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Factor influencing Thai cuisine

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					Factor influencing Thai cuisine

         PD184 THAI CUISINE
Conclusion of the last five weeks
  The principle underlying the structure of Thai
                    cuisine

1.0 Buddhism
2.0 Monarchy
3.0 Geography
4.0 Faith and beliefs
5.0 Social Values
                    1.0 Buddhism

 Taking lives is the most serious sin of all.
 Bad Karma
 The bigger animal the greater sin.
 ‘Present’
Thomson suggests that belief in present is the
 fundamental motivation behind the skilled Thai
 craftsmanship; especially in cuisine
                  1.0 Buddhism

 Religion : Buddhism
Making merit to monks: daily obligation
Food must be the best, the first and cooked with the
 best intention.
Monks are the intermediaries in sending food to their
 ancestor ( Sukpisit, 2000)
     10 things that can not give to monks

 Human flesh
 Dog meat
 Elephant meat
 Horse meat
 Snake meat
 Lion & Beameat
 Tiger: leopard, Sumartra, yellow tiger
 Plus no raw meat, fish, No blood, No alcohol
              Paradox of Buddhism

 One of the principles of Buddhism teaching is
‘Not to desire’
However to give merit or to cook at religious
  ceremony is based on the best ingredients, the most
  flavour food and the most beautiful looking dish.
                    2.0Monarchy

 Dominate the governing style of the country
 Khmer and Indian influence; status
 Court cuisine must match the status of the ruler.
 Taste as well as sight is valued; Craving
 Lady of the court tries to impress the
 kings; plenty of time in their hands.
 Court cuisine underlies the
complexity of Thai cuisine.
                     Monarchy

 Court is the hub of exchanges; food stuffs and
  cooking techniques.
 Learn from foreign chef
hired by the king
 Accompany the kings to
other places and incorporate
different ingredients
           3.0 Geographical location

 Trading route in Asia
 Foreign plant, spices, foodways came into Siam
  with trader
 Turn whatever came in to suit Siamese likeness
 Indian & Chinese
                 Geographical area

 Weather pattern of regional area
 Availability of natural resources
 Interior geographical characteristic Vs Coast line in
 the southern part of Thailand
                  Geographical area

 Tropical zone
 Heat spoil food
 Fermented came in handy
 The use of spices
 Dried and fermented food stuffs
               4.0 Faith and belives

 Spirits inhabits everywhere
 God inhabits in foodstuffs teaches Thai not to waste.


 Do you what kind of food stuffs has faith and beliefs
 attached to them?
                 Faith and belief

 Rice godness Phra mea pho sok
 Water godness Pra mea kong ka
 Banana tree spirit Phi tanee
 The habit of not wasting food but creating new
 dishes from left over is another foundation of Thai
 cuisine. Ie. Khao tuu, Nahm phrik long rue
                 5.0 Social values

 High value placed on forienger ( King Rama V, VI)
 The fear of colonialism
 Less impact on the cuisine but more on consuming
 habits
                    Social values

 Also, reflecting in wine dinning behaviour
 Expensive produces ie, oyster, foie gras etc.
 Check out Sunday brunch
       The development of Thai cuisine

 The attempt to modernize Thailand (Rama V,VI)
 The end of absolute monarchy
 Governmental policies
 The declination of power of Buddhism
 Technology, economy & social changes
 The attempt of Modernization of Thailand

 In Rama V and VI
 The fear from colonised, Siam force to adopted
  western idea of civilisation
 Cutlery
 Court lady learnt how to cooked western food ( to
  suit Siamese palate)
 Western ingredients like butter, ham, milk is widely
  adopted in cooking
          The end of absolute mornachy

 Rama the VI abandon the practice of polygamy.
    Number of royal family member decline
   The abdicate of Rama VII
   Disperse of court cuisine
   Simplified to suit peasant lifestyle
   Government gain more power in affecting Thai
    foodways.
     Political and Governmental moment

 1932 Prime minister General Pibul attempted to
  form a national identity. Telling people how they
  should eat, act, dress and live
 After the world war II, there was a rice shortage, the
  government all encourage thai to eat noodle and Pad
  Thai
             Governmental moment

 Prime Minister Taksin market Thai cuisine as
  national product.
 Thai cuisine, cuisine of the world
 Training and sending chef aboard
               Governmental moment

 Standardisation of recipes
 Use commercial industrialized products from
    Thailand

