√. Pm{K-X-h-ÿ-bn¬-˛-A-Yhm
ap≈n-e-hn-e-√msX ap≈p-≠m-Im-Ø-sX-¥p-sIm-                h¿Ø- a m- \ - I m- e Øv km£m- X v _ - ‘ - Ø m¬
≠mWv?                                                   kXy-h-kvXp-°-fpsS {]Xy-£-⁄m\w D≠m-b-
   A©mw \mkvXn-I≥:˛ kI-e-h-kvXp-°fpw                    Xn-\p-tijw Ah-bpsS kwkvIm-cw˛ hmk-\m-
DXv]-Ønbpw hn\m-ihpw D≈h-bm-Wv. AXn-                         -
                                                        cq-]Øn-ep≈ ⁄m\w˛ Bflm-hn¬ ]Xn-bp-∂p.
\m¬ F√mw A\n-Xy-am-Ip-∂p.                               kz]v\-Øn¬ Ah A{]-Xy-£-am-Ip-∂p. kpjp-
   t«mIm¿t≤\ {]h-£yman bZp‡w {KŸ-                       ]vXn-bn¬ _mly-]-Zm¿∞-ß-fpsS ⁄m\w
tIm- S n`nx {_“- k Xyw PK- ∑ nYym Pothm                 Cs√-¶nepw Ah-bpsS kØ C√m-Xm-hp-∂n-√.
{_“-ssah\m]cx                                                                 -              -
                                                        AXp-t]mse {]f-bIm-eØpw Imc-W{Zhyw \ne-
   GtXm {KŸ-Øn-ep-≈-XmWv Cu                             \n¬°p-∂p. kwkvImcw IqSmsX kz]v\w D≠m-
                                                        Ip-sa-¶n¬ P∑\m A‘\pw cq]w kz]v\w
                                                        ImWpw. AXn-\m¬ kz]v\-Øn¬ hkvXp-kw-
 9. CXn\v I¿a-^ew Imc-W-am-Ip-∂n-s√-∂¿Yw.               _-‘-amb PvRm\w am{X-ta-bp-≈q. F√mw
 10. AjvSm-h{I KoX t«mIw 5.
 i¶-cm-Nm-cy-cp-tS-sX∂v ]d-b-s∏-Sp∂ {_“-\m-am-h-en-     At∏mgpw _lnx-ÿn-X-am-Wv.
 kvtXm{Xw t«mIw 20¬ ""{_“ kXyw PK-∑n-Yym
 Pothm {_“-ssah\m]cx.'' F∂p ]mTw.                           11. \ A\n-XyXm \nXy-XzmXv (\ymbw 4.1.26)

                                                      160
             F´mw kap-√mkw                                              kXym¿∞-{]-Im-iw
                   - - -
   tNmZyw:˛ Pm{K-Zhÿbn-ep≈ ]Zm¿Y-߃           IpXn- c - b n¬ IpXn- c bpw `mh- c q- ] - Ø n- e p- ≠ v .
kz]v\-Øn-epw, c≠-h-ÿ-bn-ep-ap≈Xv kpjp-        A`mhw Hcn-°epw hcn-I-bn-√. ]Zm¿Y-߃°v
]vXn-bn-epw, A\n-Xy-am-bn-Øo-cp-∂p-≠-t√m.     `mhta Cs√-¶n¬ At\ym-\y-`mhw F∂p-]-d-
AXp-t]mse Pm{K-Z-h-ÿ-bn¬ Adn-bp-∂-            bp-∂Xp Xs∂ F¥n-t\-∏-‰n-bmWv?
hbpw kz]v\-Xp-ey-ß-fmbn hnNm-cn-°-Ww.            H≥]Xmw \mkvXn- I ≥:˛ PK- Ø ns‚
   DØcw:˛ AXp km[y-ta-b-√. Fs¥-∂m¬,           Dev]Øn kzm`m-hn-I-am-Wv. sh≈hpw tNmdpw
kz]v\-Ønepw kp£p-]vXn-bpepw _mly-]-           tN¿Øp-h-®n-cp-∂m¬ No™v AXn¬ ]pgp-°-
Zm¿Y- ß - f psS A⁄m\w am{Xta D≈q,             fp-≠m-hpw. hnØpw hfhpw aÆpw tN¿∂v
A`mhw C√. Hcm-fns‚ ]n≥`m-KØv Ccn-°p-∂         ]p√pw achpw I√p-Ifpw D≠m-Ip-∂p. IS-epw,
At\Iw hkvXp-°ƒ Ah≥ ImWm- Ø- Xp-               Im‰pw tN¿∂v Xnc-am-ebpw Xnc-am-e-bn¬
sIm≠v Ah- b psS A`mhw D≠m- I p- ∂ n- √ .      \n∂p IS¬\p-cbpw D≠m-Ip-∂p. a™fpw
kz]v\-kp-£p-]vXn-I-fnse Ah-ÿbpw CXp-X-        NpÆmºpw \mc-ßm-\ocpw IqSn tN¿∂m¬
s∂. AXn-\m¬ apºp ]d™p h∂-t]mse                knµq-c-ap-≠m-Ipw. PK-Øp-ap-gp-h\pw AXp-
{_“w, Poh≥, PK-Øns‚ ImcWw F∂nh                t]mse ]Zm¿Y-ß-fpsS kzm`m-hnI KpW-
\nXy-am-sW-∂-Xp-X-s∂-bmWv kXyw.               ߃sIm≠v D≠m-b-Xm-Wv. AXn\v \n¿am-Xm-
   Bdmw \mkvXn-I≥:˛ ]©-`q-X-߃ \nXy-          hn-√.
ß-fm-I-bm¬ PK-Øp-ap-gp-h\pw \nXy-am-Wv.          DØcw:˛ PK-Øns‚ D¬]Øn kzm`m-hn-I-
   DØcw:˛ CXp icn- b - √ . Fs¥- ∂ m¬          am-sW-¶n¬ AsXm-cn-°epw \in-°p-I-bn-√.
D¬]Øn hn\m-i߃°p≈ ImcWw ImWm≥
                -                             kz`mhw sIm≠p-Xs∂ hn\m-ihpw kw`-hn-°p-
Ign-bp-∂-sX√mw \nXy-ß-fm-Ip-sa-¶n¬ ÿqe-       sa-¶n¬ Dev]-Øntb D≠m-hp-I-bn-√. Dev]-Øn-
P-K-Øpw, ÿqe-i-co-cw, IpShpw ap≠pw F∂n-       hn-\m-i-߃ c≠pw {Zhy-ß-fn¬ kzm`m-hn-I-
h-bvs°√mw Dev]Øn hn\m-i-ß-fp-≈-Xm-I-                                     -
                                              ambn Hcp-t]m-se-bp-≈Xmbn hnNm-cn-®m¬ Aß-
bm¬ Ah-sb√mw \nXy-ß-fm-bn-Øo-cpw. AXn-        s\-bp≈ Dev]-Øn-hn-\m-i-ß-fpsS hyhÿ Hcn-
\m¬ Imcy-߃°p \nXyXzw kzoIm-cy-a-√.           °epw D≠m-hp-I-bn-√. Dev]-Øn-hn-\m-i-߃
   Ggmw \mkvXn-I≥:˛ kI-e-]-Zm¿Yßfpw           ss\an-Øn-I-ß-fm-sW∂p Icp-Xn-bm¬, B \nan-
sht∆-sd-bm-Wv. GI-hkvXp H∂p-an-√. \mw         ØsØ D≠m-hp-Ibpw C√m-Xm-hp-Ibpw sNøp-
ImWp∂ hkv X p- ° - f n- s em- ∂ nepw as‰mcp   ∂- X n¬ \n∂p `n∂- a mbn Icp- X - W w. Dev ] -
hkvXp ImWp-∂-tX-bn-√.                         Ønbpw hn\m-ihpw kzm`m-hn-I-ambn D≠m-Ip-
                                              ∂-Xm-sW-¶n¬ Htc kabw c≠pw IqSn D≠m-
   DØcw:˛ Ah-b-h-ß-fnse Ah-b-hn, h¿Ø-                                  -            -
                                              hpI hø. kzm`m-hn-Iam-bp-≠m-Ip-∂Xm-sW-¶n¬
am-\-Im-ew, BIm-iw, Cuiz-c≥ F∂nh sht∆-                       -       -
                                              Cu `qtKm-fØn-s‚-bSpØv thsdmcp `qtKm-fhpw
sd-bp≈ ]Zm¿Y-k-aq-l-ß-fn¬ H∂m-Wv. Ah-         kqcy- N - { µ- ∑ mcpw a‰pw D≠m- I m- Ø - s X- ¥ p-
b-√msX thsd H∂p-an-√. AXn-\m¬ Hmtcm∂pw        sIm≠v? GsX√mw tN¿∂v GsX√mw D≠m-Ip-
thsd-b-√. cq]-Øn¬ Ah sht∆-sd-bm-sW-                                        -
                                              ∂pthm Ah-sb√mw Cuiz-c\n¿an-Xamb hnØv,   -
¶nepw sht∆-sd-bp≈ ]Zm¿Y-ß-fn¬ Hcp GI-         sh≈w, tNmdv apX-em-b-h-bpsS kwtbm-K-Øm-
h-kvXp-Iq-Sn-bp≠v.                            ep-≠m-Ip∂ XrW-hr-£m-Zn-I-fpw, Iran apX-em-
                              - -
   F´mw \mkvXn-I≥:˛ kI-e]Zm¿Y-ßfnepw  -       b-hbpw BWv. A√msX a‰m-cp-ap-≠m-°n-b-X-√.