        Declination of Buddhism power

 Especially with Urban thai
 Live cycle used to circulate around the temple
 Religious ceremony every fortnight
 The central of life shifted
 Taking advantages of the faith
               Buddhism declination

 Eating large animal is become more acceptable
 Live animal is kept in the tank ready to cooked and
  served in Chinese restaurants
 Making merit is not as strict
 Food normally purchased due to time limitation
  Technology, Economy and Social changes

 Urbanization is structural changes from low density
  to high density residence
 Primary producers became consumers
 Move away from indigenous plants & food to
  purchasing mass produced food by others.
                  Social changes

 Time scare & double earning push family to depend
  on market ready-to-eat food.
 The passing on the knowledge from generation to the
  next
 Gender status is changed
                    Technology

 Canned coconut cream
 Pre-package curry paste
 Kitchen equipment and utensils
 Chilling technology
 Microwave invention
 Food innovation
 Fresh food to process one
 Festive food available everyday
                    Salih K. et al,.

 States that ‘ Industrial palate refers to the growing
 share of value-added, often mass-produced,
 processed food products in the diet of average
 conusmer.
                 In conlcusion,....

 In my opinion, The being of Thai cuisine is reflected
 through Thai flag.
     The balance of texture and flavour


    Ripe Vs Unripe   Spicy Vs Plain


                Sour Vs
                 Sweet

                     Undercooked vs
     Le Vs Cripsy
                        Cooked
          Where is that come from?

 Influences analyzed Utilizing Rozin’s Structure of
  cuisine
1. Basic Food stuffs
2. Seasonings and Flavouring Particles
3. Cooking Methods and techniques
                  Basic Food stuffs


 Rice
 Rice is the main staple of Thai cuisine. Although
  consuming rice does not emerge from the influence
  of other cuisines, the other products made from rice
  such as noodles and/or fermented rice noodles do so.
 Thais rarely process rice grains to make other things
  except its flour for sweet desserts.
                 Rice the staple

 However, Thais consume processed rice
 in great amounts today.
 Noodles for example, are a basic staple
 that is processed from rice
 The noodles discussed here are fermented rice
  noodles as opposed to the noodles introduced by the
  Chinese.
Rice product
 Fermented rice noodles are consumed throughout
 Thailand and are believed to have originated in
 either Myanmar or Cambodia. There is no actual
 evidence to prove its origin; however, Hongwiwat
 assumed that it originated in the Mon (Myanmar)
 and spread to other places in south east Asia.
The names given to this fermented rice noodles by
    south east Asians are interestingly similar

 In Myanmar, they called it Ka-noan Jin; in
  Cambodia, Kao nom; and in Thailand Khanomchin.
 It is closely linked with religious and festive food
  since it requires many people to prepare, Fermented
  rice noodles are consumed in every region but with
  different varieties of curry or spicy soups.
 (Tawithong Hongwiwat,)
            Aquatic Food Sources

 The old Thai cookbook Mae Krau Hua Pa, mentions
  about forty different fresh water fish that were
  consumed consistently in the Thai diet
 agricultural industry damaged the bio-diversity of
  fresh water fish and vegetables in Thailand,
  especially in Bangkok.

 One example illustrating this case is Kaeng Tepho
 (curry with oily fish and morning glory), whose main
 ingredient is Tepho, a very oily fresh water fish. Even
 though Tepho has started to disappear from the dish
 altogether and has been replaced by pork belly, Thais
 still call it Kaeng Tepho. What’s interesting here is
 that the substitute for oily fish was not another type
 of fish but pork which was a food introduced by the
 Chinese.
        Plants, Vegetables and Fruits.


 Blanched vegetables are the staple condiment to
  accompany chilli relishes.
 Thais used to picked these vegetables from paddy
  fields and when these paddy fields disappeared in
  Bangkok, the major source of food supply fell onto
  the agricultural industry
 .Today local and native vegetables are fading away
  from Thai dishes in Bangkok.
                   Local green

 Wildly grown vegetables have changed to more
 accessible vegetables such as baby corn, cucumber
 and snow peas. What is most curious is the carrot.
 How did the carrot make its way into Thai food?
                  (Yasmeen, 344.)
                    Seasonings

 Lemongrass, kaffir lime,
 and wild turmeric seem
 indigenous to Thailand.
Onion, spring onion, and
shallot are not only used as
seasoning but also as vegetables
Seasoning and individual flavour
ic
Dried spices
                       Spices