At\ym-\y-`mhw D≈-Xp-sIm≠v k¿hhpw              a™ƒ, NpÆm-ºv, \mc-ßm-\o¿ F∂nh Zqsc
       -    -
A`m-hcq-]am-Wv. ""A\tizm Kux AKu-cizx''       \n∂p-h∂v kzbw H∂n-®p-tN-cp-∂n-√. tN¿°m-
F∂v DZm-l-c-W-w. Imf IpXnc-b-√. IpXnc         s\m-cmfps≠¶nte tNcq. th≠-t]mse Iq´n-
Imf-b-√. AXn-\m¬ F√mw A`m-h-cq-]-sa∂p         t®¿Ømte knµqcw D≠m-hq. A\p-]mXw IqSn-
Icp-X-Ww.                                     bmtem Ipd-™mtem knµqcw D≠m-hp-I-bn-√.
   DØcw:˛ kI-e-]-Zm¿Y-ß-fnepw At\ym-\y-       AXp-t]mse {]Ir-Xn, ]c-am-Wp-°ƒ F∂o
`mhw D≠m-bmepw ""Khn Ku Atiz Atizm            PU-]-Zm¿Y-ßsf ]c-ta-iz-c≥ ⁄m\-tØmSpw
`mh-cq-t]m-hcvØX Gh'' Imf-bn¬ Imfbpw          bp‡n-tbmSpw IqSn kwtbm-Pn-∏n-°m-Xn-cp-∂m¬

                                          161
     kXym¿∞-{]-Im-iw                                             DXv]Øn ˛ ÿnXn ˛ {]fbw
Imcy-kn-≤n-°p-XIpw hÆw hnti-j-h-kvXp-                   I-bp-an-√. IÆp-sIm≠p ImWp-I, sNhn-sIm≠p
hmbn ]cn-Wan-°p-hm≥ Ah i‡-am-hp-I-bn-                   tIƒ°p- I , F∂n- ß s\ A\m- Z n- k n- ≤ - \ mb
√. AXn-\m¬ kzm`m-hn-I-am-b√ Cuiz-cs‚ cN-                Cuiz-c≥ sNbvXn-´p≈ G¿∏m-Sns\ am‰p-hm≥
\-sIm-≠mWv krjvSn D≠m-Ip-∂-Xv.                          Hcp tbmKnbpw i‡-\-√. AXn-\m¬ Poh≥
    tNmZyw:˛ C°m- W p∂ PK- Ø n\v Hcp                    Hcn-°epw Cuiz-c-\m-hp-I-bn-√.
I¿Ømhv D≠m-bn-cp-∂n-√. Ct∏m-gn-√, D≠m-                     tNmZyw:˛ Iev]w tXmdpw Cuiz-c≥ hne-
      -
hp-Ibp-an-√. A\m-Zn-Imew apX¬ CXv C∆Æw                  £-W-amb krjv-Sntbm AtXm Htc-X-c-Øn-
Xs∂. CXn∂v Hcn-°epw DXv]Øn D≠m-bn-                      ep≈ krjvSntbm \n¿an-°p-∂Xv?
´n-√. hn\m-ihpw D≠m-hp-I-bn√.                              DØcw:˛Ct∏m- g - t Ø- X p- t ]mse Xs∂
    DØcw:˛ I¿Øm-hn-√msX {Inbtbm {Inbm-                  apºpw. `mhn-bnepw Aß-s\-X-s∂. am‰ta hcp-
P-\y-amb ]Zm¿Ytam D≠m-hp-I-bn-√. ]rYn-hym-              Øp-I-bn-√.