 Spices such as cumin, cloves, cardamom, nutmeg,
  and cinnamon are used limitedly in Matsaman curry
  paste.
 Only cumin is the ingredient used in other curry
  pastes. Cumin is added to give a subtle aroma and
  flavour to the dish; in fact most of the time it is
  undetectable.
                     Coriander

 Coriander has an important role in Thai cuisine.
 Although coriander leaves are mostly used as a
 garnish on finished products, coriander underlies
 Thai cuisine. Coriander roots, which provide a
 unique aroma and flavour, are essential to many
 curry pastes and dips.
                         Chilli

 Chilli is a prime evidence of the fusion of Thai
  cuisine. Before the introduction of the chilli, Thais
  depended on the peppercorn as a source of spice in
  their cuisine.
 Chilli raised the level of heat and temperature in
  Thai cuisine and now it is what Thai cuisine is
  renowned for. Every region uses chilli according to
  their local tastes. Chilli indeed, creates another
  flavourful dimension in Thai cuisine.
     Professor Ake-kaphol creates a chart on
          the structure of Thai cuisine

 Salt + chili
 Basic Dipping
      Basic Dipping + herb
   Chili relish
   Chili relish + meat+ vegetable
   Salad; yum, pla, Labb
   Salad + water, coconut oil.
              Curry
                      Coconut

 Coconut milk is one of the main ingredients found in
 Thai dishes including desserts. Sombat Plainoi
 mentions that grated coconut meat represents a
 major characteristic of Thai desserts.
                       Coconut


 Curry paste is fried with coconut milk to create the
 floating oil. Coconut milk is added to many dishes to
 create another dimension. This can be seen in dishes
 such as, the wing bean salad or the blanched
 vegetables for chilli relish condiments.
    Fish Sauce, Shrimp Paste, and Soy
                  Sauce


      Shrimp paste, known as Blachan in Malaya, Nga
  pi in Burmese and Kapi in
 Thai is another essential element in Thai curry
  paste.
 Thais adopted the word ngapi from Myanmar and
  gradually shortened it to Kapi which interestingly
  means monkey in Indian
 The shared culture in South East Asia …
                     Soy sauce

 Soy sauce evidently shows the influences from the
 Chinese and Japanese. Currently, soy sauce is widely
 used as a seasoning as well as a colouring agent in
 marinated foods. Soy sauce is often added to
 intensify the colour of food such as grilled chicken,
 deep-fried garlic with pepper pork ribs and spicy
 stir-fried broad rice noodles (Phat Khi mao).

 Check out food magazine
       Cooking Methods and techniques

 Tom Yam Tam and Kaeng is a Thai phrase reflecting
  Thai cooking technique.
 Tom means to boil, yam means to create a spicy
  salad, tam is to make or cook while kaeng is to cook
  something saucy or soupy.
 These are the major elements of Thai cooking
  techniques along with roasting and grilling. Thai
  cooking methods are not complex, however what is
  complex is the preparation of the food.
Fry
             Frying and Deep frying

 The Chinese (and some Christians) farmed and sold
  pork in Thailand. This was when Thais first learned
  how to use oil in their cuisine.
 Thai cuisine today is mostly prepared deep-fried and
  stir-fried. Examples of these are: deep-fried rice
  cracker, prawn cracker, fish cake, Pla duk fuu (deep
  fired shredded fish flesh), mee krop (crispy rice
  noodles).
                       Stir-fry

 Brennan suggests that stir-frying, adopted from the
  Chinese, is one of the main cooking techniques that
  shaped Thai cuisine.
 . Stir-fry is present in almost all aspects of Thai
  cuisine. The list of Thai food prepared this way is
  long. To name a few examples: fried rice; fried
  morning glory; water mimosa and other vegetables;
  stir-fried holy basil with tofu, meat and seafood;
  garlic and pepper or chilli and ginger both with
  either meat or seafood.
                                        (Brennan, 21)
                      Steaming

 Although the technique employed to cook glutinous
  rice in the north and northeast of Thailand is similar
  to steaming, the utensils, techniques, and purposes
  are different.
 The Chinese introduced the traditional steamer at
  the same time as the wok. The traditional steamer is
  a stainless steel pot with holes as opposed to the
  conical shaped bamboo basket steamer used in
  Thailand
                      Steaming

 Steamed rice as mentioned in menus found in Thai
  restaurants is not actually steamed. The cooking rice
  technique is called ‘Hung’ which simply means to
  boil until the rice absorbs all the water.
 Real steaming is cooking using
 hot vapours.

 Rice cooker: Mor hung khao
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