Zn-I-fmb GsX√mw ]Zm¿∞-ß-fn¬ kwtbm-K-                       kqcym-N-{µ-aku [mXm bYm ]qcvh-I-ev]-
\n-an-Ø-amb cN\ Zriy-amtWm Ah-sbm∂pw                    bXv Znhw N ]rYnhow Nm¥-cn-£-atYm kzx
Hcn-°epw A\m-Zn-b√. kwtbmKw sIm≠v D≠m-                  (E. 10. 190. 3)
Ip-∂Xv kwtbm-K-Øn\p apºv D≠m-bn-cn-°p-I-                   ([m-Xm) Cuiz-c≥ Fßs\ ]q¿h-I-ev]-
bn-√. hntbm-K-Øn\p tijw \ne-\n¬°p-I-bp-                 Øn¬ kqcy≥, N{µ≥, `qan, BIm-iw, apX-em-
an-√, CXp icn-bm-sW∂p tXm∂p-∂n-s√-¶n¬                   b-hsb krjvSn-®pthm AtX-hn[w Cu Iev]-
hkvXp-°-fn¬ G‰hpw ITn-\-amb Icn-¶-√v,                   Ønepw krjvSn-®n-´p-≠v. Aß-s\-Xs∂ hcpw
sshc-°-√v, Dcp°v apX-emb ]Zm¿Yß-fn¬                     Iev]-Ønepw krjvSn-°pw. AXn-\m¬ Cuiz-
hn`n∂ ]c-am-Wp-°sf Iq´n-t®¿Øn-´pt≠m                     cs‚ {]hr-Øn-Iƒ \yq\-X-Iq-SmsX kZm Hcp-
F∂v Ahsb ]nf¿∂p s]mSn®p `kva-am°n                       t]m-en-cn-°p-∂p. Aev]-⁄\pw hr≤n£-b-ß-
t\m°p-I. Iq´n-t®¿∏p-s≠-¶n¬ Ah \n›-b-                    fp≈ ⁄m\-Øn-\p-S-abpw Bb-hs‚ {]hr-Øn-
ambpw Ime-{I-taW th¿s]-´p-t]m-Ipw.                      I-fn¬ \yq\-X-Iƒ D≠m-bn-cn°pw Cuiz-cs‚
    tNmZyw:˛ A\m-Zn-bmb Hcp Cuiz-c≥ C√.                 {]hr-Øn-Ifn¬ D≠m-hp-I-bn-√.
tbmKm- ` ym- k w- s Im≠v AWn- a m- Z n- I - f mb           tNmZyw:˛ krjvSn hnj-b-sØ-∏‰n thZmZn
sFiz-cy-߃ kºm-Zn®p k¿h-⁄Xzw XpS-                       imkv { X- ß - f n¬ sshcp- ≤ ytam Assh- c p-
ßnb KpW- ß - t fmSp IqSnb ap‡nsb                        [ytam D≈Xv?
{]m]n® ⁄m\nbmb Pohm-flmhp Xs∂-
bmWv Cuiz-c≥.                                              DØcw:˛ Assh-cp≤yw
    DØcw:˛ PK-Øns\ krjvSn-®n-´p-≈Xv A\m-                   tNmZyw:˛ Ahn-cp-≤-sa-¶n¬˛
Zn-bmb Cuiz-c-\-s√-¶n¬ ap‡n {]m]n® Pohm-                   Xkv a mZzm GX- k v a m- Z m- fl \ BImix
flm-°ƒ°v B{i-bhpw Poh-\-cq-]-hp-amb Cu                   kw`qXx BIm-im-Zzmbpx hmtbm-c·nx At·-
PK-Øv, icocw, C{µnb tKmf-߃ F∂n-h-                      cm]x AZv`yx ]rYnho; ]rYnhym Hmj-[bx
sb√mw Fß-s\-bp-≠mIpw? Ch-bn-s√-¶n¬                      Hmj-[n-t`ym∂w A∂m-t{ZXx tcXkx ]pcpjx
Pohm-flm-hn\v km[\ sNøm≥ Ign-bp-I-bn-√.                  k hm Gj ]pcp-tjm-∂-c-k-abx ssXØn-
km[- \ - b n- s √- ¶ n¬ kn≤- \ m- I p- ∂ - s X- ß s\?   co-tbm-]-\n-j-Zz-N-\-am-Wn-Xv. 12 B ]c-am-
Pohm-flmhv km[-\-bn-eqsS kn≤nsb {]m]n-                   flm- h n¬ \n∂pw {]Ir- X n- b n¬ \n∂pw
                        -
®mepw kzbw k\m-X\hpw, A\m-Zn-bpw, A\¥                   BImiw AXm-bXv CSw D≠m-bn. k¿h{X
kn≤n-bp-ap≈ Cuiz-c\p Xpey-\m-hp-I-bn-√.                 hym]n-®n-´p≈ Imc-W-cq-]-amb ]Zm¿YsØ
Pohm-flm-hns‚ ⁄m\w AXns‚ ]c-am-h-[n-                                         -           -
                                                        H∂n-®p-tN¿Øv Hcn-SØm-°p-∂Xp-sIm≠v CSw
bn- s e- Ø n- b mepw ]cn- a n- X - a mb ⁄m\hpw          D≠m-Ip-∂-Xp-t]mse tXm∂p-∂p. hmkvX-h-
kma¿Yy- h pta e`n- ° q. A\- ¥ - ⁄ m- \ hpw              Øn¬ BIm-i-Øn\v DXv]-Øn-bn-√. Fs¥-
kma¿Yyhpw e`n- ° p- I - b n- √ . t\m°q! Hcp             ∂m¬, BI-i-an-s√-¶n¬ {]Ir-Xnbpw ]c-am-
tbmKnbpw C∂p- h sc Cuiz- c - \ n¿Ωn- X - a mb
krjvSn-{I-asØ am‰m≥ i‡-\m-bn-´n-√. Bhp-                 12. {_“m-\-µ-h√n 1.


                                                    162
               F´mw kap-√mkw                                                kXym¿∞-{]-Im-iw
Wphpw FhnsS h¿Øn°pw? BIm-i-ap-≠m-                    F∂¿Yw. 14 ]pcp-j≥, lnc-Wy-K¿`≥ apX-em-
b-Xn-\p-tijw hmbp-hpw, hmbp-hn-\p-tijw               b-sX√mw Cuiz-cs‚ t]cp-I-fmWv F∂v H∂mw
A·n-bpw, A·n-°p-tijw Pehpw D≠m-bn.                   kap-√m-k-Øn¬ ]d-™n-´p-≠v.
Pe-Øn-\p-tijw ]rYn-hnbpw ]rYn-hn-bn¬                    Htc Imcy-Øntem hnj-b-Øntem D≈ ]c-
\n∂v Hmj-[n-Ifpw (k-ky-ß-fpw) Hmj-[n-I-              kv]-c-hn-cp-≤-amb hN-\-sØ-bmWp hncp-≤-
fn¬ \n∂v A∂hpw A∂-Øn¬ \n∂v hocy-                     sa∂p ]d- b p- ∂ - X v . Bdp imkv { X- ß ƒ°pw
hpw, hocy-Øn¬ \n∂v ]pcp-j\pw AYhm                    At\ym-\y-ap≈ Ahn-tcm[w Fß-s\-sb∂p
ico-chpw D≠m-bn. ChnsS BIm-imZn {Ia-                 ImWpI:˛""I¿a-Øns‚ tNjvS-Iq-SmsX D≠m-
Ønepw Omtµm-tKym-]-\n-j-Øn¬ A·ymZn                   °nb Hcp Imcyhpw PK-Øn¬ C√.'' F∂p
{Ia-Øn-epw, sFX-tc-b-Øn¬ Pem-Zn-{I-a-                aoamw-k. ""Imew IqSmsX bmsXm∂pw D≠m-
Ønepw krjvSn {Iaw ]d-bp-∂p. thZ-ß-                   hp-I-tb-bn√'' F∂p sshti-jn-Iw. ""D]m-Zm-
fn¬Øs∂ Nnte-SØp ]pcp-j-\n¬ \n∂pw,                    \-Im-c-W-an-s√-¶n¬ bmsXm∂pw D≠m-°p-
a‰p-Nn-te-SØp lnc-Wy-K¿`m-Zn-I-fn¬ \n∂pw,            hm≥ km[n-°p-I-bn-√.'' F∂p \ymbw. ""hnZy,
]q¿h- a o- a mw- k - b n¬ I¿a- Ø n¬ \n∂pw            ⁄m\w, hnNm- c w, F∂n- h - I q- S msX
sshti-jn-I-Øn¬ Ime-Øn¬ \n∂pw \ymb-                   bmsXm∂pw \n¿an-°p-hm≥ km[y-a-√.'' F∂p
Øn¬ ]c-am-Wp-°-fn¬ \n∂pw .tbm-K-Øn¬                  tbmKw ""XØz-ß-fpsS ktΩ-f\w IqSmsX
]pcp-jm¿Y-Øn¬ \n∂pw kmwJy-Øn¬ {]Ir-                  krjvSn-bn-√.'' F∂p kmwJyw. ""\n¿am-Xmhp
Xn-bn¬ \n∂pw thZm-¥-Øn¬ {_“-Øn¬                      \n¿an-®n-s√-¶n¬ Hcp hkvXphpw D≠mhp-I-
\n∂pw BWv krjvSn-bpsS DXv]Øn {]Xn-                   bn-√.'' F∂p thZm¥w'' Cßs\ krjvSn Bdp
]m-Z-\w-. CXn¬ GXv kXyw? GXv AkXyw?                          - -
                                                     Imc-Wßfn¬ \n∂mWv D≠m-Ip-∂Xv. B Bdp        -
   DØcw:˛ F√mw kXyw-X-s∂-bm-Wv. H∂pw                         - -
                                                     Imc-Wßfn¬ Hmtcm-∂n-s‚bpw hymJym-\amWv         -
Ak-Xy-a-√. sX‰n-≤-cn-°p-∂-h-\mWv anYym-hm-           Hmtcm imkv { X- Ø n- e p- a p- ≈ - X v . AXn- \ m¬
Zn. Cuiz-c≥ PK-Øns‚ \nan-Ø-Im-c-Whpw                 Ahbv°p XΩn¬ H´pw hntcm-[-an-√. Bdv Bfp-
                    -   - -            - -
{]IrXn D]m-Zm-\Im-cWhp-am-Wv. alm-{]-fbØn-           Iƒ tN¿∂v Hcp ta¬∏pc FSp-Øp-s]m°n
\p-tijw D≠m-Ip∂ krjvSn-bpsS DXv]Øn                   `nØn-I-fn¬ ÿm]n-°p-∂-Xp-t]mse krjvSn-cq-
                  -
BIm-im-Zn-{I-aØn-em-Wv. BImiw hmbp F∂n-              ]-amb Imcy-Øns‚ hymJym\w Bdp imkv{X-
h-bpsS {]fbw kw`-hn-°m-Xn-cn-°p-tºmƒ 13              Im-c-∑m¿ IqSn-t®¿∂p ]q¿W-am-°n-bn-cn-°p-∂p.
˛A- · ym- Z n- I ƒ°p am{Xw {]fbw D≠m- I p-           IÆp-Im-WmØ A©p-t]¿°pw ImgvN-°p-d-
tºmƒ˛ A·ym- Z n- { I- a - Ø n- e mWp krjv S n.       hp≈ Hcp-h\pw Hcm-\-bpsS Hmtcm Ah-b-h-
hnZypØv A·n F∂n-h-bv°p-IqSn \miw t\cn-               ßsf kv]¿-in-®p. ]n∂oSv ""B\ Fß-s\-bp-
Sm-Xn-cn-°p-tºmƒ Pem-Zn-{I-a-Øn-emWp krjvSn          ≈-XmWv?'' F∂v tNmZn-®p. Ah-cn-sem-cmƒ
D≠m-Ip-∂-Xv. GtXXp {]f-b-Øn¬ GtXXp                   B\ XqWp-t]m-se-bm-sW-∂pw, c≠m-a≥ apdw
]Zm¿Yw hsc \in-®p-t]m-Ip-∂pthm AXmXp                 t]mse-bm-sW∂pw aq∂m-a≥ De-°-t]m-se-bm-
]Zm¿Yw apX-ev°mWp ]n∂o-Sp≈ krjvSn                    sa∂pw \mem- a ≥ Nqep- t ]m- s e- b m- s W∂pw
                                                     A©m- a ≥ Xd- t ]m- s e- b m- s W∂pw ]d- ™ p.
13. Cu Ahm-¥c {]fbw Hmtcm a\z-¥-c-Ønepw D≠m-         ""B\ IdpØ \mep XqWp-I-fpsS apI-fn¬
   Ip-∂p. AXn-\m¬ a\z-¥-c-߃°n-S-bn¬ k‘n-Imew        \nev°p∂ Hcp t]mØn-s\-t∏m-se-bp-s≠∂v
                             -
   KWn-®n-cn-°p-∂p. thZ-⁄m-\Øns‚ shfn-]mSv krjvSn-   Bdm-a≥ ]d-™p. CXp-t]mse C°m-esØ
   bpsS BZn-bnte D≠m-hq. a\z-¥-c-߃°p-tijw
   Dd°w DW¿hv \ymtb-\ Ejn-am-cn¬ kzbw shfn-]mSv      A\m¿j-amb \ho-\-{K-Ÿ-߃ hmbn-°p∂
   D≠m-Ip-∂p.                                        {]mIr-X-`m-j-°m¿ Ejn-{]-Wo-X-ß-fmb {KŸ-
14. Cu Ahm-¥c {]f-b-Øn¬ am\-h-N-cn-{Xhpw \in-°p-     ߃ hmbn-°msX \ho\ £p{Z-_p-≤n-I-fpsS
   ∂p. C∂p≈ Ncn{Xw Cu a\z-¥-c-Øn-teXp am{X-am-                   -   -
                                                     kwkvIr-X{K-Ÿßfpw `mjm-{K-Ÿßfpw am{Xw    -
   Wv. CXns\ `mc-Xob {KŸ-ß-fn¬ a\p-hns‚ Pe-{]-f-
   b-sa∂pw a‰p {KŸ-ß-fn¬ t\ml-bpsS {]f-b-sa∂pw       hmbn®v ]c-kv]c \nµ-bnepw hy¿∞-amb hmbm-
   ]d-bp-∂p. (a\px = a\plv ˛ \plv, \qlv, t\mlv?)     Sn-Ø-c-Ønepw G¿s∏-Sp-∂-tX-bp-≈q. Ah-cpsS
                                                     hm°p-Iƒ _p≤n-am-∑m¿°pw a‰p-≈-h¿°pw

                                                 163
     kXym¿∞-{]-Im-iw                                               DXv]Øn ˛ ÿnXn ˛ {]fbw
kzoIm-cy-a-√. A‘≥ hgn-Im-´p∂ A‘¿ Ipgn-                   ∂- b mƒ ImWp- ∂ p- s ≠- ¶ nepw A‘- \ pw,
bn¬ hogm-Xn-cn-°ptam? AXp-t]mse C°m-                     tIƒ°p-∂p-s≠-¶nepw _[n-c-\pw, Adn-bp-∂p-
esØ Aev]-hn-Zym-bp-‡cpw kzm¿Yn-Ifpw                      s≠-¶nepw aqV-\p-am-Wv. IÆn\p IÆpw, hnf-
C{µnb kpJ- c m- a - ∑ m- c m- b - h - c psS Ifn- I ƒ     °n\p hnf-°pw, kqcy\p kqcy\pw D≠m-Iptam?
temIsØ \in-∏n-°p-hm≥ t]m∂-Xm-Wv.                         GXn¬ \n∂v Hcp hkvXp D≠m-Ip-∂thm AXp
         ImcWw Imcyw krjvSn                              Imc- W w. GsXm∂v D≠m- I p- ∂ pthm AXp
    tNmZyw:˛ ImcWw IqSmsX Imcyw D≠m-                     Imcyw. Imc-WsØ Imcy-cq-]-am-°p∂-bm-fns\
hp-Ibn-s√-¶n¬, Imc-WØns‚ ImcWw F¥p-
     -                         -                         I¿Øm-sh∂p ]d-bp-∂p.
sIm-≠n√?                                                    \mktXm hnZytX `mthm \m`mthm
    DØcw:˛ auVy-Øn-em≠ ktlm-Z-c-∑m-tc,                   hnZytX kXx D`-tbm-c]n ZrjvtSm-¥-kvXz-\-
\n߃ kzev]w kz_p≤n {]tbm-Kn-°m-Ø-                        tbm-kvXØz Zcvin`nx (`-K-h-XvKo-X. 2. 16)
sX¥v? temI-Øn¬ BsI c≠p ]Zm¿∞-ß-                             Ak- Ø m- b - ˛ - C - √ m- Ø ˛